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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 63-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576540

RESUMO

Gankyrin (also called PSMD10, p28, or p28GANK) is a crucial oncoprotein that is upregulated in various cancers and assumed to play pivotal roles in the initiation and progression of tumors. Although the in vitro function of gankyrin is relatively well characterized, its role in vivo remains to be elucidated. We have investigated the function of gankyrin in vivo by producing mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific gankyrin ablation (Alb-Cre;gankyrinf/f) and gankyrin deletion both in liver parenchymal and in non-parenchymal cells (Mx1-Cre;gankyrinf/f). Gankyrin deficiency both in non-parenchymal cells and parenchymal cells, but not in parenchymal cells alone, reduced STAT3 activity, interleukin-6 production, and cancer stem cell marker expression, leading to attenuated tumorigenic potential in the diethylnitrosamine hepatocarcinogenesis model. Essentially similar results were obtained by analyzing mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific gankyrin ablation (Villin-Cre;Gankyrinf/f) and gankyrin deletion both in myeloid and epithelial cells (Mx1-Cre;Gankyrinf/f) in the colitis-associated cancer model. Clinically, gankyrin expression in the tumor microenvironment was negatively correlated with progression-free survival in patients undergoing treatment with Sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas. These findings indicate important roles played by gankyrin in non-parenchymal cells as well as parenchymal cells in the pathogenesis of liver cancers and colorectal cancers, and suggest that by acting both on cancer cells and on the tumor microenvironment, anti-gankyrin agents would be promising as therapeutic and preventive strategies against various cancers, and that an in vitro cell culture models that incorporate the effects of non-parenchymal cells and gankyrin would be useful for the study of human cell transformation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Camundongos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
Enzymes ; 45: 99-138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627884

RESUMO

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile DNA repair pathway that eliminates various helix-distorting base lesions such as ultraviolet (UV)-induced photolesions. Several recessive human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), are caused by hereditary defects in NER, implying that the pathway plays critical roles in suppressing diverse pathogenic processes, including carcinogenesis. In general, discrimination of lesion sites from intact DNA, which is present in vast excess, is a key determinant of the overall efficiency of DNA repair. In mammalian cells, global genomic NER lesion recognition is initiated by the XPC protein complex, which achieves broad DNA-binding specificity by sensing destabilized base pairs rather than lesions per se. To avert unnecessary incisions at lesion-free sites, and thereby ensure the fidelity of the repair system, transcription factor IIH and the XPA protein then verify the presence of relevant lesions at suspicious sites bound by XPC. In the case of UV-induced photolesions, a specialized lesion sensor called UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) contributes to efficient lesion recognition and the recruitment of XPC to lesion sites. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a crucial role in the handoff of lesions from UV-DDB to XPC and the subsequent NER process. In addition, recognition of lesions targeted by global genomic NER is intricately regulated by higher-order chromatin structures, which play distinct roles depending on the type of lesion.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição TFIIH/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Proteína de Xeroderma Pigmentoso Grupo A/metabolismo
3.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(9): 646-649, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors might be potential anticancer drugs. The copper complexes can be used as specific proteasome inhibitors in tumor cells able to induce apoptosis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The goal of our study was to test the cytotoxic and proteasome inhibitory effects of five Schiff base Cu(II) complexes - [Cu2(sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2] . 2C2H5OH (1), [Cu(sal-5-met-L-glu)(H2O)].H2O (2), [Cu(ethanol)2(imidazole)4][Cu2(sal-D,L-glu)2(imidazole)2] (3), [Cu(sal-D,L-glu)(2-methylimidazole)] (4) on human lung carcinoma cells A549, cervix carcinoma cells HeLa and glioblastoma cells U-118MG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the cytotoxic analysis we used MTT test and for monitoring the proteasome inhibition western blot analysis. RESULTS: We have observed different cytotoxic effects of tested complexes on human cancer cells depending on the ligand present in their structure. Cu(II) complexes 4 and 5 were the most effective against A549 cells; all complexes were cytotoxic against HeLa cells and the complex 4 was the most effective against U-118MG. Moreover, we have detected the inhibition of the proteasome activity in human cancer cells A549 by Cu(II) complexes 1, 2 and 4 at IC50 concentration. CONCLUSION: Results of our study suggest that isoquinoline- and imidazole-based copper complexes could be used as inhibitors of the proteasome system in cancer cells A549 (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 26).


