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1.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 75(1): 31-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393425

RESUMO

AIM: Discriminant validity of the Attention Deficits/Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD) subtypes/presentations is not yet clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate joint contribution of the strongest factors of the three dimensions, namely psychopathology, neuropsychology and electrophysiology for subtyping of presentations. METHOD: A sample of 104 boys aged 7-12 years was subdivided into three groups with ADHD combined (n = 22), inattentive (n = 25) and hyperactive/impulsive subtype (n = 14), and 43 typically developing controls (TDC). Children were investigated regarding the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Integrated Visual and Auditory Test (IVA), and EEG spectral power during eyes closed resting state. Subsequently, statistical analysis included discriminant functional analysis and principle component analysis. RESULTS: Neuropsychological parameters had the highest contribution in classifying of the groups. EEG parameters had no effect on differentiation of the groups, and among the psychopathological parameters, only the oppositional behavioral disorder score contributed to correctly classify 74.3% of the groups. Furthermore, we found four factors with eigenvalues higher than 1 in the ADHD and typical groups, with one factor characterized by four CBCL scales, another one by auditory and visual vigilance, speed and beta band power, the third by auditory and visual prudence, and forth by theta band power. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that ADHD subtypes/presentations can be differentiated from each other at different levels of investigation despite some clinical symptoms overlap. The results suggested that not only psychopathology but also the impairment of sensory processing should be assessed in children with ADHD in order to use this additional information for a jointly multilevel clinical intervention, which may improve treatment success.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 346-350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370731

RESUMO

The comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is widely known. The overall rate of association between BD and OCD is very high and varies, depending on the authors, from 11% to 18%, with peaks of 21% in primarily bipolar patients. Vice versa, about 60% of patients with OCD have a second psychiatric diagnosis, which in 23% of cases turns out to be BD. The differences between the BD patients with and without OCD were so numerous and important (e.g., different onset of mood episodes, history of suicide attempts, seasonality, rapid cycling and impulsivity) that the comorbidity between BD and OCD may represent a distinct form of BD, similar to cyclothymic BD for psychopathological features. However, the comorbidity does not seem to have any impact on cognitive performance, such as there is no specific difference between patients who first develop BD and then OCD or vice versa. Anyway, the detection of the neurocognitive profile of these patients at the time of the first clinical evaluation could have clinical implications also in the therapeutic and rehabilitative management of this type of patient. Indeed, it would be desirable to develop a new model of rehabilitation that is less differentiated for both BD and OCD or for their comorbidity, also to make cognitive rehabilitation faster and less expensive. The purpose of this mini-review is to update the knowledge currently available on the impact of BD and OCD comorbidity on neurocognitive profile.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Tentativa de Suicídio
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362255

RESUMO

This study investigated consumers' responses to fashion visual merchandising (VM) from a neuroscientific perspective. The brain activations of 20 subjects differently involved in fashion were recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in response to three different fashion VM types. According to the types of fashion VM, significant differences were observed, which were significantly higher for the creative VM. Moreover, highly fashion-involved subjects showed activation of the orbital frontal cortex region in response to the creative VM. Based on these results, it is suggested that marketing strategies should be devised explicitly for the brand's targeted audience and goals.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Marketing/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criatividade , Tomada de Decisões , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
4.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 120, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decisions made by individuals with disordered gambling are markedly inflexible. However, whether anomalies in learning from feedback are gambling-specific, or extend beyond gambling contexts, remains an open question. More generally, addictive disorders-including gambling disorder-have been proposed to be facilitated by individual differences in feedback-driven decision-making inflexibility, which has been studied in the lab with the Probabilistic Reversal Learning Task (PRLT). In this task, participants are first asked to learn which of two choice options is more advantageous, on the basis of trial-by-trial feedback, but, once preferences are established, reward contingencies are reversed, so that the advantageous option becomes disadvantageous and vice versa. Inflexibility is revealed by a less effective reacquisition of preferences after reversal, which can be distinguished from more generalized learning deficits. METHODS: In the present study, we compared PRLT performance across two groups of 25 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with an addictive disorder and who reported gambling problems, and 25 matched controls [18 Males/7 Females in both groups, Mage(SDage) = 25.24 (8.42) and 24.96 (7.90), for patients and controls, respectively]. Beyond testing for differences in the shape of PRLT learning curves across groups, the specific effect of problematic gambling symptoms' severity was also assessed independently of group assignment. In order to surpass previous methodological problems, full acquisition and reacquisition curves were fitted using generalized mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Results showed that (1) controls did not significantly differ from patients in global PRLT performance nor showed specific signs of decision-making inflexibility; and (2) regardless of whether group affiliation was controlled for or not, gambling severity was specifically associated with more inefficient learning in phases with reversed contingencies. CONCLUSION: Decision-making inflexibility, as revealed by difficulty to reacquire decisional preferences based on feedback after contingency reversals, seems to be associated with gambling problems, but not necessarily with a substance-use disorder diagnosis. This result aligns with gambling disorder models in which domain-general compulsivity is linked to vulnerability to develop gambling-specific problems with exposure to gambling opportunities.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo , Jogo de Azar , Reversão de Aprendizagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Recompensa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007032

