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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674000

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of length of abstinence on decision making (impulsive choice) and response inhibition (impulsive action) in former opiate users (OU). Participants included 45 OU in early remission [0-12 months of abstinence], 68 OU in sustained remission [>12 months of abstinence], and 68 control participants. Decision making was assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT), and the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ). Response inhibition was examined with the Stop Signal Task (SST), and the Go/No-Go Task (GNG). Results revealed group differences in decision making under risk (CGT) and ambiguity (IGT), where control participants displayed better decision making compared to OU in early remission. Both groups of former OU were also characterized by higher discounting of delayed rewards (MCQ). Regression analyses revealed minimal effects of length of abstinence on performance on decision-making tasks and no effects on delay discounting. In addition, both OU groups showed reduced action inhibition (GNG) relative to controls and there were no group differences in action cancellation (SST). Length of abstinence had no effect on response inhibition. Overall, our findings suggest that neurocognitive function may not fully recover even with protracted abstinence, which should be addressed by relapse prevention and cognitive remediation programs for OU.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Alcaloides Opiáceos , Humanos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Recompensa
2.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 74, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658362

RESUMO

Neurons in the lateral hypothalamus expressing the neuropeptide Hypocretin, also known as orexin, are known critical modulators of arousal stability. However, their role in the different components of the arousal construct such as attention and decision making is poorly understood. Here we study Hypocretin neuronal circuit dynamics during stop action impulsivity in a Go/NoGo task in mice. We show that Hypocretin neuronal activity correlates with anticipation of reward. We then assessed the causal role of Hypocretin neuronal activity using optogenetics in a Go/NoGo task. We show that stimulation of Hypocretin neurons during the cue period dramatically increases the number of premature responses. These effects are mimicked by amphetamine, reduced by atomoxetine, a norepinephrine uptake inhibitor, and blocked by a Hypocretin receptor 1 selective antagonist. We conclude that Hypocretin neurons have a key role in the integration of salient stimuli during wakefulness to produce appropriate and timely responses to rewarding and aversive cues.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo , Optogenética , Camundongos , Animais , Orexinas , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1291, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690703

RESUMO

Subjective sleep disturbances are reported by humans with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, no consistent objective findings related to sleep disturbances led to the removal of sleep problems from ADHD diagnostic criteria. Dogs have been used as a model for human ADHD with questionnaires validated for this purpose. Also, their sleep physiology can be measured by non-invasive methods similarly to humans. In the current study, we recorded spontaneous sleep EEG in family dogs during a laboratory session. We analyzed the association of sleep macrostructure and deep sleep (NREM) slow-wave activity (SWA) with a validated owner-rated ADHD questionnaire, assessing inattention (IA), hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) and total (T) scores. Higher H/I and T were associated with lower sleep efficiency and longer time awake after initial drowsiness and NREM. IA showed no associations with sleep variables. Further, no association was found between ADHD scores and SWA. Our results are in line with human studies in which poor sleep quality reported by ADHD subjects is associated with some objective EEG macrostructural parameters. This suggests that natural variation in dogs' H/I is useful to gain a deeper insight of ADHD neural mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Sono/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Comportamento Impulsivo
4.
Addict Biol ; 28(2): e13264, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692875

RESUMO

Gambling disorder (GD) is major public health issue. The disorder is often characterized by elevated impulsivity with evidence from analogous substance use disorders underlining prominent roles of brain monoamines in addiction susceptibility and outcome. Critically, GD allows the study of addiction mechanisms without the confounder of the effects of chronic substances. Here, we assessed the roles of striatal dopamine transporter binding and extrastriatal serotonin transporter binding in GD as a function of impulsivity using [123 I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging in 20 older adults with GD (DSM-5 criteria; mean age 64 years) and 40 non-GD age- and sex-matched controls. We focused on GD in older individuals because there are prominent age-related changes in neurotransmitter function and because there are no reported neuroimaging studies of GD in older adults. Volume-of-interest-based and voxelwise analyses were performed. GD patients scored clearly higher on impulsivity and had higher tracer binding in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex than controls (p < 0.001), likely reflecting serotonin transporter activity. The binding in the medial prefrontal cortex positively correlated with impulsivity over the whole sample (r = 0.62, p < 0.001) as well as separately in GD patients (r = 0.46, p = 0.04) and controls (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Striatal tracer binding, reflecting dopamine transporter activity was also positively correlated with impulsivity but showed no group differences. These findings highlight the role of prefrontal serotonergic function in GD and impulsivity. They identify cerebral coordinates of a potential target for neuromodulation for both GD and high impulsivity, a core phenotypic dimensional cognitive marker in addictions.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Comportamento Impulsivo , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Dopamina
5.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279260, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662797

