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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 61: 168-180, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Several experiments have suggested that Nigella sativa (N. sativa) supplementation may have a beneficial effect on the lipid profile. However, the results from these trials have been inconclusive. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the impact of N. sativa supplementation on the lipid profile of adult participants. METHODS: We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases until December 2022. Random effects models were used, and pooled data were determined as standardized mean differences with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The findings of 34 studies with 2278 participants revealed that N. sativa supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC) (SMD: -1.78; 95% CI: -2.20, -1.37, p < 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (SMD: -1.2725; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.83, p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD: -2.45; 95% CI: -3.06, -1.85; p < 0.001) compared to control groups. However, a significant increase was found in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (SMD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.20, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: N. sativa has improved effects on TG, LDL-C, TC, and HDL-C levels. Overall, N. sativa may be suggested as an adjuvant anti-hyperlipidemic agent.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos , Nigella sativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Nigella sativa/química , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue
2.
Clin Rheumatol ; 43(6): 1845-1853, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the metabolic changes during therapy of tocilizumab (TCZ) and methotrexate (MTX) in non-diabetic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and for the first time explore the associations between metabolic parameters and serum YKL-40 (sYKL-40) levels. METHODS: We enrolled active non-diabetic RA patients who were refractory to MTX. Patients received intravenous TCZ (8 mg/kg) once every 4 weeks combined with MTX for 24 weeks. Metabolic parameters and sYKL-40 levels were measured before TCZ infusion at baseline, week 4, week 12, and week 24. Correlations were assessed by the Spearman's rank correlation analysis. RESULTS: A total of 91 non-diabetic RA patients were enrolled in this study. At week 24, we observed a significant elevation in body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) levels. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in TC/HDL­C ratio. No apparent changes in insulin resistance were found. Additionally, we detected a significant reduction in sYKL-40 levels during the study. At week 24, changes in sYKL-40 levels showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.334, p = 0.002) with changes in TC levels. CONCLUSION: The combined therapy of TCZ and MTX resulted in a significant increase in BMI and lipid levels, while an evident decrease in the TC/HDL­C ratio and sYKL-40 levels in RA patients. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between the decrease in sYKL-40 levels and the increase in TC levels during treatment with TCZ and MTX. Key Points • Lipid levels elevated significantly and sYKL-40 levels decreased obviously after therapy of TCZ combined with MTX in Chinese RA patients. • There was a significant correlation between the increase in TC levels and the decrease in sYKL-40 levels during treatment with TCZ and MTX in RA patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3 , Metotrexato , Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , China , População do Leste Asiático
3.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794740

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is closely associated with metabolic disorders such as cholesterol accumulation, bile acid metabolism, and gut dysbiosis. Neoagarotetraose supplementation has been shown to inhibit obesity and alleviate type 2 diabetes, but its effects on modulating the development of atherosclerosis remain unexplored. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects and potential mechanisms of neoagarotetraose on high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFHCD)-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. The results showed that neoagarotetraose supplementation decreased the atherosclerotic lesion area by 50.1% and the aortic arch lesion size by 80.4% compared to the HFHCD group. Furthermore, neoagarotetraose supplementation led to a significant reduction in hepatic lipid content, particularly non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also resulted in a substantial increase in total bile acid content in both urine and fecal samples by 3.0-fold and 38.7%, respectively. Moreover, neoagarotetraose supplementation effectively downregulated the intestinal farnesoid X receptor by 35.8% and modulated the expressions of its associated genes in both the liver and intestine. In addition, correlation analysis revealed strong associations between gut microbiota composition and fecal bile acid levels. These findings highlight the role of gut microbiota in neoagarotetraose-mitigating atherosclerosis in HFHCD-fed ApoE-/- mice. This study indicates the potential of neoagarotetraose as a functional dietary supplement for the prevention of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E , Aterosclerose , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colesterol , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado , Animais , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo
4.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794764

