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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(19): 2322-2332, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss worldwide. However, the mechanisms involved in the development and progression of AMD are poorly delineated. We aimed to explore the critical genes involved in the progression of AMD. METHODS: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in AMD retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)/choroid tissues were identified using the microarray datasets GSE99248 and GSE125564, which were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. The overlapping DEGs from the two datasets were screened to identify DEG-related biological pathways using gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses. The hub genes were identified from these DEGs through protein-protein interaction network analyses. The expression levels of hub genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction following the induction of senescence in ARPE-19 with FK866. Following the identification of AMD-related key genes, the potential small molecule compounds targeting the key genes were predicted by PharmacoDB. Finally, a microRNA-gene interaction network was constructed. RESULTS: Microarray analyses identified 174 DEGs in the AMD RPE compared to the healthy RPE samples. These DEGs were primarily enriched in the pathways involved in the regulation of DNA replication, cell cycle, and proteasome-mediated protein polyubiquitination. Among the top ten hub genes, HSP90AA1, CHEK1, PSMA4, PSMD4, and PSMD8 were upregulated in the senescent ARPE-19 cells. Additionally, the drugs targeting HSP90AA1, CHEK1, and PSMA4 were identified. We hypothesize that Hsa-miR-16-5p might target four out of the five key DEGs in the AMD RPE. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, HSP90AA1 is likely to be a central gene controlling the DNA replication and proteasome-mediated polyubiquitination during the RPE senescence observed in the progression of AMD. Targeting HSP90AA1, CHEK1, PSMA4, PSMD4, and/or PSMD8 genes through specific miRNAs or small molecules might potentially alleviate the progression of AMD through attenuating RPE senescence.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Replicação do DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/genética
2.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 55(S4): 68-95, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523304

RESUMO

Protein homeostasis strongly depends on the targeted and selective removal of unneeded or flawed proteins, of protein aggregates, and of damaged or excess organelles by the two main intracellular degradative systems, namely the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS) and the autophagosomal lysosomal system. Despite representing completely distinct mechanisms of degradation, which underlie differing regulatory mechanisms, growing evidence suggests that the UPS and autophagy strongly interact especially in situations of overwhelming and impairment, and that both are involved in podocyte proteostasis and in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury. The differential impact of autophagy and the UPS on podocyte biology and on podocyte disease development and progression is not understood. Recent advances in understanding the role of the UPS and autophagy in podocyte biology are reviewed here.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Nefropatias , Podócitos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/patologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/patologia , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548400

RESUMO

The Plasmodium falciparum proteasome is a potential antimalarial drug target. We have identified a series of amino-amide boronates that are potent and specific inhibitors of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome (Pf20S) ß5 active site and that exhibit fast-acting antimalarial activity. They selectively inhibit the growth of P. falciparum compared with a human cell line and exhibit high potency against field isolates of P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax They have a low propensity for development of resistance and possess liver stage and transmission-blocking activity. Exemplar compounds, MPI-5 and MPI-13, show potent activity against P. falciparum infections in a SCID mouse model with an oral dosing regimen that is well tolerated. We show that MPI-5 binds more strongly to Pf20S than to human constitutive 20S (Hs20Sc). Comparison of the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of Pf20S and Hs20Sc in complex with MPI-5 and Pf20S in complex with the clinically used anti-cancer agent, bortezomib, reveal differences in binding modes that help to explain the selectivity. Together, this work provides insights into the 20S proteasome in P. falciparum, underpinning the design of potent and selective antimalarial proteasome inhibitors.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/química , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/enzimologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Modelos Moleculares , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteassoma/química
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5305, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489447

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common hallmark of neurological disorders, and reducing mitochondrial damage is considered a promising neuroprotective therapeutic strategy. Here, we used high-throughput small molecule screening to identify CHIR99021 as a potent enhancer of mitochondrial function. CHIR99021 improved mitochondrial phenotypes and enhanced cell viability in several models of Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Notably, CHIR99201 treatment reduced HD-associated neuropathology and behavioral defects in HD mice and improved mitochondrial function and cell survival in HD patient-derived neurons. Independent of its known inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), CHIR99021 treatment in HD models suppressed the proteasomal degradation of calpastatin (CAST), and subsequently inhibited calpain activation, a well-established effector of neural death, and Drp1, a driver of mitochondrial fragmentation. Our results established CAST-Drp1 as a druggable signaling axis in HD pathogenesis and highlighted CHIR99021 as a mitochondrial function enhancer and a potential lead for developing HD therapies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Dinaminas/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Calpaína/genética , Calpaína/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Anal Chem ; 93(39): 13407-13413, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550675

