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1.
Sports Health ; 12(2): 132-138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027223

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Humeral torsion (HT) has been linked to various injuries and benefits. However, the exact interplay between HT, shoulder range of motion (ROM), competition level differences, and injury risk is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between HT, ROM, and injury risk in baseball players. Secondarily, to determine HT based on competition level. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception until November 4, 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria consisted of (1) HT measurements and (2) arm injury or shoulder ROM. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers recorded patient demographics, competition level, HT, shoulder ROM, and injury data. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies were included. There was no difference between baseball players with shoulder and elbow injuries and noninjured players (side-to-side HT difference: mean difference [MD], 1.75 [95% CI, -1.83 to 2.18]; dominant arm: MD, 0.17 [95% CI, -1.83 to 2.18]). Meta-regression determined that for every 1° increase in shoulder internal rotation (IR), there was a subsequent increase of 0.65° in HT (95% CI, 0.28 to 1.02). HT did not explain external rotation (ER ROM: 0.19 [95% CI, -0.24 to 0.61]) or horizontal adduction (HA ROM: 0.18 [95% CI, -0.46 to 0.82]). There were no differences between HT at the high school, college, or professional levels. CONCLUSION: No relationship was found between HT and injury risk. However, HT explained 65% of IR ROM but did not explain ER ROM or HA ROM. There were no differences in HT pertaining to competition level. The majority of IR may be nonmodifiable. Treatment to restore and maintain clinical IR may be important, especially in players with naturally greater torsion. HT adaptation may occur prior to high school, which can assist in decisions regarding adolescent baseball participation.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Braço/fisiopatologia , Beisebol/lesões , Úmero/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Úmero/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fatores de Risco , Rotação
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 644-651, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009514

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue responses of elite rugby players during the inaugural Under-18 (U18) Six Nations Festival. One hundred and thirty-three male players from five national squads (73 forwards, 60 backs) were examined during the competition. Each national squad was involved in three matches separated by 96 h each. Over the competition, players completed a daily questionnaire to monitor perceived well-being (WB) and performed daily countermovement jumps (CMJ) to assess neuromuscular function (NMF). Reductions in WB were substantial 24 h after the first and second match in forwards (d=0.77±0.21, p<0.0001; d=0.84±0.22, p< 0.001) and backs (d=0.89±0.22, p <0.0001; d=0.58±0.23, p<0.0001) but reached complete recovery in time for the subsequent match. Reductions in CMJ height were substantial 24 h after the first and second match for forwards (d=0.31±0.15, p=0.001; d=0.25±0.17, p=0.0205) and backs (d=0.40±0.17, p=0.0001; d=0.28±0.17, p=0.0062) and recovered at 48 h after match-play. Average WB and CMJ height attained complete recovery within matchday cycles in the investigated international competition. The findings of this study can be useful for practitioners and governing bodies involved with fixture scheduling and training prescription during competitive periods.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 658-668, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009533

RESUMO

Visual exploratory action, in which football players turn their head to perceive their environment, improves prospective performance with the ball during match-play. This scanning action, however, is relevant for players throughout the entire match, as the information perceived through visual exploration is needed to guide movement around the pitch during both offensive and defensive play. This study aimed to understand how a player's on-pitch position, playing role and phase of play influenced the visual exploratory head movements of players during 11v11 match-play. Twenty-two competitive-elite youth footballers (M = 16.25 years) played a total of 1,623 minutes (M = 73.8). Inertial measurement units, global positioning system units and notational analysis were used to quantify relevant variables. Analyses revealed that players explored more extensively when they were in possession of the ball, and less extensively during transition phases, as compared to team ball-possession and opposition ball-possession phases of play. Players explored most extensively when in the back third of the pitch, and least when they were in the middle third of the pitch. Playing role, pitch position and phase of play should be considered as constraints on visual exploratory actions when developing training situations aimed at improving the scanning actions of players.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Futebol/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 676-681, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028853

