Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.448
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10884, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740864

RESUMO

Maladaptive personality traits, such as 'dark personalities' are found to result in a diverse set of negative outcomes, including paraphilic interests and associated (illegal) behaviors. It is however unclear how these are exactly related, and if related, if then only those individuals higher on dark personality traits and higher impulsivity engage in paraphilic behaviors. In the current study, 50 participants were recruited to investigate the relationship between Dark Tetrad personality traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and everyday sadism), paraphilic interests (arousal and behavior) and the moderating role of impulsivity. Personality and paraphilic interests were investigated through self-report questionnaires. Impulsivity was measured both through self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity and the P3 event related potential using electroencephalography during the Go/No-Go task (i.e. response inhibition). The results showed that there was a positive association between psychopathy, sadism and paraphilic interests. Whereas everyday sadism was associated with paraphilic (self-reported) arousal, psychopathy was associated with paraphilic behavior. Although P3 amplitude was not associated with paraphilic interests, self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity was associated with paraphilic behavior specifically. However, there was no moderating role of dysfunctional impulsivity and response inhibition (P3) in the relationship between psychopathy and paraphilic behavior. Findings indicate that the relation between specific dark personalities and paraphilic interests may be more complex than initially thought. Nevertheless, risk assessment and intervention approaches for paraphilia and related behavior both may benefit from incorporating Dark Tetrad and impulsivity measurements.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Sadismo/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300848, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted lives on a massive scale. While the pandemic appeared to worsen mental health outcomes broadly, its effects on alcohol/substance use and recovery are unclear. Many studies convolved the sociopolitical unrest beginning in May 2020 with the pandemic. We assessed pandemic-related changes in substance use, recovery involvement, and quality of life among US adults at two specified time periods that isolated pandemic effects from potentially confounding sociopolitical factors. OBJECTIVES: We tested the following hypotheses: the pandemic and consequent policies (1) increased use of alcohol and illicit substances in active users; (2) increased use of alcohol/substances among people in early recovery; (3) reduced participation in recovery activities among those in early recovery, and that (4) use amount and use events correlated with impulsivity in both groups and that (5) substance use and abstinence correlated with resilience. METHODS: We recruited 1,685 participants through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). We assessed demographics, quality of life, alcohol/substance use, recovery activities, and measures of impulsivity and resilience at two time points, pre-pandemic and (early) during-pandemic. Only n = 45 (Active Users; males n = 32) and n = 34 (Recovery; males n = 20) passed data quality checks and were included in the primary analyses. RESULTS: Among Active Users, weekly alcohol consumption and days spent using alcohol and illicit substances decreased during the pandemic. Resilience negatively correlated with pandemic-related substance use in early recovering participants. Significant reduction in the quality of life was coincident with a trend of lower recovery activity participation (31% decline) during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced alcohol/substance use and participation in recovery activities might be expected from conditions that promote social isolation. The high prevalence of low-quality data from MTurk cautions for careful use of online data sourcing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto Jovem , Saúde Mental , Comportamento Impulsivo
3.
Appetite ; 198: 107385, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692512