RESUMO

The 26S proteasome is a mega-dalton protein complex responsible for intracellular degradation in eukaryotes. It is composed of two subcomplexes: the 20S core particle and the 19S regulatory particle, which form compositionally and structurally heterogeneous proteasome complexes in cells. To fully characterize the 26S proteasome, it is necessary to understand its structural and functional diversities. Multiple mass spectrometry (MS) methodologies have been developed in recent years for the study of proteasome structural dynamics in which biochemically isolated complexes are subjected to analysis. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of proteasome complexes, single-bait affinity purification typically results in a mixture of compositionally heterogeneous complexes regardless of the baits, making accurate assessment of complex-specific conformations and functions challenging. To facilitate complex-centric analysis, we have adopted a bimolecular affinity purification method utilizing a dual-bait cell line expressing tagged 19S and tagged 20S subunits to improve the homogeneity of the resulting 26S holocomplexes. To establish the method, four types of purifications were performed and the resulting samples were extensively examined by biochemical analysis and two label-free quantitative MS methods. Our results have demonstrated the effectiveness of this purification strategy in improving the complex homogeneity for downstream biochemical and MS characterizations. This strategy will be valuable for facilitating detailed quantitative assessments of complex-specific molecular details under different conditions and can be directly adopted for studying other complexes.


Assuntos
Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Proteômica
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5010, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408146

RESUMO

Poly(ADP)-ribosylation (PARylation) regulates chromatin structure and recruits DNA repair proteins. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to track topoisomerase I (TOP1) in live cells, we found that sustained PARylation blocked the repair of TOP1 DNA-protein crosslinks (TOP1-DPCs) in a similar fashion as inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PARylation of TOP1-DPC was readily revealed by inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), indicating the otherwise transient and reversible PARylation of the DPCs. As the UPS is a key repair mechanism for TOP1-DPCs, we investigated the impact of TOP1-DPC PARylation on the proteasome and found that the proteasome is unable to associate with and digest PARylated TOP1-DPCs. In addition, PARylation recruits the deubiquitylating enzyme USP7 to reverse the ubiquitylation of PARylated TOP1-DPCs. Our work identifies PARG as repair factor for TOP1-DPCs by enabling the proteasomal digestion of TOP1-DPCs. It also suggests the potential regulatory role of PARylation for the repair of a broad range of DPCs.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , DNA/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/química , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Poli ADP Ribosilação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Proteólise , Ubiquitinação
7.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(6): 6000-6011, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405467

RESUMO

Proteasome activity at the excitatory synapse plays an important role in neuronal communication. The proteasome translocation to synapses is mediated by neuronal activity, in particular the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). These receptors are composed of different subunits with distinct trafficking properties that provide various signalling and plasticity features to the synapse. Yet whether the interplay between the proteasome and NMDAR relies on specific subunit properties remain unclear. Using a combination of single molecule and immunocytochemistry imaging approaches in rat hippocampal neurons, we unveil a specific interplay between GluN2B-containing NMDARs (GluN2B-NMDARs) and the synaptic proteasome. Sustained proteasome activation specifically increases GluN2B-NMDAR (not GluN2A-NMDAR) lateral diffusion. In addition, when GluN2B-NMDAR expression is downregulated, the proteasome localization decreases at glutamatergic synapses. Collectively, our data fuel a model in which the cellular dynamics and location of GluN2B-NMDARs and proteasome are intermingled, shedding new lights on the NMDAR-dependent regulation of synaptic adaptation.


Assuntos
Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Animais , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sinapses/metabolismo
8.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436790

RESUMO

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitinação
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1288: 215-240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453739

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is one of the most diverse forms of protein post-translational modification that changes the function of the landscape of substrate proteins in response to stimuli, without the need for "de novo" protein synthesis. Ubiquitination is involved in almost all aspects of eukaryotic cell biology, from the best-studied role in promoting the removal of faulty or unnecessary proteins by the way of the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy-lysosome pathway to the recruitment of proteins in specific non-proteolytic signaling pathways, as emerged by the more recent discoveries about the protein signature with peculiar types of ubiquitin chains. Spermatogenesis, on its own, is a complex cellular developmental process in which mitosis, meiosis, and cell differentiation coexist so to result in the continuous formation of haploid spermatozoa. Successful spermatogenesis is thus at the same time a mixed result of the precise expression and correct intracellular destination of structural proteins and enzymes, from one hand, and the fine removal by targeted degradation of unfolded or damaged proteins as well as of obsolete, outlived proteins, from the other hand. In this minireview, I will focus on the importance of the ubiquitin system all over the spermatogenic process, discussing both proteolytic and non-proteolytic functions of protein ubiquitination. Alterations in the ubiquitin system have been in fact implicated in pathologies leading to male infertility. Notwithstanding several aspects of the multifaceted world of the ubiquitin system have been clarified, the physiological meaning of the so-called ubiquitin code remains still partially elusive. The studies reviewed in this chapter provide information that could aid the investigators to pursue new promising discoveries in the understanding of human and animal reproductive potential.