RESUMO

The question of whether attention-related disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are best understood as clinical categories or as extreme ends of a spectrum is an ongoing debate. Assessing individuals with varying degrees of attention problems and utilizing novel methodologies to assess relationships between attention and brain activity may provide key information to support the spectrum hypothesis. We scanned 91 neurotypical adolescents during rest using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We conducted static and dynamic functional network connectivity (FNC) analysis and correlated findings to behavioral metrics of ADHD, attention problems, and impulsivity. We found that dynamic FNC analysis detects significant differences in large-scale neural connectivity as a function of individual differences in attention and impulsivity that are obscured in static analysis. We show ADHD manifestations and attention problems are associated with diminished Salience Network-centered FNC and that ADHD manifestations and impulsivity are associated with prolonged periods of dynamically hyperconnected states. Importantly, our meta-state analysis results reveal a relationship between ADHD manifestations and exhibiting variable and volatile dynamic behavior such as changing meta-states more often and traveling over a greater dynamic range. These findings in non-clinical adolescents provide support for the continuum model of attention disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 675, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635384

RESUMO

Somatosensory experience is an important component of emotion, playing a prominent role in many traditional emotion theories. Nonetheless, and despite the extensive literature on the influence of individual differences in emotional processing, the relation between personality traits and emotion-related somatosensation has received little attention. Here, we addressed this question in a large sample of healthy individuals through the "bodily maps of emotion" behavioural paradigm, in which participants indicated the location and extent of their body sensations for the 6 basic and 4 additional social emotions (contempt, envy, pride, shame). We found that emotional somatosensation in specific body areas, including the heart, the stomach, and the head, was related to specific personality factors, particularly antisocial attitudes and impulsivity. Moreover, the similarity of individual participants' maps to the group-average was likewise negatively correlated with antisocial tendencies. Overall, our results suggest that differences in individuals' sensitivity to somatosensation from different body areas, as well as the typicality of their topographical patterns, may partly underlie variation in higher-order social and affective traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Emoções , Comportamento Impulsivo , Individualidade , Humanos , Fenótipo , Sensação
7.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 48(1): E13-E22, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have explored the associations among impulsivity, history of abuse, the emergence of eating disorders with episodes of binge eating (EDBE) and their severity. Nevertheless, factors associated with successful clinical outcomes of EDBE are still unknown. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that a history of abuse is associated with unsuccessful clinical outcomes of EDBE through an effect mediated by impulsivity. METHODS: We assessed patients older than 15 years, 3 months with EDBE at inclusion and at 1 year. Recovery was defined as the absence of eating disorders at 1 year. A mediation analysis was performed by means of structural equation modelling. RESULTS: We included 186 patients in our analyses (54% bulimia nervosa, 29% anorexia nervosa binge eating/purging type and 17% binge-eating disorder); 179 (96%) were female. One-third (n = 63) of patients reported a history of abuse, and recovery was observed for 20% of the sample (n = 38). Contrary to our assumption, a history of abuse was not associated with the absence of recovery of EDBE at 1 year. Factors unfavourable for achieving recovery were anxiety disorders (odds ratio [OR] 0.41), vomiting (OR 0.39), physical hyperactivity (OR 0.29), negative urgency and a lack of perseverance (OR 0.85 for both). Only positive urgency was positively associated with recovery (OR 1.25). LIMITATIONS: We excluded 219 patients lost to the 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our findings may help to deconstruct the empirical belief that traumatic events may interfere with the successful course of treatment for eating disorders. A high level of positive urgency may be associated with more receptivity to care.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Impulsivo
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280215, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608051

