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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808997

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to analyse the neuroendocrine stress response, psychological anxiety response, and perceived match importance (PMI) between expert and non-expert control gamers in an official competitive context. We analyzed, in 25 expert esports players and 20 control participants, modifications in their somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, PMI, and cortisol in a League of Legends competition. We found how expert esports players presented higher cortisol concentrations (Z = 155.5; p = 0.03; Cohen's d = -0.66), cognitive anxiety (Z = 99.5; p = 0.001), and PMI (Z = 50.5; p < 0.001) before the competition than non-experts participants. We found a greater statistical weight in the cognitive variables than in the physiological ones. The results obtained suggest that real competitive context and player's expertise were factors associated with an anticipatory stress response. The PMI proved to be a differentiating variable between both groups, highlighting the necessity to include subjective variables that contrast objective measurements.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Hidrocortisona , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos , Saliva , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573125

RESUMO

The present study examines the association between the success at junior and senior level for British swimmers in World Championships (WCs). It also explores the relationships between swimming performance and the swimmers' gender, swim stroke, distance, status (finalist, semifinalist and heats) and swimming category. Data were collected for swimmers participating in junior and/or senior World Championships (29,000 entries: 5585 swimmers) from 2006-2017. The final filtered database included only swimmers from the United Kingdom (836 entries: 141 swimmers). A descriptive analysis was made to characterize the swimmers who reached elite status in the senior category. A lineal regression model was run by gender to predict the influence of category, swim stroke, and distance in the results reached in the senior category. The results showed that the ratio of conversion from junior to senior was quite low. Females who participated in both junior and senior WCs were likely to reach top positions in the senior category. Overall, few British swimmers participated in a junior category before the senior level, but female swimmers participating in both junior and senior WCs were likely to reach top positions in the senior category.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Natação , Logro , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Reino Unido
4.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 154-168, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the frequency of training, combined with the repetitive motion involved in high volume swimming can predispose swimmers to symptoms of over-training. The prevention of pain, injury and illness is of paramount importance in competitive swimming in order to maximise a swimmer's ability to train and perform consistently. A significant factor in the prevention of pain, injury or illness is the appropriate load monitoring and management practices within a training programme. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the relationship between training load and pain, injury and illness in competitive swimmers. METHODS: The databases SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus, MEDLINE and Embase were searched in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies were included if they reported on competitive swimmers and analysed the link between training load and either pain, injury or illness. The methodological quality and study bias were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist. RESULTS: The search retrieved 1,959 articles, 15 of which were included for review. The critical appraisal process indicated study quality was poor overall. Pain was the most explored condition (N = 12), with injury (N = 2) and illness (N = 1) making up the remaining articles. There was no evidence of an association between training load and pain, while there may be some evidence to suggest a relationship between training load and injury or illness. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between training load and pain, injury or illness is unclear owing to a host of methodological constraints. The review highlighted that youth, masters and competitive swimmers of a lower ability (e.g. club versus international) may need particular consideration when planning training loads. Winter periods, higher intensity sessions and speed elements may also need to be programmed with care. Monitoring practices need to be developed in conjunction with consensus guidelines, with the inclusion of internal training loads being a priority. Future research should focus on longitudinal prospective studies, utilising the session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) monitoring method and investigating the applicability of Acute/Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA). Improved methods and study design will provide further clarity on the relationship between load and pain, injury, and illness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Dor/etiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Natação/lesões , Adolescente , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Natação/fisiologia
6.
Behav Processes ; 184: 104337, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515634

RESUMO

'Winner' and 'loser' effects have been demonstrated in a broad range of species, but such investigations are often limited to the effects of prior contest outcomes on future agonistic interactions. Much less is known about the impacts of winning or losing contests on other aspects of individual behavior, like courtship interactions and sheltering behavior. In this investigation, I examined the effect of prior contest outcomes on sheltering behavior in the crayfish Faxonius virilis. I predicted that winners of contests would spend less time inside shelters and more time exploring, while losers of contests would spend more time inside shelters and less time exploring. I compared individual sheltering behavior before and after staged dyadic encounters between competitively mismatched individuals. This experiment revealed strong effects on the behavior of contest losers, which showed significant increases in the amount of time spent inside the shelter immediately after the contest. However, there was no significant change in the sheltering behavior of contest winners. These results reinforce the idea that contest outcomes can affect individual behaviors other than agonistic behavior, and suggest that losing a contest may motivate individual crayfish to engage in less-risky behavior, at least for a brief period after the contest.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Agonístico , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos
7.
Am Nat ; 197(1): 60-74, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417523