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a change in brain function after an external force or sudden movement to the head. TBI is associated with risk-taking, impulsivity, psychological distress, substance abuse, and violent crime. Previous studies have also linked problem gambling to TBI, but these studies have not controlled for possible confounding variables such as mental health problems and hazardous drinking which are also linked to TBI. This study examines the relationship between problem gambling and TBI among adolescents. Data were obtained from the 2011, 2013 and 2015 cycles of the OSDUHS, a biennial cross-sectional school-based study of children in grades 7 to 12 (N = 9,198). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) in controlled and uncontrolled analyses. Adjusting for sex and grade only, problem gambling was associated with a history of TBI (AOR = 2.8). This association remained significant after adjusting for hazardous drinking and suicidality (AOR = 2.0). In addition, problem gambling had a statistically significant relationship with being male (AOR = 4.7), hazardous drinking (AOR = 4.5), and suicidality (AOR = 3.1). This study provides further data to suggest a link between TBI and problem gambling. However, research is needed on the causal relationship between these variables and the potential implications for treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Adolescente , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Ontário/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044961

RESUMO

Research found that adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have more problems with financial decision-making than healthy controls. The present study investigates the impact of symptoms of ADHD on impulsive buying and the use of financial decision styles. Furthermore, the influence of personality, symptoms of depression and demographics on the association between ADHD and these aspects of financial decision-making is evaluated. A community sample of 1292 participants (age range 18-93 years, 45.4% male) completed questionnaires related to ADHD, impulsive buying, financial decision styles, personal financial situation, depression and personality. Four groups were formed based on self-reported ADHD symptoms: an 'ADHD' group (n = 45), an 'Adult-only ADHD' group (n = 57), a 'Subthreshold ADHD' group (n = 162) and a 'No ADHD' group (n = 265). Groups were compared using ANOVA and chi-square tests. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses in the complete sample were employed to examine the association between ADHD and financial decision-making. The ADHD and Adult-only ADHD groups reported significantly more impulsive buying, used more often an avoidant or spontaneous decision style and less often saved money compared to the No ADHD group. Regression analyses revealed that impulsive buying and financial decision styles were not significantly associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for personality, symptoms of depression and demographics. The present study confirms previous research on adults with ADHD by indicating more impulsive buying and a more frequent use of disadvantageous financial decision styles (i.e., avoidant and spontaneous styles) in individuals with an elevated number of current symptoms of ADHD compared to individuals without symptoms of ADHD. Personality and demographic variables were found to be related to both impulsive buying and the use of specific financial decision styles and might be of influence on the association between impulsive buying, the use of financial decision styles and ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/patologia , Status Econômico , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970738

RESUMO

Distracted driving is a leading cause of traffic accidents. Certain executive functions significantly affect the willingness of distracted driving; however, little research has compared the effects of executive functions on distracted driving behaviors in different aged populations. This study explores and compares the behavioral and cognitive processes underlying distracted driving behaviors in young and mature drivers. A total of 138 participants aged 18-65 years old completed a self-report questionnaire for measuring executive function index and distracted driving behaviors. Independent sample t-tests were conducted for executive functions (motivational drive, organization, strategic planning, impulse control, and empathy) and driving variables to examine any differences between young and mature groups. Partial correlation coefficients and z-score of these comparisons were calculated to compare the differences between age groups. Furthermore, multiple hierarchical regression models were constructed to determine the relative contributions of age, gender, and executive functions on distracted driving behaviors. Results demonstrated the following: (1) Mature drivers performed better for impulse control, the executive function index as well as the measure of distracted driving behavior than young drivers; (2) the relationships between executive functions and distracted driving behaviors did not significantly differ between young and mature drivers; (3) for both young and mature drivers, motivational drive and impulse control were found to significantly improve the prediction of distracted driving behavior in regression models. The findings emphasize that similar behavioral and cognitive processes are involved in distracted driving behavior of young and mature drivers, and can promote a single strategy for driver education and accident prevention interventions for both age groups.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238974, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916691

