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1.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474843

RESUMO

Cholesterol is a nutrient commonly found in the human diet. The relationship between dietary cholesterol, its sources, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still a topic of debate. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary cholesterol, its sources, and cardiovascular events in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort between 1991 and 2015. This study analyzed data from 3903 participants who were 40 years of age or older at baseline and had no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or hypertension. During a median follow-up of 14 years, 503 cardiovascular disease events were identified through follow-up questionnaires administered every 2-3 years. The events included fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and other cardiovascular disease deaths. Cox regression was used to estimate risk ratios (HR) for CVD events after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors. It was discovered that sources of dietary cholesterol varied among different subgroups of the population. The top three sources of cholesterol among all participants were eggs, red meat, and seafood, accounting for 57.4%, 28.2%, and 9.0% of total daily cholesterol intake, respectively. The present study found that there was a significant association between total dietary cholesterol intake, and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (adjusted HR [95% CI]: total cholesterol (highest and lowest quartiles compared) 1.57 [1.17-2.11]). Cholesterol from poultry, seafood, and eggs was also significantly associated with a reduced risk of CVD (adjusted HR [95% CI]: poultry 0.18 [0.04-0.82], seafood 0.11 [0.02-0.54], and eggs 0.16 [0.03-0.73]). After adjusting for daily caloric intake, daily fat intake, and daily saturated fat intake, the previously observed association between red meat cholesterol and cardiovascular events (unadjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.44 [0.35-0.55]) was no longer statistically significant (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.21 [0.04-1.01]).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Colesterol na Dieta , Dieta , Colesterol , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295212, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38207245

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that natural medications pose health risks, especially in subjects with comorbidities. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of saffron ethanolic extract (SEE) administration in early and established atherosclerotic rabbits. Rabbits were given a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 4 and 8 weeks to induce early and established atherosclerosis respectively, and then they were treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day SEE. The body weight of the animals was recorded. Blood samples were collected at baseline, pre-treatment, and post-treatment for hematological studies, lipid profiles, and biochemical profiles. Tissue specimens of the vital organs were subjected to histological examination. The above parameters were significantly altered post-intervention with 4 and 8 weeks of HCD. No significant differences in body weight were observed in all the groups post-treatment with 50 and 100mg/kg of SEE compared to pre-treatment. However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, serum urea, and glucose significantly decreased post-treatment with 50 and 100mg/kg/day SEE compared to pre-treatment in early and established atherosclerosis groups. Hematological parameters that were affected post-intervention with HCD returned to their baseline values post-treatment with 50 and 100mg/kg/day SEE. There was a significant improvement in the vital organs post-treatment with 50 and 100mg/kg SEE. SEE can safely be administered without causing harmful effects on the hematological, biochemical profiles, and vital organs. Notably, SEE exerts hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects on atherosclerotic conditions. Further clinical trials are warranted to ensure the safety of saffron administration in patients with atherosclerosis-related diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Crocus , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperlipidemias , Humanos , Coelhos , Animais , Colesterol , Aterosclerose/patologia , Peso Corporal , Colesterol na Dieta
3.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 34(5): 1198-1206, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), the relationship between dietary cholesterol and CKD remains unknown. We investigated the association between cholesterol intake and CKD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2019-2021 (n = 13,769) and the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) (n = 9225) data were used for this study. Cholesterol intake was assessed using a 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire, and participants were categorized into three groups (T1, T2, and T3) based on cholesterol intake. Primary outcomes were prevalence and incidence of CKD. Higher cholesterol intake was modestly associated with increased serum levels of total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the KNHANES. However, we found no significant association between cholesterol intake and CKD prevalence in the KNHANES, regardless of a history of hypercholesterolemia. In the KoGES, during a median follow-up of 11.4 years, cholesterol intake was not associated with incident CKD in participants without hypercholesterolemia (hazard ratio [HR] per 10 mg increase, 1.00; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.01) and in those with hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.01; 95 % CI, 0.98-1.04). Egg consumption also showed no significant association with the risk of incident CKD. Additionally, cholesterol intake had no significant interaction on the relationships between serum cholesterol levels and incident CKD. CONCLUSION: Although cholesterol intake was associated with increased serum cholesterol levels, it was not associated with CKD prevalence and incidence. Our findings suggest that reducing cholesterol intake alone may not be sufficient to prevent CKD.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular
5.
Mar Drugs ; 21(12)2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38132943