RESUMO

AbstractHabitat partitioning can facilitate the coexistence of closely related species and often results from competitive interference inducing plastic shifts of subordinate species in response to aggressive, dominant species (plasticity) or the evolution of ecological differences in subordinate species that reduce their ability to occupy habitats where the dominant species occurs (evolutionary divergence). Evidence consistent with both plasticity and evolutionary divergence exist, but the relative contributions of each to habitat partitioning have been difficult to discern. Here we use a global data set on the breeding occurrence of birds in cities to test predictions of these alternative hypotheses to explain previously described habitat partitioning associated with competitive interference. Consistent with plasticity, the presence of behaviorally dominant congeners in a city was associated with a 65% reduction in the occurrence of subordinate species, but only when the dominant was a widespread breeder in urban habitats. Consistent with evolutionary divergence, increased range-wide overlap with dominant congeners was associated with a 56% reduction in the occurrence of subordinates in cities, even when the dominant was absent from the city. Overall, our results suggest that both plasticity and evolutionary divergence play important, concurrent roles in habitat partitioning among closely related species in urban environments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Biota , Cidades , Comportamento Competitivo , Reprodução
8.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 925-935, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345411

RESUMO

This study is the first to provide information on the age-related trajectories of performance in Para swimmers with physical, vision and intellectual impairment. Race times from long-course swim meets between 2009 and 2019 were obtained for Para swimmers with an eligible impairment. A subset of 10 661 times from 411 Para swimmers were included in linear mixed effects modelling to establish the relationship between age and performance expressed relative to personal best time and world record time. The main findings were: (a) age has the most noticeable influence on performance between the ages of 12-20 years before performances stabilize and peak in the early to late twenties, (b) women have faster times relative to personal best and world record time than men during early adolescence and their performances stabilize, peak and decline at younger ages, and (c) Para swimmers from different sport classes show varying age-related trajectories in performance after maturation and when training-related factors are more likely to explain competitive swim performance. The results of this study can guide talent identification and development of Para swimmers at various stages of their career and help to inform decision-making on the allocation of sport class and sport class status in Para swimming classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362281

RESUMO

In this paper we show experimentally that conditional cooperation, a phenomenon described in the private provision of public goods, is also present in group contests, where participants' contributions to their group performance partially determines if they overcome a rival group. This environment allows us to identify new determinants of conditional cooperation. We observe conditional cooperation in successful groups and in groups where members contribute more than rivals (even if they lose), but it vanishes in those groups that lose the contest due to low group performance. A random-effect linear panel regression analysis with an extensive set of controls confirms the findings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320920

RESUMO

Under the backdrop of China's aging population and continuous rising housing price and base on theories pertaining to social status seeking, marriage matching and intergenerational family relationships, use the 2010 and 2014 CFPS national survey micro data, we examine the impact of rising housing price on the health of middle-aged and elderly people and the underlying mechanisms. Rising housing price has a significant negative impact on the health of middle-aged and elderly people, and this effect is also reflected in their physical health, mental acuity and emotional well-being. The internal mechanism is that social status seeking motivation plays a significant mediator role. Through further analysis, we find that competitive saving motive is another intermediate mechanism that causes rising housing price to affect the health of middle-aged and elderly people; it is complementary to the social status seeking motivation. What's more, the mediation effect of the competitive saving motive is notably heterogeneous, as it exists only for middle-aged and elderly people with male or noncollege educated child but does not exist for those with female or college educated child.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Habitação/economia , Idoso , China , Comportamento Competitivo , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243786, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378400

RESUMO

In sequential competitions, the order in which teams take turns may have an impact on performance and the outcome. Previous studies with penalty shootouts have shown mixed evidence of a possible advantage for the first shooting team. This has led to some debate on whether a change in the rules of the game is needed. This work contributes to the debate by collecting an extensive dataset of shootouts which corroborates an advantage for the first shooter, albeit with a smaller effect than what has been documented in previous research. To evaluate the impact of alternative ordering of shots, we model shootouts as a probability network, calibrate it using the data from the traditional ordering, and use the model to conduct counterfactual analysis. Our results show that alternating the team that shoots first in each round would reduce the impact of ordering. These results were in part developed as supplement to field studies to support the International Football Association Board's (IFAB) consideration of changing the shooting order.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Futebol , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374118

