Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.513
Filtrar
1.
N Z Med J ; 133(1524): 102-110, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119573

RESUMO

Prior to colonisation, Maori had a well-developed holistic health system based on maintaining balance between people, place and spirit. The colonial imposition of British economic, religious, educational, legal, health and governance, through warfare, immigration, legislation and social coercion had a devastating effect on Maori health outcomes. With the release of the WAI 2575 Waitangi Tribunal report exposing the failings of our health system in relation to Maori health, the need to decolonise our health system becomes more pressing. A key difficulty in this work is the poverty of transformative language, concepts and frameworks in our workforce. This paper is the product of an anti-racism think tank that occurred in April 2019. While working through a system change analysis on our colonial health system, Maori and Tauiwi activists and scholars created an allegory-from gorse to ngahere. The allegory depicts the ongoing impact of the colonial health system as represented by gorse, and the possibilities of a decolonised health system represented by ngahere-a self-sustaining and flourishing native forest. Racism has a geographic specificity. The allegory we developed is a mechanism for conceptualising decolonisation for the context of Aotearoa. It serves to reinforce the different roles and responsibilities of the descendants of the colonisers and the colonised in the pursuit of decolonisation.


Assuntos
Colonialismo/história , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Ulex , Ecossistema , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/história , Nova Zelândia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/história
2.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1512-1518, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816540

RESUMO

The humanitarian crisis revealed as a result of Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico demonstrates a long history of US colonial neglect and human rights violations. This reality has made it especially difficult for the people of Puerto Rico to achieve their right to the highest attainable standard of health.The impacts are pervasive, resulting in disparities in Puerto Rican health, including water access and quality; wealth, including economic loss and disinvestment; and sustainability of the island's resources. As a result of failed governmental protection and support, public health issues related to access to care, a failing infrastructure, and discrimination all contributed to crisis on the island. A human rights framework is necessary to assess the ongoing human rights violations of the quality of life to support millions of American citizens on the island.This essay utilizes a rights-based approach to reveal historical disenfranchisement of Puerto Rico before the storms, identifies the specific human rights violations that resulted from the US government's lack of emergency preparedness and responsiveness, and demands rebuilding the island to reconcile all that has been lost.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Colonialismo , Saúde Pública , Direito à Saúde , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Porto Rico , Qualidade de Vida
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673320

RESUMO

Similarly to other populations across the Americas, Argentinean populations trace back their genetic ancestry into African, European and Native American ancestors, reflecting a complex demographic history with multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. However, little is known about the sub-continental origins of these three main ancestries. We present new high-throughput genotyping data for 87 admixed individuals across Argentina. This data was combined to previously published data for admixed individuals in the region and then compared to different reference panels specifically built to perform population structure analyses at a sub-continental level. Concerning the Native American ancestry, we could identify four Native American components segregating in modern Argentinean populations. Three of them are also found in modern South American populations and are specifically represented in Central Andes, Central Chile/Patagonia, and Subtropical and Tropical Forests geographic areas. The fourth component might be specific to the Central Western region of Argentina, and it is not well represented in any genomic data from the literature. As for the European and African ancestries, we confirmed previous results about origins from Southern Europe, Western and Central Western Africa, and we provide evidences for the presence of Northern European and Eastern African ancestries.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genoma Humano , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Casamento , Linhagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Argentina , Colonialismo , DNA/genética , Escravização , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Modelos Genéticos
4.
Ann Sci ; 77(2): 155-168, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419638

RESUMO

The Scottish Enlightenment has long been identified with abolitionism because of the writings of the moral and economic philosophers and the absence of slaves in Scotland itself. However, Scots were disproportionately represented in the ownership, management, and especially medical treatment of slaves in the British Caribbean. Sugar and cotton flowed into Glasgow and young, educated Scots looking for work as traders, bookkeepers, doctors made the return trip back to the Caribbean to manage the plantations. Chemically trained doctors and agriculturalists tested their theories in the plantations and developed new theories based on their experimentation on the land and slaves. In foregrounding the participation of Scottish trained chemists in the practice of slavery, I argue that the development of eighteenth-century chemistry and the broader intellectual Enlightenment were inextricably entangled with the economic Improvement Movement and the colonial economy of the British slave trade.


