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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910436

RESUMO

Microvesicles are small lipid, bilayer structures (20-400 nm in diameter) secreted by bacteria, fungi, archaea and parasites involved in inter-bacterial communication and host-pathogen interactions. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM-17938 (DSM) has been shown to have clinical efficacy in the treatment of infantile colic, diarrhea and constipation. We have shown previously that luminal administration to the mouse gut promotes reduction of jejunal motility but increases that in the colon. The production of microvesicles by DSM has been characterized, but the effect of these microvesicles on gastrointestinal motility has yet to be evaluated. To investigate a potential mechanism for the effects of DSM on the intestine, the bacteria and its products have here been tested for changes in velocity, frequency, and amplitude of contractions in intact segments of jejunum and colon excised from mice. The effect of the parent bacteria (DSM) was compared to the conditioned media in which it was grown, and the microvesicles it produced. The media used to culture the bacteria (broth) was tested as a negative control and the conditioned medium was tested after the microvesicles had been removed. DSM, conditioned medium, and the microvesicles all produced comparable effects in both the jejunum and the colon. The treatments individually decreased the velocity and frequency of propagating contractile cluster contractions in the jejunum and increased them in the colon to a similar degree. The broth control had little effect in both tissues. Removal of the microvesicles from the conditioned medium almost completely eradicated their effect on motility in both tissues. These results show that the microvesicles from DSM alone can completely reproduce the effects of the whole bacteria on gut motility. Furthermore, they suggest a new approach to the formulation of orally active bacterial therapeutics and offer a novel way to begin to identify the active bacterial components.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Probióticos/metabolismo , Animais , Cólica/metabolismo , Cólica/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/microbiologia , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/microbiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/microbiologia , Camundongos
2.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(1): 23-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several articles have recently reported that certain colon microbiota can improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. To develop new treatment strategies, including immunotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC), we evaluated the correlations between subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) and intestinal microbiota in CRC. METHODS: Fresh surgically resected specimens, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded whole tissue samples, and stool samples were collected. TIICs including Tregs, Th17 cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the surgically resected specimens were analyzed using flow cytometry. FOXp3, CD8, CD163, and phosphorylated-STAT1-positive TIICs in the whole tissue samples were analyzed using IHC, and intestinal microbiota in the stool samples was analyzed using 16S metagenome sequencing. TIICs subpopulations in the normal mucosa and tumor samples were evaluated, and the correlations between the TIIC subpopulations and intestinal microbiota were analyzed. RESULTS: FOXp3lowCD45RA+ Tregs were significantly reduced (p = 0.02), FOXp3lowCD45RA- Tregs were significantly increased (p = 0.006), and M1 TAMs were significantly reduced in the tumor samples (p = 0.03). Bacteroides (phylum Bacteroidetes) and Faecalibacterium (phylum Firmicutes) were increased in the patients with high numbers of Tregs and clearly high distribution of FOXp3highCD45RA- Tregs, which are the effector Tregs. Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcaceae, Eubacterium (phylum Firmicutes), and Bacteroides were increased in patients with a high distribution of M1 TAMs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study indicate that immune responses to tumors are suppressed in the tumor microenvironment of CRC depending on the increment of Tregs and the reduction of M1 TAMs and that intestinal microbiota might be involved in immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Colectomia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
3.
Gastroenterology ; 158(2): 322-340, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586566

RESUMO

Researchers have discovered associations between elements of the intestinal microbiome (including specific microbes, signaling pathways, and microbiota-related metabolites) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to the development of sporadic CRC or result from it. Changes in the intestinal microbiome can mediate or modify the effects of environmental factors on risk of CRC. Factors that affect risk of CRC also affect the intestinal microbiome, including overweight and obesity; physical activity; and dietary intake of fiber, whole grains, and red and processed meat. These factors alter microbiome structure and function, along with the metabolic and immune pathways that mediate CRC development. We review epidemiologic and laboratory evidence for the influence of the microbiome, diet, and environmental factors on CRC incidence and outcomes. Based on these data, features of the intestinal microbiome might be used for CRC screening and modified for chemoprevention and treatment. Integrated prospective studies are urgently needed to investigate these strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1884-1895, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523960