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess if tactical and technical performance indicators (PIs) could be used in combination to model match outcomes in Australian Football (AF). A database of 101 technical PIs and 14 tactical PIs from every match in the 2009-2016 Australian Football League (AFL) seasons was merged. Two outcome measures Win-loss and Score margin were used as dependent variables. The top 45 ranked technical and tactical PIs from a feature selection process were used to model match outcome using decision tree and Generalised Linear Models (GLMs). Of the top 45 selected features, this included seven tactical PIs. The Win-loss-based Decision tree model achieved a classification accuracy of 89.0% and GLM 93.2%. A Score margin-based GLM achieved a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 6.9 points. A combined approach to the classification of match outcomes provided no improvement in model accuracy compared with previous literature. However, this study has established the relative importance of technical and tactical measures of performance in relation to successful team performance in AF.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Árvores de Decisões , Modelos Lineares , Futebol/fisiologia , Austrália , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 703-709, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050847

RESUMO

Recently, there has been much controversy over the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) regulations regarding eligibility to compete and natural testosterone levels in female athletes. Much interest lies in the analysis of Caster Semenya's extraordinary performance. The objective of this work were, a) Complete an analysis of Caster Semenya's results during the 800m finals and b) search for existing similar performances by other female athletes. We analysed the results of the finals of all IAAF World Championships and Olympic Games from 1984-2016, including the 800m results of the Diamond Leagues 2016-2018. Exponential curves were fit to the data to characterise and predict performance for each event. Caster Semenya's finishing times before her ineligibility to compete and after the suspension of the IAAF hyperandrogenism regulation were found to be 1.24% and 1.49%, respectively, faster than the characteristic performance of the elite-standard in the women's 800m final. Other female athletes, with finishing times faster than the ones predicted by the characteristic curves were also discovered. The percentage difference in performance between Caster Semenya and the other participants did not reach 3% in the 800m event. No conclusions can be drawn regarding extraordinary results ever performed during the 100m, 200m or 400m finals.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Hiperandrogenismo , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Atletismo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 175-181, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952081

RESUMO

Functional threshold power (FTP) is defined as the highest power that a cyclist can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatigue for approximately 1 hour. To improve practicality, a 20-minute time-trial test was proposed, where FTP is represented by 95% of the mean power produced. It is preceded by a specific 45-min warm-up, with periods of low intensity, fast accelerations, and a 5-min time-trial. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this protocol, including the reliability of the warm-up, pacing strategy, and FTP determination. For this purpose, 25 trained cyclists performed a familiarization and two other tests separated by seven days. The coefficient of variation (CV [%]), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and change in the mean between test and retest were calculated. The results show that the 20-min time-trial was reliable (CV=2.9%, ICC=0.97), despite a less reliable warm-up (CV=5.5%, ICC=0.84). The changes in the mean between the test and retest were trivial to small for all measurements, and the pacing strategy was consistent across all trials. These results suggest that FTP determination with a 20-min protocol was reliable in trained cyclists.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia
7.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 168-174, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952082

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and the incidence of injuries in high-intensity functional training (HIFT) practitioners. A survey was administered to 213 HIFT practitioners. Participants reported the number of injuries, the location of the injuries, and training exposure during the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. We found there were 7.1 injuries for every 1000 hours of training. In addition, we found that individuals with experience in the modality (>2 years) were 3.77 times more likely to be affected by injury when compared with beginner individuals (<6 months) (CI95%=1.59-8.92; p=0.003). When the analysis was performed only for the competitive level, we found that practitioners competing at the national level were 5.69 times more likely to experience an injury than competitors who do not compete (CI95%=1.10-29.54; p=0.038). We also found that the injuries mainly affect the shoulder and lumbar regions. It was possible to conclude that subjects with a higher level of experience in the modality are more likely to be affected by injuries and that the shoulder and lumbar areas are most likely to be injured during HIFT.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adulto , Lesões nas Costas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Exercício , Feminino , Ginástica/lesões , Humanos , Incidência , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Lesões do Ombro/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Punho/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 343-350, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809646

