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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371959

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with insulin resistance. We hypothesized that a 35 g whey preload would improve insulin sensitivity and glucose handling while reducing biomarkers associated with NAFLD. Twenty-nine age-matched women (CON = 15, PCOS = 14) completed oral glycemic tolerance tests following baseline (Day 0) as well as an acute (Day 1) and short-term whey supplementation (Day 7). Whey had an interaction effect on glucose (p = 0.02) and insulin (p = 0.03), with glucose remaining stable and insulin increasing with whey supplementation. Insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01) improved with whey associated with increased glucagon secretion (p < 0.01). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) remained unchanged, but "day" had an effect on the AST:ALT ratio (p = 0.04), whereas triglycerides and sex hormone binding globulin overall were greater in the PCOS group (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol decreased in PCOS (by 13%) and CON (by 8%) (NS). HepG2 cells treated with plasma from participants before and after whey decreased lipid accumulation in the PCOS group after whey (p < 0.05). Whey provided an insulinogenic and glycemic homeostatic effect in women with PCOS with the potential to combat NAFLD-consequences.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445043

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 µg/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 µg/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 µg/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/urina , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Tartaratos/urina , Vinho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445047

RESUMO

Sargassum fusiforme alginate (SF-Alg) possess many pharmacological activities, including hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic. However, the hypoglycemic mechanisms of SF-Alg remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of SF-Alg on high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) mice. SF-Alg intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and improving glucose tolerance. In addition, administrating SF-Alg to diabetic mice moderately attenuated pathological changes in adipose, hepatic, and heart tissues as well as skeletal muscle, and diminished oxidative stress. To probe the underlying mechanisms, we further analyzed the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, as well as metabolites by non-targeted metabolomics. Here, SF-Alg significantly increased some benign bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Akkermansia Alloprevotella, Weissella and Enterorhabdus), and significantly decreased harmful bacteria (Turicibacter and Helicobacter). Meanwhile, SF-Alg dramatically decreased branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in the colon of T2D mice, suggesting a positive benefit of SF-Alg as an adjvant agent for T2D.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Sargassum/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Camundongos , Estreptozocina , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361033

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an essential plasma apolipoprotein, has three isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) in humans. E2 is associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. E4 is the major susceptibility gene to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated lipid metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions of novel humanized ApoE knockin (hApoE KI) rats in comparison to wide-type (WT) and ApoE knockout (ApoE KO) rats. The hApoE2 rats showed the lowest bodyweight and white fat mass. hApoE2 rats developed higher serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), and low- and very low density lipoprotein (LDL-C&VLDL-C). ApoE KO rats also exhibited elevated TC and LDL-C&VLDL-C. Only mild atherosclerotic lesions were detected in hApoE2 and ApoE KO aortic roots. Half of the hApoE2 rats developed hepatic nodular cirrhosis. A short period of the Paigen diet (PD) treatment led to the premature death of the hApoE2 and ApoE KO rats. Severe vascular wall thickening of the coronary and pulmonary arteries was observed in 4-month PD-treated hApoE4 rats. In conclusion, hApoE2 rats develop spontaneous hyperlipidemia and might be suitable for studies of lipid metabolism-related diseases. With the PD challenge, hApoE4 KI rats could be a novel model for the analysis of vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Remodelação Vascular
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26622, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the efficacy of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), yet the results of the researches are not consistent. It is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to explore the efficacy and safety of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of PCOS, to provide evidence supports for the treatment of PCOS. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Chinese biomedical literature databases online to identify the RCTs evaluating the efficacy of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of PCOS. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to evaluate the synthesized effects. RESULTS: Nine RCTs with a total of 746 PCOS patients were included. The synthesized results indicated that the combined use of metformin and simvastatin are more beneficial to reduce the total cholesterol (SMD -2.66, 95% CI -3.65 to -1.66), triglycerides (SMD -1.25, 95% CI -2.02 to -0.49), low density lipoprotein (SMD -2.91, 95% CI -3.98 to -1.84), testosterone (SMD -0.64, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.15), fasting insulin (SMD -1.17, 95% CI -2.09 to -0.26) than metformin alone treatment in PCOS patients (all P < .001), and there was no significant difference in the high density lipoprotein (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.56-0.46), luteinizing hormone (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.50), follicle stimulating hormone (SMD 0.41, 95% CI -0.78-1.59), prolactin (SMD -1.38, 95% CI -2.93-0.17), fasting blood sugar (SMD 0.23, 95% CI -0.52-0.97), and insulin sensitivity index (SMD -0.17, 95% CI -0.48-0.15) between experimental and control groups (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin combined with simvastatin is superior to metformin alone in the treatment of PCOS patients with more advantages in improving the levels of sex hormones, blood lipids, and blood sugar. However, the safety of this therapy still needs to be further explored in clinical studies with high-quality and large samples.