Assuntos
Espermatogênese , Ubiquitina , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
10.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372566

RESUMO

Infection by RNA viruses causes extensive cellular reorganization, including hijacking of membranes to create membranous structures termed replication organelles, which support viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly. In this study, we show that infection with coxsackievirus B3 entails a profound impairment of the protein homeostasis at virus-utilized membranes, reflected by an accumulation of ubiquitinylated proteins, including K48-linked polyubiquitin conjugates, known to direct proteins to proteasomal degradation. The enrichment of membrane-bound ubiquitin conjugates is attributed to the presence of the non-structural viral proteins 2B and 3A, which are known to perturb membrane integrity and can cause an extensive rearrangement of cellular membranes. The locally increased abundance of ubiquitinylated proteins occurs without an increase of oxidatively damaged proteins. During the exponential phase of replication, the oxidative damage of membrane proteins is even diminished, an effect we attribute to the recruitment of glutathione, which is known to be required for the formation of infectious virus particles. Furthermore, we show that the proteasome contributes to the processing of viral precursor proteins. Taken together, we demonstrate how an infection with coxsackievirus B3 affects the cellular protein and redox homeostasis locally at the site of viral replication and virus assembly.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Enterovirus Humano B/patogenicidade , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus/genética , Montagem de Vírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética
11.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356615

RESUMO

The gut epithelial barrier provides the first line of defense protecting the internal milieu from the environment. To circumvent the exposure to constant challenges such as pathogenic infections and commensal bacteria, epithelial and immune cells at the gut barrier require rapid and efficient means to dynamically sense and respond to stimuli. Numerous studies have highlighted the importance of proteolysis in maintaining homeostasis and adapting to the dynamic changes of the conditions in the gut environment. Primarily, proteolytic activities that are involved in immune regulation and inflammation have been examined in the context of the lysosome and inflammasome activation. Yet, the key to cellular and tissue proteostasis is the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which tightly regulates fundamental aspects of inflammatory signaling and protein quality control to provide rapid responses and protect from the accumulation of proteotoxic damage. In this review, we discuss proteasome-dependent regulation of the gut and highlight the pathophysiological consequences of the disarray of proteasomal control in the gut, in the context of aberrant inflammatory disorders and tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Ativação Enzimática/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Lisossomos/imunologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/imunologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo
12.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 396-402, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402263

RESUMO

Proteasome is the eukaryotic organelle responsible for degradation of short-lived proteins and involved in maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. It has been reported that during the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the regulatory particle subunits of proteasome regulate a series of tumor-related proteins, and proliferation, survival-associated signaling molecules, including PTEN gene, P53, Bcl-2, Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), cyclin-dependent kinase 4(CDK4), transforming growth factor ß receptor (TGFBR), E2F1, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) . Meanwhile, these subunits regulate some tumor-associated pathway protein, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and protein kinase B (AKT), inducing their malfunction to promote the occurrence, proliferation, invasion and metastasis of HCC. The core particle subunits are more to perform the degradation of HCC-related proteins, so inhibitors targeting the core particle show a good anti-tumor effect. This review summarizes the current research progress on the regulation and mechanism of proteasome subunits in promoting the occurrence and development .


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360560

RESUMO

Among autophagy-related molecules, p62/SQSTM1 is an adaptor for identifying and delivering intracellular cargo for degradation. Since ubiquitination is reversible, it has a switch role in autophagy. Ubiquitination is also involved in regulating autophagy in a timely manner. This study aimed to elucidate how p62-mediated autophagy is regulated in human endothelial cells and macrophages under atherosclerotic conditions, focusing on the lysosomal and proteasomal pathways. Co-cultured HUVECs and THP-1 cells were exposed to oxLDL (50 µg/mL) and autophagy was assessed. To downregulate p62, siRNA was administered, and the E3 ligases were inhibited by Heclin or MLN4924 treatment under the condition that cellular inflammatory processes were stimulated by oxLDL simultaneously initiated autophagy. Downregulating p62 induced an alternative degradation system, and the E3 ligases were found to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the endothelial lipid accumulation under atherosclerotic conditions was caused by lysosomal dysfunction associated with autophagy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Autofagia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
14.
Science ; 373(6558): 998-1004, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446601

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, half of all proteins function as subunits within multiprotein complexes. Imbalanced synthesis of subunits leads to unassembled intermediates that must be degraded to minimize cellular toxicity. Here, we found that excess PSMC5, a subunit of the proteasome base, was targeted for degradation by the HERC1 ubiquitin ligase in mammalian cells. HERC1 identified unassembled PSMC5 by its cognate assembly chaperone PAAF1. Because PAAF1 only dissociates after assembly, HERC1 could also engage later assembly intermediates such as the PSMC4-PSMC5-PAAF1 complex. A missense mutant of HERC1 that causes neurodegeneration in mice was impaired in the recognition and ubiquitination of the PSMC5-PAAF1 complex. Thus, proteasome assembly factors can serve as adaptors for ubiquitin ligases to facilitate elimination of unassembled intermediates and maintain protein homeostasis.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Mutação Puntual , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
15.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397373

RESUMO

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Proteólise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia , Catálise , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445748

RESUMO

In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), hydroquinone (HQ)-induced oxidative damage in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is believed to be an early event contributing to dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) homeostasis. However, the roles of antioxidant mechanisms, such as autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, in modulating HQ-induced oxidative damage in RPE is not well-understood. This study utilized an in-vitro AMD model involving the incubation of human RPE cells (ARPE-19) with HQ. In comparison to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), HQ induced fewer reactive oxygen species (ROS) but more oxidative damage as characterized by protein carbonyl levels, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the loss of cell viability. HQ blocked the autophagy flux and increased proteasome activity, whereas H2O2 did the opposite. Moreover, the lysosomal membrane-stabilizing protein LAMP2 and cathepsin D levels declined with HQ exposure, suggesting loss of lysosomal membrane integrity and function. Accordingly, HQ induced lysosomal alkalization, thereby compromising the acidic pH needed for optimal lysosomal degradation. Pretreatment with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor and lysosomal stabilizer, upregulated LAMP2 and autophagy and prevented HQ-induced oxidative damage in wildtype RPE cells but not cells transfected with shRNA against ATG5. This study demonstrated that lysosomal dysfunction underlies autophagy defects and oxidative damage induced by HQ in human RPE cells and supports lysosomal stabilization with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 as a potential remedy for oxidative damage in RPE and AMD.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Catepsina D/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Hidroquinonas , Leupeptinas , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia
17.
FEBS Lett ; 595(18): 2383-2394, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358326

RESUMO

Maintenance of the proteome (proteostasis) is essential for cellular homeostasis and prevents cytotoxic stress responses that arise from protein misfolding. However, little is known about how different types of misfolded proteins impact homeostasis, especially when protein degradation pathways are compromised. We examined the effects of misfolded protein expression on yeast growth by characterizing a suite of substrates possessing the same aggregation-prone domain but engaging different quality control pathways. We discovered that treatment with a proteasome inhibitor was more toxic in yeast expressing misfolded membrane proteins, and this growth defect was mirrored in yeast lacking a proteasome-specific transcription factor, Rpn4p. These results highlight weaknesses in the proteostasis network's ability to handle the stress arising from an accumulation of misfolded membrane proteins.


Assuntos
Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Degradação Associada com o Retículo Endoplasmático , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência
18.
Cancer Sci ; 112(10): 3972-3978, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407274

RESUMO

While starvation-induced autophagy is thought to randomly degrade cellular components, under certain circumstances autophagy selectively recognizes, sequesters, and degrades specific targets via autophagosomes. This process is called selective autophagy, and it contributes to cellular homeostasis by degrading specific soluble proteins, supramolecular complexes, liquid-liquid phase-separated droplets, abnormal or excess organelles, and pathogenic invasive bacteria. This means that autophagy, like the ubiquitin-proteasome system, strictly regulates diverse cellular functions through its selectivity. In this short review, we focus on the mechanism of "selective" autophagy, which is rapidly being elucidated.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Organelas , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
19.
Sci Signal ; 14(690)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230209

RESUMO

Inorganic polyphosphates (polyPs) are linear polymers composed of repeated phosphate (PO4 3-) units linked together by multiple high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In addition to being a source of energy, polyPs have cytoprotective and antiviral activities. Here, we investigated the antiviral activities of long-chain polyPs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In molecular docking analyses, polyPs interacted with several conserved amino acid residues in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the host receptor that facilitates virus entry, and in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). ELISA and limited proteolysis assays using nano- LC-MS/MS mapped polyP120 binding to ACE2, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed interactions between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and identified the specific amino acid residues involved. PolyP120 enhanced the proteasomal degradation of both ACE2 and RdRp, thus impairing replication of the British B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. We thus tested polyPs for functional interactions with the virus in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 and Caco2 cells and in primary human nasal epithelial cells. Delivery of a nebulized form of polyP120 reduced the amounts of viral positive-sense genomic and subgenomic RNAs, of RNA transcripts encoding proinflammatory cytokines, and of viral structural proteins, thereby presenting SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Células CACO-2 , Chlorocebus aethiops , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/química , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/genética , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Polifosfatos/administração & dosagem , Polifosfatos/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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