RESUMO

Aberrantly high dietary cholesterol intake and intestinal cholesterol uptake lead to dyslipidemia, one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Based on previous studies, laminarin, a polysaccharide found in brown algae, has hypolipidemic activity, but its underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of laminarin on intestinal cholesterol uptake in vitro, as well as the lipid and morphological parameters in an in vivo model of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and addressed the question of whether Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1), a key transporter mediating dietary cholesterol uptake, is involved in the mechanistic action of laminarin. In in vitro studies, BODIPY-cholesterol-labeled Caco-2 cells were examined using confocal microscopy and a fluorescence reader. The results demonstrated that laminarin inhibited cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 20.69 µM). In HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice, laminarin significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). It also decreased hepatic levels of TC, TG, and total bile acids (TBA) while promoting the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Furthermore, laminarin significantly reduced local villous damage in the jejunum of HFD mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that laminarin significantly downregulated NPC1L1 protein expression in the jejunum of HFD-fed mice. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of NPC1L1 attenuated the laminarin-mediated inhibition of cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells. This study suggests that laminarin significantly improves dyslipidemia in HFD-fed mice, likely by reducing cholesterol uptake through a mechanism that involves the downregulation of NPC1L1 expression.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dislipidemias , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteína C1 de Niemann-Pick/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Colesterol/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo
6.
Science ; 382(6671): eadf0966, 2023 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943936

RESUMO

Intestinal absorption is an important contributor to systemic cholesterol homeostasis. Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) assists in the initial step of dietary cholesterol uptake, but how cholesterol moves downstream of NPC1L1 is unknown. We show that Aster-B and Aster-C are critical for nonvesicular cholesterol movement in enterocytes. Loss of NPC1L1 diminishes accessible plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol and abolishes Aster recruitment to the intestinal brush border. Enterocytes lacking Asters accumulate PM cholesterol and show endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol depletion. Aster-deficient mice have impaired cholesterol absorption and are protected against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Finally, the Aster pathway can be targeted with a small-molecule inhibitor to manipulate cholesterol uptake. These findings identify the Aster pathway as a physiologically important and pharmacologically tractable node in dietary lipid absorption.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta , Enterócitos , Absorção Intestinal , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Animais , Camundongos , Transporte Biológico , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 118(5): 966-976, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37923501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher dietary cholesterol intake during pregnancy increases risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, no studies have investigated interindividual variability in cholesterol metabolism and the association of genetics and diet on GDM. OBJECTIVE: ; To prospectively evaluate the joint association of cholesterol-rich dietary patterns and polymorphisms of genes coding for cholesterol metabolism pathway proteins with GDM. METHODS: A total of 1116 pregnant females from the Tongji Birth Cohort were enrolled. GDM was diagnosed according to a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 wk of gestation. Dietary data were collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire. The reduced-rank regression method was used to identify dietary patterns using dietary cholesterol as the response variable. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for genotyping. The genetic risk score (GRS) for GDM was constructed with genetic variants in 28 cholesterol metabolism-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the odds ratio (OR) for GDM. RESULTS: The cholesterol-rich dietary pattern was rich in livestock and poultry meat and eggs but lower in cereals. The multivariable-adjusted ORs for GDM were 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.44) per SD increment of cholesterol-rich pattern scores and 1.28 (1.09-1.49) per tertile GRS. The variants of the CYP7A1 rs3808607 G→T/rs8192871 G→A/rs7833904 A→T, as well as AGGG and TTGA haplotypes of 4 CYP7A1-spanning SNPs, were significantly associated with GDM. For the joint effect, the OR was 3.53 (1.71-7.31) in the highest categories of both dietary pattern scores and GRS compared with individuals with the lowest strata without significant interaction (P for interaction = 0.101). CONCLUSIONS: Both a cholesterol-rich dietary pattern and genetic variants of cholesterol metabolism genes are associated with risk of GDM. Adherence to a cholesterol-rich dietary pattern during early pregnancy promotes the chance of GDM, especially in women with higher GRS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: This trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn (Registration number: ChiCTR1800016908). URL: =https://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojEN.html?proj=28081.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol na Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Dieta , Fatores de Risco , Variação Genética
9.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 10(4): 748-755, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary cholesterol has been confirmed to be associated with high risks of diabetes, hypertension, and stroke, but whether it is detrimental to cognitive health is highly debated. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary cholesterol and all-cause dementia and AD dementia. METHODS: This prospective study analyzed Framingham Offspring Study cohort (FOS) participants who were dementia-free at baseline and had detailed information on daily diet (measured by food frequency questionnaires) and demographic characteristics. Surveillance for incident dementia commenced at examination 5 (1991-1995) through 2018 and continued for approximately 30 years. RESULTS: A total of 3249 subjects were included with a mean age of 54.7 years (SD: 9.8). During a median follow-up of 20.2 years (interquartile range: 14.2-24.8), a total of 312 incident dementia events occurred, including 211 (67.7%) cases of AD dementia. After multivariate adjustments for established dementia risk factors, participants with the highest intake of dietary cholesterol had a lower risk of all-cause dementia (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.57-0.93) and AD dementia (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) relative to individuals with the lowest intake. However, the associations were not significant for the group with a medium intake of dietary cholesterol. CONCLUSION: High intake of dietary cholesterol was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia and AD dementia. The findings of this observational study need to be confirmed by other studies to highlight the role of dietary cholesterol in the development of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Demência , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Nutr Sci ; 12: e97, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37706071