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma
4.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3520-3532, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505062

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a subpopulation of tumor cells with properties of high tumorigenicity and drug resistance, which lead to recurrence and poor prognosis. Although a better understanding of CSC is essential for developing cancer therapies, scarcity of the CSC population has hindered such analyses. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the E-cadherin-Fc chimera protein (E-cad-Fc) enhances cancer stem-like properties because studies show that soluble E-cadherin stimulates human epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream signaling pathways that are reported to play a crucial role in CSC. For this purpose, we used ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)-degron-transduced (Degron(+)) KM12SM cells as a CSC model that retains relatively low CSC properties. Compared to cultures without E-cad-Fc treatment, we found that E-cad-Fc treatment further suppressed proteasome activity and largely enhanced cancer stem-like properties of ODC-degron-transduced KM12SM cells. These results include increased expression of stem cell markers Lgr5, Bmi-1, SOX9, CD44, and CD44v9, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and enhancement of robust spheroid formation, and chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (L-OHP). These effects could be attributed to activation of the EGFR pathway as identified by extensive phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK, PI3K, AKT, and mTOR. In SW480 cells, E-cad-Fc matrix induced some CSC markers such as CD44v9 and ALDH. We also found that E-cad-Fc matrix showed high efficiency of inducing mesenchymal changes in colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that the E-cad-Fc matrix may enhance CSC properties such as enhancement of chemoresistance and sphere formation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Receptores ErbB , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Ornitina Descarboxilase , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares
5.
Gene ; 717: 144043, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400407

RESUMO

Genes involved in the repair of DNA damage are emerging as playing important roles during the disease processes caused by pathogenic fungi. However, there are potentially hundreds of genes involved in DNA repair in a fungus and some of those genes can play additional roles within the cell. One such gene is RAD23, required for virulence of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, that encodes a protein involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. However, Rad23 is a dual function protein, with a role in either repair of damaged DNA or protein turn over by directing proteins to the proteasome. Here, these two functions of Rad23 were tested by the creation of a series of domain deletion alleles of RAD23 and the assessment of the strains for DNA repair, proteasome functions, and virulence properties. Deletion of the different domains was able to uncouple the two functions of Rad23, and the phenotypes of strains carrying such forms indicated that the role of RAD23 in virulence is due to its function in proteasomal-mediated protein degradation rather than NER.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , Mariposas/microbiologia , Mutação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Virulência
6.
Biomed Khim ; 65(4): 306-310, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436171

RESUMO

It becomes increasingly clear that ubiquitination of cellular proteins is not an indispensable prerequisite of their degradation in proteasomes. There are a number of proteins to be eliminated which are not pre-ubiquitinated for their recognition by regulatory subcomplex of 26S proteasome, but which directly interact with the 20S proteasome core particle (20S proteasome). The obligatory precondition for such interaction consists in existence of disordered (hydrophobic) fragments in the target protein. In this study we have investigated the interaction of a number of multifunctional (moonlighting) proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), aldolase, pyruvate kinase) and neurodegeneration-related proteins (a-synuclein, myelin basic protein) with 20S proteasome immobilized on the SPR-biosensor chip and stabilized by means of a bifunctional agent dimethyl pimelimidate (in order to prevent possible dissociation of this subcomplex). Only two of all investigated proteins (aldolase and pyruvate kinase) interacted with the immobilized 20S proteasome (Kd of 8.17´10-7 M and 5.56´10-7 M, respectively). In addition to earlier detected GAPDH ubiquitination, mass spectrometric analysis of the studied proteins revealed the presence of the ubiquitin signature (Lys-e-Gly-Gly) only in aldolase. Oxidation of aldolase and pyruvate kinase, which promotes elimination of proteins via their direct interaction with 20S proteasome, caused a 2-3-fold decrease in their Kd values as comparison with this parameter obtained for the intact proteins. The results of this study provide further evidence for direct interaction of both ubiquitinated proteins (aldolase), and non-ubiquitinated proteins (pyruvate kinase) with the 20S proteasome core particle (20S proteasome). The effectiveness of this interaction is basically equal for the ubiquitinated proteins and non-ubiquitinated proteins.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/química , Humanos , Ubiquitina , Ubiquitinação
7.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(4): 638-647, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397437