Assuntos
Química/história , Escravização/história , Região do Caribe , Colonialismo/história , História do Século XVIII , Escócia
5.
J Surg Res ; 252: 272-280, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402397

RESUMO

Global surgery, especially academic global surgery, is of tremendous interest to many surgeons. Classically, it entails personnel from high-income countries going to low- and middle-income countries and engaging in educational activities as well as procedures. Academic medical personnel have included students, residents, and attendings. The pervasive notion is that this is a win-win situation for the volunteers and the hosts, that is, a pathway to bilateral academic success. However, a critical examination demonstrates that it can easily become the bold new face of colonialism of a low- and middle-income country by a high-income country.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Colonialismo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cooperação Internacional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Internato e Residência/ética , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina , Cirurgiões/educação
6.
Arch Med Res ; 51(6): 572-573, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387041

RESUMO

A TV debate in April 2020 between two French doctors regarding the benefits of testing a coronavirus vaccine in Africa where there are no masks or treatments available has led to international criticism. This case highlights a problematic ethical double standard in multinational clinical research: trials that would be considered unethical in high income countries (e.g., placebo-controlled where there is an existing treatment) are nonetheless justified in low-and-middle-income countries because the existing standards of care are less (i.e., no access to a treatment). Underlying this ethical double standard in some multinational clinical trials is a moral imperialism and persistent colonialist thinking that must be rejected.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ética em Pesquisa , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , África , Betacoronavirus , Colonialismo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Relativismo Ético , França , Experimentação Humana/ética , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Sujeitos da Pesquisa
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397077

RESUMO

In this paper, we will discuss gardening as a relationship with nature and an ongoing process to support Indigenous health and well-being in the context of the climate crisis and increasingly widespread forest fires. We will explore the concept of gardening as both a Euro-Western agriculture practice and as a longstanding Indigenous practice-wherein naturally occurring gardens are tended in relationship and related to a wider engagement with the natural world - and the influences of colonialism and climate change on both. Drawing on our experiences as an Indigenous Knowledge Keeper (Dancing Water) and a non-Indigenous community-based researcher (Kelsey), our dialogue will outline ways to support health and well-being through land-based activities that connect with Indigenous traditions in ways that draw on relationships to confront colonialism and the influences of climate change. This dialogue is founded on our experiences in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, one of the areas hit hardest by the 2017 wildfires. We will explore the possibilities and limitations of gardening and the wider concept of reciprocity and relationship as a means to support food security, food sovereignty, and health for Indigenous Peoples.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Jardinagem , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Povos Indígenas , Incêndios Florestais , Colúmbia Britânica , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243470

RESUMO

Historical representation of collective identity offer means of influencing the extent to which group members engage in activities in line with the collective interests of their group vs. their own individual interests. This research tested the effect of different historical representations of the African people on Africans' perceptions of African social identity and engagement in identity management strategies across two studies. In Study 1 (N = 162), we tested the effect of two historical representations: positive (prestigious precolonial African history and resistance to the colonial power) and negative (inhumane practices of precolonial Africans). In Study 2 (N = 431), we tested the effect of two historical representations: positive (prestigious precolonial African history) and negative factual (inhuman practices of precolonial Africans) while also making salient the ubiquitous historical representation of the African people (negative colonial-perspective) across all history conditions. We predicted that positive (vs. negative) historical representation would lead to more positive perceptions of African identity, which in turn would predict more collectively-oriented identity management strategies. Altogether, results provided no support for these predictions. We highlight methodological (and by extension theoretical) features-such as, psychological reactance and outgroup audience effect-which may have limited the effect of the manipulations to help inform the interpretation of the null findings obtained. We conclude by discussing other limitations and the theoretical implications of our work, before pointing out various avenues for future research to help us better test, and understand, the role of historical representation in the African context.