RESUMO

Whilst dietary cholesterol guidelines have waivered through the years with historic restrictions lifted for the majority of the general population, recommendations to reduce saturated fat intake have been the mainstay of dietary guidelines since the 1980s and were recently reinforced by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). Cholesterol metabolism is complex, with saturated fat known to have a more significant contribution at raising levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is clear from metabolic research that hyper-responsiveness to both dietary cholesterol and saturated fat exists; hence, for specific subsets of the population, reductions in both nutrients may be indicated. With this in mind, the current article aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying biological variation in responsiveness and introduces research currently underway which will hopefully identify simple biomarkers that can be used to predict responsiveness and permit tailored, personalised, dietary advice. Eggs are a well-known source of dietary cholesterol whilst being low in saturated fat. A common question encountered in clinical practice is must individuals limit intake to manage blood cholesterol levels. This article summarises key recent papers which confirm that eggs can be enjoyed as part of a healthy balanced diet, whilst highlighting the need for further research in certain population groups, e.g. in individuals with diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gorduras na Dieta , Humanos , Colesterol na Dieta , Colesterol , Dieta
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 95(2): 625-640, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37574736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between dietary or serum cholesterol and cognitive performance in older adults has not been well-established. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the potential association between dietary or serum cholesterol and cognitive performance in the elderly population. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. Diet and supplement cholesterol was estimated based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Cognitive function was assessed using various statistical tests. Poor cognitive performance was defined as scores below the lowest quartile within age groups. Regression models were adjusted for demographic factors, and subgroup analyses were performed for non-Hispanic White (NHW) and non-Hispanic Black (NHB) individuals. RESULTS: Among 759 participants aged 60 years and above, dietary cholesterol was only associated with dietary saturated fatty acids and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was no evidence of an association between dietary cholesterol and cognitive function, except for NHB individuals, where dietary cholesterol showed a positive correlation with cognitive function. In the overall sample and NHW participants, there were consistent positive associations between serum total cholesterol and cognitive performance across statistical tests, while such associations were rare among NHB individuals. Although not statistically significant, NHB individuals had higher dietary/supplementary/total cholesterol intake compared with NHW individuals. CONCLUSION: Within the normal range, increasing serum cholesterol may be a potential factor to prevent or relieve cognitive dysfunction. However, ethnic differences should be taken into account when considering the association between cholesterol and cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta , Dieta , Humanos , Idoso , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Colesterol , Cognição , Brancos
12.
Nutrients ; 15(14)2023 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37513504

RESUMO

The Nutrients' Special Issue "From dietary cholesterol to blood cholesterol" aims to supply existing knowledge and novel new research data about human cholesterol (C) fluxes [...].


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta , Colesterol , Humanos , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Nutrientes
13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 19(12): 5742-5754, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37438877