RESUMO

A beverage enriched with plant sterols (1 g/100 mL) and galactooligosaccharides (1.8 g/100 mL) was subjected to a dynamic gastrointestinal and colonic fermentation process to evaluate the effect on sterol metabolism, organic acid production, and microbiota composition. Production of sterol metabolites (coprostanol, methylcoprostanol, ethylcoprostenol, ethylcoprostanol, and sitostenone) was observed in the transverse colon (TC) and descending colon (DC) vessels in general, from 24 and 48 h, respectively. Microbial activity was assessed through the production of organic acids, mainly acetate in all colon vessels, lactate in the AC, and butyrate and propionate in the TC and DC. A higher diversity in the microbial community was found in the TC and DC, in accordance with a higher sterol metabolism and organic acid production. Although the prebiotic effect of galactooligosaccharides was not detected, changes in microbiota composition (an increase in the Parabacteroides genus and the Synergistaceae and Lachnospiraceae families) indicated an enhancement of sterol metabolism.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bebidas/análise , Colo/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 147-159, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826616

RESUMO

This study was aimed at investigating the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a polysaccharide (RTFP) isolated from Rosa roxburghii Tratt fruit on type-2 diabetic db/db mice. The results indicated that the oral administration of RTFP could significantly decrease the body weight, fat, and liver hypertrophy and the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum lipids of the db/db mice. Histopathological observation showed that RTFP could effectively protect the pancreas, liver, and epididymal fat against damage and dysfunction. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that the gene expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of db/db mice after treatment with RTFP. Moreover, RTFP treatment reversed gut dysbiosis by lowering the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and enhancing the relative abundances of beneficial bacteria including Bacteroidaceae, Bacteroidaceae S24-7 group, and Lactobacillaceae. These findings suggest that RTFP can be used as a promising functional supplement for the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Rosa/química , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/microbiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/microbiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1837-1843, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969770

RESUMO

Elderberries are good sources of anthocyanins, which are poorly absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract but extensively transformed into phenolic metabolites at the colonic level. Because different gut microbiota strains have different metabolism, the catabolism of anthocyanins may lead to interindividual differences in metabolite production. In this work, an anthocyanin-rich elderberry extract was incubated with three single gut microbial strains (Enterobacter cancerogenous, Bifidobacterium dentium, and Dorea longicatena) up to 4 days, to assess differences in their phenolic metabolism. All of the strains degraded the elderberry anthocyanins, but the metabolic pathways followed were different. Although some metabolites were common for all of the strains, a wide disparity was observed in the kind and amount of several phenolic metabolites produced by each species. These in vitro preliminary results may be of help in the interpretation of the bioavailability of anthocyanins and give a clue to understand interindividual variability in metabolite production.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sambucus/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 106-116, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841325

RESUMO

In vitro colonic fermentation of saponin-rich extracts from quinoa, lentil, and fenugreek was performed. Production of sapogenins by human fecal microbiota and the impact of extracts on representative intestinal bacterial groups were evaluated. The main sapogenins were found after fermentation (soyasapogenol B for lentil; oleanolic acid, hederagenin, phytolaccagenic acid, and serjanic acid for quinoa; and sarsasapogenin, diosgenin, and neotigogenin acetate for fenugreek). Interindividual differences were observed, but the highest production of sapogenins corresponded to quinoa (90 µg/mL) and fenugreek (70 µg/mL) extracts, being minor for lentil (4 µg/mL). Lentil and quinoa extracts showed a general antimicrobial effect, mainly on lactic acid bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. Significant increases of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed for fenugreek in one volunteer. Thus, the transformation of saponin-rich extracts of quinoa, lentil, and fenugreek to sapogenins by human gut microbiota is demonstrated, exhibiting a modulatory effect on the growth of selected intestinal bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colo/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 309: 125583, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699555

RESUMO

The present study utilizes lactobacilli strains having the potential to accumulate a significant amount of Zinc (Zn) in their biomass and ability to deliver the same mineral in a highly bioavailable form. A human origin Lactobacillus fermentum SR4 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were studied for their ability to accumulate Zn by growing them in the medium containing Zn salt. Further, Zn enriched cell lysates were prepared by Ultrasonication, as an organic Zn source. Various functional groups involved in bacterial Zn binding were identified by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental Zn in bio-chelated cell lysate complex was confirmed by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX). Experimental data demonstrated a significantly higher (P < 0.05) bioavailability of Zn chelated by SR4 followed by LGG i.e., 57% and 48%, as compared to the commercially available inorganic (ZnSo4) and even organic (Zinc gluconate) forms tested which has 15.6% and 21.7% respectively.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus fermentum/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/química , Zinco/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Zinco/análise
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8361-8378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749615

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis potential of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs). Materials and methods: 5-, 30- and 70-nm PtNPs were administered to C57BL/6 mice once daily by intragastric gavage for 8 d during and after 5-d dextran sodium sulfate treatment. Results: According to body weight change, stool blood and consistency, and colon length and histopathology, PtNPs size-dependently alleviated DSS-induced murine colitis. PtNPs enhanced gut-barrier function by upregulating the colonic expressions of heat-shock protein 25 and tight junction proteins. Based on colonic myeloperoxidase activity, colonic and peripheral levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and peripheral counts of white blood cells, PtNPs attenuated colonic and systemic inflammation. By suppressing lipopolysaccharide-triggered production of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, PtNPs exerted direct anti-inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 macrophages through a mechanism involving intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging and Toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB signaling suppression. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples unveiled that PtNPs induced gut dysbiosis by unfavorably altering α-diversity, Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and richness of certain specific bacteria. Conclusion: PtNPs are a promising anti-colitis agent, but may negatively impact gut-microbiota.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/terapia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12796-12805, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659898

RESUMO

Whole-grain dietary fiber is rich in bound-form phenolics, and the biological activity of this special structural feature has attracted increasing attention. In this study, rice bran dietary fiber (RBDF) was subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation to investigate the liberation of bound phenolics and their potential activities. Bound phenolics were released at a higher ratio during colonic fermentation (27.57%) than gastrointestinal digestion (2.68%). Nine phenolic compounds were detected from the fermentation supernatants. The released phenolics showed radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.11 µg GAE/mL). Compared with phenolics-removed RBDF (PR-RBDF), RBDF had a significantly stronger prebiotic effect on the microbes associated with diabetes (Lactobacillus spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii). These findings indicate that bound phenolics may act as important functional components that could contribute to the health benefits of whole-grain dietary fiber.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Prebióticos/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oryza/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 12094-12104, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566978

RESUMO

A large portion of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) cannot be absorbed in the upper gut and therefore may be further decomposed and utilized by colonic microbiota (CM). This work reported the stability of UV-absorbent MRPs, fluorescent MRPs and peptide-bound N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML) in high molecular weight (HMW, >10 kDa), medium molecular weight (MMW, 1-10 kDa), and low molecular weight (LMW, <1 kDa) gastrointestinal digests of glyoxal-glycated casein in the presence of CM. Fluorescent MRPs showed high stability, whereas UV-absorbent MRPs may be partially decomposed. A higher depletion rate of CML was found in the LMW fraction (38.7%) than in the MMW (21.7%) and HMW (9.6%) fractions. The 16S rRNA sequencing results revealed both beneficial and detrimental changes in CM composition induced by the glycated fractions. Generation of short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids in fermentation solutions with glycated fractions was significantly suppressed compared with that in fermentation solution with unglycated digests. This work revealed the possible interplay between peptide-bound MRPs and CM.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glioxal/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Caseínas/química , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Glioxal/química , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Masculino , Peptídeos/química , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11665-11674, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588753

RESUMO

A long-term high-fat diet (HFD) can cause a range of health problems. Gut microbiota plays a decisive role in the development of HFD-associated inflammation, involved in function of T cells. This study was designed to probe the regulative effects of dietary stachyose, a functional oligosaccharide, on HFD-induced weight gain, inflammation, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and T cell abnormality in C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were divided into three groups which received normal chow, HFD and HFD plus stachyose (400 mg/kg), respectively. Results showed that administration of stachyose diminished the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TNF-α level and elevation of peripheral blood leukocyte populations to alleviate the HFD-caused colonic and hepatic inflammation in mice. Analysis of gut microbiota revealed that stachyose improved the intestinal homeostasis of HFD-fed mice by improving the bacterial diversity with the increases in the relative abundances of the Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Parasutterella, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Anaerovorax, as well as the fecal level of butanoic acid, while decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes and the abundances of the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Desulfovibrio, Anaerotruncus, Mucispirillum, Roseburia, and Odoribacter. Flow cytometric analysis showed that stachyose antagonized the HFD-induced decrease of peripheral CD4+ T cell population in mice. Conclusively, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of stachyose can ameliorate the HFD-associated colonic and hepatic inflammation and its complications by modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 227-232, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627163

RESUMO

In the present study we hypothesized that a higher degree of gut microbiota (GM) transfer and colonization could be reached by rectal inoculation compared to oral inoculation, which is commonly used in mouse studies for GM transfer. We treated C57BL/6NTac Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) mice with antibiotics and subsequently we inoculated these with GM from donor mice of the same strain by either the oral or the rectal inoculation method. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the colon microbiota showed no difference in microbial community on account of inoculation method as determined by unweighted UniFrac distance metrics in C57BL/6NTac SPF mice. In addition, qPCR analysis on colon tissue revealed no difference in mRNA expression between the inoculation methods. Next, the SPF mice were compared to germ-free (GF)-mice to identify differences in inoculation efficacy. Whether the mice were antibiotic treated SPF or GF clearly influenced GM determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing where the SPF mice experienced up-regulation of S24-7 (p = .0001) and a decrease in Rikenellaceae (p = .016) compared to GF mice. qPCR analysis on colon tissue revealed up-regulation in mRNA gene expression of Il6, Il10, Reg3g and transcription factor RORγt (Rorc) in GF mice compared to SPF mice on a significant level (p < .05). This gene expression profile is consistent with post colonization development of the intestinal barrier in GF mice.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Camundongos/cirurgia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Colo/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6417-6428, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517363

RESUMO

Protein fermentation has an adverse effect on colonic health; high-quality proteins and reducing the protein level (protein restriction) can effectively decrease the amount of proteins flowing into the colon for microbial protein fermentation. The study is aimed at determining the effects of different protein sources on colonic microbial composition and barrier function in nursery pigs with a low protein diet. A total of 264 weaned pigs were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups and each group had 6 pens with 11 pigs. Four low protein, amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets containing either 4% Palbio 50 RD (P50), Soyppt-50% (S50), concentrated degossypolized cottonseed protein (CDCP), or fish meal (FM) were prepared, and all the diets had similar digestible energy (DE), crude protein content (CP, about 18%), and equal amount of standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine. After 28 days of feeding trial, CDCP decreased the Desulfovibrio abundance but increased the Parabacteroides abundance. S50 elevated the Bacteroides and CF231 abundance. P50 and FM reduced the Clostridium and Ruminococcus abundance. CDCP upregulated the Occludin mRNA expression and tended to increase the amount of mixed neutral-acidic mucins in the colon. FM and CDCP declined the serum DAO and endotoxin contents. S50 and CDCP decreased the levels of serum IL-1α, and P50 lowered the serum IL-8 content. We concluded that plant protein (CDCP and S50) had advantages over animal protein (P50 and FM) in maintaining the colonic health via the regulation of colonic microbiota and barrier function.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Mucinas/metabolismo , Suínos
15.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6331-6341, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524900

RESUMO

Increased consumption of fruits may decrease the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important etiological role in IBD. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of dietary cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in the colon and its role on gut microbiota were unclear. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory efficacy of whole cranberry in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, as well as its effects on the structure of gut microbiota. The results showed that dietary cranberry significantly decreased the severity of colitis in DSS-treated mice, evidenced by increased colon length, and decreased disease activity and histologic score of colitis in DSS-treated mice compared to the positive control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) were significantly reduced by cranberry supplementation (p < 0.05). Analysis of the relative abundance of fecal microbiota in phylum and genus levels revealed that DSS treatment significantly altered the microbial structure of fecal microbiota in mice. α diversity was significantly decreased in the DSS group, compared to the healthy control group. But, cranberry treatment significantly improved DSS-induced decline in α-diversity. Moreover, cranberry treatment partially reversed the change of gut microbiota in colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, such as Sutterella and Bilophila. Overall, our results for the first time demonstrated that modification of gut microbiota by dietary whole cranberry might contribute to its inhibitory effects against the development of colitis in DSS-treated mice.


Assuntos
Colite/dietoterapia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaccinium macrocarpon/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/imunologia , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/imunologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Sulfatos/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11616-11626, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542929

RESUMO

Avocado peel, a byproduct from the avocado pulp industry, is a promising source of polyphenolic compounds. We evaluated the effect of a proanthocyanidin-rich avocado peel polyphenol extract (AvPPE) on the composition and metabolic activity of human fecal microbiota cultured for 24 h in a bioreactor in the presence of high protein (HP) amounts and the effect of the resulting culture supernatants (CSs) on HT-29Glc-/+ and Caco-2 cells. AvPPE decreased the HP-induced production of ammonia, H2S, propionate, and isovalerate and increased that of indole and butyrate. Microbiota composition was marginally affected by HP, whileAvPPE increased the microorganisms/abundance of phylum Actinobacteria, families Coriobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae, and genus Faecalibacterium. AvPPE failed to prevent the HP-induced decrease of HT-29Glc-/+ cell viability and energy efficiency but prevented the HP-induced alterations of barrier function in Caco-2 cells. Additionally, the genotoxic effect of the CSs upon HT-29Glc-/+ was attenuated by AvPPE. Therefore, AvPPE may be considered as a promising product for improving colonic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Persea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proantocianidinas/análise
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4366, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554820

RESUMO

Compartmentalization of the gut microbiota is thought to be important to system function, but the extent of spatial organization in the gut ecosystem remains poorly understood. Here, we profile the murine colonic microbiota along longitudinal and lateral axes using laser capture microdissection. We found fine-scale spatial structuring of the microbiota marked by gradients in composition and diversity along the length of the colon. Privation of fiber reduces the diversity of the microbiota and disrupts longitudinal and lateral gradients in microbiota composition. Both mucus-adjacent and luminal communities are influenced by the absence of dietary fiber, with the loss of a characteristic distal colon microbiota and a reduction in the mucosa-adjacent community, concomitant with depletion of the mucus layer. These results indicate that diet has not only global but also local effects on the composition of the gut microbiota, which may affect function and resilience differently depending on location.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/deficiência , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(34): 5017-5025, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558854

RESUMO

Anastomotic leak (AL) constitutes a significant issue in colorectal surgery, and its incidence has remained stable over the last years. The use of intra-abdominal drain or the use of mechanical bowel preparation alone have been proven to be useless in preventing AL and should be abandoned. The role or oral antibiotics preparation regimens should be clarified and compared to other routes of administration, such as the intravenous route or enema. In parallel, preoperative antibiotherapy should aim at targeting collagenase-inducing pathogens, as identified by the microbiome analysis. AL can be further reduced by fluorescence angiography, which leads to significant intraoperative changes in surgical strategies. Implementation of fluorescence angiography should be encouraged. Progress made in AL comprehension and prevention might probably allow reducing the rate of diverting stoma and conduct to a revision of its indications.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/prevenção & controle , Colo/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Reto/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Catárticos/administração & dosagem , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo/microbiologia , Enema , Angiofluoresceinografia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Incidência , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4003, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488830

RESUMO

Members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family are important mediators of obesity and metabolic disease and have been described to often play opposing roles. Here we report that the interleukin-36 (IL-36) subfamily can play a protective role against the development of disease. Elevated IL-36 cytokine expression is found in the serum of obese patients and negatively correlates with blood glucose levels among those presenting with type 2 diabetes. Mice lacking IL-36Ra, an IL-36 family signalling antagonist, develop less diet-induced weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. These protective effects correlate with increased abundance of the metabolically protective bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila in the intestinal microbiome. IL-36 cytokines promote its outgrowth as well as increased colonic mucus secretion. These findings identify a protective role for IL-36 cytokines in obesity and metabolic disease, adding to the current understanding of the role the broader IL-1 family plays in regulating disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-1/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Obesidade/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Verrucomicrobia
20.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6655-6665, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556890

RESUMO

Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is an edible berry. The study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of maqui berry on inflammatory bowel disease. Maqui berry water extract was separated by multiple solvents extraction. The chemical bases, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of different extract fractions were then compared. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis mice were used for the pharmacological activity test in vivo. Experimental results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction of maqui berry water extract (MWE) was rich in phenols and exhibited good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. MWE considerably reduced the expression of COX2 and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Inflammatory bowel disease index, MDA, NO, i-NOS, and COX2 in colon tissues and MPO, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in blood serums were remarkably decreased in the treatment group compared to in the model group (p < 0.05). Intestinal histopathological damage was significantly alleviated in the treatment group, and the expression of occludin was increased (p < 0.05). MWE treatment alleviated the imbalance of gut microbiota caused by DSS injury. Overall, MWE plays a therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis through its anti-inflammatory effect, reduces immune stress, and regulates gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Elaeocarpaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
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