RESUMO

Classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, the novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has spread to Bangladesh since early March of 2020, and people are getting daily updates from the social and electronic media. We aimed at assessing the prevalence of anxiety among Bangladeshi people during the pandemic in connection with social media exposure (SME) and electronic media exposure (EME). For this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 880 participants by a self-administered online-based questionnaire relating personal characteristics, self-rate health (SRH), SME, and EME with anxiety. Findings show that around half of the surveyed population experienced a spike of anxiety (49.1%) during the pandemic, ten times higher than the national anxiety rate in 2019. The participants with an increased SME of over four hours per day experienced a higher level of anxiety than individuals with < = 2 hours exposure to social media. Similarly, the anxiety was higher among people with fair/bad SRH compared to individuals with excellent SRH. It is highly recommended to develop active surveillance and effective monitoring systems to reduce the spread of misinformation from both social and electronic media to improve the state of mental health conditions during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000800, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776945

RESUMO

Studies of neural processes underlying delay of gratification usually focus on prefrontal networks related to curbing affective impulses. Here, we provide evidence for an alternative mechanism that facilitates delaying gratification by mental orientation towards the future. Combining continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) with functional neuroimaging, we tested how the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) facilitates processing of future events and thereby promotes delay of gratification. Participants performed an intertemporal decision task and a mental time-travel task in the MRI scanner before and after receiving cTBS over the rTPJ or the vertex (control site). rTPJ cTBS led to both stronger temporal discounting for longer delays and reduced processing of future relative to past events in the mental time-travel task. This finding suggests that the rTPJ contributes to the ability to delay gratification by facilitating mental representation of outcomes in the future. On the neural level, rTPJ cTBS led to a reduction in the extent to which connectivity of rTPJ with striatum reflected the value of delayed rewards, indicating a role of rTPJ-striatum connectivity in constructing neural representations of future rewards. Together, our findings provide evidence that the rTPJ is an integral part of a brain network that promotes delay of gratification by facilitating mental orientation to future rewards.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Corpo Estriado/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa , Lobo Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810183

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, many new technologies have emerged, such as portable computers, the internet and smartphones, which have contributed to improving the lives of individuals. While the benefits of these new technologies are overwhelmingly positive, negative consequences are experienced by a minority of individuals. One possible negative aspect of new technologies is their problematic use due to impulsive use which may lead to lower life satisfaction. The present study investigated the mediating role of problematic video gaming (PVG) and problematic Facebook use (PFU) in the relationship between impulsivity dimensions and life satisfaction as well as the relationship between impulsivity dimensions and problematic behaviors. Additionally, the potential impact of gender differences was also examined. The study comprised 673 gamers (391 females) aged 17-38 years (M = 21.25 years, SD = 2.67) selected from 1365 individuals who completed an offline survey. PFU was assessed using the Facebook Intrusion Scale, and PVG was assessed using the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF). Impulsivity dimensions such as attention, cognitive instability, motor, perseverance, self-control, and cognitive complexity were assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Depending on the specific impulsivity dimension, findings showed both positive and negative relationships between impulsivity and life satisfaction. Attention and perseverance subtypes of impulsivity were primarily associated with problematic behaviors. Additionally, cognitive complexity was associated with PFU among female gamers, whereas cognitive instability was associated with PVG among male gamers. Additionally, PVG was primarily associated with lower life satisfaction. However, there was no mediation effects between impulsivity dimensions and life satisfaction via PFU or PVG. These findings provide a better understanding of the relationship between problematic behaviors, life satisfaction, and impulsivity among gamers and the differences between male and female gamers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Problema , Mídias Sociais , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822379

RESUMO

The present study aims to develop and validate an Italian version of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). A large sample of Italian-speaking participants (N = 1139) completed the BSCS and measures of personality and individual dispositions. A clinical sample (N = 217) was administered the Italian version and an English-speaking sample (N = 274) completed the original version to test measurement invariance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the best fit was observed for a shortened two-factor model (i.e., impulse control and self-discipline). Metric invariance across languages and partial strong invariance across genders, ages, and clinical status were demonstrated. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the total scale were adequate, and validity was established based on its correlations with related constructs and confirming that males and young individuals are more likely to have lower self-control. Results support the use of the shortened BSCS version to assess self-control in Italian-speaking individuals.