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) performs proteolysis of most intracellular proteins. The key components of the UPS are the proteasomes, multi-subunit protein complexes, playing an important role in cellular adaptation to various types of stress. We analyzed the dynamics of the proteasome activity, the content of proteasome subunits, and the expression levels of genes encoding catalytic subunits of proteasomes in the human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cell line immediately, 2, 4, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after a heat shock (HS). The initial decrease (up to 62%) in the proteasome activity in cellular lysates was revealed, then 10 h after HS the activity began to recover. The amount of proteasomal α-subunits in the cells decreased 2 h after HS, and was restored to 24-48 h after HS. Fluctuations in the levels of mRNAs encoding proteasome catalytic subunits with the maximum expression 2 h after HS and a gradual decrease to 48 h after HS were observed. The average estimated number of mRNA copies per cell ranged from 10 for weakly to 150 for highly expressed proteasome genes. Thus, the recovery efficiency of UPS functionality after HS, which reflects the important role of proteasomes in maintaining cell homeostasis, was evaluated.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Proteólise , Células U937 , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 233: 786-795, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340409

RESUMO

Microbial volatile organic compounds (mVCs) are formed in the metabolism of microorganisms and widely distributed in nature and pose threats to human health. However, the air pollution by microorganisms is a situation which is poorly understood. In this study, the cytotoxicity of E. aerogenes VCs was evaluated in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. E. aerogenes VCs inhibited the survival of yeast and triggered the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The hypersensitive of MAP kinase mpk1/slt2 and 19S regulatory assembly chaperone adc17 mutants to the E. aerogenes VCs indicated cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway together with stress-inducible proteasome assembly regulation are essentially involved in mVCs tolerance mechanism. Furthermore, exposure to the mVCs resulted in the transcriptional upregulation of the CWI pathway, the regulatory particle assembly chaperones, and genes involved in proteasome regulations. Our research suggested that the ROS/MAPK signaling and proteasome regulatory pathway play pivotal roles in the integration and fine-tuning of the mVCs stress response. This study provides a molecular framework for future study of the effects of mVCs on more complex organisms, such as humans.


Assuntos
Enterobacter aerogenes/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
9.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1307-1313, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307247

RESUMO

Proteasome inhibition is a promising strategy for the treatment of multiple myeloma; unfortunately, this disease is often associated with an increasing chemoresistance. One novel approach may be to target the immunoproteasome, a proteasomal isoform mainly present in cells of hematopoietic origin. We investigated the activity of a panel of amides against immunoproteasome core particles as potential agents for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Amide 6 showed an ideal profile since it was able to inhibit both the chymotrypsin-like activities of the immunoproteasome with Ki values of 4.90 µM and 4.39 µM for ß1i and ß5i, respectively, coupled with an EC50 =17.8 µM against MM.1R cells. Compound 6 inhibited also ubiquitinated protein degradation and was able to act on different phases of MM cell cycle reducing the levels of cyclin A/CDK1, cyclin B/CDK1 and cyclin D/CDK4/6 complexes, which turns in cell cycle arrest.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteassoma/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(8): 1633-1645, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292642

RESUMO

Plants respond to a rise in ambient temperature by increasing the growth of petioles and hypocotyls. In this work, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana class I TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF (TCP) transcription factors TCP14 and TCP15 are required for optimal petiole and hypocotyl elongation under high ambient temperature. These TCPs influence the levels of the DELLA protein RGA and the expression of growth-related genes, which are induced in response to an increase in temperature. However, the class I TCPs are not required for the induction of the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCCA8 or for auxin-dependent gene expression responses. TCP15 directly targets the gibberellin biosynthesis gene GA20ox1 and the growth regulatory genes HBI1 and PRE6. Several of the genes regulated by TCP15 are also targets of the growth regulator PIF4 and show an enrichment of PIF4- and TCP-binding motifs in their promoters. PIF4 binding to GA20ox1 and HBI1 is enhanced in the presence of the TCPs, indicating that TCP14 and TCP15 directly participate in the induction of genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis and cell expansion by high temperature functionally interacting with PIF4. In addition, overexpression of HBI1 rescues the growth defects of tcp14 tcp15 double mutants, suggesting that this gene is a major outcome of regulation by both class I TCPs during thermomorphogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110550, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163223