Assuntos
Identificação Social , Participação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Idoso , Colonialismo , Feminino , História , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Mobilidade Social , Participação Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 219-239, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284635

RESUMO

This article surveys the evolution of Rwandan family planning practices from the nation's mythico-historical origins to the present. Rwanda is typically regarded as a patriarchal society in which Rwandan women have, throughout history, endured limited rights and opportunities. However, oral traditions narrated by twentieth-century Rwandan historians, storytellers and related experts, and interpreted by the scholars and missionaries who lived in Rwanda during the nation's colonial period, suggest that gender norms in Rwanda were more complicated. Shifting practices related to family planning - particularly access to contraception, abortion, vasectomies and related strategies - are but one arena in which this becomes evident, suggesting that women's roles within their families and communities could be more diverse than the historiography's narrow focus on women as wives and mothers currently allows. Drawing upon a range of colonial-era oral traditions and interviews conducted with Rwandans since 2007, I argue that Rwandan women - while under significant social pressure to become wives and mothers throughout the nation's past - did find ways to exert agency within and beyond these roles. I further maintain that understanding historical approaches to family planning in Rwanda is essential for informing present-day policy debates in Rwanda aimed at promoting gender equality, and in particular for ensuring women's rights and access to adequate healthcare are being upheld.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Colonialismo/história , Anticoncepção/história , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/história , Religião e Medicina , Bélgica , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Missionários/história , Religião/história , Ruanda
10.
Ambix ; 67(2): 107-134, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285758

RESUMO

The article explores the use of minerals and the nature of chemical methods employed in Lima in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. It does so through examining the availability of mineral resources, including pre-European knowledge of their use, through surveying the books and equipment used by physicians and apothecaries, and finally by examining prescriptions for medicines that were used to treat patients. It concludes that minerals were probably more commonly employed in medicines in Lima than in Spain but suggests that their preparation and use at this time drew on Spain's alchemical tradition rather than on writings by Paracelsus and his followers. It argues that this did not reflect the effectiveness of censorship by the Inquisition.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Minerais/história , Médicos/história , Prescrições/história , Colonialismo , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Minerais/química , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Peru , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
11.
Nat Genet ; 52(2): 135, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025002
12.
Med Hist ; 64(1): 32-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933501

RESUMO

This paper addresses the relative scholarly oversight of the history of public health in Haiti through a close examination of the colonial public health system constructed and operated by the United States (US) during its occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934. More than simply documenting a neglected aspect of Caribbean history, the paper offers the US occupation of Haiti as a remarkably clear example of a failed attempt to use a free public health service to cultivate a health conscientiousness among the Haitian citizenry through the aggressive treatment of highly visible ailments such as cataracts and yaws. I argue that the US occupation viewed the success of the Haitian Public Health Service as critical to the generation of a taxable, compliant and trusting citizenry that the colonial state could enter into a contract with. This idealistic programme envisioned by the US occupation was marred by financial mismanagement, racism, delusions of grandeur and contempt for Haitian physicians that resulted in the production of a far more precarious public health service and administrative state than the US occupation had hoped. By the time the Great Depression arrived in 1930 the Haitian Public Health Service was gutted and privatised, having successfully provided the majority of Haitians with free healthcare, yet failed to have persuaded them of the value of being governed by a centralised administrative state.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Colonialismo/história , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Haiti , História do Século XX , Humanos , Médicos/história , Administração em Saúde Pública/história , Prática de Saúde Pública/história , Racismo/história , Estados Unidos
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 171(3): 509-519, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Socially constructed ethnic identities are frequently rooted in beliefs about common descent that form when people with disparate cultures, languages, and biology come into contact. This study explores connections between beliefs about common descent, as represented by ethnic nomenclatures, and histories of migration and isolation ascertained from genomic data in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We interviewed 507 NMS who further identified using one of seven ethnic terms that they associated with beliefs about connections to past ancestors. For groups of individuals who identified using each term, we estimated biogeographic ancestry, fit admixture models to ancestry distributions, and partitioned genetic distance into admixture and drift components. RESULTS: Regardless of which ethnic term they used, all NMS had appreciable Native American (avg. 27%) and European ancestry (avg.71%). However, individuals who identified using terms associated with beliefs connecting them to colonial-period Spanish ancestors had significantly higher European ancestry than individuals who identified using terms associated with ancestral connections to post-colonial-period migrants from Mexico. Model-fitting analyses show that this ancestry difference reflects post-colonial gene flow with non-NMS European Americans, not colonial-period gene flow with Spaniards. Drift, not admixture, accounted for most of the genetic distance between NMS who expressed connections to Mexican versus Spanish ancestors, reflecting relative isolation of New Mexico and Mexico through the 19th century. DISCUSSION: Patterns of genomic diversity in NMS are consistent with beliefs about common descent in showing that New Mexico was isolated for generations following initial colonization. They are inconsistent with these beliefs in showing that all NMS have substantial European and Native American ancestry, and in showing that a proportion of European ancestry derives from post-colonial-period admixture with non-NMS European Americans. Our findings provide insights into the construction of ethnic identity in contexts of migration and isolation in New Mexico and, potentially, throughout human prehistory.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Fluxo Gênico , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Terminologia como Assunto
15.
J Homosex ; 67(12): 1675-1690, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125297