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Whether apolipoprotein E's (APOE's) involvement in lipid metabolism contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk remains unknown. METHODS: Incident probable dementia and cognitive impairment (probable dementia+mild cognitive impairment) were analyzed in relation to baseline serum lipids (total, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], non-HDL cholesterol, total-to-HDL, LDL-to-HDL, remnant cholesterol, and triglycerides) using Mendelian randomization in 5358 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. We also examined associations of baseline dietary cholesterol and fat with lipids based on APOE status. RESULTS: After an average of 11.13 years, less favorable lipid levels related to greater dementia and cognitive impairment risk. Dementia (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.31 to 4.24) and cognitive impairment (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.85 to 3.06) risk were greatest in relation to higher remnant cholesterol levels. Greater cholesterol consumption related to poorer lipids in APOE4+ compared to APOE3 carriers. DISCUSSION: APOE4+ carriers consuming more cholesterol had less favorable lipids, which were associated with greater dementia and cognitive impairment risk. HIGHLIGHTS: Less favorable serum lipids were associated with higher dementia incidence. Mendelian randomization findings suggest causality between lipids and dementia. Lipid levels in older women may be clinical indicators of dementia risk. APOE4 carriers had poorest lipid profiles in relation to cholesterol consumption. APOE risk for dementia may be modifiable through lipid management.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta , Demência , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Colesterol , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/genética , Genótipo , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
14.
J Nutr ; 153(7): 1903-1914, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37269906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic cholesterol accumulation is a significant risk factor in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to steatohepatitis. However, the precise mechanism by which stigmasterol (STG) mitigates this process remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism underlying the protective effect of STG in mice with NAFLD progressing to steatohepatitis while being fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFHC diet for 16 wk to establish the NAFLD model. Subsequently, the mice received STG or a vehicle via oral gavage while continuing the HFHC diet for an additional 10 wk. The study evaluated hepatic lipid deposition and inflammation as well as the expression of key rate-limiting enzymes involved in the bile acid (BA) synthesis pathways. BAs in the colonic contents were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Compared with the vehicle control group, STG significantly reduced hepatic cholesterol accumulation (P < 0.01) and suppressed the gene expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and interleukin-18 (P < 0.05) in the livers of HFHC diet-fed mice. The total fecal BA content in the STG group was nearly double that of the vehicle control group. Additionally, the administration of STG increased the concentrations of representative hydrophilic BAs in the colonic contents (P < 0.05) along with the upregulation of gene and protein expression of CYP7B1 (P < 0.01). Furthermore, STG enhanced the α-diversity of the gut microbiota and partially reversed the alterations in the relative abundance of the gut microbiota induced by the HFHC diet. CONCLUSIONS: STG mitigates steatohepatitis by enhancing the alternative pathway for BA synthesis.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estigmasterol/metabolismo , Estigmasterol/farmacologia , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo
15.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 81(2): 231-242, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37160861

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to analyze the proteomics of the liver in rabbits on a high cholesterol diet (HCD). We randomly divided New Zealand white rabbits into the normal diet group and the HCD group. We established the atherosclerosis model and measured plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. The model was successfully established using ultrasound examination and histopathological staining of the intima of aorta and liver of the two groups of rabbits. The differential proteins in the rabbit liver were analyzed using Tandem Mass Tags proteomic analysis technology. Finally, we used western blot to verify the reliability of proteomics. The results showed that compared with the control group, the serum lipid levels of rats in the HCD group was significantly increased, and the pathological sections showed the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta, inflammation, and adipose lesions in the liver. Proteomic analysis of the liver revealed 149 differences in HCD-expressed protein, which is mainly involved in inflammation and regulation of lipid and sugar metabolism. In addition, we verified differentially expressed liver proteins in the HCD group using western blot. We found that HCD caused lipid accumulation, abnormal glucose metabolism, and inflammatory response in the liver.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta , Hipercolesterolemia , Animais , Coelhos , Ratos , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
J Nutr Biochem ; 117: 109347, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37031879

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most widespread chronic liver disorder globally. Unraveling the pathogenesis of simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has important clinical significance for improving the prognosis of NAFLD. Here, we explored the role of a high-fat diet alone or combined with high cholesterol in causing NASH progression. Our results demonstrated that high dietary cholesterol intakes accelerate the progression of spontaneous NAFLD and induces liver inflammation in mice. An elevation of hydrophobic unconjugated bile acids cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), muricholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, was observed in high-fat and high-cholesterol diet fed mice. Full-length sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene of gut microbiota revealed a significant increase in the abundance of Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus that possess bile salt hydrolase activity. Furthermore, the relative abundance of these bacterial species was positively correlated with content of unconjugated bile acids in liver. Moreover, the expression of genes related to bile acid reabsorption (organic anion-transporting polypeptides, Na+-taurocholic acid cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter and organic solute transporter ß) was found to be increased in mice with a high-cholesterol diet. Lastly, we observed that hydrophobic bile acids CA and DCA induce an inflammatory response in free fatty acids-induced steatotic HepG2 cells. In conclusion, high dietary cholesterol promotes the development of NASH by altering gut microbiota composition and abundance and thereby influencing with bile acid metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipercolesterolemia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ácido Cólico , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
Transplant Proc ; 55(4): 1032-1035, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37045701