RESUMO

Researchers have quantified swimming races for several decades to provide objective information on race strategy and characteristics. The purpose of the present review was to summarize knowledge established in the literature and current issues in swimming race analysis. A systematic search of the literature for the current narrative review was conducted in September 2020 using Web of Science, SPORTDiscus (via EBSCO), and PubMed. After examining 321 studies, 22 articles were included in the current review. Most studies divided the race into the start, clean swimming, turn, and/or finish segments; however, the definition of each segment varied, especially for the turn. Ideal definitions for the start and turn-out seemed to differ depending on the stroke styles and swimmers' level. Many studies have focused on either 100 m or 200 m events with the four strokes (butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, and freestyle). Contrastingly, there were few or no studies for 50 m, long-distance, individual medley, and relay events. The number of studies examining races for short course, junior and Paralympic swimmers were also very limited. Future studies should focus on those with limited evidence as well as race analysis outside competitions in which detailed kinematic and physiological analyses are possible.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Natação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 119, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive enhancement (CE) refers to the voluntary improvement of human cognitive capabilities. Few studies have examined the general attitude of the public towards CE. Such studies have suggested that the use of CE is considered largely unacceptable by the public. In parallel, past research indicates that individuals scoring high on the Dark Triad of personality (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and competitiveness have atypical views of ethical questions. In this study, we examined (a) whether attitudes towards CE are associated with individual differences in the Dark Triad of personality as well as in trait and contextual competitiveness and (b) whether the Dark Triad moderates the effect of trait and contextual competitiveness on attitudes towards CE. METHOD: US employees (N = 326) were recruited using Mechanical Turk. Participants completed a web survey. Data were analyzed by means of (robust) hierarchical regression and (robust) ANCOVAs. RESULTS: The Dark Triad of personality and one of its subscales, Machiavellianism, predicted positive attitudes towards CE. Neither trait competitiveness nor contextual competitiveness were linked to general attitudes towards CE, but the DT was a positive moderator of the association between contextual competitiveness and positive attitudes. CONCLUSION: Our findings extend the incipient knowledge about the factors relating to favourable views of CE by highlighting the role of dark personality traits in shaping such views. Our study further shows contextual factors can play a differentiated role with respect to such attitudes depending upon dark personality traits. Implications for policy-making are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Atitude , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Nootrópicos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia
15.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 553-560, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195672

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer cómo se ha llevado a cabo el trabajo psicológico en el proceso de formación deportiva de los luchadores olímpicos españoles. Partiendo de un enfoque cualitativo, el instrumento utilizado fue una entrevista semi-estructurada, la cual se aplicó a 21 luchadores olímpicos. Los resultados muestran que los deportistas conceden gran importancia a los factores psicológicos en su disciplina, y que son fundamentales en la etapa de alta competición para alcanzar la excelencia. Consideran la motivación y la autoconfianza como las variables psicológicas más significativas en el rendimiento deportivo y predictoras del éxito en lucha. También se valoran aspectos necesarios como la capacidad de sacrificio, constancia, disciplina y perseverancia. Estiman que no han trabajado adecuadamente los aspectos psicológicos, y solo en épocas recientes se ha incorporado la figura del psicólogo deportivo a su entrenamiento


The aim of this study was to know how psychological work has been carried out in sports training process of Spanish Olympic wrestlers. From a qualitative perspective, the instrument used was a semi-structured interview, which was applied to 21 Olympic wrestlers. The results show that athletes attach great importance to psychological factors in their discipline, and that they are essential at the high competition stage to achieve excellence.They consider motivation and self-confidence as the most significant psychological variables in sports performance, and predictors of wrestling success. Also necessary aspects such as a capacity for self-sacrifice, constancy, discipline and perseverance are valued. They estimate that psychological aspects have not been properly trained, and only in recent times has the figure of the sports psychologist been incorporated into their training


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicologia do Esporte/métodos , Atletas/psicologia , Luta Romana/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Motivação , Comportamento Competitivo
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201720, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993473

