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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

RESUMO

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Agaricus , Comportamento Exploratório , Modelos Animais de Doenças
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251289, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355889

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi feita para determinar a capacidade micronuclei e citotóxica do antidepressivo venlafaxina em ensaios agudos e subcrônicos in vivo em camundongos. No primeiro estudo, administramos uma vez 5, 50 e 250 mg/kg do medicamento e incluímos um grupo negativo e um grupo tratado com daunorubicina. As observações foram feitas diariamente durante quatro dias. O ensaio subcrônico durou cinco semanas com administração diária de venlafaxina (1, 5, e 10 mg/kg) mais um grupo negativo e um grupo administrado de imipramina. As observações foram feitas a cada semana. No primeiro ensaio, os resultados não mostraram aumento de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (MNPE), exceto com a dose elevada a 72 h. O efeito citotóxico mais forte foi encontrado com 250 mg/kg a 72 h (um efeito citotóxico de 51% em comparação com o nível médio de controle). No ensaio subcrônico não foi encontrado aumento de MNPE; entretanto, com a dose mais alta, um aumento significativo de eritrócitos normocromáticos micronucleados foi observado nas últimas três semanas (média de 51% em relação ao valor médio de controle). Foi observado um efeito citotóxico com as duas altas doses nas últimas duas semanas (uma diminuição média de 52% em relação ao valor médio de controle dos eritrócitos policromáticos). Os resultados sugerem cautela com a venlafaxina.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Dano ao DNA , Antineoplásicos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/toxicidade
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251219, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345535

RESUMO

Abstract The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.


Resumo A forma mais comum de disfunção psicossocial é a ansiedade intimamente relacionada com a depressão, sem qualquer barreira de idade. Elas estão presentes em um estado combinado de tristeza, confusão, estresse, medo etc. O sistema de glioxalase contém uma enzima chamada glioxalase 1 (GLO1). É uma via metabólica que desintoxica alfa-oxo-aldeídos, particularmente metilglioxal (MG). O metilglioxal é produzido principalmente pela quebra dos intermediários glicolíticos, gliceraldeído-3-fosfatos e fosfato de diidroxiacetona. A expressão da glioxalase 1 também está relacionada ao comportamento de ansiedade. Um papel casual ou GLO1 no comportamento de ansiedade usando vetores virais para superexpressão no córtex cingulado anterior foi encontrado e descobriu-se que a superexpressão local de GLO1 aumentava o comportamento de ansiedade. O presente estudo trata do mecanismo molecular da atividade protetora do eugenol contra o transtorno ansiolítico. Um estudo pré-clínico em animais foi realizado em 42 camundongos BALB / c. Os animais foram submetidos ao estresse por meio do modelo de contenção convencional. A expressão de mRNA de GLO1 foi analisada por RT-PCR em tempo real. Além disso, a expressão da proteína GLO1 também foi examinada por imuno-histoquímica em todo o cérebro e a densidade média foi calculada. Verificou-se que as expressões de mRNA e proteínas estavam aumentadas em animais que receberam ansiedade em comparação com o controle normal. Considerando que as expressões foram diminuídas nos animais tratados com eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas de forma dependente da dose. No entanto, os resultados foram melhores em animais tratados com nanocarreadores em comparação com o composto sozinho. Conclui-se que o eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas exercem atividade ansiolítica por regulação negativa da expressão da proteína GLO1 em camundongos.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Eugenol/farmacologia , Lactoilglutationa Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossomos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244551, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285626

RESUMO

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.