RESUMO

Indigenous sexual and gender minority people have been identifying as two-spirit since 1990 and are reclaiming traditional Indigenous gender terms such as nádleehí or agokwe. At the same time, Settler-dominated communities are undergoing a cultural shift toward challenging binary categories of sex and gender, causing some Settler governments to adopt a multi-gender framework reminiscent of the Indigenous systems they aimed to erase through colonial systems and practices. This article examines how shifts in Settler gender frameworks relate to traditional and contemporary understandings of gender in Indigenous nations and how Indigenous gender systems support resistance to ongoing colonization.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Canadá , Colonialismo , Feminino , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Masculino , Terminologia como Assunto
16.
Hist Sci ; 58(1): 51-75, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966814

RESUMO

This essay examines the relationship between slavery and plant knowledge for cultivational activities and medicinal purposes on Isle de France (Mauritius) in the second half of the eighteenth century. It builds on recent scholarship to argue for the significance of slaves in the acquisition of plant material and related knowledge in pharmaceutical, acclimatization, and private gardens on the French colonial island. I highlight the degree to which French colonial officials relied on slaves' ethnobotanical knowledge but neglected to include such information in their published works. Rather than seeking to explore the status of such knowledge within European frameworks of natural history as an endpoint of knowledge production, this essay calls upon us to think about the plant knowledge that slaves possessed for its practical implementations in the local island context. Both female and male slaves' plant-based knowledge enriched - even initiated - practices of cultivation and preparation techniques of plants for nourishment and medicinal uses. Here, cultivational knowledge and skills determined a slave's hierarchical rank. As the case of the slave gardener Rama and his family reveals, plant knowledge sometimes offered slaves opportunities for social mobility and, even though on extremely rare occasions, enabled them to become legally free.


Assuntos
Colonialismo/história , Pessoas Escravizadas/história , Etnobotânica , Jardins/história , Medicina Herbária/história , Plantas Medicinais , África/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Escravização/história , Grupos Étnicos/história , Feminino , França , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Maurício
17.
Rev. polis psique ; 10(1): 107-122, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1102614

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho é enfocar a trama dos processos subjetivos desencadeada pela dominação colonial na relação que ela estabelece entre dominador e dominado: como se imbricam e se interpolam as forças vitais de cada parte, um para subjugar o outro e fazê-lo ceder, vergando-o sob o peso da astúcia, da sedução, do medo; o outro para se opor à tirania e ao controle, resistindo, lutando ou até preferindo morrer. O artigo traz o ponto de vista de diferentes autores vinculados as reflexões sobre pós- e descolonialidade e seus encaminhamentos quanto as possibilidades de resistência à violência da opressão. O foco na economia psíquica põe em relevo as conexões inexoráveis entre história pessoal e coletiva, valorizando posicionamentos ontológicos, epistemológicos e psicológicos que escapam às frequentes dicotomias e reducionismos ao buscar visibilizar as relações paradoxais entre dominador e dominado.