RESUMO

Resolving intra-stride accelerations from training and game data routinely collected by athlete tracking devices is rarely attempted, even though these data can provide important insights into the physical condition of athletes. This study describes in detail a novel analysis tool which uses accelerometer-based measures of step variability to assess longitudinal consistency of stride technique. The performance of the analysis tool was examined by combining results from the analysis of data collected over the course of an Australian Football League season with instances of missed or modified training. Results demonstrated increased gait-related trunk acceleration variability when training was modified due to load or accumulated game and training activity (p = 0.02) and reduced trunk acceleration variability in the week following a training modification due to any injury described as "ankle", "heel", or any other description that would loosely refer to a joint or bone in the leg (p = 0.01). These results support the findings of recent research which used a slightly modified version of the same analysis tool to demonstrate an increase in gait-related trunk acceleration variability with the increased acute physical load.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Análise da Marcha , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Austrália , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575324

RESUMO

Previous research has shown enhanced performance and altered pacing behaviour in the presence of a virtual opponent during middle-distance cycling time trials with a duration of 2 min and longer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects are also present in cycling time trials of shorter duration. Twelve physically active men completed three 1-km time trials. After a familiarisation trial (FAM), participants performed two experimental conditions: one without opponent (NO) and one with a virtual opponent (OP). Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to assess differences in pacing and performance using power output and duration (p<0.05). No differences in mean finishing times (FAM: 91.5 ± 7.7 s; NO: 91.6 ± 6.4 s; OP: 90.9 ± 4.9 s; p=0.907) or power output (FAM: 382 ± 111 W; NO: 363 ± 80 W; OP: 367 ± 67; p=0.564) were found between experimental conditions. Furthermore, no differences in pacing profiles between experimental conditions were found (p=0.199). Similarly, rate of perceived exertion did not differ between experimental conditions at any moment (p=0.831). In conclusion, unlike events of a more prolonged duration (>2 min), the presence of an opponent did not affect participants' pacing behaviour in short duration 1-km time trials.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 330-335, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774365

RESUMO

The aim of this novel study was to analyse key kinematic variables during the water jump clearance amongst world-class 3,000 m steeplechasers. Thirteen men and 13 women were recorded as they negotiated the last water jump in the 2017 IAAF World Championship finals. Video footage (100 Hz) was recorded using three high-definition camcorders to derive spatiotemporal data; spatial data were normalised to athletes' statures. The time to cover the distance from 4.5 m before the water jump barrier to 4.5 m after ("9 m time") was used to describe overall clearance success. Although men had longer approach and exit step lengths, there were no differences when the data were normalised; by contrast, men's landing distances were greater in both absolute and relative terms. Women's shorter landing distances meant negotiating deeper water when exiting, with those athletes with longer landing distances running faster 9 m times (r = - 0.87). Obtaining a high position on the barrier (clearance height) was correlated with longer landing distances (men: r = 0.75, women: r = 0.71) and could indicate better technique. Coaches should note that although technical proficiency in all aspects of the clearance is imperative, optimising the athlete's landing distance is paramount.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 390-398, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825286

RESUMO

The literature on momentum is still undecided, with mixed results whether momentum exists or is only perceived to exist ("hot hand fallacy"). We explore whether momentum exists by looking at cases in which a basketball player has three consecutive free throws. A free throw is a well-defined task executed in a stable environment, allegedly giving momentum optimal chances to occur. Taking 14 NBA seasons we collected over 4500 three-free-throw sets (triplets). We obtained the outcomes of the shots as well as some additional variables about the player and the game: the player's average free-throw percentage, home or away, and the game score and the quarter when the free throws were attempted. We first analyse the hit rates in the three shots and then proceed to regression analysis that also controls for the abovementioned variables. We address several concerns raised in the literature. All comparisons and analyses yield the same conclusion that there is no evidence for momentum in the data.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Basquetebol/psicologia , Basquetebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos , Probabilidade , Análise de Regressão , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
12.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(4): 245-249, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a team illness prevention strategy (TIPS) would reduce the incidence of acute illness during the Super Rugby tournament. METHODS: We studied 1340 male professional rugby union player seasons from six South African teams that participated in the Super Rugby tournament (2010-2016). Medical staff recorded all illnesses daily (126 850 player days) in a 3-year control (C: 2010-2012; 47 553 player days) and a 4-year intervention (I: 2013-2016; 79 297 player days) period. A five-element TIPS was implemented in the I period, following agreement by consensus. Incidence rate (IR: per 1000 player days; 95% CI) of all acute illnesses, illness by main organ system, infectious illness and illness burden (days lost due to illness per 1000 player days) were compared between C and I period. RESULTS: The IR of acute illness was significantly lower in the I (5.5: 4.7 to 6.4) versus the C period (13.2: 9.7 to 18.0) (p<0.001). The IR of respiratory (C=8.6: 6.3 to 11.7; I=3.8: 3.3 to 4.3) (p<0.0001), digestive (C=2.5: 1.8 to 3.6; I=1.1: 0.8 to 1.4) (p<0.001), skin and subcutaneous tissue illness (C=0.7: 0.4 to 1.4; I=0.3: 0.2 to 0.5) (p=0.0238), all infections (C=8.4: 5.9 to 11.9; I=4.3: 3.7 to 4.9) (p<0.001) and illness burden (C=9.2: 6.8 to 12.5; I=5.7: 4.1 to 7.8) (p=0.0314) were significantly lower in the I versus the C period. CONCLUSION: A TIPS during the Super Rugby tournament was associated with a lower incidence of all acute illnesses (59%), infectious illness (49%) and illness burden (39%). Our findings may have important clinical implications for other travelling team sport settings.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Futebol Americano , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 66-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of training load to injury using wearable technology has not been investigated in professional American football players. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation between player workload and soft tissue injury over the course of a football season utilizing wearable global positioning system (GPS) technology. HYPOTHESIS: Increased training load is associated with a higher incidence of soft tissue injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Player workloads were assessed during preseason and regular-season practice sessions using GPS tracking and triaxial accelerometry from 2014 to 2016. Soft tissue injuries were recorded during each season. Player workload during the week of injury (acute) and average weekly workload during the 4 weeks (chronic) prior to injury were determined for each injury and in uninjured position-matched controls during the same week. A matched-pairs t test was used to determine differences in player workload. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to determine whether observed effects were confounded by training period and type of injury. RESULTS: In total, 136 lower extremity injuries were recorded. Of the recorded injuries, 101 injuries with complete GPS and clinical data were included in the analysis. Injuries were associated with greater increases in workload during the week of injury over the prior month when compared with uninjured controls. Injured players saw a 111% (95% CI, 66%-156%) increase in workload whereas uninjured players saw a 73% (95% CI, 34%-112%) increase in workload during the week of injury (P = 0.032). Individuals who had an acute to chronic workload ratio higher than 1.6 were 1.5 times more likely to sustain an injury relative to time- and position-matched controls (64.6% vs 43.1%; P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Soft tissue injuries in professional football players were associated with sudden increases in training load over the course of a month. This effect seems to be especially pronounced during the preseason when player workloads are generally higher. These results suggest that a gradual increase of training intensity is a potential method to reduce the risk of soft tissue injury. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Preseason versus regular-season specific training programs monitored with wearable technology may assist team athletic training and medical staff in developing programs to optimize player performance.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Futebol Americano/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 106-113, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658883

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop an automated method for identifying and classifying change of direction (COD) movements in professional tennis using tracking data. Three sport science and strength and conditioning experts coded match-play footage of nineteen professional tennis players (9 male and 10 female) from the Australian Open Grand Slam for COD of medium and high intensity. A total of 1,494 changes were identified and aligned with 2D player position sampled at 25 Hz based on camera tracking data. Several machine learning classifiers were trained and tested on a set of 1,128 time-motion features. A random forest algorithm was found to have the best out-of-sample performance, classifying medium and high intensity changes with an F1-score of 0.729. This research offers a novel and applicable way for utilising player tracking data and machine learning techniques to automatically identify and classify COD movements in professional tennis.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Destreza Motora/classificação , Tênis/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/classificação , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 21-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756737