Resumo Origanum vulgare tem despertado grande interesse na academia e na indústria farmacêutica devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes, antifúngicas e antitumorais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar o potencial anti-MRSA e avaliações de toxicidade in vivo de O. vulgare. O extrato de O. vulgare foi usado para monitorar a atividade anti-MRSA em camundongos. Após infecção estabelecida por MRSA em camundongos (Mus musculus), o tratamento com O. vulgare foi continuado por 7 dias. As autópsias foram realizadas e o reisolamento, pontuação das lesões grosseiras e carga bacteriana em vários órgãos foram medidos. Além disso, a amostra de sangue foi analisada para ensaios hematológicos. A avaliação da toxicidade do potencial de O. vulgare como medicamento foi feita com 200 mg / kg e 400 mg / kg, avaliando as funções hepática e renal. A carga bacteriana e as lesões graves nos pulmões e no coração foram significativamente baixas em comparação com o controle positivo após o tratamento com O. vulgare. Da mesma forma, os grupos tratados com O. vulgare apresentaram valores hematológicos, de neutrófilos e de TLC semelhantes aos grupos de controle. Aumento de AST, ALP e bilirrubina total juntamente com degeneração hepatocelular marcada e distorção ao redor da veia central, infiltração de células inflamatórias e vacuolização citoplasmática de células hepáticas foram observados em doses mais altas. Conclui-se que o extrato bruto de O. vulgare pode conter metabólitos secundários benéficos e, no futuro, pode ser explorado para a cura de doenças infecciosas.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Fígado , Antioxidantes
6.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(2): 287-294, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An extensive literature has postulated multiple etiologies for aqueductal stenosis. No publications were found, discussing that evolutionary modifications might explain aqueductal anomalies. This study's objectives were to review the evolutionary modifications of vertebrates' tectum structures that might explain human aqueduct anomalies. Undertaking vertebrate comparative study is currently not feasible in view of limitations in obtaining vertebrate material. Thus, vertebrate material collected, injected, dissected, and radiographed in the early 1970s was analyzed, focusing on the aqueduct and components of the midbrain tectum. METHODS: Photographs of brain dissections and radiographs of the cerebral ventricles and arteries of adult shark, frog, iguana, rabbit, cat, dog, and primate specimens, containing a barium-gelatin radiopaque compound, were analyzed focusing on the aqueduct, the optic ventricles, the quadrigeminal plate, and collicular ventricles. The anatomic information provided by the dissections and radiographs is not reproducible by any other radiopaque contrast currently available. RESULTS: Dissected and radiographed cerebral ventricular and arterial systems of the vertebrates demonstrated midbrain tectum changes, including relative size modifications of the mammalian components of the tectum, simultaneously with the enlargement of the occipital lobe. There is a transformation of pre-mammalian optic ventricles to what appear to be collicular ventricles in mammals, as the aqueduct and collicular ventricle form a continuous cavity. CONCLUSIONS: The mammalian tectum undergoes an evolutionary cephalization process consisting of relative size changes of the midbrain tectum structures. This is associated with enlargement of the occipital lobe, as part of overall neocortical expansion. Potentially, aqueductal anomalies could be explained by evolutionary modifications.


Assuntos
Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo , Hidrocefalia , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos Cerebrais , Cães , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Mamíferos , Coelhos , Teto do Mesencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 2299725, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320948

RESUMO

Our previous study verified that the waste skin of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) fruit or waste cocoa pod husks had the efficacy to overcome hair loss or alopecia. This study aims to determine the formula and activity of hair cream of cocoa pod peel water fraction, which is effective in stimulating hair growth. Activity testing uses the modified Tanaka method. The results showed that the cocoa husk wastewater fraction could be formulated into hair cream, but there were changes in viscosity and pH after the freeze-thaw test, but still within the allowed limit. The hair cream water fraction gel stimulated hair growth activity based on the hair length data with a significant difference in concentration of the preparation. The best activity in hair cream preparation was at 12.5% concentration. In addition, there were no signs of irritation to the rabbit's skin where hair cream preparation was applied. The results of this study indicated that cocoa fruit peel cream can be used for antialopecia treatments.


Assuntos
Cacau , Animais , Frutas , Cabelo , Coelhos
8.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e223816, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1354701

RESUMO

Direct pulp capping induces a local inflammatory process. Several biomaterials have been used for this procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the dentinal bridge thickness using three different pulp capping biomaterials with the conventional technique (high speed diamond bur) or Er-Yag laser, 1 month after pulp effraction. Materials and Methods: Forty two Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 4 maxillary incisors and 2 mandibular incisors of New Zealand rabbits. Specimens were divided into 6 treatment groups. Teeth were treated with: In Group 1: Er-Yag laser and Biodentine® (Septodont), in Group 2: Er: Yag laser and calcium hydroxide (Dycal® Dentsply), in Group 3: Er: Yag laser and adhesive system (Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply), in Group 4: high speed diamond bur and Biodentine® (Septodont), in Group 5: high speed diamond bur and calcium hydroxide (Dycal® Dentsply), and in Group 6: high speed diamond bur and adhesive system (Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply). The preparation was done with copious irrigation. The animals were sacrificed at 30 days and the teeth were extracted and prepared for histological analysis. Results: In the group of « laser Er-Yag ¼, iatrogenic pulpal wounds treated with Biodentine® were covered with a thick hard tissue barrier after 1 month. The difference was not significant with the groups of Dycal® used with Er: Yag laser and high speed diamond bur. Prime& Bond® NT Dentsply specimens showed a thin dentinal bridge layer. Conclusion: At 1 month, Er-Yag laser proved to be useful with Biodentine® for direct pulp capping procedures