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of ß-catenin-response transcription (CRT) is a well-recognized characteristic of colorectal and liver cancers and thus a potential therapeutic target for these malignancies. Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) has been used as a herbal medicine to treat various diseases. Using a sensitive cell-based screening system, we identified broussochalcone A (BCA), a prenylated chalcone isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera, as an antagonist of CRT. BCA accelerated the turnover of intracellular ß-catenin that was accompanied by its N-terminal phosphorylation at Ser33/37/Thr41 residues, marking it for ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß could not abrogate BCA-mediated degradation of ß-catenin. BCA decreased the intracellular ß-catenin levels in colon and liver cancer cells with mutations in ß-catenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, and Axin. BCA repressed the expressions of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and Axin2, which are ß-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent genes, and thus decreased the viability of colon and liver cancer cell. Moreover, apoptosis was elicited by BCA, as indicated by the increase in the population of Annexin V-FITC positive cells and caspase-3/7 activities in colon and liver cancer cells. These findings indicate that BCA exerts its cytotoxic effects by promoting phosphorylation/ubiquitin-dependent degradation of ß-catenin and may potentially serve as a chemopreventive agent for colonrectal and liver cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Chalconas/farmacologia , Resorcinóis/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina/química , Treonina/química , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/química , beta Catenina/genética
12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190052, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomphalaria glabrata is the major species used for the study of schistosomiasis-related parasite-host relationships, and understanding its gene regulation may aid in this endeavor. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) performs post-translational regulation in order to maintain cellular protein homeostasis and is related to several mechanisms, including immune responses. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this work were to identify and characterise the putative genes and proteins involved in UPS using bioinformatic tools and also their expression on different tissues of B. glabrata. METHODS: The putative genes and proteins of UPS in B. glabrata were predicted using BLASTp and as queries reference proteins from model organism. We characterised these putative proteins using PFAM and CDD software describing the conserved domains and active sites. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using ClustalX2 and MEGA5.2. Expression evaluation was performed from 12 snail tissues using RPKM. FINDINGS: 119 sequences involved in the UPS in B. glabrata were identified, which 86 have been related to the ubiquitination pathway and 33 to proteasome. In addition, the conserved domains found were associated with the ubiquitin family, UQ_con, HECT, U-box and proteasome. The main active sites were lysine and cysteine residues. Lysines are responsible and the starting point for the formation of polyubiquitin chains, while the cysteine residues of the enzymes are responsible for binding to ubiquitin. The phylogenetic analysis showed an organised distribution between the organisms and the clades of the sequences, corresponding to the tree of life of the animals, for all groups of sequences analysed. The ubiquitin sequence was the only one with a high expression profile found in all libraries, inferring its wide range of performance. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the presence, conservation and expression profile of the UPS in this mollusk, providing a basis and new knowledge for other studies involving this system. Due to the importance of the UPS and B. glabrata, this work may influence the search for new methodologies for the control of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Ubiquitina/genética , Animais , Biomphalaria/enzimologia , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Valores de Referência , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitinação
13.
Virol J ; 16(1): 73, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the expression levels of cellular proteins by ubiquitination of protein substrates followed by their degradation via the proteasome. As a highly conserved cellular degradation mechanism, the UPS affects a variety of biological processes and participates in viral propagation. MAIN BODY: During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the UPS is shown to act as a double-edged sword in viral pathogenesis. On the one hand, the UPS acts as a host defense mechanism to selectively recognize HBV proteins as well as special cellular proteins that favor the viral life cycle and induces their ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation to limit HBV infection. On the other hand, the HBV has evolved to subvert the UPS function for its own advantage. Moreover, in the infected hepatocytes, certain cellular proteins that are dependent on the UPS are involved in abnormal biological processes which are mediated by HBV. CONCLUSION: The molecular interaction of HBV with the UPS to modulate viral propagation and pathogenesis is summarized in the review. Considering the important role of the UPS in HBV infection, a better understanding of the HBV-UPS interaction could provide novel insight into the mechanisms that are involved in viral replication and pathogenesis and help to develop potential treatment strategies targeting the UPS.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Hepatite B/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Ubiquitinação
14.
Nat Chem ; 11(7): 644-652, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182821