RESUMO

Interventions for liver grafts with moderate macrovesicular steatosis have been important in enlarging donor pools. Here, we tested a high-fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet to create a steatosis model for cold hepatic preservation and reperfusion experiments. The aim of the present study was to assess the steatosis model's reliability and to show the resulting graft's quality for cold preservation and reperfusion experiment. Male SHRSP5-Dmcr rats were raised with an HFC diet for up to 2 weeks. The fat content was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF). The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) was evaluated after excision. Steatosis created by 2 weeks of HFC diet was subjected to 24-hour cold storage in the University of Wisconsin and the original test solution (new sol.). Grafts were applied to isolated perfused rat livers for simulating reperfusion. The NAS were 2.2 (HFC 5 days), 3.3 (HFC 1 week), and 5.0 (HFC 2 weeks). Ballooning and fibrosis were not observed in any group. An MRI-PDFF showed 0.2 (HFC 0 days), 12.0 (HFC 1 week), and 18.9 (HFC 2 weeks). The NAS and MRI-PDFF values correlated. Many indices in the isolated perfused rat liver experiment tended to improve in the new sol. group but were insufficient. Although the new sol. failed to be effective, it acted at multiple sites under difficult conditions. In conclusion, the HFC diet for 2 weeks in SHRSP5-Dmcr rats, together with MRI-PDFF evaluation, is a reliable method for creating simple steatosis and provides good-quality cold preservation and reperfusion experiments.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Colesterol na Dieta , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Colesterol , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37108655

RESUMO

Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes, and also a precursor for the synthesis of sex hormones, playing an important role in reproduction. However, few studies have focused on cholesterol and reproductive health. To investigate the toxic effects of different cholesterol levels on the spermatogenesis of rare minnows, we regulate the cholesterol content in fish by feeding them a high-cholesterol diet and cholesterol inhibitor pravastatin, and cholesterol levels, sex hormone (T and 11KT) levels, testis histology, sperm morphology and function, and the expression of genes related to sex hormone synthesis were investigated. The research findings indicate that increasing cholesterol levels significantly increases the liver weight and hepatic-somatic index, as well as the total cholesterol and free cholesterol levels in the testis, liver, and plasma of rare minnow, while inhibiting cholesterol has the opposite effect (p < 0.05). However, both increasing and decreasing cholesterol levels can suppress rare minnow testicular development, as evidenced by a decrease in testis weight, lowered gonadosomatic index, suppressed sex hormone levels, and reduced mature sperm count. Further exploration revealed that the expression of sex hormone synthesis-related genes, including star, cyp19a1a, and hsd11b2, was significantly affected (p < 0.05), which may be an important reason for the decrease in sex hormone synthesis and consequent inhibition of testicular development. At the same time, the fertilization ability of mature sperm in both treatment groups significantly decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence polarization tests showed that reducing cholesterol levels significantly increased the rate of sperm head cell membrane damage, while both increasing and decreasing cholesterol levels led to a reduction in sperm cell membrane fluidity, which may be the main reason for the decrease in sperm fertilization ability. This study demonstrates that both increasing and decreasing the levels of cholesterol are detrimental to the fish spermatogenesis, providing fundamental information for the study of fish reproduction and also a reference for the causes of male reproductive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta , Cyprinidae , Animais , Masculino , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Sêmen , Espermatogênese , Testículo/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/genética
19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 67(12): e2200811, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36877953

RESUMO

SCOPE: Phytosterols (PS) and sterol oxidation products are key dietary factors influencing atherosclerosis besides cholesterol, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has revealed the heterogeneity of multiple cell types associated with complex pathogenesis in atherosclerosis development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, scRNA-seq is performed to investigate the alterations in the aortic cells from ApoE-/- mice induced by diet-derived PS or two sterol oxidation products, phytosterols oxidation products (POPs), and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). The study identifies four fibroblast subpopulations with different functions, and immunofluorescence demonstrates their spatial heterogeneity, providing evidence that suggests the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and fibroblasts in atherosclerosis. The composition and gene expression profiles of aortic cells change broadly in response to PS/COPs/POPs exposure. Notably, PS exhibits an atheroprotective effect where different gene expressions are mainly found in B cells. Exposure to COPs accelerates atherosclerosis and results in marked alternations in myofibroblast subpopulations and T cells, while POPs only alter fibroblast subpopulations and B cells. CONCLUSION: The data elucidate the effects of dietary PS/COPs/POPs on aortic cells during atherosclerosis development, especially on the newly identified fibroblast subpopulations.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fitosteróis , Animais , Camundongos , Fitosteróis/efeitos adversos , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Colesterol/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol na Dieta
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