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Silicatos , Compostos de Cálcio , Capeamento da Polpa Dentária , Lasers de Estado Sólido
9.
Vet Rec ; 190(12): e1736, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabbits are popular pets, but research into their welfare is limited. This study analysed the potential association(s) between the provision of suitable housing and owner demographic factors. METHODS: Data from 2017, 2018 and 2019 PDSA Animal Wellbeing (PAW) report surveys gave a sample of 1333 UK rabbit owners. Whether the rabbit housing was adequate or inadequate was ascertained by asking owners to indicate images of hutch and run size or indoor environment type that were similar to their own. The owner demographic factors collected included gender, education, household income and deprivation. Chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression (univariable and multivariable) were used to investigate factors associated with adequate/inadequate housing. RESULTS: One-third (31.2%) of rabbits lived in inadequate housing and half were housed alone (51.4%). Male owners were more likely to report providing inadequate housing than females (odds ratio [OR] = 1.795, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.319-2.441, p < 0.001). Compared to owners over 55 years old, those aged 25-34 years were more likely to house their rabbits inadequately (OR = 2.050, 95% CI 1.286-3.267, p = 0.003). Owners with a household income below average were more likely to report providing inadequate housing compared to those with a household income above average (OR = 1.406, 95% CI 1.025-1.928, p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: The findings identify that inadequate rabbit housing is provided by owners of all ages, genders and deprivation levels but highlight some particular owner demographics that could be useful to target if resources are limited.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Coelhos/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Intervalos de Confiança , Demografia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
10.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111138, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651010

RESUMO

The fruit nutrigenomics is an interesting and important research area towards nutrition enhancement. The phytic acid is one of the major antinutrient compound, present in seeded fruits and crops. It hinders the absorption of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca), causing mineral deficiencies. In the present study, the BsPhy gene was overexpressed in the cucumber fruits using the tomato fruit specific E8 and constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. The E8 promoter imparted heterologous expression of GUS gene in cucumber fruits, furthermore, the fruit specific expression of E8 promoter with BsPhy gene was confirmed in transgenics (E8::BsPhy) using anti rabbit-phytase antibody. The physio-biochemical analysis of transgenics revealed, maximum phytase activity in E8::BsPhy cucumber fruits at 10 days after anthesis (DAA) compared to 35S::BsPhy and wild-type (WT) fruits. Consequently, E8::BsPhy fruits also showed increased amount of inorganic phosphorus (Pi), total phosphorus (P), minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg, K, Ca), total carotenoid and other macronutrients at 10 DAA compared to 35S::BsPhy fruits. The metabolite profiling of fruits (10 DAA) showed increased sugars, amino acids, sugar acids and polyols, in both E8::BsPhy and 35S::BsPhy transgenics suggesting higher phytate metabolism, compared to WT fruits. Interestingly, both the transgenic fruits showed higher fruit biomass and yield along with improved nutritional quality, which can be attributed to increased P and Zn contents in transgenic fruits, compared to WT fruits. Our findings reveal that the BsPhy gene enhances minerals and macronutrients in transgenic cucumber fruits making it nutritious and healthy.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Cucumis sativus , 6-Fitase/genética , Animais , Antivirais , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Minerais/metabolismo , Fósforo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Coelhos
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 213: 19-26, 2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642850

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) is a disease that is difficult to overcome for fast-growing broilers. It causes pulmonary vascular remodeling and ascites in broilers. As a classical inhibitor of cancer metastasis, phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (PEBP1) regulates angiogenesis in the process of tumor metastasis through multiple signal pathways. However, whether PEBP1 can regulate pulmonary artery remodeling in broilers with PHS has not been reported. This study constructed the prokaryotic expression vector of [PEBP1]-pET32a by genetic engineering technology, the recombinant PEBP1 protein was expressed in large quantities, and the PEBP1 polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing rabbits with the recombinant PEBP1 protein. Western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that PEBP1 was expressed in many kinds of animal tissues. However, due to the species specificity of polyclonal antibodies, the expression level of PEBP1 protein in broilers and ducks with high homology was significantly higher than that in other species of animals. More interestingly, we found that the expression of PEBP1 protein decreased significantly in broilers with PHS. These studies laid a foundation for further exploration of the mechanism of pulmonary artery remodeling. In addition, the PEBP1 polyclonal antibody provided convenience for further study of the role of PEBP1 in PHS.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Animais , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/genética , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Síndrome
12.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(2): 571-578, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642414

RESUMO

Scutellaria barbata (S. barbata), a traditional herbal medicine used in southern China, possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, spasmolytic and expectorant effects. However, there are not many recent studies on its gastrointestinal effects. This study aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of the ethanol extract of S. barbata (SBE) and its effect on the isolated jejunum smooth muscle. METHODS: The antidiarrheal effect of SBE (doses: 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on castor oil-induced diarrhea was investigated in vivo. The effect of SBE (0.01-10 mg/mL) on spontaneous or acetylcholine chloride (ACh, 10µM)/KCl (60mM)-induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum smooth muscle was examined in vitro. The possible spasmolytic mechanism of SBE (1 and 3mg/mL) was analyzed by accumulating CaCl2 in a Ca2+-free high-K+ (60mM) solution. RESULTS: SBE (125, 250 and 500mg/kg) could delay the initial semi-solid onset time of mice and also reduce the diarrhea index in vivo. Furthermore, SBE (0.01-10mg/mL) could alleviate the spontaneous or ACh/KCl-induced contraction in vitro. SBE (1 and 3mg/mL) also inhibited the contraction induced by CaCl2, and the concentration-response curves of CaCl2 moved downward and to the right, similar to those of verapamil (0.01 and 0.1µM). CONCLUSIONS: SBE exerts antidiarrheal and spasmolytic effects, which provides a pharmacological basis for its use in functional gastrointestinal disorders.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Scutellaria , Animais , Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/farmacologia , Jejuno , Músculo Liso , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Coelhos
13.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(2): 587-594, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642416

RESUMO

Lophatheri Herba is a traditional Chinese medicine, which is commonly used in the treatment of fever, stomatitis, urodynia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the ethanol extract of Lophatheri Herba (Gramineae, ELH) and observe its effect on isolated jejunum smooth muscle in rabbits, so that we can provide a possible pharmacological basis for its clinical use. Methods: In vivo, the antidiarrheal activity of ELH (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg; orally) in castor oil-induced Kun Ming mice was evaluated. In vitro, the effect of ELH (0.01-10 mg/mL) on the spontaneous and ACh (10µM)/K+ (60mM)-induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum smooth muscle was studied. The possible mechanism of spasmolytic effect of ELH (1, 3mg/mL) was explored by pretreatment of intestinal tract with CaCl2. Results: ELH (500 and 1000mg/kg) exhibited antidiarrheal effect and it (0.01-10 mg/mL) inhibited the spontaneous and ACh/K+-induced contraction with an EC50 value of 1.27 (0.89-1.34), 0.76 (0.54-1.02) and 0.34 (0.27-0.53), it also shifted the concentration-response curves of CaCl2 to right with decreased in max, similar to verapamil. ELH has significant antidiarrheal and spasmolytic effect, this provides the pharmacological basis for use in gastrointestinal disorders.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos , Parassimpatolíticos , Animais , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Jejuno , Camundongos , Músculo Liso , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665644

RESUMO

This work proposes a new method for biomonitoring studies focused on the screening and quantification of xenobiotics in blood-derived samples. The performance of a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS/DVB/PDMS) biocompatible extraction phase was investigated for extraction of pesticides and pharmaceuticals from plasma samples via direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under the optimum extraction settings, which included an attentive optimization of the fiber rinsing conditions, the microextraction device was able to endure 100 consecutive extractions from undiluted and diluted plasma with an overall reproducibility up to 28% for all the analytes tested, except chlorpyrifos-methyl. Optimized conditions were used to validate a quantitative method using matrix-matched calibration with isotopically labeled internal standard correction. Accuracy and precision values obtained for analysis of bovine plasma were within 96-132% and 0.05-5.82% respectively. LLOQs for all the analytes were at 1 µg L-1 and LDR ranged within 1-100 µg L-1. The applicability of this method to plasma from different species (human, rat, rabbit) was also investigated. This work represents the first step toward broader use of the biocompatible PDMS/DVB/PDMS extraction phases for analysis of multiclass xenobiotics in plasma and other complex biofluids.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Sólida , Xenobióticos , Animais , Bovinos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Plasma , Coelhos , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
15.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 29(1): e9-e25, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686893