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to verify the relative contributions of energetic and kinematic parameters to the performance in 400-m front crawl test. Fourteen middle-distance swimmers participated in the study. Oxygen consumption was measured directly and blood samples were collected to assay lactate concentration. Both oxygen consumption and lactate concentration were used to calculate the: (i) overall energy expenditure, (ii) anaerobic (alactic and lactic) and (iii) aerobic contributions. The mean centre of mass speed and intracycle velocity variation were determined through three-dimensional kinematic analysis. Mean completion time was 315.64±26.91s. Energetic contributions were as follows: 6.1±0.28% from alactic anaerobic metabolism, 5.9±0.63% from anaerobic lactic and 87.8±0.88% from aerobic. Mean intracycle velocity variation was 0.14±0.03. The results indicated that performance of 400-m test relies predominantly on aerobic power. Parameters such as lactate, mean speed, anaerobic lactic and alactic (kW) correlated with performance of 400-m test (p <0.05). Multiple linear regressions indicated that mean centre of mass speed and anaerobic alactic (kW) determined the 400-m test performance (R2=0.92). Even though the T400 is characterized by aerobic metabolism, the anaerobic alactic component cannot be negligible at this competition level.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Natação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 54-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747701

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate exposure adjusted injury incidence rates and profiles associated with training and competition in an elite taekwondo athlete population. 82 athletes were investigated for injuries over a period of 5 years. Individual fight time exposure for training and competition was recorded. The type and location of the injuries were classified and exposure-adjusted injury incidence rates (IIR) were calculated per 1000 h for training and competition. 66 athletes with a mean age of 19.3±4.2 years and 172 injuries were included in the final data assessment. The exposure adjusted IIR was significantly higher during competition (p<0.001) with a rate ratio of 6.33 (95% CI 4.58-8.69). Ankle and foot region as well as hand and wrist were most affected with significant higher IIR in competition (p<0.001). Joint injuries, fractures, and bruising occurred the most. Fractures occurred mainly to the hand and wrist region. Future investigations should focus on exposure adjusted injury data including analyses of the detailed mechanism leading to especially severe injuries to improve specific injury prevention in competition and promote evolution of protective gear.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Traumatismos do Pé/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Traumatismos do Punho/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 308-319, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783717

RESUMO

The primary aim of this research was to generate insight into observable mentally tough behaviours, or MTb, across different contexts (e.g., training and competition) in an Australian football (AF) environment. A second aim of this research was to explore the utility of MTb as a distinct concept, and identify common behavioural qualities associated with MTb that separate it from other similar constructs. In total, 10 experienced full-time football operations staff were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide, with inductive thematic analysis employed to analyse the data. Five main themes relating to MTb were identified: adaptive development, consistent training conduct, composed performance actions, responsible and accountable, and team supportive. Overall, the findings of the research provided preliminary support for the proposition that there exists a collection of MTb that are displayed more frequently by athletes considered to possess high levels of mental toughness compared to athletes who are perceived to have low levels of this psychological capacity. We propose a collection of necessary and sufficient behavioural qualities and a working definition of MTb to further our understanding of potential strategies to develop MT.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Futebol/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Austrália , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico
20.
Sports Biomech ; 19(2): 180-188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754531

RESUMO

Head impacts resulting in a concussion negatively affect the vestibular system, but little is known about the effect of subconcussive impacts on this system. This study's objective was to determine if subconcussive head impacts sustained over one competitive lacrosse season, effect sway velocity. Healthy Division I male lacrosse players (n = 33; aged 19.52 ± 1.20 years) wore instrumented helmets to track head impact exposures. At the beginning and end of the season the players completed an instrumented Balance Error Scoring System assessment to assess sway velocity. Score differentials were correlated to the head impact exposure data collected via instrumented helmets when averaged within participant. Paired samples t-tests revealed a post-season increase in sway velocity on the double leg stance, firm surface (p = 0.002, d = 0.59); tandem stance, firm surface (p = 0.033, d = 0.39) and double leg, foam surface (p = 0.014, d = 0.45) A significant correlation was found between change in tandem stance, firm surface sway velocities and linear acceleration (p < 0.001, r = 0.65). It appears subconcussive impacts may result in tandem stance balance deficits. Repetitive head impacts may negatively affect sway velocity, even in the absence of a diagnosed concussion injury.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Postura/fisiologia , Esportes com Raquete/lesões , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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