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1.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 150-156, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743065

RESUMO

Diverticulosis of the colon is a gradually progressive disease that usually starts in early adulthood and increases with advancing age in its anatomical extent and the size of diverticula. It is important to recognize the initial stages of diverticular development in young patients in order to properly diagnose and manage the potential complications of this very common intestinal disorder. This article presents the pathological and radiological features of early diverticular formation, when the mucosal outpouchings are very small and contained within the colonic wall as distinct intramural lesions. The subsequent development of intramural diverticulitis and the spectrum of its manifestations on barium enema examination or Computed tomography (CT) are illustrated.


Assuntos
Diverticulite , Divertículo , Adulto , Colo , Diverticulite/diagnóstico por imagem , Divertículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 434-444, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to increase worldwide. Multiple factors, including diet, loss of the intestinal barrier function, and imbalance of the immune system can cause IBD. A balanced diet is important for maintaining a healthy bowel and preventing IBD from occurring. The effects of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri-fermented Maillard reaction products (MRPs) prepared by reacting whey protein with galactose on anti-inflammation and intestinal homeostasis were investigated in this study, which compared MPRs and probiotics separately. RESULTS: In an animal colitis model induced by 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), FWG administration alleviated colon length loss and maintained intestinal immune system homeostasis as reflected by down-regulated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α output, and metallopeptidase-9, and epithelial barrier balance as reflected by up-regulated occludin, E-cadherin, and zonula occludens-1 production in the colon. Furthermore, the expression of splenic cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 was up-regulated in the FWG-treated mice in a comparable amount to the control group to ensure the balance of immune responses. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the use of FWG protects the intestines from colitis caused by DSS and maintains immune balance. FWG increased antioxidant enzyme activity, increased intestinal permeability, and regulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the intestines and spleen. Continued intake of FWG can alleviate IBD symptoms through the preservation of mucosal immune responses, epithelial junction and homeostasis through the regulated splenic cytokines. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus gasseri/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/fisiopatologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Galactose/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(39): 6615-6630, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening, which are correlated with tumor malignancy, drives tumor development. However, the relationship between ECM remodeling and rat experimental model of 1,2-dimethylhyrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) imposed by cold and capsaicin exposure remains unclear. AIM: To explore the effects of cold exposure and capsaicin on ECM remodeling and ECM enzymes in DMH-induced CRC. METHODS: For histopathological analysis, the sections of colon tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Picrosirius red, and Weigert's Resorcin-Fuchsin to observe the remodeling of collagen and elastin. Additionally, the protein expression level of type I collagen (COL I), type 3 collagen (COL III0, elastin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP2, MMP9, and tissue-specific matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of COL I, COL III, elastin, and lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) in the colon tissues of rats was measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Although no differences were observed in the proportion of adenomas, a trend towards the increase of invasive tumors was observed in the cold and capsaicin group. The cold exposure group had a metastasis rate compared with the other groups. Additionally, abnormal accumulation of both collagen and elastin was observed in the cold exposure and capsaicin group. Specifically, collagen quantitative analysis showed increased length, width, angle, and straightness compared with the DMH group. Collagen deposition and straightness were significantly increased in the cold exposure group compared with the capsaicin group. Cold exposure and capsaicin significantly increased the protein levels of COL I, elastin, and LOXL2 along with increases in their mRNA levels in the colon tissues compared with the DMH group, while COL III did not show a significant difference. Furthermore, in immunohistochemical evaluations, MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, and TIMP1 staining increased in the cold exposure and capsaicin group compared with the DMH group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that chronic cold and capsaicin exposure further increased the deposition of collagen and elastin in the colonic tissue. Increased COL I and elastin mRNA and protein levels expression may account for the enhanced ECM remodel and stiffness variations of colon tissue. The upregulated expression of the LOXL2 and physiological imbalance between MMP/TIMP activation and deactivation could contribute to the progression of the CRC resulting from cold and capsaicin exposure.