The aim of the present paper is to focus on the patchwork of subjective processes engendered by colonial domination within the scope of relations between the oppressor and the oppressed: how the vital forces of each side imbricate and interpolate each other, the former to subjugate the other and make him/her acquiesce either by astuteness, seduction or terror; the latter, to oppose tyranny and control by struggling, resisting or even, preferring death. The article discusses post- and decolonial scholarship in view of articulating how possibilities of resisting to violence are envisaged within this tradition. The focus on the psychic economy brings forth the inexorable connections between personal and collective history. These are analysed in their ontological, epistemological and psychological underpinnings in order to escape the frequent dichotomies and reductionisms whenever the paradoxical relations between the oppressor and the oppressed are at stake.


El objetivo de ese trabajo es discutir la trama de los procesos subjetivos engendrados por la dominación colonial en el ámbito de la relación que se establece entre opresor y oprimido: como se mezclan las fuerzas vitales de cada parte, una para someter la otra haciendo con que ceda bajo el peso de la astucia, la seducción o el miedo; la otra para se oponer a la tiranía, al control, resistiendo, luchando hasta casi escoger la muerte. El artigo presenta el punto de vista de diferentes autores asociados a la discusión pos- o decolonial y sus contribuciones a la temática de la resistencia a la violencia de la opresión. El foco sobre la economía psíquica pone en relievo el enlace inexorable entre la historia personal y la colectiva teniendo en cuenta posiciones ontológicas, epistemológicas y psicológicas que escapan dicotomías y reduccionismos comunes cuando se intenta volver visible las relaciones paradojales entre el señor y el sujeto dominado.


Assuntos
Psicologia Social , Colonialismo , Dominação-Subordinação , Emoções Manifestas , Cultura , Controle
20.
Malar J ; 18(1): 397, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is increasing in non-endemic areas due to the increment of international travels, migration and, probably, other unknown factors. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of malaria cases in a region of Spain; analyse the possible association between the variables of interest; compare this series with others; and evaluate the characteristics of imported malaria cases according to the country of origin, particularly cases from Equatorial Guinea (Spanish ex-colony) and from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A descriptive observational study was carried out with a retrospective data collection of cases of malaria reported in Aragon from 1996 to 2017. Univariate and bivariate analysis of clinical-epidemiological variables was performed. In addition, an analysis of cases from sub-Saharan Africa was carried out using logistic regression, calculating odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: 609 cases of malaria were recorded in Aragon from 1996 to 2017. An autochthonous case in 2010. 50.33% were between 15 and 39 years old. 45.65% of the cases were notified of the 4-weeks 9 to 12. 82.6% reside in the main province, urban area, of which 65.4% were VFR (Visiting Friends and Relatives), 23.8% new immigrants and 10.9% travellers. The infectious Plasmodium species par excellence was Plasmodium falciparum (88%). Analysing the cases from sub-Saharan Africa (95.2% of the total), 48.1% were from Equatorial Guinea. Comparing these with the cases from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, it was observed that the cases from the Spanish ex-colony have association with the female gender, being under 5 years old, residing in the main province (urban area) and being a new immigrant. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological profile of imported malaria cases can be defined as VFR between 15 and 39 years old, coming from sub-Saharan Africa, particularly from Equatorial Guinea. Immigrants education about the importance of chemoprophylaxis when travelling to visit friends and relatives, emphasizing on those who are originally from the ex-colonies of destination country, is necessary; as well as to raise awareness among health professionals to make advice in consultations, specially before summer vacations.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colonialismo , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Guiné Equatorial/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA