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2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1263, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide among male construction workers are reported to be disproportionally high compared to the working age population. However, there is minimal understanding of the prevalence and associated factors for suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, and suicide attempt among this occupational group globally. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a large sample of male construction workers in Ireland (n = 1,585). We investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts and sociodemographic, occupational, and mental health factors associated with these three outcomes. Multivariable Poisson regression was performed to estimate the prevalence rate ratio of suicidal ideation (model 1 primary outcome), while multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio of non-suicidal self-injury (model 2 primary outcome), and suicide attempt (model 3 primary outcome). RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence rate for suicidal ideation was 22%, 6% for non-suicidal self-injury, and 6% for suicide attempt. In univariate modelling, socio-demographic and occupation-specific factors associated with the three outcomes included younger age (suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury), not being in a relationship (suicide attempt) and working 35-44 h per week (suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). The mental health factors generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and suicide bereavement were significantly associated with increased risk of the three outcomes. In fully adjusted multivariable models, increasing severity of generalized anxiety disorder and depression were associated with an increased prevalence rate ratio of suicidal ideation, and a higher odds ratio of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempt. CONCLUSION: Suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempt are significant issues for male construction workers that require specific attention. Findings highlight a need to support younger male construction workers and those bereaved by suicide. They also highlight the need for the early detection and treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and depression in order to intervene in, and potentially prevent, suicidality among male construction workers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Indústria da Construção , Adolescente
3.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(5): e14684, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739217

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited understanding exists regarding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) in depressed adolescents. The maturation of brain network is crucial during adolescence, yet the abnormal alternations in depressed adolescents with NSSI or NSSI+SA remain poorly understood. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 114 depressed adolescents, classified into three groups: clinical control (non-self-harm), NSSI only, and NSSI+SA based on self-harm history. The alternations of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were identified through support vector machine-based classification. RESULTS: Convergent alterations in NSSI and NSSI+SA predominantly centered on the inter-network RSFC between the Limbic network and the three core neurocognitive networks (SalVAttn, Control, and Default networks). Divergent alterations in the NSSI+SA group primarily focused on the Visual, Limbic, and Subcortical networks. Additionally, the severity of depressive symptoms only showed a significant correlation with altered RSFCs between Limbic and DorsAttn or Visual networks, strengthening the fact that increased depression severity alone does not fully explain observed FC alternations in the NSSI+SA group. CONCLUSION: Convergent alterations suggest a shared neurobiological mechanism along the self-destructiveness continuum. Divergent alterations may indicate biomarkers differentiating risk for SA, informing neurobiologically guided interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 378, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Challenging behaviors like aggression and self-injury are dangerous for clients and staff in residential care. These behaviors are not well understood and therefore often labeled as "complex". Yet it remains vague what this supposed complexity entails at the individual level. This case-study used a three-step mixed-methods analytical strategy, inspired by complex systems theory. First, we construed a holistic summary of relevant factors in her daily life. Second, we described her challenging behavioral trajectory by identifying stable phases. Third, instability and extraordinary events in her environment were evaluated as potential change-inducing mechanisms between different phases. CASE PRESENTATION: A woman, living at a residential facility, diagnosed with mild intellectual disability and borderline personality disorder, who shows a chronic pattern of aggressive and self-injurious incidents. She used ecological momentary assessments to self-rate challenging behaviors daily for 560 days. CONCLUSIONS: A qualitative summary of caretaker records revealed many internal and environmental factors relevant to her daily life. Her clinician narrowed these down to 11 staff hypothesized risk- and protective factors, such as reliving trauma, experiencing pain, receiving medical care or compliments. Coercive measures increased the chance of challenging behavior the day after and psychological therapy sessions decreased the chance of self-injury the day after. The majority of contemporaneous and lagged associations between these 11 factors and self-reported challenging behaviors were non-significant, indicating that challenging behaviors are not governed by mono-causal if-then relations, speaking to its complex nature. Despite this complexity there were patterns in the temporal ordering of incidents. Aggression and self-injury occurred on respectively 13% and 50% of the 560 days. On this timeline 11 distinct stable phases were identified that alternated between four unique states: high levels of aggression and self-injury, average aggression and self-injury, low aggression and self-injury, and low aggression with high self-injury. Eight out of ten transitions between phases were triggered by extraordinary events in her environment, or preceded by increased fluctuations in her self-ratings, or a combination of these two. Desirable patterns emerged more often and were less easily malleable, indicating that when she experiences bad times, keeping in mind that better times lie ahead is hopeful and realistic.


Assuntos
Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Deficiência Intelectual , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Adulto , Instituições Residenciais
5.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e2976, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) presents an increasingly prevalent problem for young people; however, there remains a scarce evidence base for effective, scalable treatments for adolescents. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a brief, cognitive analytic therapy (CAT)-informed intervention for young people who engage in NSSI (CATCH-Y). METHODS: A case series design recruited 13 young people who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria to participate in the five-session intervention. Eligible participants were aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 1.28) and had engaged in NSSI at least once in the previous 6 months. Feasibility and acceptability were measured via recruitment, retention, qualitative feedback and missing data. The secondary outcome measures of personal recovery and motivation were administered pre- and post-assessment, with measures of depressive symptoms and urges to self-injure. RESULTS: The intervention was found to be largely feasible and acceptable with high rates of recruitment, retention and pre-/post-assessment data completeness. Measures showed preliminary support for positive change in rates of NSSI, urges to self-harm, low mood and personal recovery, although results were mixed. Completion rates for remote assessments were low. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support further evaluation of the CATCH-Y intervention on a larger scale. In-person assessments may be preferable to remote to ensure good completion rates.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos
6.
Fam Community Health ; 47(3): 202-208, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research is to investigate associations between police contact, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and suicidal ideation (SI) among a national sample of Canadian adolescents and young adults (ages 16-30). METHODS: Data used in this study were obtained from the Canadian Study of Adolescent Health Behaviors (N = 940), a national survey of Canadians ages 16-30. RESULTS: Police contact was associated with higher odds of NSSI (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37, 2.86). Those who reported police contact with intrusion (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.49, 3.38) and police contact with harassment (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.30, 6.88) had higher odds of NSSI relative to respondents with no contact. Finally, any police contact was associated with higher odds of SI (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.34) and respondents experiencing police stops with harassment had higher odds of SI compared to those who had never been stopped (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.45, 4.24). CONCLUSIONS: Distressing police contact heightens the risk of NSSI and SI among young people. Rigorous evaluation of trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate strategies for identifying and intervening on NSSI and SI following adverse police encounters should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Polícia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Polícia/psicologia , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores de Risco
7.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2353460, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brief Admission by self-referral (BA) is a standardized crisis-management intervention for individuals with self-harm and risk for suicide. This study explored relatives' experiences of BA. Relatives' perspectives may contribute to an increased understanding of the effects of BA given the relatives' role as support and informal caregivers as well as being co-sufferers. METHODS: Fourteen relatives to adults with access to BA within one Swedish region participated in focus groups analysed with reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: We generated themes evolving around three meaning-based concepts: access (A low threshold to a safe back-up is crucial and obstacles may easily break faith), independence (Trust in their ability with care and respect), and recovery (The rest and relational recovery we all get are needed and invaluable). CONCLUSIONS: BA brings considerable value to users and relatives, by supporting them to take care of themselves and each other. Communication and involvement of relatives may enhance users' ability to overcome obstacles to accessing BA. Implementation and adherence may be strengthened by supervision of BA staff and education of emergency care staff. Resources are needed to improve access. Mapping hurdles to BA, support through peers and targeted psychoeducation may improve recovery for BA users and their relatives.


Assuntos
Intervenção em Crise , Família , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Suécia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família/psicologia , Idoso , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Cuidadores/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 332, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood events (ACEs), psychopathy, and self-harming behaviours are prevalent among individuals in the forensic psychiatry system. While existing literature suggests that ACEs, self-harm, and psychopathy are interrelated, little is known about the interplay of psychopathic traits in this relationship. The present study aimed to determine the mediating role of psychopathy in the relationship between ACEs and self-harming behaviours in forensic patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients under the Ontario Review Board (ORB) between 2014 and 2015. In the analysis, we included patients with complete data on ACEs, self-harming behaviours, and a Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) score - a measure of psychopathic traits and their severity conducted during the reporting period. Mediation analysis was based on the Baron and Kenny approach, and sensitivity analysis was performed based on the types of ACEs. RESULTS: ​​​The sample population (n = 593) was made up of adults, with a mean age of 41.21 (± 12.35) years and were predominantly males (92.37%). While there was a partial mediating effect of psychopathy on the relationship between ACEs and incidents of self-harming behaviours in the past year, the mediation was complete in the relationship between ACEs and a lifetime history of self-harming behaviours. Following sensitivity analysis based on the types of ACE, the mediating effects were more attributed to specific ACEs, especially having experienced child abuse or having an incarcerated household member before 18 years. CONCLUSION: Among forensic patients in Ontario, psychopathy mediates​ ​the relationship between experiencing ACEs and engaging in self-harming behaviours. Effective intervention to mitigate self-harming behaviours in this population should consider the potential role of psychopathy, especially among individuals who have experienced ACEs involving a history of child abuse and a family who was incarcerated.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Criança
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(18): e37896, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701288

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Low-velocity penetrating head injury (PHI) is rare, comprising 0.2% to 0.4% of head traumas, but can be devastating and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. No previous case of very-low-velocity PHI due to self-inflicted stabbing with a gimlet has been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 62-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with bleeding head and abdominal wounds after stabbing his abdomen with a gimlet, and then hammering the same gimlet into his forehead and removing the gimlet himself. DIAGNOSES: Upon examination at admission, stab wounds were present on the forehead and the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography (CT) of the head revealed a bone defect in the left frontal bone and showed the intracranial path of the gimlet surrounded by mild hemorrhage and pneumocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed a small amount of hemorrhage with pneumocephalus but no vascular injury. INTERVENTIONS: Conservative treatment without surgery. OUTCOMES: Follow-up MRI on hospital day 58 showed no abscess or traumatic intracranial aneurysm. The patient achieved full recovery of motor and mental functions with conservative treatment and was discharged on hospital day 69. LESSONS: Very-low-velocity PHI might be successfully treated with conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes , Ferimentos Perfurantes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/complicações , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/psicologia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/complicações , Ferimentos Perfurantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tratamento Conservador/métodos
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 370, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Borderline personality traits play a significant role in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), particularly in depressed youths. NSSI is also highly correlated with negative life events. This research aimed to explore the connections between negative life events, borderline personality traits, and NSSI. METHODS: The study included 338 depressed youth aged 13 to 25 years. Self-reported measures and clinical interviews were utilized to evaluate the depressive symptoms, borderline personality traits, negative life events, and NSSI behaviours of these participants. Identifying variables linked to NSSI was the aim of our analysis, and we also conducted a mediation analysis to look into the influence of borderline traits on the connection between negative life events and NSSI. RESULTS: Of the 338 depressed youth, approximately 59.47% (201/338) displayed NSSI, which was associated with greater clinical severity. Borderline traits had an independent influence on NSSI and it partially explained the connection between negative life events and NSSI, even when accounting for depression symptoms. Depressed youth who were more vulnerable to NSSI behaviours often experienced negative life events such as interpersonal relationships, academic pressure, being punished, and loss. CONCLUSIONS: Our research suggests that depressed youth who experience more negative life events are more likely to experience NSSI, and negative life events indirectly influence nonsuicidal self-injury through borderline personality traits. Implementing interventions focused on mitigating borderline symptoms could be a promising therapeutic approach for addressing NSSI in young people.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
11.
Brain Behav ; 14(4): e3475, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to conduct the first-ever evaluation of our previously proposed behaviors of "hemomania" in individuals engaged with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). METHODS: The study encompassed 130 outpatients engaged with NSSI who applied at the psychiatry outpatient clinic. NSSI behaviors were assessed using the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury, while psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 Disorders-Clinician Version. Subsequently, participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and Short Form of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one hemomania behavior including seeing blood, tasting blood, bloodletting, and blood-drinking was observed to be 43.1% in individuals with NSSI. When participants were divided into two groups, individuals with hemomania exhibited: (1) a higher incidence of psychiatric comorbidities, increased suicide attempts, and more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and impulsivity, (2) higher comorbidity rates of borderline personality disorder, body-focused repetitive behaviors, and dissociative disorders, and (3) elevated frequencies of certain NSSI behaviors, including cutting, biting, needle-ticking, and carving, compared to those without. CONCLUSION: Hemomania could be considered a specific impulse control disorder, characterized by heightened impulsivity and a persistent urge to obtain one's own blood. However, further studies are needed to validate this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia
12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 152: 106804, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive non-suicidal self-injury (R-NSSI) in adolescence represents a significant risk factor for suicide. Although exposure to family stress is robustly associated with the risk of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), studies have not examined the potential mechanisms linking different forms of family stress and R-NSSI. OBJECTIVE: This study examined how unique dimensions of family stress (threat and deprivation) relate to R-NSSI via interactions between impulsivity and emotion dysregulation. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The current sample included 3801 middle-school adolescents (42.2 % girls, Mage = 13.21 years). METHODS: We conducted a two-wave study with 6-month intervals. Participants completed self-report measures assessing family stress, impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and NSSI. RESULTS: Moderate mediation analyses showed that threat was indirectly associated with NSSI frequency through the interaction of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in the R-NSSI group and indirectly through impulsivity in the occasional NSSI (O-NSSI) group. Deprivation did not predict subsequent NSSI frequency in either group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings lend empirical support to dimensional models of adversity and suggest that adolescents who experience threat-related family stress may have greater impulsivity and are more likely to report R-NSSI in the context of emotion dysregulation.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Comportamento Impulsivo , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Família/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 246: 104271, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631150