Assuntos
Capsaicina , Matriz Extracelular , Animais , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Carcinogênese , Colo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Ratos
4.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153804, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru (JXR), a traditional Chinese medicine, commonly used for the therapy of cold, fever, diarrhea, digestive disorders, and other diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder of the human gastrointestinal tract. Research about the effect of JXR on IBD and the active ingredient composition of JXR remains deficiency. PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and the anti-inflammatory property of JXR, as well as the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms. METHODS: The bioactive profile of JXR extracts was determined by UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. A DSS induced colitis mouse model was applied to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of JXR. The body weight, colon length and histopathological status of colon tissue were evaluated. The content of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)), corresponding mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed. Oxidation pressure and gut microbial composition were also explored. RESULTS: Totally 63 constitutes were identified from JXR, among them, phenolic acids and flavonoids comprised a large part, and rosmarinic acid (RA) was the main compound. The results of DSS-induced colitis mice model indicated that JXR effectively ameliorated inflammation, restore the redox balance in the gut. JXR treatment significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the activity of antioxidative enzyme, suppressed the secretion of inflammatory mediators (NO, PGE2) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß). JXR also restrained the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway. Furthermore, JXR could restore the microbial diversity by suppressing Bacteroidaceae, increasing Bifidobacteriales and Melainabacteria in DSS colitis mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that JXR composed with various bioactive compounds, effectively ameliorated colitis, restored the redox balance and regulated gut microbiota. Results from the present study provide an insight of therapeutic potential of JXR in IBD based on its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, also provide a scientific basis for using JXR as a functional ingredient to promote colon health.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo , Citocinas , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13034-13044, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723501

RESUMO

Dietary ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn) has been reported to have several health benefits; however, its functional role during colon pathophysiology remains elusive. The present study investigated the anticolitis effect of dietary ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EtnGpls) with high PlsEtn from ascidian muscle (86.2 mol %) and low PlsEtn from porcine liver (7.7 mol %) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Dietary EtnGpls lowered myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, proinflammatory cytokines and proapoptosis-related protein levels in colon mucosa after 16 days of DSS treatment, with ascidian muscle (0.1% EtnGpl in diet) showing higher suppression than porcine liver (0.1% EtnGpl in diet). Moreover, dietary EtnGpls suppressed DSS symptoms after 38 days of DSS treatment as evidenced by increased body weight, colon length, and ameliorated colon mucosa integrity. Additionally, dietary EtnGpls elevated short-chain fatty acid production in DSS-treated mice. Altogether, these results indicate the potential of utilizing diets with abundant PlsEtn for the prevention of colon inflammation-related disorders.


Assuntos
Colite , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/genética , Colo/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/metabolismo , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Plasmalogênios , Suínos , Compostos de Vinila
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(11): 1737-1741, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782516

RESUMO

Background: Cancer is one of the biggest health problems in the world. Colon adenocarcinoma is the third most common cancer and is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. The majority of colon adenocarcinomas originate from a previous adenoma. Cyclin D1 expression and Ki-67 proliferation index increase as the risk of malignancy transformation increases in adenomas. Aims: This study aims to share the results of the Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 studies we performed in colon adenoma and colon adenocarcinoma cases in our hospital with the literature and contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Materials and Methods: Surgical materials of 40 colon adenocarcinomas and 40 colon adenomas were histopathologically re-evaluated. Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining were applied to these materials. Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 staining rates were compared in colon adenocarcinomas and adenomas. Results: Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 staining rates were increased in colon adenocarcinoma cases compared to colon adenoma. There was a significant difference between the colon adenocarcinoma and colon adenoma case groups in terms of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 staining scores. Conclusion: In conclusion, immunohistochemical markers such as Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 will be helpful in differential diagnosis when there is difficulty in evaluating routine Hematoxylin-Eosin stained preparations between adenocarcinomas and adenomas.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Colo , Ciclina D1 , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(45): 13500-13509, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729976

RESUMO

The preventive effect and molecular mechanism of lycopene (LP) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice were evaluated. Compared to the DSS group, the LP prevention groups not only significantly inhibited the DSS-induced weight loss, decreased the disease activity index (DAI) score, increased the colon length, and improved inflammation in the colon but also significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH) in the colon and reduced inflammatory cytokine, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Notably, when compared to the DSS group, the protein expression levels of TLR4, TRIF, and p-NF-κB p65 in the mice colon tissue were downregulated and those of tight junction-related proteins were upregulated in the LP + DSS group, with the most significant effect observed in the 10 mg/kg LP + DSS group. These results confirmed that the upregulation of tight junction-related protein expression after blocking the TLR4/TRIF/NF-κB signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms through which LP prevents UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colo/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Licopeno , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
8.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(3): 429-434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599567

RESUMO

Background: Intestinal pseudo obstruction both acute and chronic is an uncommon severe motility disorder that affect both children and adults, can lead to significant morbidity burden and have no standard management strategy. Prucalopride a highly selective serotonin receptor agonist is an effective laxative with reported extra colon action. We aim to report our experience in children with acute and chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction who responded to prucalopride and systemically review the use of prucalopride in intestinal pseudo obstruction. Methods: A report of clinical experience and systemic review of the relevant medical databases to identify the outcome of usage of prucalopride in patients with acute and chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction. Studies meeting the selection criteria were reviewed including abstract only and case reports. Results: All reported cases showed clinical response to prucalopride. There were three full text, two abstracts only and three case reports all reporting clinical improvement with prucalopride. Conclusion: Prucalopride appears to show promising results in children and adults with acute and chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal , Adulto , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Colo , Humanos , Laxantes/uso terapêutico
9.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110676, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600678

RESUMO

MegaSporeBiotic™ is an oral, spore-based probiotic comprised of five Bacillus spp. (Bacillus indicus HU36, Bacillus subtilis HU58, Bacillus coagulans SC208, Bacillus licheniformis SL307, and Bacillus clausii SC109). The effects of MegaSporeBiotic™ on gut microbiota activity and community composition were evaluated for the first time using an in vitro model of the human gastrointestinal tract, the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®), under healthy conditions. Following a stabilization period and a control period (2 weeks each), the reactor feed was supplemented with daily MegaSporeBiotic™ for 3 weeks (treatment period). Changes in microbial community activity and composition between the control and treatment periods were evaluated for each colon compartment (ascending [AC], transverse [TC], and descending colon [DC]). Propionate levels increased significantly in the TC (week 2, P = 0.02; week 3, P = 0.0019) and DC (week 2, P = 0.03) with treatment while lactate levels significantly decreased in the TC (week 3, P = 0.03). Ammonium levels were significantly decreased during the final week of treatment (TC, P = 0.02; DC, P = 0.03). Overall, Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacteria spp., and Firmicutes increased with treatment while Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroidetes decreased. The Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio increased with treatment in the AC compartment. MegaSporeProbiotic™ treatment resulted in changes in metabolism and increased bacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Probióticos , Colo , Humanos , Esporos Bacterianos , Verrucomicrobia
10.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110712, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600700

RESUMO

The development of colon-specific carrier systems using polysaccharides for oral delivery of nutraceuticals is of great importance for the treatment and/or prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, self-assembly with the assistance of vortexing and pulsed-ultrasonication was employed to develop a Fibersol®-2 (a digestion-resistant polysaccharide) and lipoid S75 based novel nanocarrier (denoted as nanofibersolosome) for the colonic delivery of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G). A series of nanofibersolosome formulations (CFS-0.5-4, 0.5-4 represent the ratios of Fibersol®-2:lipoid S75) were developed and their performance was compared with Fibersol®-2-free reference lipid formulation (CFS-0). The nanofibersolosomes (<150 nm) were spherical and unilamellar with high negative surface charge (-38 to -51 mV) and good encapsulation efficiency (EE > 90%). They performed much better than CFS-0 in retaining their physical properties during freeze drying, preventing particle aggregation, and retaining C3G during storage (4 and 25 ℃) and thermal treatments (40, 60, and 80 ℃). They also exhibited significantly higher stability during simulated gastrointestinal digestion than CFS-0. These desirable features of the nanofibersolosomes (especially CFS-0.5 and CFS-1) led to the efficient delivery of higher concentrations of C3G to the colon than CFS-0. Moreover, gastrointestinal-digested and colonic-fermented nanofibersolosome samples exhibited significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and stronger promoting effect on short-chain fatty acid generation than CFS-0. These in vitro findings indicate that the novel nanofibersolosome possesses great potential for the colonic delivery of C3G and likely other hydrophilic labile phytochemicals that merits further evaluation in in vivo models.