Assuntos
Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Itália , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17278-17287, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631999

RESUMO

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in curbing impulsive behavior, but the underlying circuit mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here we show that a subset of dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) layer 5 pyramidal neurons, which project to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia, play a key role in inhibiting impulsive responses in a go/no-go task. Projection-specific labeling and calcium imaging showed that the great majority of STN-projecting neurons were preferentially active in no-go trials when the mouse successfully withheld licking responses, but lateral hypothalamus (LH)-projecting neurons were more active in go trials with licking; visual cortex (V1)-projecting neurons showed only weak task-related activity. Optogenetic activation and inactivation of STN-projecting neurons reduced and increased inappropriate licking, respectively, partly through their direct innervation of the STN, but manipulating LH-projecting neurons had the opposite effects. These results identify a projection-defined subtype of PFC pyramidal neurons as key mediators of impulse control.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Animais , Gânglios da Base/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Células Piramidais/patologia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Córtex Visual
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668576

RESUMO

Online poker is a form of gambling where an element of skill may influence the outcome of the game. 'Tilt' in poker describes an episode during which the player can no longer control their game by rational decisions. It leads to a loss of control over the game, a loss of emotional regulation, higher cognitive distortion, and a loss of money. This phenomenon, experienced by most players, could be the gateway to excessive gambling. The aim of this study was to assess the links between the frequency of tilt episodes, cognitive distortion, anxiety, depression, sensation seeking and excessive online poker gambling. Our sample is composed of 291 online poker players, with a mean age of 33.8 years (SD = 10.6). Participants completed an online self-assessment questionnaire, measuring the frequency of tilt episodes, cognitive distortion, anxiety, depression and impulsivity. The findings indicated that the frequency of tilt episodes and cognitive distortion were the only significant predictors of excessive online gambling (respectively, r = 0.49 and r = 0.20). Tilt frequency and cognitive distortion were strongly correlated (GRCS, r = 0.60), moderate to low correlations were found for tilt and anxiety (HADS, r = 0.40), and positive and negative urgency (UPPS, r = 0.27). To date, tilt has seldom been studied, and could improve our understanding of online poker gamblers. It could be a new means of identifying at risk gamblers, and thus facilitating preventive measures specifically adapted to this population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 275, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Headache and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are two relatively common, neuropsychiatric conditions seen in children. Recent studies have shown an association between these two disorders, which are otherwise distinct conditions. This study aims to assess the association between migraine and ADHD, as well as the association between screen-time and these two conditions, among children attending a Sri Lankan tertiary care facility. Possible associations will have important implications in the clinical management of these conditions. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of 226 children aged 5-14 years, attending clinics at a tertiary care hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka. Of them, 141 had a diagnosis of migraine and 85 did not have migraine. The presence or absence of ADHD and the use of screen-time among the two groups was analysed. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the associations between these variables. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the children with migraine had clinically diagnosed ADHD, compared to 3.5% of those without migraine (p = 0.862). The median SNAP-IV scores (inter-quartile range) of the children with migraine and without migraine were 0.60 (0.27-1.00) and 0.44 (0.16-0.80) respectively (p = 0.014). There was no significant difference in screen-time hours per day between children with and without clinically diagnosed ADHD. However, a significant difference in median screen-time (hours per day) was observed between children with and without migraine (2.0 h and 1.0 h respectively; p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that children with migraine are more likely to show features of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattentiveness than those without migraine. While no association was found between clinically diagnosed ADHD and screen-time, migraine was associated with longer daily screen use. Screening for ADHD in children diagnosed with migraine may be of benefit. Further studies are required to understand the possible benefits of reducing screen-time in children with migraine.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Sri Lanka , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708906

RESUMO

First person shooter or action video games represent one of the most popular genres within the gaming industry. Studies reveal that action gaming experience leads to enhancements of visuo-spatial processing. In contrast, some correlational evidence reveals that experience with action video games may be associated with reduced proactive cognitive control. The two primary goals of the current study were to test the causal nature of the effect of action gaming on proactive cognitive control and to examine whether an increase in visuo-spatial processing and a decrease in proactive cognitive control arise from the same amount of experience playing an action video game. Participants completed tasks measuring visuo-spatial processing and cognitive control before and after 10 practice sessions involving one of three video games or were assigned to a no gaming experience control group. The data revealed the typical increase in visuo-spatial processing and a decrease in proactive, but not reactive, cognitive control following action game training. The sizes of these two training effects were similar in magnitude, but interpretation of the effects was constrained by baseline differences between the four groups of subjects. The possibility of a causal effect of action gaming on proactive cognitive control is interesting within the context of correlational evidence linking greater action gaming experience to reduced cognitive control, poor decision making, and increased impulsivity.