RESUMO

This study aimed to utilize machine learning to explore the psychological similarities and differences between suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), with a particular focus on the role of psychological pain. A total of 2385 middle school students were recruited using cluster sampling. The random forest algorithm was used with 25 predictors to develop classification models of SA and NSSI, respectively, and to estimate the importance scores of each predictor. Based on these scores and related theories, shared risk factors (control feature set) and distinct risk factors (distinction feature set) were selected and tested to distinguish between NSSI and SA. The machine learning algorithm exhibited fair to good performance in classifying SA history [Area Under Curves (AUCs): 0.65-0.87] and poor performance in classifying NSSI history (AUC: 0.61-0.68). The distinction feature set comprised pain avoidance, family togetherness, and deviant peer affiliation, while the control feature set included pain arousal, painful feelings, and crisis events. The distinction feature set slightly but stably outperformed the control feature set in classifying SA from NSSI. The three-dimensional psychological pain model, especially pain avoidance, might play a dominant role in understanding the similarities and differences between SA and NSSI.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Aprendizado de Máquina , Dor/psicologia , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e069862, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many university students self-harm but few receive support. Smartphone apps have been identified as acceptable sources of support for students who self-harm, but the use of supportive self-harm apps is yet to be explored in this population. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to explore the acceptability and safety of a specific app (BlueIce) for university students who self-harm. METHODS: This was an exploratory, mixed methods study with 15 university students attending university well-being services with self-harming thoughts and/or behaviours. BlueIce was offered alongside the face-to-face support provided by the well-being service. Self-harming thoughts and behaviours, coping self-efficacy, and symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured before and after using BlueIce for 6 weeks. Follow-up interviews were also undertaken to explore how students perceived BlueIce in more depth. RESULTS: Following app use, there were statistically significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety (baseline M 12.47, SD 4.42; follow-up M 10, SD 4.16) t(14)=2.26, p=0.040, d=0.58 and depression (baseline M 16.5, SD 5.17, follow-up M 12.27, SD 3.66) t(13)=5.50, p<0.001, d=1.47. Qualitative findings showed participants found BlueIce to be acceptable, safe and helpful, and reported that they were more able to cope with difficult feelings and better understand their self-harm triggers following use of the app. CONCLUSION: BlueIce was an acceptable, safe and helpful source of support for university students struggling with self-harm thoughts and/or behaviours. This builds on previous findings with adolescents and suggests that BlueIce could be a particularly acceptable and helpful resource for university students.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Aplicativos Móveis , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Smartphone , Estudantes , Humanos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Autoeficácia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente
15.
Behav Ther ; 55(3): 469-484, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670662