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to even slightly elevated plasma cholesterol levels significantly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The latest evidence recommends an improvement in plasma lipid levels, even in children who are not affected by severe hypercholesterolemia. The risk-benefit profile of pharmacological treatments in pediatric patients with moderate dyslipidemia is uncertain, and several cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals have been recently tested. In this context, the available randomized clinical trials are small, short-term and mainly tested different types of fibers, plant sterols/stanols, standardized extracts of red yeast rice, polyunsaturated fatty acids, soy derivatives, and some probiotics. In children with dyslipidemia, nutraceuticals can improve lipid profile in the context of an adequate, well-balanced diet combined with regular physical activity. Of course, they should not be considered an alternative to conventional lipid-lowering drugs when necessary.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Criança , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Colesterol/sangue , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Fitosteróis , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pediatria/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle
5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 155, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remnant cholesterol (RC) has been known as an important factor for the assessment of the metabolic syndrome (Mets) risk. However, the correlation between RC and hyperuricemia (HUA) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unclear. This study aims to explore the correlation between RC and HUA in patients with T2DM. METHODS: A total of 2956 patients with T2DM admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from 2020 to 2022 were included. The correlation between RC and HUA was evaluated with Spearman's correlation, multiple logistic regression, subgroup analyses, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analyses and generalized smooth curve fitting. Total cholesterol (TC) < 5.18mmol/L was defined as normal TC. RESULTS: RC was correlated with uric acid in patients with T2DM (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.279, P < 0.001). According to the multiple logistic regression analyses, there was an independent positive correlation between RC and HUA (OR = 1.63, 95%CI = 1.40, 1.90). In addition, a non-linear correlation between RC and HUA was identified. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of RC (0.658, 95%CI = 0.635, 0.681) was the largest compared with those of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC. Subgroup analyses showed a more significant positive correlation among females or normal TC groups. CONCLUSION: Elevated RC is correlated with HUA in patients with T2DM significantly and positively. RC is better in its predictability for HUA than that of conventional lipid indexes.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperuricemia , Curva ROC , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Colesterol/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Idoso , Adulto , Modelos Logísticos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Fatores de Risco
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791260

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the antioxidant capacity of lemon flavonoid extract Eriomin® (LE) and its impact on cholesterol metabolism in the context of healthy aging. We orally treated 24-month-old male Wistar rats with an LE (40 mg/kg) suspended in 0.3 mL of sunflower oil. At the same time, control groups received an equal volume of sunflower oil (CON) or remained untreated (ICON) daily for 4 weeks. We examined LE's effects on superoxide dismutase and catalase- and glutathione-related enzyme activities, the concentration of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls, total oxidant status (TOS) and antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in the liver, jejunum, and ileum. We also measured total cholesterol, its biosynthetic precursors (lanosterol, lathosterol, desmosterol), its degradation products (bile acid precursors) in the serum, liver, jejunum, and ileum, and serum phytosterols (intestinal absorption markers). LE reduced TOS, TAS, and OSI (p < 0.05) compared with control values, indicating its consistent antioxidant action in all examined organs. LE lowered hepatic desmosterol (p < 0.05) while also reducing 7α- and 24-hydroxycholesterol levels in the liver and ileum (p < 0.01). Serum cholesterol, hepatic gene expression, and the immunostaining intensity of CYP7A1 were unchanged. In conclusion, LE exerted non-enzymatic antioxidant effects and reduced cholesterol degradation, reducing its biosynthesis products, thereby maintaining serum cholesterol levels.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Antioxidantes , Colesterol , Citrus , Flavonoides , Fígado , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791421

RESUMO

Adequate experimental animal models play an important role in an objective assessment of the effectiveness of medicines and functional foods enriched with biologically active substances. The aim of our study was a comparative assessment of the effect of consumption of 1 or 2% cholesterol with and without regular (two times a week), moderate running exercise on the main biomarkers of lipid and cholesterol metabolism, as well as the intestinal microbiota of male Wistar rats. In experimental rats, a response of 39 indicators (body weight, food consumption, serum biomarkers, liver composition, and changes in intestinal microbiota) was revealed. Total serum cholesterol level increased 1.8 times in animals consuming cholesterol with a simultaneous increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2 times) and decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.3 times) levels compared to the control animals. These animals had 1.3 times increased liver weight, almost 5 times increased triglycerides level, and more than 6 times increased cholesterol content. There was a tendency towards a decrease in triglycerides levels against the background of running exercise. The consumption of cholesterol led to a predominance of the Bacteroides family, due to a decrease in F. prausnitzii (1.2 times) and bifidobacteria (1.3 times), as well as an increase in Escherichia family (1.2 times). The running exercise did not lead to the complete normalization of microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Masculino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Fígado/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol na Dieta , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(21): e38262, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787982

RESUMO

The coronary slow-flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a manifestation of coronary artery disease wherein coronary angiography reveals no apparent stenosis; however, there is a delay in blood flow perfusion. Given its increased occurrence in male patients, with the majority of subjects in previous studies being male, this study aimed to explore whether distinct risk factors are present in female patients with CSFP. This single-center retrospective study focused on female patients diagnosed with CSFP by using coronary angiography. Eligible patients meeting the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into the study group (presenting with CSFP) and control group (displaying normal epicardial coronary arteries). Comparative analyses of clinical and diagnostic data were performed. Ninety-two patients with CSFP and an equal number of controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with CSFP exhibited a higher prevalence of smokers (P = .017) and a heightened incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) (P = .007). Significantly elevated levels of total cholesterol (TC) (P = .034) and free fatty acids (FFA) (P = .016) were observed in the CSFP group compared to those in the control group. Additionally, patients with CSFP displayed lower levels of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) (P = .092), free thyroxine (FT4) (P = .001), and total thyroxine (TT4) (P = .025). Logistic regression analysis indicated that smoking (P = .019), FFA (P < .001), ApoE (P = .015), and FT4 (P < .001) were independent risk factors for CSFP, accounting for confounding factors. Additionally, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the combined effect of smoking, ApoE, FT4, and FFA on CSFP was 0.793 (95% CI: 0.729-0.857, P < .01). In addition to the established risk factors for smoking, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, female patients with CSFP exhibited significant differences in apoE, FFA, FT4, and TT4 levels compared to the control group. Smoking, FFA, and FT4 levels emerged as independent risk factors for CSFP.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Idoso , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/epidemiologia , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/sangue , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(21): e38160, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To further clarify the predictive value of pretreatment Naples prognostic score (NPS), calculating based on the serum albumin concentration, total cholesterol level, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), among esophageal cancer patients based on available evidence. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI databases were searched up to December 1, 2023 for relevant studies. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were endpoints and the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was combined to evaluate the predictive role of NPS for survival. Subgroup analysis based on pathological type and treatment were further conducted. RESULTS: Ten retrospective studies with 2250 cases were included in our analysis. Pooled results demonstrated that higher pretreatment NPS predicted poorer OS (HR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.57-3.20, P < .001), PFS (HR = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.84-4.98, P < .001) and CSS (HR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.80-4.68, P < .001). Then subgroup analysis for the OS and PFS stratified by the pathological type (squamous cell carcinoma vs esophageal cancer) and treatment (surgery vs non-surgery) were further conducted, which showed similar results. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment NPS is significantly associated with prognosis in esophageal cancer and higher NPS predicts worse survival among patients with esophageal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Humanos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Prognóstico , Albumina Sérica/análise , Neutrófilos , Colesterol/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Linfócitos , Monócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 202, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734669

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) involves lipid metabolism. Our earlier research also revealed that MDD patients had much lower total cholesterol (TC) concentrations than healthy controls (HCs). However, it is still unclear why TC decreased in MDD. Here, based on the Ingenuity Knowledge Base's ingenuity pathway analysis, we found that sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 11A (SCN11A) might serve as a link between low lipid levels and MDD. We analyzed the TC levels and used ELISA kits to measure the levels of SCN11A in the serum from 139 MDD patients, and 65 HCs to confirm this theory and explore the potential involvement of SCN11A in MDD. The findings revealed that TC levels were considerably lower and SCN11A levels were remarkably increased in MDD patients than those in HCs, while they were significantly reversed in drug-treatment MDD patients than in drug-naïve MDD patients. There was no significant difference in SCN11A levels among MDD patients who used single or multiple antidepressants, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other antidepressants. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of TC and SCN11A were linked with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scales score. A substantial association was also found between TC and SCN11A. Moreover, a discriminative model made up of SCN11A was discovered, which produced an area under a curve of 0.9571 in the training set and 0.9357 in the testing set. Taken together, our findings indicated that SCN11A may serve as a link between low lipid levels and MDD, and showed promise as a candidate biomarker for MDD.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
11.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2319749, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Remnant cholesterol (RC) is the cholesterol content of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. This study aimed to investigate the association between RC levels and kidney stones in U.S. adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2007 to 2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 10,551 participants with complete data were included and analyzed in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, restricted cubic spline function, subgroup analysis and mediation analysis were preformed to estimate the independent relationship between RC levels and kidney stones. RESULTS: Participants with stone formation had higher levels of RC than those with without stone formation (25.78 ± 13.83 vs 23.27 ± 13.04, p< 0.001). The results of logistic regression analysis and dose-response risk curves revealed a positive nonlinear association between RC levels and risk of kidney stones [univariate: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =2.388, 95% CI: 1.797-3.173, p< 0.001; multivariate: aOR = 1.424, 95% CI: 1.050-1.929, p = 0.023]. Compared with the discordantly low RC group, the discordantly high RC group was associated with increased risk of kidney stones (aOR = 1.185, 95% CI: 1.013-1.386, p= 0.034). Similar results were demonstrated according to the discordance of different clinical cut points. And metabolic syndrome parameters and vitamin D levels parallelly mediated the association between RC and kidney stone risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher RC levels were independently associated with an increased risk of kidney stone incidence.


Higher remnant cholesterol levels were independently associated with an increased risk of kidney stone incidence.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Cálculos Renais , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Triglicerídeos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Idoso , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Transversais
12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 245, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline was a paradigm shift in lipid management and identified the four statin-benefit groups. Many have studied the guideline's potential impact, but few have investigated its potential long-term impact on MACE. Furthermore, most studies also ignored the confounding effect from the earlier release of generic atorvastatin in Dec 2011. METHODS: To evaluate the potential (long-term) impact of the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline release in Nov 2013 in the U.S., we investigated the association of the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline with the trend changes in 5-Year MACE survival and three other statin-related outcomes (statin use, optimal statin use, and statin adherence) while controlling for generic atorvastatin availability using interrupted time series analysis, called the Chow's test. Specifically, we conducted a retrospective study using U.S. nationwide de-identified claims and electronic health records from Optum Labs Database Warehouse (OLDW) to follow the trends of 5-Year MACE survival and statin-related outcomes among four statin-benefit groups that were identified in the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline. Then, Chow's test was used to discern trend changes between generic atorvastatin availability and guideline potential impact. RESULTS: 197,021 patients were included (ASCVD: 19,060; High-LDL: 33,907; Diabetes: 138,159; High-ASCVD-Risk: 5,895). After the guideline release, the long-term trend (slope) of 5-Year MACE Survival for the Diabetes group improved significantly (P = 0.002). Optimal statin use for the ASCVD group also showed immediate improvement (intercept) and long-term positive changes (slope) after the release (P < 0.001). Statin uses did not have significant trend changes and statin adherence remained unchanged in all statin-benefit groups. Although no other statistically significant trend changes were found, overall positive trend change or no changes were observed after the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline release. CONCLUSIONS: The 2013 ACA/AHA Guideline release is associated with trend improvements in the long-term MACE Survival for Diabetes group and optimal statin use for ASCVD group. These significant associations might indicate a potential positive long-term impact of the 2013 ACA/AHA Guideline on better health outcomes for primary prevention groups and an immediate potential impact on statin prescribing behaviors in higher-at-risk groups. However, further investigation is required to confirm the causal effect of the 2013 ACA/AHA Guideline.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Fatores de Tempo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Colesterol/sangue , Adesão à Medicação , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Genéricos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11881, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789551

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) imposes a significant economic burden in developing countries like India. Timely diagnosis and treatment should be prioritized to mitigate the disease. Current diagnostic tools being invasive and less specific raise the need to develop less invasive and more reliable molecular biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of molecules that can serve as a potential source of non-invasive biomarkers for CAD. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of circulatory miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers in CAD. In this study, we have reported two microRNAs, miR-128-3p and miR-195-5p in the serum of CAD patients in Indian Population. A total of 124 subjects were recruited which included 89 angiographically proven CAD patients and 35 control subjects. Our results show a significant decrease in the levels of miR-128-3p in CAD patients while there were no significant changes in the levels of miR-195-5p. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed the potential role of miR-128-3p in cholesterol homeostasis. Altered homeostasis due to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages is the driving force behind formation of foam cells which in turn accelerates the progression of CAD. Here, we have shown that miR-128-3p increases cholesterol levels in macrophages by decreasing cholesterol efflux in-vitro.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , MicroRNAs , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Idoso , Adulto
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297788, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743661

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol esters (PSE) on C57BL/6 mice. Three groups of 34 six-week-old C57BL/6 mice of specific pathogen free (SPF) grade, with an average initial body weight (IBW) of 17.7g, were fed for 24 days either natural-ingredient diets without supplements or diets supplemented with 89 mg/kg PS or diets supplemented with 400 mg/kg PSE. Growth performance, blood biochemistry, liver and colon morphology as well as intestinal flora status were evaluated. Both PS and PSE exhibited growth promotion and feed digestibility in mice. In blood biochemistry, the addition of both PS and PSE to the diet resulted in a significant decrease in Total Cholesterol (TC) and Triglyceride (TG) levels and an increase in Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity. No significant changes in liver and intestinal morphology were observed. Both increased the level of Akkermansia in the intestinal tract of mice. There was no significant difference between the effects of PS and PSE. It was concluded that dietary PS and PSE supplementation could improve growth performance, immune performance and gut microbiome structure in mice, providing insights into its application as a potential feed additive in animals production.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fitosteróis , Animais , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres/farmacologia , Masculino , Colesterol/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 361, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on postpartum cardiometabolic indicators is primarily restricted to glucose and lipid metabolism, however the indicators for liver and kidney function have been rarely explored, and the role of the third-trimester inflammatory factors in these associations has never been investigated. METHODS: Based on the Ma'anshan birth cohort (MABC), women with or without GDM history were selected and invited to participate in a 6-year postpartum follow-up. The fasting blood samples were collected to measure 16 comprehensive metabolic indicators during a 6-year postpartum follow-up: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCR), etc. Seven inflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and IL-17 A, were measured with serum samples collected during the third trimester of pregnancy. Linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between GDM and 6-year postpartum metabolic indicators, GDM and third-trimester inflammatory factors, and the third-trimester inflammatory factors and 6-year postpartum metabolic indicators. Mediating and moderating effect analyses were further performed to explore if the third-trimester inflammatory factors mediate or modify the association between GDM and postpartum cardiometabolic indicators. RESULTS: From July 2021 to August 2022, 307 participants have been followed up, with 99 women with a prior GDM history. Compared with those without GDM, individuals with a prior history of GDM had significantly elevated levels of FPG (ß = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.62, PFDR < 0.001), HbA1c (ß = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.34, PFDR = 0.009), TyG (ß = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.37, PFDR = 0.024) at 6 years postpartum, and the association between GDM and SCR (ß = 2.43, 95% CI: 0.02 to 4.85, PFDR = 0.144) reached nominal significance level. GDM history was associated with a decreased level of third-trimester IL-17 A (ß = -0.58, 95% CI: -0.99 to -0.18, PFDR = 0.035). No significant association between third-trimester inflammatory factors and 6-year postpartum metabolic indicators was observed. And no mediating or moderating effect of third-trimester inflammatory factors was observed in those associations. CONCLUSION: A prior history of GDM was significantly associated with elevated FPG, HbA1c, and TyG in women at 6 years postpartum, whereas third-trimester inflammatory factors had no role in mediating or moderating these associations.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Gestacional , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Período Pós-Parto , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Seguimentos , Creatinina/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(5): 862-867, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783431

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine the association of triglyceride-glucose index with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, and to determine the association of triglyceride-glucose index with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio for predicting diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: The observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2021 to September 2022 at the Department of Chemical Pathology, Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan and comprised recently-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Recorded data included age, gender, vitals, diabetes duration, body mass index and other pertinent demographic and clinical information. Measurements included spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, triglycerideglucose index, homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance as well as fasting serum insulin, fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum creatinine. On the basis of triglyceride-glucose index scores, the participants were divided into 4 quartiles; Q1=4.5-5, Q2=5.1-5.5, Q3=5.6-6, and Q4=>6. Data was analysed using SPSS 26. RESULTS: Of the 218 patients, 141(64.7%) were females and 77(35.3%) were males. The overall mean age was 49.22±11.46 years. There were 102(46.8%) overweight patients, 33(15.1%) obese and 82(37.2%) had normal weight. There were 58(26.6%) patients in Q1, 86(39.4%) in Q2, 46(21.1%) in Q3 and 28(12.8%) in Q4. Those in Q4 showed elevated fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (p<0.05), as well as low values for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate(p<0.05). Fasting serum insulin was negatively linked to glycated haemoglobin (r=-0.12, p=0.07). Triglyceride-glucose index (r=0.76, p<0.001), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=0.48, p<0.001), and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r=0.10,p=0.05) positively correlated with glycated haemoglobin. Fasting serum insulin (r=-0.13, p=0.05), negatively correlated with triglyceride-glucose index, while homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r= 0.32, p<0.001) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r=0.28, p=0.05) had a positive correlation. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly positively linked with fasting serum insulin (r=0.05, p=0.05), and correlated significantly negatively with triglyceride-glucose index (r=-0.35, p=0.01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=-0.01, p=0.86) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r=-0.02, p=0.8). CONCLUSIONS: The triglyceride-glucose index showed a strong association with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and surpassed it in terms of predicting diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Homeostase , Resistência à Insulina , Triglicerídeos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Albuminúria , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Colesterol/sangue
17.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794685

RESUMO

In response to a perceived epidemic of coronary heart disease, Ancel Keys introduced the lipid-heart hypothesis in 1953 which asserted that high intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol lead to atherosclerosis and that consuming less fat and cholesterol, and replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat, would reduce serum cholesterol and consequently the risk of heart disease. Keys proposed an equation that would predict the concentration of serum cholesterol (ΔChol.) from the consumption of saturated fat (ΔS), polyunsaturated fat (ΔP), and cholesterol (ΔZ): ΔChol. = 1.2(2ΔS - ΔP) + 1.5ΔZ. However, the Keys equation conflated natural saturated fat and industrial trans-fat into a single parameter and considered only linoleic acid as the polyunsaturated fat. This ignored the widespread consumption of trans-fat and its effects on serum cholesterol and promoted an imbalance of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet. Numerous observational, epidemiological, interventional, and autopsy studies have failed to validate the Keys equation and the lipid-heart hypothesis. Nevertheless, these have been the cornerstone of national and international dietary guidelines which have focused disproportionately on heart disease and much less so on cancer and metabolic disorders, which have steadily increased since the adoption of this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Ácido Linoleico , Política Nutricional , Ácidos Graxos trans , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos trans/administração & dosagem , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta
18.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794691

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown encouraging results regarding the efficacy and safety of nutraceuticals, such as "red yeast rice (RYR) extract", on reducing hypercholesterolemia in humans. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted from January 2012 to May 2022. The search was strictly focused on clinical trials that examined the association between RYR extract consumption and parameters of the lipid profile in humans. Fourteen double-blinded clinical trials were identified. The interventions lasted 4-24 weeks. In most studies, there was one intervention group and one control group. RYR extract consumption statistically significantly reduced total cholesterol (mean absolute reduction: 37.43 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -47.08, -27.79) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; mean absolute reduction: 35.82 mg/dL; 95% CI: -43.36, -28.29), but not high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A-I and B. As regards the safety, RYR extract was considered a safe choice with neither threatening nor frequent side effects. The consumption of RYR extract by people with hypercholesterolemia was associated with statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C, whereas it was not associated with an increase in life-threatening side effects. Further research on specific subpopulations and outcomes could establish a consensus on determining the clinical benefits and potential risks, if any, of this nutraceutical.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipercolesterolemia , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 94: 127-136, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that remnant cholesterol (RC) was associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among middle-aged or older adults. However, lack of evidence on long-term exposures to RC and their role in CVD risk among young adults. We thus aimed to explore the association between cumulative RC burden and CVD in young adults. METHODS: We enrolled participants younger than 45 years free of CVD history in the Kailuan Study who completed the first three health examinations from 2006 to 2010. Cumulative RC burden included cumulative RC burden score, time-weighted cumulative RC, exposure duration of high RC, and time course of RC accumulation. The outcome was the incidence of CVD. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between cumulative RC burden and CVD risk. RESULTS: A total of 15,219 participants were included (73.70% male, median age 39.13 years). During a median follow-up duration of 8.71 years (interquartile range: 8.4-9.15 years), 502 individuals developed CVD. After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, highest risk of CVD was observed in participants with the highest cumulative RC burden score (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.29-2.12), the highest quartile time-weighted cumulative RC (HR,1.50; 95% CI, 1.15-1.96), the longest exposure duration of high RC (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21-2.42), and those with cumulative RC burden and positive slope (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.35-2.36). CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative RC burden increased the risk of CVD among young adults, suggesting that maintaining low RC levels throughout young adulthood may minimize CVD risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Colesterol , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 19: 891-900, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779379

RESUMO

Purpose: Lipid-lowering therapy is integral in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), yet the connection between lipid parameters and parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) after endovascular treatment (EVT) for AIS is not well-defined. This research aims to assess the association between various lipid parameters and the PH risk following EVT. Patients and Methods: We examined a database of patients who underwent EVT for AIS between September 2021 and May 2023 retrospectively. Traditional and non-traditional lipid parameters were documented. PH was identified on dual energy computed tomography images within 48 h. We employed logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic splines to examine the association between various lipid parameters and the risk of PH. The predictive capacity of the lipid parameters for PH was evaluated by comparing the area under the curve. Results: The study included 384 patients, 65 of whom (17.7%) developed PH. After adjusting for potential confounders, only triglyceride was associated with PH among the traditional lipid parameters, while all non-traditional lipid parameters were related to PH. Based on ROC curve, the ratio of remnant cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (RC/HDL-C) exhibited the highest predictive capability for PH. Furthermore, our analysis revealed a significant nonlinear correlation between triglyceride, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, RC, RC/HDL-C and PH risk. Conclusion: In assessing the risk of PH after EVT, non-traditional lipid parameters are often superior to traditional lipid parameters. It is recommended that routine evaluation of non-traditional lipid parameters could also be conducted in clinical practice as well.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , AVC Isquêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lipídeos/sangue , Curva ROC , Modelos Logísticos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral , Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco
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