Assuntos
Processamento Espacial , Jogos de Vídeo , Cognição , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659932

RESUMO

(1) Background: the relationship between erotic desire and personality factors is still relatively understudied. (2) Objective: to study the influence of the experience of desire, as well as impulsivity in the choice of videos, as the behavioral variable in the experimental trial. (2) Method: the sample consisted of 48 adult subjects, who took part in an experimental study that involved watching videos. (3) Results: the linear regression analysis revealed that the behavior involved in choosing videos is predicted by the sexual desire felt at the time of the trial, and not by stable personality factors, such as impulsivity or general self-report levels of sexual desire. (4) Conclusion: it is observed that the specific moment or situation and the behavior have a bigger impact on the erotic desire experienced at the time of the test than certain personality traits, as well as the previous and habitual levels of erotic desire of which an individual reports.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica , Comportamento Impulsivo , Libido , Emoções , Humanos , Autorrelato , Comportamento Sexual
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668635

RESUMO

Impulsive consumption is a typical behavior that people often present during public health emergencies, which usually leads to negative outcomes. This study investigates how public health emergencies, such as COVID-19, affect people's impulsive consumption behavior. Data from 1548 individuals in China during the COVID-19 outbreak was collected. The sample covered 297 prefecture-level cities in 31 provincial administrative regions. The research method included the use of a structural equation model to test multiple research hypotheses. The study finds that the severity of a pandemic positively affects people's impulsive consumption. Specifically, the more severe the pandemic, the more likely people are to make impulsive consumption choices. The results indicate that both perceived control and materialism play mediating roles between the severity of a pandemic and impulsive consumption. As conclusions, people's impulsive consumption during public health emergencies can be weakened either by enhancing their perceived control or by reducing their materialistic tendency. These conclusions are valuable and useful for a government's crisis response and disaster risk management.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
19.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5269, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667417

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate aspects of eating behavior, presence of non-food substance consumption and negative urgency in women from an on-line support group for eating disorders. Methods Participants (n=147) completed questionnaires for binge eating assessment, Intuitive Eating, negative urgency, cognitive restraint and a question of non-food substance consumption. Participants were separated according to criteria for bulimic symptoms and compulsive symptoms. Results The consumption of non-food substances was 4.8% (n=7). The Bulimic Group (n=61) showed higher values for binge eating (p=0.01), cognitive restraint (p=0.01) and negative urgency (p=0.01) compared with the Compulsive Group (n=86). Only the Compulsive Group showed an inverse correlation between scores for binge eating and Intuitive Eating (p=0.01). In both groups, binge eating was inversely correlated with the subscale of body-food choice congruence of Intuitive Eating scale. As expected, the Bulimic Group reached higher values for measures of disordered behaviors such as cognitive restraint and binge eating, and lower scores for Intuitive Eating. Conclusion The aspects of Intuitive Eating are inversely associated with compulsive and bulimic symptoms and the correlation analyses for binge eating and negative urgency agreed with models reported in published literature about negative urgency.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pica/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730328

RESUMO

We created a facet atlas that maps the interrelations between facet scales from 13 hierarchical personality inventories to provide a practically useful, transtheoretical description of lower-level personality traits. We generated this atlas by estimating a series of network models that visualize the correlations among 268 facet scales administered to the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Ns = 571-948). As expected, most facets contained a blend of content from multiple Big Five domains and were part of multiple Big Five networks. We identified core and peripheral facets for each Big Five domain. Results from this study resolve some inconsistencies in facet placement across instruments and highlight the complexity of personality structure relative to the constraints of traditional hierarchical models that impose simple structure. This facet atlas (also available as an online point-and-click app at tedschwaba.shinyapps.io/appdata/) provides a guide for researchers who wish to measure a domain with a limited set of facets as well as information about the core and periphery of each personality domain. To illustrate the value of a facet atlas in applied and theoretical settings, we examined the network structure of scales measuring impulsivity and tested structural hypotheses from the Big Five Aspect Scales inventory.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Personalidade/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
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