RESUMO

A promising approach in cancer therapy is to find ligands that directly bind ubiquitin (Ub) chains. However, finding molecules capable of tightly and specifically binding Ub chains is challenging given the range of Ub polymer lengths and linkages and their subtle structural differences. Here, we use total chemical synthesis of proteins to generate highly homogeneous Ub chains for screening against trillion-member macrocyclic peptide libraries (RaPID system). De novo cyclic peptides were found that can bind tightly and specifically to K48-linked Ub chains, confirmed by NMR studies. These cyclic peptides protected K48-linked Ub chains from deubiquitinating enzymes and prevented proteasomal degradation of Ub-tagged proteins. The cyclic peptides could enter cells, inhibit growth and induce programmed cell death, opening new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. This highly synthetic approach, with both protein target generation and cyclic peptide discovery performed in vitro, will make other elaborate post-translationally modified targets accessible for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Lisina/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Ubiquitinas/síntese química , Ubiquitinas/química
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2576, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189900

RESUMO

Mitochondrial quality control is essential in highly structured cells such as neurons and muscles. In skeletal muscle the mitochondrial fission proteins are reduced in different physiopathological conditions including ageing sarcopenia, cancer cachexia and chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting. However, whether mitochondrial fission is essential for muscle homeostasis is still unclear. Here we show that muscle-specific loss of the pro-fission dynamin related protein (DRP) 1 induces muscle wasting and weakness. Constitutive Drp1 ablation in muscles reduces growth and causes animal death while inducible deletion results in atrophy and degeneration. Drp1 deficient mitochondria are morphologically bigger and functionally abnormal. The dysfunctional mitochondria signals to the nucleus to induce the ubiquitin-proteasome system and an Unfolded Protein Response while the change of mitochondrial volume results in an increase of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and myofiber death. Our findings reveal that morphology of mitochondrial network is critical for several biological processes that control nuclear programs and Ca2+ handling.


Assuntos
Dinaminas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Miopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dinaminas/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Miopatias Mitocondriais/mortalidade , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/fisiologia
16.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(Suppl 1): S159-S192, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213201

RESUMO

In the middle of the 20th century, it was postulated that degradation of intracellular proteins is a stochastic process. More than fifty years of intense studies have finally proven that protein degradation is a very complex and tightly regulated in time and space process that plays an incredibly important role in the vast majority of metabolic pathways. Degradation of more than a half of intracellular proteins is controlled by a hierarchically aligned and evolutionarily perfect system consisting of many components, the main ones being ubiquitin ligases and proteasomes, together referred to as the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The UPS includes more than 1000 individual components, and most of them are critical for the cell functioning and survival. In addition to the well-known signaling functions of ubiquitination, such as modification of substrates for proteasomal degradation and DNA repair, polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains are involved in other important cellular processes, e.g., cell cycle regulation, immunity, protein degradation in mitochondria, and even mRNA stability. This incredible variety of ubiquitination functions is related to the ubiquitin ability to form branching chains through the ε-amino group of any of seven lysine residues in its sequence. Deubiquitination is accomplished by proteins of the deubiquitinating enzyme family. The second main component of the UPS is proteasome, a multisubunit proteinase complex that, in addition to the degradation of functionally exhausted and damaged proteins, regulates many important cellular processes through controlled degradation of substrates, for example, transcription factors and cyclins. In addition to the ubiquitin-dependent-mediated degradation, there is also ubiquitin-independent degradation, when the proteolytic signal is either an intrinsic protein sequence or shuttle molecule. Protein hydrolysis is a critically important cellular function; therefore, any abnormalities in this process lead to systemic impairments further transforming into serious diseases, such as diabetes, malignant transformation, and neurodegenerative disorders (multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Huntington's disease). In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that orchestrate all components of the UPS, as well as the plurality of the fine-tuning pathways of proteasomal degradation.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Proteólise , Ubiquitinas , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação , Ubiquitinas/química , Ubiquitinas/fisiologia
17.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 362-368, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054366

RESUMO

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. The cellular factors required for DTMUV replication have been poorly studied. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the major intracellular proteolytic pathway, mediates diverse cellular processes, including endocytosis and signal transduction, which may be involved in the entry of virus. In the present study, we explored the interplay between DTMUV replication and the UPS in BHK-21 cells and found that treatment with proteasome inhibitor (MG132 and lactacystin) significantly decreased the DTMUV progency at the early infection stage. We further revealed that inhibition of the UPS mainly occurs on the level of viral protein expression and RNA transcription. In addition, using specific siRNAs targeting ubiquitin reduces the production of viral progeny. In the presence of MG132 the staining for the envelope protein of DTMUV was dramatically reduced in comparison with the untreated control cells. Overall, our observations reveal an important role of the UPS in multiple steps of the DTMUV infection cycle and identify the UPS as a potential drug target to modulate the impact of DTMUV infection.