RESUMO

Although the literature suggests trait-like differences in affective and cognitive vulnerabilities between individuals with and without a history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), little is known about how these dispositional differences are experienced in the natural environment. The present study compares the intensity, inertia, interaction, and variability of affective (negative and positive affect) and cognitive states (rumination, self-criticism) in the everyday lives of individuals who do and do not engage in NSSI. Using experience sampling methodology (ESM), 60 emerging adults (ages = 18-22 years) with and without past-year NSSI (equally distributed) completed eight questionnaires per day for 12 days (in total, 96 questionnaires per participant), resulting in 4,587 assessments (median compliance = 83.3%; IQR = 71.9-91.7). In a dynamic structural equation modeling framework, dynamic parameters (i.e., mean intensity, carryover effects, spillover effects, and within-person variability) were evaluated using multilevel vector autoregressive models. Emerging adults who engage in NSSI experience higher intensity and greater variability of negative affect, rumination, and self-criticism, whereas those who do not engage in NSSI experience higher intensity and lower variability of positive affect. In addition, past-year NSSI predicted stronger affective-cognitive interactions over time, with stronger spillover effects of negative and positive affect on subsequent rumination and self-criticism in individuals who engage in NSSI. Depressive symptoms and trait levels of emotion dysregulation and self-criticism partially negated these differences. Our findings provide evidence that emerging adults who self-injure experience more negative affective-cognitive states in daily life and point to the potential relevance of boosting positive emotions to buffer negative cognitions.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cognição , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Ruminação Cognitiva , Adulto , Autoimagem
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 53(6): 1301-1322, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564099

RESUMO

Suicide remains the second most common cause of death in young people aged 10-24 years and is a growing concern globally. The literature reports a vast number of factors that can predispose an adolescent to suicidality at an individual, relational, community, or societal level. There is limited high-level research identifying and understanding these risk and protective factors of adolescent suicidality. The present study used an umbrella review and meta-analysis to synthesize evidence from the review literature in the past 20 years on risk and protective factors of self-harm and suicidality (behavior and ideation) in adolescents. The umbrella review included 33 quantitative reviews with 1149 individual studies on suicidality and self-harm. Based on the data synthesis, it compared the public health impact of exposure on the population of the identified exposure. Bullying victimization was the most attributed environmental exposure for suicidality. The other identified significant school and individual factors were sleeping disturbance, school absenteeism, and exposure to antidepressants. Several significant vulnerable young populations were identified with significantly higher prevalence of suicidality, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (or questioning) youth and those with mental health disorders, problem behaviors, previous suicidality, self-harm, and gender (female). A person-centered approach emphasizing connectedness and bully-free school environments should be a priority focus for schools, health professionals, and public health policymakers.


Assuntos
Bullying , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Proteção , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 336: 115925, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678744

RESUMO

Theoretical perspectives underscore that low pain tolerance may be a relevant 'barrier' to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, there is limited longitudinal work on the link between pain tolerance and NSSI, which is needed to assess if pain tolerance precedes NSSI engagement, and/or if NSSI precedes altered pain tolerance. Further, assessing both NSSI frequency and versatility (or number of NSSI methods), in addition to engagement, can provide a more nuanced understanding of the influence of pain on NSSI severity. In the present study, 1125 undergraduate students at a large university (72 % female, Mage = 17.96) reported on their NSSI frequency, NSSI versatility, and perceived pain tolerance. Four individual regressions were run to examine the potential bidirectional nature of the association between NSSI frequency and pain tolerance, and NSSI versatility and pain tolerance. Pain tolerance predicted both NSSI frequency and versatility over time. Neither NSSI frequency nor versatility predicted pain tolerance. Results suggest that high pain tolerance may be a risk factor for severe NSSI engagement.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Feminino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Adulto , Dor/psicologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299239, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm and suicide behaviours are a major public health concern. Several factors are associated with these behaviours among military communities. Identifying these factors may have important implications for policy and clinical services. The aim of this review was to identify the risk and protective factors associated with self-harm and suicide behaviours among serving and ex-serving personnel of the United Kingdom Armed Forces, Canadian Armed Forces, Australian Defence Force and New Zealand Defence Force. METHODS: A systematic search of seven online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Global Health, PsycINFO, PTSDpubs and CINAHL) was conducted alongside cross-referencing, in October 2022. Following an a priori PROSPERO approved protocol (CRD42022348867), papers were independently screened and assessed for quality. Data were synthesised using a narrative approach. RESULTS: Overall, 28 papers were included: 13 from Canada, 10 from the United Kingdom, five from Australia and none from New Zealand. Identified risk factors included being single/ex-relationship, early service leavers, shorter length of service (but not necessarily early service leavers), junior ranks, exposure to deployment-related traumatic events, physical and mental health diagnoses, and experience of childhood adversity. Protective factors included being married/in a relationship, higher educational attainment, employment, senior ranks, and higher levels of perceived social support. CONCLUSION: Adequate care and support are a necessity for the military community. Prevention and intervention strategies for self-harm and suicide behaviours may be introduced early and may promote social networks as a key source of support. This review found a paucity of peer-reviewed research within some populations. More peer-reviewed research is needed, particularly among these populations where current work is limited, and regarding modifiable risk and protective factors.