RESUMO

Cognitive control is associated with impulsive and harmful behaviours, such as substance abuse and suicidal behaviours, as well as major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). The association between MDD and BPD is partially explained by shared pathological personality traits, which may be underpinned by aspects of cognitive control, such as response inhibition. The neural basis of response inhibition in MDD and BPD is not fully understood and could illuminate factors that differentiate between the disorders and that underlie individual differences in cross-cutting pathological traits. In this study, we sought to explore the neural correlates of response inhibition in MDD and BPD, as well as the pathological personality trait domains contained in the ICD-11 personality disorder model. We measured functional brain activity underlying response inhibition on a Go/No-Go task using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 55 female participants recruited into three groups: MDD without comorbid BPD (n = 16), MDD and comorbid BPD (n = 18), and controls with neither disorder (n = 21). Whereas response-inhibition-related activation was observed bilaterally in frontoparietal cognitive control regions across groups, there were no group differences in activation or significant associations between activation in regions-of-interest and pathological personality traits. The findings highlight potential shared neurobiological substrates across diagnoses and suggest that the associations between individual differences in neural activation and pathological personality traits may be small in magnitude. Sufficiently powered studies are needed to elucidate the associations between the functional neural correlates of response inhibition and pathological personality trait domains.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Feminino , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Comportamento Impulsivo
9.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 26(1): 259-271, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609931

RESUMO

Aggressive behavior is one of the most common reasons for referrals of youth to mental health treatment. While there are multiple publications describing different types of aggression in children, it remains challenging for clinicians to diagnose and treat aggressive youth, especially those with impulsively aggressive behaviors. The reason for this dilemma is that currently several psychiatric diagnoses include only some of the common symptoms of aggression in their criteria. However, no single diagnosis or diagnostic specifier adequately captures youth with impulsive aggression (IA). Here we review select current diagnostic categories, including behavior and mood disorders, and suggest that they do not provide an adequate description of youth with IA. We also specifically focus on the construct of IA as a distinct entity from other diagnoses and propose a set of initial, provisional diagnostic criteria based on the available evidence that describes youth with IA to use for future evaluation.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais , Psicoterapia
10.
Int J Neural Syst ; 33(2): 2350006, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632032

RESUMO

Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct often associated with unfavorable outcomes. Previous studies have implicated several electroencephalography (EEG) indices to impulsiveness, but results are heterogeneous and inconsistent. Using a data-driven approach, we identified EEG power features for the prediction of self-reported impulsiveness. To this end, EEG signals of 56 individuals (18 low impulsive, 20 intermediate impulsive, 18 high impulsive) were recorded during a risk-taking task. Extracted EEG power features from 62 electrodes were fed into various machine learning classifiers to identify the most relevant band. Robustness of the classifier was varied by stratified [Formula: see text]-fold cross validation. Alpha and beta band power showed best performance in the classification of impulsiveness (accuracy = 95.18% and 95.11%, respectively) using a random forest classifier. Subsequently, a sequential bidirectional feature selection algorithm was used to estimate the most relevant electrode sites. Results show that as little as 10 electrodes are sufficient to reliably classify impulsiveness using alpha band power ([Formula: see text]-measure = 94.50%). Finally, the Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) analysis approach was employed to reveal the individual EEG features that contributed most to the model's output. Results indicate that frontal as well as posterior midline alpha power seems to be of most importance for the classification of impulsiveness.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
11.
Neurotoxicology ; 94: 191-205, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509212

RESUMO

Air pollution (AP) is becoming recognized as a major threat to neurological health across the lifespan with increased risk of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. AP is a complex mixture of gases and particulate matter, with adsorbed contaminants including metals and trace elements, which may differentially contribute to its neurodevelopmental impacts. Iron (Fe) is one of the most abundant metals found in AP, and Fe concentrations may drive some behavioral deficits observed in children. Furthermore, brains of neonate mice exposed to concentrated ambient ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) show significant brain accumulation of Fe and sulfur (S) supporting the hypothesis that AP exposure may lead to brain metal dyshomeostasis. The current study determined the extent to which behavioral effects of UFP, namely memory deficits and impulsive-like behavior, could be recapitulated with exposure to Fe aerosols with or without concomitant SO2. Male and female neonate mice were either exposed to filtered air or spark discharge-generated ultrafine Fe particles with or without SO2 gas (n = 12/exposure/sex). Inhalation exposures occurred from postnatal day (PND) 4-7 and 10-13 for 4 hr/day, mirroring our previous UFP exposures. Mice were aged to adulthood prior to behavioral testing. While Fe or Fe + SO2 exposure did not affect gross locomotor behavior, Fe + SO2-exposed females displayed consistent thigmotaxis during locomotor testing. Neither exposure affected novel object memory. Fe or Fe + SO2 exposure produced differential outcomes on a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule with males showing higher (Fe-only) or lower (Fe + SO2) response rates and postreinforcement pauses (PRP) and females showing higher (Fe-only) PRP. Lastly, Fe-exposed, but not Fe + SO2-exposed, males showed increased impulsive-like behavior in tasks requiring response inhibition with no such effects in female mice. These findings suggest that: 1) exposure to realistic concentrations of Fe aerosols can recapitulate behavioral effects of UFP exposure, 2) the presence of SO2 can modulate behavioral effects of Fe inhalation, and 3) brain metal dyshomeostasis may be an important factor in AP neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ferro , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Aerossóis , Tamanho da Partícula , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos
12.
Behav Brain Res ; 440: 114267, 2023 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539165

RESUMO

Many studies support the hypothesis that time-based interventions reduce impulsive behavior in rodents. However, few studies have directly assessed 1) how such interventions affect impulsive action rather than impulsive choice, 2) if intervention effects differ by sex, and 3) how time-based interventions affect neurochemistry in regions mediating decision-making and reward. Thus, we assessed how a fixed-interval (FI) intervention initiated during late adolescence and extending into adulthood affected dopaminergic and serotonergic analytes in the frontal cortex and striatum and subsequent impulsive action in adult male and female mice. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 45, mice were either trained on a progressive series of FI schedules (FI 20, 40, & 60 s) or remained in the home cage. Following the intervention, increases in striatal serotonergic analytes were found in FI-exposed males and females (n = 8/sex/group) with few changes found in the frontal cortex. Impulsive action was assessed in the remaining mice (n = 10/sex/group) using a fixed-ratio waiting-for-reward (FR-wait) task in which completion of an FR-25 component initiated a "free" pellet component in which pellets were delivered at increasing intervals according to a fixed delay increment that varied across sessions. Responses reset the additive delay and initiated a new FR-25 component. FI-exposed males, but not females, showed fewer delay resets and no-wait resets relative to control mice. Importantly, FI-exposure did not affect discrimination reversal performance in either sex. These data suggest that time-based interventions may reduce impulsive action in addition to impulsive choice perhaps with increased male sensitivity. Additionally, time-based interventions appear to operate through striatal serotonergic augmentation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Terapia Comportamental , Lobo Frontal , Corpo Estriado , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
13.
Neurosci Lett ; 792: 136962, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375626

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in inhibitory functions including interference control, inhibition of prepotent/automatic responses and suppression of already initiated responses. This study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the neural basis of these three forms of inhibition assessed by a recently developed behavioral protocol combining the Stroop-matching/stop-signal task in twenty-five young adults with inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity symptoms. The severity of ADHD symptoms was measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) was assessed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and temporoparietal regions (TP) during the Stroop-matching/stop-signal task. Correlations yielded significant associations between ASRS scores and HbO concentration in frontal regions during blocks with stop-signal tasks, namely the right IFG, the left DLPFC and the left IFG. This study revealed that different types of inhibition involve unique frontal and temporoparietal activities and linked frontal dysfunction during the suppression of ongoing responses to the severity of ADHD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Inibição Psicológica , Comportamento Impulsivo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 66: 78-91, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516511

RESUMO

Patients with gambling disorder (GD) frequently present other mental disorders, such as substance use disorder (SUDs), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, and impulse-control disorders. We propose that GD should not be conceptualized as a single nosological entity, but rather as a gambling dual disorder (GDD). This study aims to provide further evidence of the co-occurrence of GD and other mental disorders in routine clinical practice and to identify different clinical profiles of severity. This descriptive, cross-sectional, and observational study included 116 patients with GD who were undergoing treatment in a specialized center. The MULTICAGE-CAD 4 and South Oaks gambling screen questionnaires confirmed the presence of GD in 97.4% and 100% of the patients, respectively. Other addictive behaviors such as compulsive spending, Internet, video games, or SUD (59.5%, 27.6%, 11.2%, and 13.8%, respectively) were also identified. The most used substances were tobacco (42.2%) and alcohol (5.2%). Half of the patients suffered from ADHD, 30.2% showed moderate or severe depression, and 17.2% suffered from a social anxiety problem. The majority (76.7%) also presented a phenotype with high impulsiveness. The cluster analysis identified two different clinical profiles of severity in patients with GDD. One profile showed higher severity of other mental disorders (ADHD, depression, anxiety, SUD, or insomnia), impulsivity, general psychopathological burden, and disability. In conclusion, our study provides further evidence on the co-occurrence of GD and other mental disorders supporting the GDD existence, shows impulsiveness as a vulnerability factor for GD, and identifies two clinical severity profiles.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Jogo de Azar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade
15.
Behav Brain Res ; 440: 114266, 2023 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549572

RESUMO

The impact of the microbiome on brain function and behavior has recently become an important research topic. We searched for a link between the gut microbiome and impulsive and violent behavior. We focused on critical factors influencing the microbiome establishment that may affect human health later in life, i.e., delivery mode, early-life feeding, and early antibiotic exposure. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. We included original human studies examining adults and children with impulsive and/or violent behavior that assessed the gut microbiota composition of participants, delivery mode, infant feeding mode, or early antibiotic exposure. Bibliographic searches yielded 429 articles, and 21 met the eligibility criteria. Two studies reported data on patients with schizophrenia with violent behavior, while 19 studies reported data on patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results showed several bacterial taxa associated with ADHD symptomatology and with violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia. No association was found between delivery mode and impulsive behavior, nor did any articles relate infant feeding mode to violent human behavior. Those studies investigating early antibiotic exposure yielded ambiguous results. The heterogeneity of the data and the different methodologies of the included studies limited the external validity of the results. We found few studies that addressed the possible microbiome involvement in the pathophysiology of impulsive and violent behavior in humans. Our review revealed a gap in knowledge regarding links between the gut microbiome and these extreme behavioral patterns.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactente , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Agressão , Antibacterianos
16.
Appetite ; 182: 106416, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526039

RESUMO

Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular diet involving short-term fasting and/or caloric restriction. While published research highlights physiological effects (e.g., weight, body fat) of IF, hardly any research has examined its associations with psychological factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between IF and binge eating, impulsivity, intuitive eating, and mindful eating. An undergraduate sample (N = 298) was recruited through a large southwestern university psychology subject pool. The sample was divided into three groups based on IF status: Current IF (n = 70), Past IF (n = 48), and No IF (n = 182). Current IF was negatively associated with lack of perseverance (e.g., "I generally like to see things through to the end"; p < .01) and intuitive eating (p < .05), varying by subscale, compared to the other groups. Notably, Past-IF, but not Current IF, participants were more likely to binge eat than individuals who reported never fasting (p = .03). These findings add credence to the rapidly developing area of research suggesting IF is associated with increased disordered eating behaviors. Notably, the findings from this study are limited due to the lack of diversity sample, such that generalizations can only be made toward White, middle-to-high income, college students. Future longitudinal studies are needed to test the directionality of these relationships.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
17.
Personal Ment Health ; 16(3): 180-189, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553512

RESUMO

Mindfulness is a component of several psychotherapies. Nonetheless, its effectiveness in borderline personality disorder (BPD) management remains obscure. This systematic review examined the effect of mindfulness training in BPD patients. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, Embase, MEDLINE and APA PsycInfo were searched until 30 June 2021. Five trials with 294 participants were included. Improvements were reported in participants' levels of impulsivity, in their emotion dysregulation patterns, in their attention skills and in their mindfulness-related capacities including decentering and nonjudging. The findings suggest that mindfulness training may be an effective tool for alleviating certain aspects of BPD symptomatology. More research is needed before definitive conclusions can be reached about the effectiveness of mindfulness training in the treatment of BPD patients, and this remains to be elucidated in larger structured clinical trials, with longer follow-ups.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Atenção Plena , Atenção , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 753, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity and aggression have been associated with all forms of suicidal behaviour and linked to theories of suicide capability. There is a need to clarify the role of impulsivity and aggression in the progression from suicidal thoughts to suicide attempts and suicide. METHOD: In this naturalistic cross-sectional study, suicide ideators (35), low lethal suicide attempters (37), and high lethal suicide attempters (26) were compared with the Columbia-suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS), Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11), and the Buss & Perry aggression questionnaire (AQ). RESULTS: Physical aggression score (p = 0.032) contributed to the difference between predicted low lethal suicide attempt and predicted high lethal suicide attempt. This model predicting physical aggression showed a fairly weak positive relationship (OR = 1.1) to high lethal attempt and explained 13% of the variance so there is a need for further replications to verify these results. Impulsive behaviour scores in females were significantly higher in the low lethal suicide attempt group compared to suicide ideators (F(2.51) = 3.47, p = 0.039, η²= 0.12). Hostility aggression in females was significantly higher in the high lethal suicide attempters compared to suicide ideators (F(2.52) = 3.53, p = 0.037, η² = 0.12). Physical aggression scores in females were significantly higher in the high lethal attempters compared to suicide ideators (F(2.52) = 6.79, p = 0.002, η²= 0.21). When these analyses were conducted without the participants who died in suicide, men in the high lethal attempt group scored significantly higher than men in the low lethal attempt group (F(2.37) = 3.8, p = 0.031, η² = 0.17), but men did not differ in aggression and impulsivity scores in other comparisons. CONCLUSION: Suicide prevention should address physical aggression, as high levels can be associated with high lethal attempts. Assessment of suicidal patients should address impulsive behaviour with the insight that it can be more prominent in female low lethal suicide attempters. It could be that assessment and treatment of suicidal patients should be tailored differently for men and women. Aggression as a feature of suicide capability could be the link that makes suicide possible.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Tentativa de Suicídio , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Agressão , Ideação Suicida
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498425

RESUMO

(1) Background: Kindness interventions assist individuals in the pursuit of greater well-being. However, little is known about whether these interventions can decrease materialism. The current study tested how kindness interventions decrease materialism and external aspirations. Furthermore, we tested whether these interventions influence impulsive shopping. (2) Method: We randomly assigned 122 females to a three-week intervention of practicing acts of kindness or a neutral intervention (practicing acts related to studying). Before and after the interventions, all participants reported their life satisfaction, level of materialism, and internal and external aspirations. (3) Results: Among women practicing acts of kindness, materialism and life satisfaction did not change compared to the control group, but in both conditions, life satisfaction increased, and materialism decreased. However, we found that practicing kindness was associated with (a) an increase in aspiration affiliation, (b) a reduction in the intention to shop impulsively, (c) less focus on external aspirations, and (d) more focus on internal aspirations. (4) Conclusions: Although our results show that practicing kindness does not lead to a decrease in materialism, they suggest that focusing on increasing personal happiness might lead to such a decrease. Furthermore, our research contributes to the existing literature by demonstrating that kind women are less oriented toward materialistic values.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Comportamento Impulsivo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e064951, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: QbTest has been shown to improve time to decision/diagnosis for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim was to assess the feasibility of QbTest for young people in prison. DESIGN: Single-centre feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT), with 1:1 allocation. Concealed random allocation using an online pseudorandom list with random permuted blocks of varying sizes. SETTING: One Young Offenders Institution in England. PARTICIPANTS: 355 young people aged 15-18 years displaying possible symptoms of ADHD were assessed for eligibility, 69 were eligible to take part and 60 were randomised. INTERVENTION: QbTest-a computer task measuring attention, activity and impulsivity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Eligibility, recruitment and retention rates and acceptability of randomisation and trial participation. RESULTS: Of the 355 young people assessed for eligibility, 69 were eligible and 60 were randomised (n=30 QbTest plus usual care; n=30 usual care alone). The study achieved the specified recruitment target. Trial participation and randomisation were deemed acceptable by the majority of participants. 78% of young people were followed up at 3 months, but only 32% at 6 months, although this was also affected by COVID-19 restrictions. Secondary outcomes were mixed. Participants including clinical staff were mostly supportive of the study and QbTest; however, some young people found QbTest hard and there were issues with implementation of the ADHD care pathway. There were no serious adverse events secondary to the study or intervention and no one was withdrawn from the study due to an adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: With adaptations, a fully powered RCT may be achievable to evaluate the effectiveness of QbTest in the assessment of ADHD in the Children and Young People Secure Estate, with time to decision (days) as the primary outcome measure. However, further programme developmental work is required to address some of the challenges highlighted prior to a larger trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN17402196.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamento Impulsivo , Computadores
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