Assuntos
Flavivirus/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Acetilcisteína/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Patos , Flavivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Leupeptinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transfecção , Ubiquitina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Internalização do Vírus
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060234

RESUMO

In recent years, functional interconnections emerged between synaptic transmission, inflammatory/immune mediators, and central nervous system (CNS) (patho)-physiology. Such interconnections rose up to a level that involves synaptic plasticity, both concerning its molecular mechanisms and the clinical outcomes related to its behavioral abnormalities. Within this context, synaptic plasticity, apart from being modulated by classic CNS molecules, is strongly affected by the immune system, and vice versa. This is not surprising, given the common molecular pathways that operate at the cross-road between the CNS and immune system. When searching for a common pathway bridging neuro-immune and synaptic dysregulations, the two major cell-clearing cell clearing systems, namely the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, take center stage. In fact, just like is happening for the turnover of key proteins involved in neurotransmitter release, antigen processing within both peripheral and CNS-resident antigen presenting cells is carried out by UPS and autophagy. Recent evidence unravelling the functional cross-talk between the cell-clearing pathways challenged the traditional concept of autophagy and UPS as independent systems. In fact, autophagy and UPS are simultaneously affected in a variety of CNS disorders where synaptic and inflammatory/immune alterations concur. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy and UPS in bridging synaptic plasticity with neuro-immunity, while posing a special emphasis on their interactions, which may be key to defining the role of immunity in synaptic plasticity in health and disease.


Assuntos
Neuroimunomodulação , Plasticidade Neuronal , Animais , Autofagia , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(4): 387-393, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of PSMA7 and its effect on proliferation, invasion and migration of gastric cancer and subcutaneous tumorigenesis in nude mice. >and subcutaneous tumorigenesis in nude mice. METHODS: Specimens of tumor tissues and paired adjacent tissues were collected from 60 patients with gastric cancer for detecting the expression levels of PSMA7 using immunohistochemical method. Gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 was transfected with a lentiviral vector to inhibit PSMA7 expression, and the changes in cell proliferation and invasion were observed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), clone formation assay and Transwell assay. A BALB/c mouse model bearing subcutaneous gastric cancer xenograft was established using SGC7901 cells with stable PSMA7 knockdown to assess the effect of low expression of PSMA7 on xenograft growth. RESULTS: Gastric cancer tissues expressed significantly higher levels of PSMA7 than the paired adjacent tissues (P < 0.05). In SGC7901 cells, interference of PSMA7 expression significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and invasion (P < 0.05). In the tumor-bearing BALB/c mice, the xenografts derived from SGC7901 cells with PSMA7 expression interference showed significant growth suppression as compared with the control xenografts (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PPSMA 7 is overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues, and PSMA7 knockdown inhibits the proliferation, invasion, migration and subcutaneous tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells in nude mice.


Assuntos
Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica
20.
Genes Dev ; 33(11-12): 684-704, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048545

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcribed genes lead to inhibition of transcription. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex plays a pivotal role in transcription inhibition at DSBs by stimulating proteasome-dependent eviction of RNAPII at these lesions. How DNA-PK triggers RNAPII eviction to inhibit transcription at DSBs remains unclear. Here we show that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 associates with components of the DNA-PK and RNAPII complexes and is recruited to DSBs at RNAPII transcribed genes. In response to DSBs, WWP2 targets the RNAPII subunit RPB1 for K48-linked ubiquitylation, thereby driving DNA-PK- and proteasome-dependent eviction of RNAPII. The lack of WWP2 or expression of nonubiquitylatable RPB1 abrogates the binding of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) factors, including DNA-PK and XRCC4/DNA ligase IV, and impairs DSB repair. These findings suggest that WWP2 operates in a DNA-PK-dependent shutoff circuitry for RNAPII clearance that promotes DSB repair by protecting the NHEJ machinery from collision with the transcription machinery.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
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