Assuntos
Metformina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444930

RESUMO

Fewer studies compared the improvement of plasma lipid levels after different types of surgery, in particular compared to one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). The aim of our study was to investigate how laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and OAGB impact on weight loss and lipid profile 18 months after surgery, in patients with severe obesity. Forty-six patients treated with OAGB were matched to eighty-eight patients submitted to LSG. Weight loss after OAGB (33.2%) was more evident than after LSG (29.6%) (p = 0.024). The difference in the prevalence of dyslipidemia showed a statistically significant reduction only after OAGB (61% versus 22%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for delta body mass index (BMI), age and sex, we demonstrated a statistically significant decrease of the differences between the changes before and after (delta Δ) the two surgery procedures: Δ total cholesterol values (p < 0.001), Δ low density lipoprotein-cholesterol values (p < 0.001) and Δ triglycerides values (p = 0.007). Patients with severe obesity undergoing to OAGB presented a better improvement of lipid plasma values than LSG patients. The reduction of lipid plasma levels was independent of the significant decrease of BMI after surgery, of age and of sex.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates potential cardiometabolic benefits of energy consumption earlier in the day. This study examined the association between fasting duration, timing of first and last meals, and cardiometabolic endpoints using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from NHANES (2005-2016) were utilized. Diet was obtained from one to two 24-h dietary recalls to characterize nighttime fasting duration and timing of first and last meal. Blood samples were obtained for characterization of C-reactive protein (CRP); glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c %); insulin; glucose; and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol. Survey design procedures for adjusted linear and logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: Every one-hour increase in nighttime fasting duration was associated with a significantly higher insulin and CRP, and lower HDL. Every one-hour increase in timing of the last meal of the day was statistically significantly associated with higher HbA1c and lower LDL. Every one-hour increase in first mealtime was associated with higher CRP (ß = 0.044, p = 0.0106), insulin (ß = 0.429, p < 0.01), and glucose (ß = 0.662, p < 0.01), and lower HDL (ß = -0.377, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this large public health dataset, evidence for the beneficial effect of starting energy consumption earlier in the day on cardiometabolic endpoints was observed.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Refeições/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443682

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases which in turn, lead to the highest number of mortalities globally. This pathophysiological condition is developed due to a constant elevated level of plasma cholesterols. Statin is currently the widely used treatment in reducing the level of cholesterols, however, it may cause adverse side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for new alternative treatment. PCSK9 is an enzyme responsible in directing LDL-receptor (LDL-R)/LDL-cholesterols (LDL-C) complex to lysosomal degradation, preventing the receptor from recycling back to the surface of liver cells. Therefore, PCSK9 offers a potential target to search for small molecule inhibitors which inhibit the function of this enzyme. In this study, a marine invertebrate Acanthaster planci, was used to investigate its potential in inhibiting PCSK9 and lowering the levels of cholesterols. Cytotoxicity activity of A. planci on human liver HepG2 cells was carried out using the MTS assay. It was found that methanolic extract and fractions did not exhibit cytotoxicity effect on HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of more than 30 µg/mL. A compound deoxythymidine also did not exert any cytotoxicity activity with IC50 value of more than 4 µg/mL. Transient transfection and luciferase assay were conducted to determine the effects of A. planci on the transcriptional activity of PCSK9 promoter. Methanolic extract and Fraction 2 (EF2) produced the lowest reduction in PCSK9 promoter activity to 70 and 20% of control at 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, deoxythymidine also decreased PCSK9 promoter activity to the lowest level of 60% control at 3.13 µM. An in vivo study using Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated that 50 and 100 mg/kg of A. planci methanolic extract reduced the total cholesterols and LDL-C levels to almost similar levels of untreated controls. The level of serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) showed that the administration of the extract did not produce any toxicity effect and cause any damage to rat liver. The results strongly indicate that A. planci produced a significant inhibitory activity on PCSK9 gene expression in HepG2 cells which may be responsible for inducing the uptake of cholesterols by liver, thus, reducing the circulating levels of total cholesterols and LDL-C. Interestingly, A. planci also did show any adverse hepato-cytotoxicity and toxic effects on liver. Thus, this study strongly suggests that A. planci has a vast potential to be further developed as a new class of therapeutic agent in lowering the blood cholesterols and reducing the progression of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Estrelas-do-Mar/química , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Morte Celular , Proliferação de Células , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Metanol , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Timidina/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444711

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Berberine, a long-standing, widely used, traditional Chinese medicine, is thought to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The mechanisms and effects, specifically in men, possibly via testosterone, have not been examined previously. To assess the effect of berberine on CVD risk factors and any potential pathway via testosterone in men, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial in Hong Kong. In total, 84 eligible Chinese men with hyperlipidemia were randomized to berberine (500 mg orally, twice a day) or placebo for 12 weeks. CVD risk factors (lipids, thromboxane A2, blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio) and testosterone were assessed at baseline, and 8 and 12 weeks after intervention. We compared changes in CVD risk factors and testosterone after 12 weeks of intervention using analysis of variance, and after 8 and 12 weeks using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Of the 84 men randomized, 80 men completed the trial. Men randomized to berberine had larger reductions in total cholesterol (-0.39 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to -0.08) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.01) after 12 weeks. Considering changes after 8 and 12 weeks together, berberine lowered total cholesterol and possibly low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and possibly increased testosterone. Changes in triglycerides, thromboxane A2, blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio after the intervention did not differ between the berberine and placebo groups. No serious adverse event was reported. Berberine is a promising treatment for lowering cholesterol. Berberine did not lower testosterone but instead may increase testosterone in men, suggesting sex-specific effects of berberine. Exploring other pathways and assessing sex differences would be worthwhile, with relevance to drug repositioning and healthcare.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Adulto , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona/sangue , Tromboxano A2/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Relação Cintura-Quadril
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444719

RESUMO

Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with metabolic complications, such as glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances in early life. The objective of this study was to assess: (1) the effect of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on glucose and fat metabolism in an LBW piglet model, and (2) the role peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5HT3) receptors in regulating the feeding behavior in LBW piglets fed with Trp-supplemented diets. Seven-day-old piglets were assigned to 4 treatments: normal birthweight-0%Trp (NBW-T0), LBW-0%Trp (LBW-T0), LBW-0.4%Trp (LBW-T0.4), and LBW-0.8%Trp (LBW-T0.8) for 3 weeks. Compared to LBW-T0, the blood glucose was decreased in LBW-T0.8 at 60 min following the meal test, and the triglycerides were lower in LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8. Relative to LBW-T0, LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript and protein abundance of hepatic glucose transporter-2, a higher mRNA abundance of glucokinase, and a lower transcript of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. LBW-T0.4 tended to have a lower protein abundance of sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 in the jejunum. In comparison with LBW-T0, LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and LBW-T0.4 had a higher transcript of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Blocking 5-HT3 receptors with ondansetron reduced the feed intake in all groups, with a transient effect on LBW-T0, but more persistent effect on LBW-T0.8 and NBW-T0. In conclusion, Trp supplementation reduced the hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, but increased the glycolysis in LBW piglets. Peripheral serotonin is likely involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, particularly in LBW piglets fed diets supplemented with a higher dose of Trp.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Ondansetron/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444725

RESUMO

Background: There is a handful of controversial data from observational studies on the serum levels of mannose and risks of coronary artery disease (CAD) and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We applied Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis to obtain estimates of the causal effect of serum mannose on the risk of CAD and on cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Two-sample MR was implemented by using summary-level data from the largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted on serum mannose and CAD and cardiometabolic risk factors. The inverse variance weighted method (IVW) was used to estimate the effects, and a sensitivity analysis including the weighted median (WM)-based method, MR-Egger, MR-Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier (PRESSO) were applied. Radial MR Methods was applied to remove outliers subject to pleiotropic bias. We further conducted a leave-one-out analysis. Results: Mannose had no significant effect on CAD (IVW: odds ratio: 0.96 (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 0.71-1.30)), total cholesterol (TC) (IVW: 95%CI: 0.60-1.08), low density lipoprotein (LDL) (IVW: 95%CI = 0.68-1.15), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (IVW: 95%CI = 0.85-1.20), triglycerides (TG) (IVW: 95%CI = 0.38-1.08), waist circumference (WC) (IVW: 95%CI = 0.94-1.37), body mass index (BMI) (IVW: 95%CI = 0.93-1.29) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (IVW: 95%CI = 0.92-1.33), with no heterogeneity for CAD, HDL, WC and BMI (all p > 0.092), while a significant heterogeneity was observed for TC (IVW: Q = 44.503), LDL (IVW: Q = 33.450), TG (IVW: Q = 159.645) and FBG (IVW: Q = 0. 32.132). An analysis of MR-PRESSO and radial plots did not highlight any outliers. The results of the leave-one-out method demonstrated that the links were not driven by a single instrument. Conclusions: We did not find any effect of mannose on adiposity, glucose, TC, LDL, TG and CAD.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Manose/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adiposidade , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causalidade , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 611526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248834