Assuntos
Colo , Glucosídeos , Antocianinas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polissacarídeos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639174

RESUMO

It was recently shown that ultrashort pulse infrared (IR) lasers, operating at the wavelength of the OH vibration stretching band of water, are highly efficient for sampling and homogenizing biological tissue. In this study we utilized a tunable nanosecond infrared laser (NIRL) for tissue sampling and homogenization with subsequent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for mass spectrometric proteomics. For the first time, laser sampling was performed with murine spleen and colon tissue. An ablation volume of 1.1 × 1.1 × 0.4 mm³ (approximately 0.5 µL) was determined with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The results of bottom-up proteomics revealed proteins with significant abundance differences for both tissue types, which are in accordance with the corresponding data of the Human Protein Atlas. The results demonstrate that tissue sampling and homogenization of small tissue volumes less than 1 µL for subsequent mass spectrometric proteomics is feasible with a NIRL.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Raios Infravermelhos , Lasers , Proteoma/metabolismo , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Baço/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Colo/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/efeitos da radiação , Baço/efeitos da radiação
12.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 406, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underwater polypectomy without the need for submucosal injection has been reported. A heat-sink effect by immersing the polyp in water was proposed but no such experiment has been performed to support the claim. We compared the temperature rise on the serosal side during polypectomy between air- and water-filled colon. METHOD: Freshly harvested porcine colons were placed in a metal tray with cautery electrode pad attached to its bottom. An upper endoscope was used with a cap and a rubber band mounted to the distal end. A mucosal site was randomly selected and identified on its serosal surface with a marker while suction was applied. Suction was applied again and a ligation band was applied to create a polyp. A cautery snare grasped the artificial polyp just below the band. An assistant placed the tip of a thermometer at the marked site on the serosal surface to record the baseline temperature before cautery and the highest temperature during polypectomy. Seven polypectomies in air and underwater were performed. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation) baseline temperature were 23.3 (0.6) °C and 23.4 (0.6) °C in the air and water groups, respectively. The maximum rise in temperature during polypectomy was 6.1 (4.5) °C and 1.4 (1.0) °C in the air and water groups, respectively (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The maximum temperature rise during polypectomy was significantly less when polypectomy was performed underwater, supporting the hypothesis that a heat-sink effect does exist during underwater polypectomy.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo , Animais , Colo , Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia , Eletrocoagulação , Temperatura Alta , Suínos
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 537, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders caused by a defect in collagen synthesis and structure. The vascular subtype (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV) is reported to be associated with a higher incidence of gastrointestinal perforations. The most reported site of perforation is the colon, followed by the small bowel. Perforation of the stomach is very rare, and there are no reported cases to date of classic types I and II. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 14-year-old Saudi girl who visited our emergency department with abdominal pain and vomiting. Initially, she was diagnosed with gastroenteritis and discharged once her condition stabilized. After 48 hours, she developed severe abdominal pain with recurrent vomiting and peritonitis evident on clinical examination. Initial abdominal x-ray failed to show any free air; however, enhanced computed tomography revealed free air and contrast extravasation in the proximal gut. During exploratory laparotomy, a large perforation was found on the anterior wall of the stomach due to the underlying ischemia. The posterior wall had ischemic mucosa with an intact healthy serosa. A free-hand partial gastrectomy was performed to resect all ischemic parts of the stomach. Detailed examinations and laboratory workup were carried out after the surgery to figure out the possible underlying cause. The clinical findings during the physical examination supported marfanoid features. Marfan's syndrome and related disorders sequencing panel was requested, and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples were sent. Given results were supporting the diagnosis of classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, the patient was labeled as a case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. During the postoperative period, she developed a wound infection that was managed successfully with vacuum-assisted closure dressing. She recovered well without gastrointestinal sequelae in the 4 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Heritable systemic connective tissue diseases must be given serious consideration in young patients with unusual spontaneous perforation. Such patients might develop life-threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. Hence, correct and timely diagnosis is important to prepare for the anticipated complications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos , Perfuração Intestinal , Gastropatias , Adolescente , Colo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/complicações , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/diagnóstico , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Laparotomia
14.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1984105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632957

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (Ace2) is expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, making the GI tract a potential infection site. This study investigated the effects of commensal intestinal microbiota on colonic Ace2 expression using a humanized mouse model. We found that colonic Ace2 expression decreased significantly upon microbial colonization. Humanization with healthy volunteer or dysbiotic microbiota from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients resulted in similar Ace2 expression. Despite the differences in microbiota, no associations between α-diversity, ß-diversity or individual taxa, and Ace2 were noted post-humanization. These results highlight that commensal microbiota play a key role in regulating intestinal Ace2 expression and the need to further examine the underlying mechanisms of this regulation.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colo/microbiologia , Disbiose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Camundongos , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4719-4723, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 protein (ETHE1) plays an important role in sulfide catabolism and polysulfide formation. As sulfides and polysulfides have recently been identified as playing important roles in cancer, we hypothesized that ETHE1 expression would be increased in colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used tissue microarray analysis to compare ETHE1 expression in benign colonic epithelium compared to colonic adenocarcinoma. In total, 26 benign colonic epithelial samples were compared to 122 cases of colonic adenocarcinomas. RESULTS: Compared to benign colonic epithelium, ETHE1 expression was significantly increased (~two-fold) in colonic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, this expression increased with increasing colon cancer tumor grades. CONCLUSION: ETHE1 expression is increased in colon cancer compared to benign colonic epithelium. These data, combined with previous studies, suggest that ETHE1 may contribute to colon carcinogenesis by promoting tumor cell bioenergetics and polysulfide formation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(10): 1569-1571, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657028

RESUMO

Hydatid cyst is an endemic disease especially in underdeveloped and developing countries, affecting mostly the liver and lungs. However, a wide range of unusual anatomical sites in the abdomen have been reported, including the spleen, pancreas, kidney, and ovaries as well as dissemination within the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The location of hydatid disease in the colon is very infrequent, and very few cases have been presented so far. The hydatid cysts located in other sites are mostly due to rupture or extrusion of primary liver or splenic cysts. In this article, we present a case of primary left-sided colon hydatid cyst, resected laparoscopically with the affected intestinal segment. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was made by macroscopic and microscopic examinations.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Esplenopatias , Colo , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Esplenopatias/diagnóstico , Esplenopatias/cirurgia
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(43): 12753-12762, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693717

RESUMO

Hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (Hes-7-G) is a naturally occurring flavonoid monoglucoside in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium and exhibits relatively high biological activities. To explore the anti-inflammatory capacity of dietary Hes-7-G, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mice were used here as in vitro and in vivo inflammation models. The results showed that Hes-7-G (5 µM) significantly restored cellular metabolic disorders and inflammation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In the in vivo study, dietary Hes-7-G (1 mg/kg body weight) markedly alleviated the inflammatory status in DSS-induced colitis mice, manifested by the recovered colon length from 5.91 ± 0.66 to 6.45 ± 0.17 cm, histopathological changes, and mRNA levels of colonic inflammatory factors including Tnf-α and Il-22. Furthermore, dietary Hes-7-G not only profoundly regulated the gut microbiota composition including phyla Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Desulfobacterota, and Deferribacteres and genus Enterorhabdus, Prevotellaceae, Gastranaerophilales, Enterococcus, Intestinimonas, Ruminococcaceae, and Eubacterium in the cecal contents but also especially adjusted the co-metabolites such as short chain fatty acids and indole metabolites (indole-3-propionic, indole acetic acid), which were markedly altered by DSS treatment in mice. These findings demonstrated that Hes-7-G has strong anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo and potential preventive or therapeutic effects for chronic inflammation diseases.


Assuntos
Colite , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo , Citocinas , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hesperidina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684567

RESUMO

Commonly used synthetic dietary emulsifiers, including carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate-80 (P80), promote intestinal inflammation. We compared abilities of CMC vs. P80 to potentiate colitis and impact human microbiota in an inflammatory environment using a novel colitis model of ex-germ-free (GF) IL10-/- mice colonized by pooled fecal transplant from three patients with active inflammatory bowel diseases. After three days, mice received 1% CMC or P80 in drinking water or water alone for four weeks. Inflammation was quantified by serial fecal lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2) and after four weeks by blinded colonic histologic scores and colonic inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Microbiota profiles in cecal contents were determined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. CMC treatment significantly increased fecal Lcn-2 levels compared to P80 and water treatment by one week and throughout the experiment. Likewise, CMC treatment increased histologic inflammatory scores and colonic inflammatory cytokine gene expression compared with P80 and water controls. The two emulsifiers differentially affected specific intestinal microbiota. CMC did not impact bacterial composition but significantly decreased Caudoviricetes (bacteriophages), while P80 exposure non-significantly increased the abundance of both Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Commonly used dietary emulsifiers have different abilities to induce colitis in humanized mice. CMC promotes more aggressive inflammation without changing bacterial composition.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/efeitos adversos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/microbiologia , Emulsificantes/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Polissorbatos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1440-1451, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686860

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) damage by T cells contributes to graft-versus-host disease, inflammatory bowel disease and immune checkpoint blockade-mediated colitis. But little is known about the target cell-intrinsic features that affect disease severity. Here we identified disruption of oxidative phosphorylation and an increase in succinate levels in the IECs from several distinct in vivo models of T cell-mediated colitis. Metabolic flux studies, complemented by imaging and protein analyses, identified disruption of IEC-intrinsic succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a component of mitochondrial complex II, in causing these metabolic alterations. The relevance of IEC-intrinsic SDHA in mediating disease severity was confirmed by complementary chemical and genetic experimental approaches and validated in human clinical samples. These data identify a critical role for the alteration of the IEC-specific mitochondrial complex II component SDHA in the regulation of the severity of T cell-mediated intestinal diseases.


Assuntos
Colite/enzimologia , Colo/enzimologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comunicação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e21937, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606628

RESUMO

Defective permeability barrier is considered to be an incentive of hyperuricemia, however, the link between them has not been proven. Here, we evaluated the potential preventive effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum N-1 (LPN1) on gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in rats with hyperoxaluria-induced kidney stones. Male rats were supplied with 1% ethylene glycol (EG) dissolved in drinking water for 4 weeks to develop hyperoxaluria, and some of them were administered with LPN1 for 4 weeks before EG treatment as a preventive intervention. We found that EG not only resulted hyperoxaluria and kidney stone formation, but also promoted the intestinal inflammation, elevated intestinal permeability, and gut microbiota disorders. Supplementation of LPN1 inhibited the renal crystalline deposits through reducing urinary oxalic acid and renal osteopontin and CD44 expression and improved EG-induced intestinal inflammation and barrier function by decreasing the serum LPS and TLR4/NF-κB signaling and up-regulating tight junction Claudin-2 in the colon, as well as increasing the production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) and the abundance of beneficial SCFAs-producing bacteria, mainly from the families of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. Probiotic LPN1 could prevent EG-induced hyperoxaluria by regulating gut microbiota and enhancing intestinal barrier function.


Assuntos
Etilenoglicol/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Cálculos Renais/induzido quimicamente , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillaceae , Permeabilidade , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Hiperoxalúria/induzido quimicamente , Hiperoxalúria/prevenção & controle , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
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