RESUMO

Although dominance hierarchies occur in most societies, our understanding of how these power structures influence individual investment in cooperative and competitive behaviours remains elusive. Both conflict and cooperation in animal societies are often environmentally regulated, yet how individuals alter their cooperative and competitive investments as environmental quality changes remain unclear. Using game theoretic modelling, we predict that individuals of all ranks will invest more in cooperation and less in social conflict in harsh environments than individuals of the same ranks in benign environments. Counterintuitively, low-ranking subordinates should increase their investment in cooperation proportionally more than high-ranking dominants, suggesting that subordinates contribute relatively more when facing environmental challenges. We then test and confirm these predictions experimentally using the Asian burying beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis. Ultimately, we demonstrate how social rank modulates the relationships between environmental quality and cooperative and competitive behaviours, a topic crucial for understanding the evolution of complex societies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Cooperativo , Predomínio Social , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960920

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different playing strategies on external and internal loads in female tennis players during match play. Also, the underlying effects on the technical-tactical actions and activity profiles were examined. Twelve well-trained female players (age: 25±5 years; maximum oxygen uptake: 40.9±4.3 ml/kg/min) played points against an opponent of similar ability outdoors on red-clay courts. The players played points over five playing conditions. Before each condition, the players were instructed to apply either a passive, an active, or their own playing strategy (free play) to succeed. The five conditions were played in a randomized order, whereas the condition with the own strategy was always played first and served as control. During play, the external and internal loads were investigated by 10 Hz global positioning system, 100 Hz inertial measurement unit, short-range telemetry, capillary blood, and visual analog scale procedures. A 25 Hz video camera was used to examine the technical-tactical actions and activity profiles. Compared to the control condition, the passive, active, and mixed playing strategy conditions induce up to large effects on the external loads (running distances with high acceleration and deceleration), up to moderate effects on the internal loads (energy expenditures spent with high metabolic power, lactate concentration, and rating of effort), and up to very large effects on the technical-tactical actions (number of ground strokes and errors) and activity profiles (strokes per rally, rally duration, work to rest ratio, and effective playing time). Our study shows that passive, active, and mixed playing strategies have an impact on the external and internal loads, technical-tactical actions, and activity profiles of female tennis players during match play. This finding should be considered for practical purposes like match analyses and training procedures in the tennis environment.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991633

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare speed, sub-technique selection and temporal patterns between world-class male and female cross-country (XC) skiers and to examine the combined associations of sex and speed on sub-technique selection. Thirty-three XC skiers performed an international 10-km (women; n = 8) and 15-km (men; n = 25) time-trial competition in the classical style (with the first 10 km of the race being used for analyses). An integrated GNSS/IMU system was used to continuously track position speed and automatically classify sub-techniques and temporal patterns (i.e. cycle length and-rate). When comparing the eight highest ranked men and women, men spent less time than women (29±2 vs. 45±5% of total time) using diagonal stride (DIA), more time (44±4 vs. 31±4%) using double poling (DP) and more time (23±2 vs. 19±3%) using tucking and turning (all P < .01). Here, men and women used these sub-techniques at similar temporal patterns within the same speed-intervals; although men employed all sub-techniques at steeper uphill gradients (all P < .05). In subsequent analyses including all 33 skiers, adjustment for average racing speed did not fully attenuate the observed sex differences in the proportion of time using DIA (CI95% [-10.7, -1.6]) and DP (CI95% [0.8, 9.3]). Male world-class XC skiers utilized less DIA and more DP compared to women of equal performance levels. Although these differences coincided with men's higher speed and their ability to use the various sub-techniques at steeper uphill gradients, sexual dimorphism in the proportional use of DIA and DP also occurred independently of these speed-differences.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esqui/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/normas , Fatores Sexuais
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941442

RESUMO

A team contest entails both public good characteristics within the teams as well as a contest across teams. In an experimental study, we analyse behaviour in such a team contest when allowing to punish or to reward other team members. Moreover, we compare two types of contest environment: One in which two teams compete for a prize and another one in which we switch off the between-group element of the contest. We find that reward giving, as opposed to punishing, induces higher contributions to the team contest. Furthermore, expenditures on rewarding other co-players are significantly higher than those for punishing.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Modelos Psicológicos , Punição , Recompensa , Processos Grupais , Humanos
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