Assuntos
Militares , Fatores de Proteção , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Militares/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Canadá/epidemiologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 234, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury seriously harm the physical and mental health of adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between non-suicide self-injury, depression, and childhood trauma from the perspective of symptoms in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four junior high middle schools and collected 2640 valid questionnaires. There were 1329 male students and 1311 female students. The age of the participants ranged from 11 to 17 years old, with a mean age of 13.3 (± 0.94) years. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), depressive symptoms, and childhood trauma were assessed using the Adolescent Self-Harm Scale, the Childhood Depression Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, respectively. A network analysis was performed. RESULTS: In the network, NSSI, depressive symptoms, and childhood trauma were closely related. Negative self-esteem in the depressive symptoms and emotional abuse in childhood were the most central nodes. Negative self-esteem and negative mood were directly connected to NSSI, other nodes of depressive symptoms appeared to be indirectly connected to NSSI through these two nodes. Emotional abuse was the only node in childhood trauma categories directly connected to NSSI. Nodes of other categories of childhood trauma (physical neglect, physical abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse) were indirectly connected to NSSI through emotional abuse. CONCLUSIONS: NSSI, depression, and childhood trauma of teenagers were closely related. Individuals who have suffered emotional abuse in childhood were more likely to have depressive symptoms and NSSI. Improving negative self-esteem and negative emotions and reducing emotional abuse may be beneficial in alleviating depression and reducing NSSI in adolescents.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Depressão , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Autoimagem , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Affect Disord ; 356: 13-21, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders that follow traumatic experience may increase risk of suicidality, but a comprehensive approach to understand how these mental disorders mediate the association between psychological traumatic experience and suicidality should be elucidated. In this study, we attempted to provide comprehensive evidence on how depressive symptoms and neuroticism can mediate the association between psychological traumatic experiences and suicidal behaviours including suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts. METHODS: We analyzed 111,931 participants from UK Biobank who had completed mental health web-based questionnaire from 2016 to 2017. "Self-harm and suicidal behaviour and ideation (SSBI) score" was calculated by the response from suicidal behaviours and self-harm questionnaires. Conducting multivariate linear regression, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and neuroticism were selected as potential mediators. We constructed a latent class mediation model estimated direct effect of psychological traumatic events on suicidality and indirect effect of psychological traumatic events mediated by depressive symptoms and neuroticism. RESULTS: Psychological traumatic events were positively associated with suicidal behaviours. Depressive symptoms and neuroticism significantly mediated the effect of psychological traumatic events on suicidality. Anxiety symptoms did not mediate the association between psychological traumatic events and suicidality. CONCLUSION: Psychological traumatic events, irrespective of life stage of occurrence, are associated with suicidality. The association between psychological traumatic events and suicidality can be partially explained by depressive symptoms and neuroticism of those who were exposed to psychological trauma.


Assuntos
Depressão , Análise de Classes Latentes , Neuroticismo , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Adulto , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Análise de Mediação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Biobanco do Reino Unido
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