RESUMO

Background: It has been reported that dyslipidemia is related to coronavirus-related diseases. Critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who suffered from multiple organ dysfunctions were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) in Wuhan, China. Whether the lipids profile was associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 in critical patients remained unclear. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in critical patients (N=48) with coronavirus disease 2019 in Leishenshan hospital between February and April 2020 in Wuhan. The parameters including lipid profiles, liver function, and renal function were collected on admission day, 2-3days after the admission, and the day before the achievement of clinical outcome. Results: Albumin value and creatine kinase (ck) value were statistically decreased at 2-3 days after admission compared with those on admission day (P<0.05). Low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), and apolipoprotein A (Apo B) levels were statistically decreased after admission (P<0.05). Logistic regression showed that HDL-c level both on admission day and the day before the achievement of clinical outcome were negatively associated with mortality in critical patients with COVID-19. Total cholesterol (TC) level at 2-3days after admission was related to mortality in critical patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: There were lipid metabolic disorders in the critical patients with COVID-19. Lower levels of HDL-c and TC were related to the progression of critical COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas A/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estado Terminal , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203817

RESUMO

Lutein and zeaxanthin may lower the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We evaluated the associations of plasma lutein and zeaxanthin with the incidence of advanced AMD in the Alienor study (Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Oculaires). Alienor study is a prospective population-based cohort of 963 residents of Bordeaux, France, who were 73 years or older at baseline (2006-2008). The present study included 609 participants with complete ophthalmologic and plasma carotenoids data. Examinations were performed every two years over an eight-year period (2006 to 2017). Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin were determined at baseline from fasting blood samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations between plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, and their (total cholesterol (TC) + triglycerides (TG)) ratios with AMD. Among the 609 included participants, 54 developed advanced incident AMD during a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range 0.7 to 10.4). Participants with higher plasma lutein had a reduced risk for incident advanced AMD in the fully adjusted model (HR = 0.63 per 1-SD increase (95% CI, 0.41-0.97), p = 0.03). A similar association was observed using the lutein/(TC + TG) ratio (HR = 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90), p = 0.01). No associations were evidenced for other carotenoids. Higher plasma lutein was associated with a 37% reduced risk of incident advanced AMD.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Luteína/sangue , Degeneração Macular/sangue , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carotenoides/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos , Zeaxantinas/sangue
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1299-1311, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241762

RESUMO

Genistein is an abundant phytoestrogen in soybean. This study aimed to determine the effects of genistein on cholesterol distribution and metabolism in female yellow catfish. Three hundred fish (49.2 ± 1.4 g) were randomly divided into five treatments and received intraperitoneal injections as follows: (1) blank, no injection; (2) control, vehicle only; (3) E2, 17ß-estradiol at 10 µg·g-1 body weight; (4) low genistein doses, genistein at 10 µg·g-1 body weight; (5) high genistein doses, genistein at 100 µg·g-1 body weight. Both high and low genistein doses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) serum TC and LDL-C 24 h after injection. Moreover, the high genistein doses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) serum HDL-C. Both high and low doses of genistein significantly increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TC. Only high genistein doses significantly increased (p < 0.05) ovary TC. In the liver, both high and low genistein doses significantly increased (p < 0.05) protein and mRNA expression of ldlr. Meanwhile, high genistein doses significantly decreased (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of hmgcr. In ovary tissue, high genistein doses significantly decreased (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of cyp11a1. These results suggested that genistein affected the cholesterol distribution in female yellow catfish. Both high and low doses of genistein reduced cholesterol content in blood and increased its content in the liver by increasing the uptake of blood cholesterol. Meanwhile, high genistein doses may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Additionally, high genistein doses could increase cholesterol transfer from serum into the ovary and disturb cholesterol conversion to pregnenolone.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Genisteína/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Peixes-Gato/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética
17.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279399

RESUMO

A series of L-serine amides of antioxidant acids, such as Trolox, (E)-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (structurally similar to butylated hydroxytoluene), was synthesized. The hydroxy group of serine was esterified with two classical NSAIDs, ibuprofen and ketoprofen. The Trolox derivatives with ibuprofen (7) and ketoprofen (10) were the most potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation (IC50 3.4 µΜ and 2.8 µΜ), several times more potent than the reference Trolox (IC50 25 µΜ). Most of the compounds decreased carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (37-67% at 150 µmol/kg). They were moderate inhibitors of soybean lipoxygenase, with the exception of ibuprofen derivative 8 (IC50 13 µΜ). The most active anti-inflammatory compounds exhibited a significant decrease in lipidemic indices in the plasma of Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats, e.g., the most active compound 9 decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 52%, 61% and 70%, respectively, at 150 µmol/kg (i.p.), similar to that of simvastatin, a well-known hypocholesterolemic drug. Since the designed compounds seem to exhibit multiple pharmacological actions, they may be of use for the development of agents against inflammatory and degenerative conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Hipolipemiantes/síntese química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/síntese química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/toxicidade , Colesterol/sangue , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/etiologia , Esterificação , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serina/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Toxicology ; 459: 152845, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246716

RESUMO

Serum concentrations of cholesterol are positively correlated with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in humans. The associated change in cholesterol is small across a broad range of exposure to PFOA and PFOS. Animal studies generally have not indicated a mechanism that would account for the association in humans. The extent to which the relationship is causal is an open question. Nonetheless, the association is of particular importance because increased serum cholesterol has been considered as an endpoint to derive a point of departure in at least one recent risk assessment. To gain insight into potential mechanisms for the association, both causal and non-causal, an expert workshop was held Oct 31 and Nov 1, 2019 to discuss relevant data and propose new studies. In this report, we summarize the relevant background data, the discussion among the attendees, and their recommendations for further research.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Caprilatos/efeitos adversos , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Determinação de Ponto Final , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Humanos
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been discouraged by virtue of their cholesterol-raising potential, but this effect is modulated by the food source and background level of carbohydrate. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the consumption of palm stearin (PS) versus butter on circulating cholesterol responses in the setting of both a low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC/HF) and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in healthy subjects. We also explored effects on plasma lipoprotein particle distribution and fatty acid composition. METHODS: We performed a randomized, controlled-feeding, cross-over study that compared a PS- versus a Butter-based diet in a group of normocholesterolemic, non-obese adults. A controlled canola oil-based 'Run-In' diet preceded the experimental PS and Butter diets. All diets were eucaloric, provided for 3-weeks, and had the same macronutrient distribution but varied in primary fat source (40% of the total fat). The same Run-In and cross-over experiments were done in two separate groups who self-selected to either a LC/HF (n = 12) or a HC/LF (n = 12) diet track. The primary outcomes were low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, triglycerides, and LDL particle distribution. RESULTS: Compared to PS, Butter resulted in higher LDL-C in both the LC/HF (13.4%, p = 0.003) and HC/LF (10.8%, p = 0.002) groups, which was primarily attributed to large LDL I and LDL IIa particles. There were no differences between PS and Butter in HDL-C, triglycerides, or small LDL particles. Oxidized LDL was lower after PS than Butter in LC/HF (p = 0.011), but not the HC/LF group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Butter raises LDL-C relative to PS in healthy normocholesterolemic adults regardless of background variations in carbohydrate and fat, an effect primarily attributed to larger cholesterol-rich LDL particles.


Assuntos
Manteiga , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Palmeira/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204042

RESUMO

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with the primary objective of assessing the effect of a natural extract of Sclerocarya birrea on glucose metabolism in subjects with prediabetes. The duration of the study was 90 days. Thirty-three subjects assigned to the experimental group (daily ingestion of 100 mg of the nutraceutical product) and 34 assigned to the placebo group completed the study. There were 36 men and 31 women with a mean age of 32.3 ± 14.1 years. In the area under the curve (AUC) of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), statistically significant decreases in the experimental group at 40 and 90 days as compared with baseline were found, whereas significant changes in the placebo group were not observed. Within-group differences were statistically significant in favor of the experimental group for glucose peak at OGTT, serum insulin, insulin resistance markers, and flow-mediated dilation. Changes in lipid and anthropometric parameters were not observed, although there was a trend for lower cholesterol levels and a decrease in body weight in the experimental group. Decreases in systolic blood pressure were also higher among subjects in the experimental group. This exploratory study confirms the antidiabetic activity of Sclerocarya birrea in prediabetes. Further studies using better measurements of beta-cell function are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the hypoglycemic effect of this natural compound.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue
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