RESUMO

It was shown that in the model of dry eye syndrome (DES) in rabbits, if drug No. 5 was instilled in both eyes of animals at a dose of 0.05 mL/kg in 1:15 dilution with sterile saline solution twice a day for 30 days, then it had a strong anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, and angioprotective effects. This positively affected the course of reparative process in the conjunctiva and cornea complicated by nonclosing of the eyelids. It was also found that drug No. 5 in the tested dose promoted the stimulation of reparative processes in the conjunctiva and cornea, clinically manifesting itself in accelerating the recovery of defects in the anterior epithelium and corneal stroma, and in reducing both frequency of formation of deep corneal defects and severity of inflammatory response and vascularization. There was a slowdown in the formation of corneal opacities, a decrease in the amount and appearance of a more liquid mucous discharge of the conjunctiva compared to the control. It was also demonstrated in the stated model of DES that drug No. 5 in the test dose had a pronounced pharmacological effect, contributing to a faster recovery of damage to the superficial epithelium and stroma of the cornea, anterior and posterior chambers of the eye, the vascular membrane and retina as well as goblet cells of the conjunctiva.


Assuntos
Córnea , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Coelhos , Cicatrização
16.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 29(1): e26-e39, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686894

RESUMO

Studies have shown that 0.05 mL/kg of drug No. 1 as 1:15 dilution with sterile saline solution has anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, and angioprotective effects if instilled in both eyes of rabbits twice a day for 30 days after an alkaline burn. A stimulation of reparative processes in the cornea was observed with the test dose of drug No. 1. This was manifested by accelerating the recovery of defects in the anterior epithelium and stroma, reducing the frequency of formation of deep defects and the severity of inflammatory reaction and vascularization, and inhibiting the formation of turbidity of its lower intensity and area. A tendency to restore laminarity of the stroma was determined by the action of drug No. 1 throughout the observation period. This contributed to a decrease in the degree of vascularization and prevented ulceration and perforation of the cornea. By the end of experiment, a restoration of strong epithelial-stromal relationships in the experimental group, compared to the control group, was observed due to formation of normal architectonics of fibrous components of intercellular substance. A more pronounced proliferative activity, with an increase in the layering of limbal epithelial cells, was noted in the limbal zone of the cornea in the experimental group rabbits compared to the control group.


Assuntos
Queimaduras Químicas , Queimaduras Oculares , Animais , Queimaduras Químicas/tratamento farmacológico , Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Córnea , Queimaduras Oculares/induzido quimicamente , Queimaduras Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Coelhos , Cicatrização
17.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 1836-1847, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674640

RESUMO

Development of new approaches for oral delivery of an existing antiviral drug aimed to enhance its permeability and hence bioavailability. Ganciclovir (GC) is an antiviral drug that belongs to class III in biopharmaceutical classification. The encapsulation of poorly absorbed drugs within nanosized particles offers several characteristics to drug due to their acquired surface properties. In the following study, the solvent evaporation technique was used to incorporate GC, within elegant nanosize particles using cyclodextrin and shellac polymers for enhancing its permeability and release pattern. Formulation variables were optimized using 23 full factorial design. The prepared formulations were assessed for yield, particle size, content, and micromeritics behavior. The optimized formula (F6) was identified through differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared. In vitro release and stability were also assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters of optimized nano GC solid dispersion particles (NGCSD-F6) were finally evaluated. The optimized formula (F6) showed a mean particle size of 288.5 ± 20.7 nm, a zeta potential of about 23.87 ± 2.27, and drug content 95.77 ± 2.1%. The in vitro drug release pattern of F6 showed an initial burst release followed by a sustained release over the next 12 h. The optimized formula showed accepted stability upon storage at room and refrigerator temperatures for 6 months with good flowing properties (Carr's index = 18.28 ± 0.44). In vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits revealed 2.2 fold increases in the bioavailability of GC compared with commercial convention tablets. The study affords evidence for the success of the solid dispersion technique under specified conditions in improvement of bioavailability of GC.


Assuntos
Ganciclovir , Nanopartículas , Administração Oral , Animais , Antivirais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Solubilidade
18.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684298

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers are considered effective therapies for Alzheimer's disease. AChE plays an essential role in the nervous system by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In this study, the inhibition of the enzyme AChE by Sarcorucinine-D, a pregnane type steroidal alkaloid, was investigated with experimental enzyme kinetics and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques. Kinetics studies showed that Sarcorucinine-D inhibits two cholinesterases-AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-noncompetitively, with Ki values of 103.3 and 4.66 µM, respectively. In silico ligand-protein docking and MD simulation studies conducted on AChE predicted that Sarcorucinine-D interacted via hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with the residues of the active-site gorge of AChE. Sarcorucinine-D was able to relax contractility concentration-dependently in the intestinal smooth muscles of jejunum obtained from rabbits. Not only was the spontaneous spasmogenicity inhibited, but it also suppressed K+-mediated spasmogenicity, indicating an effect via the inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Sarcorucinine-D could be considered a potential lead molecule based on its properties as a noncompetitive AChE inhibitor and a Ca2+ channel blocker.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Butirilcolinesterase , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Canais de Cálcio , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Coelhos
19.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684321

RESUMO

Rumex vesicarius (L.) is a folklore medicinal herb that has been used for centuries to cure cardiovascular diseases. The present work was carefully designed to ascertain the pharmacological basis for R. vesicarius's therapeutic efficacy in cardiovascular diseases, as well as the underlying mechanism. In the ex vivo investigation, the aqueous-methanolic leaf extract of R. vesicarius was shown to have endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects in rabbit aorta tissue preparations, and its hypotensive responses were quantified by pressure and force transducers coupled to the Power Lab Data Acquisition System. Furthermore, when rabbits were subjected to adrenaline-induced myocardial infarction, R. vesicarius demonstrated cardioprotective characteristics. In contrast to the intoxicated group, the myocardial infarction model showed lower ALP, CK-MB, CRP, LDH, ALT, troponin, and AST levels (p > 0.005-0.000), as well as edema, necrosis, apoptosis, inflammatory cell enrolment, and necrosis. R. vesicarius exhibited significant antioxidant activity and delayed noradrenaline-induced platelet aggregation. Its cardioprotective, anticoagulant, and vasorelaxant properties in both investigations (in vivo and ex vivo) are mediated through partial endothelium-dependent, NO and calcium channel blockade mediated vasorelaxation. The minimizing of adrenaline, oxidative stress, and tissue damage demonstrate its therapeutic efficacy in cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Rumex , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Catecolaminas , Epinefrina , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Coelhos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
20.
Chin J Dent Res ; 25(2): 93-105, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the sequential healing of maxillary sinuses grafted with two different xenogeneic bone substitutes processed at either a low (300°C) or high (1200°C) temperature. METHODS: A sinus augmentation procedure was performed bilaterally in 20 rabbits and two different xenogeneic bone grafts were randomly used to fill the elevated spaces. Healing was studied after 2 and 10 weeks, in 10 rabbits during each period. RESULTS: After 2 weeks of healing, very small amounts of new bone were observed in both groups, and were mainly confined to close to the sinus bone walls and osteotomy edges. After 10 weeks of healing, new bone was found in all regions, with higher percentages in those close to the bone walls and to the osteotomy. In this period of healing, the proportion of new bone in the 300°C group was 20.0% ± 4.3%, and in the 1200°C group it was 17.2% ± 4.3% (P = 0.162). In the 1200°C group, translucent, dark fog-like shadows in regions of the grafts were hiding portions of new bone (interpenetrating bone network). CONCLUSION: Both biomaterials provided conditions that allowed bone growth within the elevated space, confirming that both biomaterials are suitable to be used as a graft for sinus floor augmentation.


Assuntos
Substitutos Ósseos , Levantamento do Assoalho do Seio Maxilar , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Bovinos , Seio Maxilar/cirurgia , Coelhos , Levantamento do Assoalho do Seio Maxilar/métodos
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