RESUMO

Evidence suggests higher hedonic hunger (preoccupation with/desire to consume food for pleasure) is associated with greater ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption in non-pregnant individuals with higher, but not lower, self-report impulsivity or delay discounting. The current study tested the association between hedonic hunger and UPF consumption, and the moderating effects of self-report impulsivity and delay discounting, during pregnancy. Individuals (N = 220) with body mass index (BMI)≥25 completed the Power of Food Scale, 24-h dietary recalls, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Version 11 in early-mid pregnancy. A subset enrolled in an ancillary study (n = 143) completed a Delay Discounting Task. Linear regression and moderation models covaried for age, gestational age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and socioeconomic status. The association between hedonic hunger and UPF consumption was nonsignificant (p = 0.47). Self-report impulsivity was not a significant moderator (p = 0.11), but delay discounting was (p = 0.01). Simple slopes analysis revealed a one-unit increase in hedonic hunger was associated with 7% lower UPF intake among participants with lower (M+1SD) delay discounting (p = 0.01) and 1% higher UPF intake among those with higher (M-1SD) delay discounting (p = 0.57). Findings contrast those from research with non-pregnant samples and indicate lower delay discounting may serve as a protective factor, associated with reduced UPF consumption at higher levels of hedonic hunger, during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Fome , Comportamento Impulsivo , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Fast Foods , Adulto Jovem , Autorrelato , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Alimento Processado
5.
Child Care Health Dev ; 50(3): e13268, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by diverse clinical manifestations including inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of neurocognitive training (NT), a personalized and specialized exercise programme on symptoms, attention and dynamic balance in treatment-naïve children diagnosed with ADHD. METHODS: Fourteen treatment-naïve children aged 7-12 years diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled in the intervention group. The NT intervention was administered weekly for 10 consecutive weeks, supplemented by a structured home exercise programme for 6 days a week over the same 10-week period. ADHD-related symptoms, attention and dynamic balance were assessed in pre-treatment, post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 months. Fifteen typically developing (TD) children, matched for age, underwent evaluation only once to establish baseline normative values. RESULTS: Following the NT (post-treatment), significant improvements were observed in hyperactivity-impulsivity scores, oppositional-defiant behaviours and dynamic balance when compared to the TD children (p < 0.05). In the ADHD group, a significant difference was found in the long term (12-month follow-up) in hyperactivity-impulsivity, oppositional-defiant behaviours and dynamic balance (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the NT yields favourable effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity, oppositional defiant behaviours and dynamic balance in children diagnosed with ADHD, with these improvements appearing to be sustained over the long term. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04707040.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Humanos , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Masculino , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Comportamento Impulsivo
6.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 270, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Making timely moral decisions can save a life. However, literature on how moral decisions are made under time pressure reports conflicting results. Moreover, it is unclear whether and how moral choices under time pressure may be influenced by personality traits like impulsivity and sensitivity to reward and punishment. METHODS: To address these gaps, in this study we employed a moral dilemma task, manipulating decision time between participants: one group (N = 25) was subjected to time pressure (TP), with 8 s maximum time for response (including the reading time), the other (N = 28) was left free to take all the time to respond (noTP). We measured type of choice (utilitarian vs. non-utilitarian), decision times, self-reported unpleasantness and arousal during decision-making, and participants' impulsivity and BIS-BAS sensitivity. RESULTS: We found no group effect on the type of choice, suggesting that time pressure per se did not influence moral decisions. However, impulsivity affected the impact of time pressure, in that individuals with higher cognitive instability showed slower response times under no time constraint. In addition, higher sensitivity to reward predicted a higher proportion of utilitarian choices regardless of the time available for decision. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed within the dual-process theory of moral judgement, revealing that the impact of time pressure on moral decision-making might be more complex and multifaceted than expected, potentially interacting with a specific facet of attentional impulsivity.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Impulsivo , Princípios Morais , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo de Reação , Comportamento de Escolha
7.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 273, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional urgency, defined as a trait concept of emotion-based impulsivity, is at least moderately associated with general psychopathology. However, its clinical significance and associations with clinically relevant features of bipolar disorder remain unclear. This scoping review aims address this gap by determining the extent of evidence in this niche scope of study. METHODS: Evidence of between-group differences of positive and negative urgency, its associations with mood severity, and all peripheral associations related to illness and psychosocial outcomes were synthesized based on PRISMA checklists and guidelines for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR). DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 2001 and January 2024. A total of 1013 entries were gathered, and a total of 10 articles were included in the final selection after the removal of duplicates and ineligible articles. RESULTS: Differences in urgency scores between bipolar disorder and healthy controls were large (Cohen's d ranged from 1.77 to 2.20). Negative urgency was at least moderately associated with overall trauma, emotional abuse, neglect, suicide ideation, neuroticism, and irritable/cyclothymic temperament, whereas positive urgency was at least moderately associated with various aspects of aggression and quality of life. Positive but not negative urgency was associated with quality of life in bipolar disorder. CONCLUSION: Large between-group differences found for emotional urgency in bipolar disorder imply large clinical significance. Emotional urgency was associated with worse clinical features and outcomes. Given the high clinical heterogeneity of the disorder, emotional urgency may be an important phenotype indicative of greater disorder severity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Emoções , Comportamento Impulsivo , Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Relevância Clínica
8.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 583-592, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to review the evidence for the potential of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) as a model of meditative movement in benefiting people with impulsivity related disorders and provide guidance for future research. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was conducted in five databases. Eligibility criteria were original articles reporting TCC based interventions or included TCC techniques and provided any assessment on impulsivity or related measures, impulse control disorders, or other psychiatric disorders related to impulsivity (e.g., addictive disorders, ADHD, and other conduct disorders). Twenty-eight out of 304 studies initially retrieved were reviewed. The reports concentrated mostly on neurodegenerative conditions, cognitive decline, and substance use disorders (SUD). RESULTS: TCC had several positive effects in cognitive domains resulting in improvements in memory, executive functions, inhibitory control, attention, and verbal fluency. These improvements in memory, executive function, including inhibitory control and attention, and verbal fluency were associated with changes in the brain plasticity, resting activity, and other neurobiological markers. CONCLUSION: Albeit no study was found on the use of TCC in impulse control disorders or impulse related conditions, other than SUD, the findings suggest that considering the behavioral impact of TCC, especially the improvement of executive functions, it could be a valuable therapeutic tool for approaching impulse control related disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Função Executiva , Comportamento Impulsivo , Tai Chi Chuan , Humanos , Tai Chi Chuan/métodos , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/terapia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 259: 111292, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent and associated with opioid use disorder (OUD). Yet, little is known about the mechanisms by which ADHD (which is a heterogeneous construct/diagnosis) might alter the trajectory of OUD outcomes in persons who use heroin. AIM: We examined whether ADHD subtypes are related to heroin-use consequences and the extent to which the effects of ADHD on lifetime heroin-use consequences are mediated by two impulsivity factors that may be partly independent of ADHD: foreshortened time perspective and drug-use impulsivity. METHODS: Individuals who reported regular heroin use (N=250) were screened using the Assessment of Hyperactivity and Attention (AHA), Impulsive Relapse Questionnaire (IRQ), Stanford Time Perception Inventory (STPI), and a comprehensive assessment of lifetime and current substance use and substance-related consequences. This secondary analysis examined whether ADHD or intermediate phenotypes predicted heroin-use consequences. RESULTS: Relative to participants whose AHA scores indicated lifetime absence of ADHD (n=88), those with scores indicating persistent ADHD (childhood and adult, n=62) endorsed significantly more total lifetime heroin-use consequences despite comparable heroin-use severity. Likewise, there was a significant indirect effect of the combined ADHD subtype in childhood on lifetime heroin-use consequences. This effect was mediated by STPI scores indicating less future (and more hedonism in the present) temporal orientation and by IRQ scores indicating less capacity for delaying drug use. CONCLUSION: The combined ADHD subtype is significantly associated with lifetime heroin-use consequences, and this effect is mediated through higher drug-use impulsivity (less capacity for delay) and lower future temporal orientation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Fenótipo , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Behav Processes ; 218: 105040, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679341

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of delay and magnitude of reinforcement in Pavlovian contingencies, extending the understanding of the phenomenon of autoshaped impulsivity as described in Alcalá's thesis (2017) and Burgos and García-Leal (2015). The effects of adding a trace interval were analyzed on the maintained responses of impulsive choice, seen as the preference of a small and immediate reinforcer over a larger and delayed one, and the role of the contextual unit, as well as the inhibitory units according to the Diffuse Discrepancy Model. In the Simulation, the model with inhibitory units was used, trained in two signals with different delays and reinforcement magnitudes, and subsequently presented concurrently in choice tasks without reinforcement nor learning, using an ABA within-subject design. In general, the DD model successfully simulated the phenomenon of autoshaped impulsivity, consistent with studies from Alcalá's thesis (2017), Burgos and García-Leal (2015), and Picker and Poling (1982). It also predicted the elimination of this effect (autoshaped impulsivity) after introducing a trace interval. The observed results and their implications are discussed, as well as possible future studies with animals and humans.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reforço Psicológico , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
11.
Brain Res ; 1835: 148935, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Impulsive behavior is the precursor of many psychiatric and neurological conditions. High levels of impulsive behavior will increase health risk behavior and related injuries. Impulsive behavior is produced and regulated by central and peripheral biological factors, and oxidative stress (OS) can aggravate it. However, previous studies only showed that impulsive behavior was related to the level of the peripheral OS. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the relationship between OS and impulsive behavior in the brain and peripheral blood. METHODS: We recruited 64 Chinese men. We measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) (including copper, zinc and manganese) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (including total, inducible and constitutive) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11) was used to evaluate impulsive behavior. The relationship between OS and impulsive behavior was evaluated by partial correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Partial correlation analysis showed that the ratio of total NOS-to-MnSOD and iNOS-to-MnSOD in CSF were negatively correlated with the BIS-11 motor scores (r = -0.431, p = -0.001; r = -0.434, p = -0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the ratio of CSF iNOS-to-MnSOD was the most influential variable on the BIS-11 motor scores(ß = -0.434, t = -3.433, 95 %CI(-0.374, -0.098), p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The imbalance of central oxidation and antioxidation is related to impulsive behavior, which broadens our understanding of the correlation between impulsive behavior and OS.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Superóxido Dismutase/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , China , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Povo Asiático , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II , População do Leste Asiático
12.
Behav Pharmacol ; 35(4): 172-184, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38651685

RESUMO

Research has largely focused on how attentional bias to smoking-related cues and impulsivity independently influence the development and maintenance of cigarette smoking, with limited exploration of the relationship between these mechanisms. The current experiments systematically assessed relationships between multiple dimensions of impulsivity and attentional bias, at different stages of attention, in smokers varying in nicotine dependency and deprivation. Nonsmokers (NS; n  = 26), light-satiated smokers (LS; n  = 25), heavy-satiated smokers (HS; n  = 23) and heavy 12-hour nicotine-deprived smokers (HD; n  = 30) completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, delayed discounting task, stop-signal task, information sampling task and a visual dot-probe assessing initial orientation (200 ms) and sustained attention (2000 ms) toward smoking-related cues. Sustained attention to smoking-related cues was present in both HS and LS, while initial orientation bias was only evident in HS. HS and LS also had greater levels of trait motor and nonplanning impulsivity and heightened impulsive choice on the delay discounting task compared with NS, while heightened trait attentional impulsivity was only found in HS. In contrast, in HD, nicotine withdrawal was associated with no attentional bias but heightened reflection impulsivity, poorer inhibitory control and significantly lower levels of impulsive choice relative to satiated smokers. Trait and behavioral impulsivity were not related to the extent of attentional bias to smoking-related cues at any stage of attention, level of nicotine dependency or state of deprivation. Findings have both clinical and theoretical implications, highlighting the unique and independent roles impulsivity and attentional bias may play at different stages of the nicotine addiction cycle.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Comportamento Impulsivo , Tabagismo , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Tabagismo/psicologia , Tabagismo/fisiopatologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Fumar/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
13.
Behav Brain Res ; 467: 114997, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621461

RESUMO

Analyzing EEG complexity may help to elucidate complex brain dynamics in individuals with psychiatric disorders and provide insight into neural connectivity and its relationship with deficits such as emotion-related impulsivity. EEG complexity was calculated through multiscale entropy and compared between a heterogeneous psychiatric patient group and a healthy control group during the emotion conflict resolution task. Twenty-eight healthy adults and ten psychiatric patients were recruited and compared on the multiscale entropy of EEG acquired in the task. Our results revealed a lower multiscale entropy in the psychiatric patient group compared to the healthy group during the task. This decrease in multiscale entropy suggests reduced long-range interaction between the left frontal region and other brain regions during the emotion conflict resolution task among psychiatric patients. Notably, a positive correlation was observed between multiscale entropy and impulsivity measures in the psychiatric patient group, where the higher the EEG complexity during the emotion regulation task, the higher the level of self-reported impulsivity in the psychiatric patients. Such impulsivity was evident in both healthy individuals and psychiatric patients, with healthy individuals showing shorter reaction times on incongruent conditions compared to congruent conditions and psychiatric patients displaying similar reaction times in both conditions, This study highlights the significance of investigating EEG complexity and its potential applications in the transdiagnostic exploration of impulsivity in psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia
14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 174: 245-253, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670059

RESUMO

Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with personality pathology. However, only few studies have been conducted on the link between ADHD and pathological narcissism (PN), with or without a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). In order to fill this gap, PN and NPD were assessed in 164 subjects suffering from ADHD, with several other measures including ADHD severity, quality of life, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation (ED). We found that a significant proportion of ADHD patients suffered from NPD, and that both narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability were associated with ADHD hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms, but not with inattentive symptoms. These two dimensions seemed to be negatively associated with well-being and positively associated with most of the other studied psychiatric dimensions except ED, the latter being only associated with vulnerability, even after adjustment on borderline symptoms. Overall, despite important limitations that limit the generalizability of our findings to the overall ADHD population (notably linked to selection bias), we believe that this exploratory study sheds light on the potential clinical relevance of narcissistic pathology in adult ADHD patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Narcisística
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 251, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Quick Delay Questionnaire (QDQ) is a short questionnaire designed to assess delay-related difficulties in adults. This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the QDQ (C-QDQ) in Chinese adults, and explore the ecological characteristics of delay-related impulsivity in Chinese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Data was collected from 302 adults, including ADHD (n = 209) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 93). All participants completed the C-QDQ. The convergent validity, internal consistency, retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the C-QDQ were analyzed. The correlations between C-QDQ and two laboratory measures of delay-related difficulties and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the comparison of C-QDQ scores between ADHD subgroups and HCs were also analyzed. RESULTS: The Cronbach's α of C-QDQ was between 0.83 and 0.89. The intraclass correlation coefficient of C-QDQ was between 0.80 and 0.83. The results of CFA of C-QDQ favoured the original two-factor model (delay aversion and delay discounting). Significant positive associations were found between C-QDQ scores and BIS-11 total score and performance on the laboratory measure of delay-related difficulties. Participants with ADHD had higher C-QDQ scores than HCs, and female ADHD reported higher scores on delay discounting subscale than male. ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) reported higher scores on delay aversion subscale than ADHD-inattention type (ADHD-I). CONCLUSION: The C-QDQ is a valid and reliable tool to measure delay-related responses that appears to have clinical utility. It can present the delay-related impulsivity of patients with ADHD. Compared to HCs, the level of reward-delay impulsivity was higher in ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 267, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yoga can be used as a complementary intervention to conventional treatments, whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological. Sustained practice of yoga can generate a series of benefits for individuals' quality of life and improve their physical fitness. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effects of yoga as an adjunct intervention in conditions involving impulse control issues, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and substance use disorders. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of placebo-controlled, randomized trials of yoga in patients with impulsivity. PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases were searched for trials published up to January, 2023. Data were extracted from published reports and quality assessment was performed per Cochrane recommendations. RESULTS: Out of 277 database results, 6 RCT were included in this systematic review. To assess the level of attention and impulsiveness, the following scales were analyzed: Barratt Impulsiveness, UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior scale, Conners' Continuous Performance Test IIª and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long. CONCLUSIONS: Yoga didn't have a significant improvement in impulsivity when compared to placebo. There are many tools to assess impulsivity, but they mean different concepts and domains consisting in a weakness on comparison of yoga effects. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42023389088.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Bipolar , Yoga , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 294, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Problematic smartphone use has been linked to lower levels of mindfulness, impaired attentional function, and higher impulsivity. This study aimed to identify the psychological mechanisms of problematic smartphone use by exploring the relationship between addictive smartphone use, mindfulness, attentional function and impulsivity. METHODS: Ninety participants were evaluated with the smartphone addiction proneness scale and classified into the problematic smartphone use group (n = 42; 24 women; mean age: 27.6 ± 7.2 years) or normal use group (n = 48; 22 women; mean age: 30.1 ± 5.7 years). All participants completed self-report questionnaires evaluating their trait impulsivity and mindfulness and attention tests that assessed selective, sustained and divided attention. We compared the variables between the groups and explored the relationship between mindfulness, attentional function, impulsivity and addictive smartphone use through mediation analysis. RESULTS: The problematic smartphone use group showed higher trait impulsivity and lower mindfulness than the normal use group. There were no significant group differences in performance on attention tests. Levels of addictive smartphone use were significantly correlated with higher levels of trait impulsivity and lower levels of mindfulness, but not with performance on attention tests. Mediation analysis showed that acting with awareness, an aspect of mindfulness, reduces the degree of addictive smartphone use through attentional impulsivity, one of the trait impulsivity. CONCLUSION: Acting without sufficient awareness could influence addictive smartphone use by mediating attentional impulsivity. This supports that executive control deficits, reflected in high attentional impulsivity, contribute to problematic smartphone use. Our findings imply that mindfulness-based interventions can enhance executive control over smartphone use by promoting awareness.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Smartphone , Comportamento Impulsivo , Atenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 328, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available to verify the mediating effect of dispositional mindfulness on the association between gaming disorder and various impulsivity traits. The present study aimed to investigate the mediating effect of dispositional mindfulness on the association between the five UPPS-P impulsivity traits and the risk of gaming disorder among young adults. METHODS: It was an inter-regional cross-sectional study using online survey in Australia, Japan, The Philippines and China. Impulsivity measured by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale-Short version; dispositional mindfulness measured by the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale; and the risk of gaming disorder measured by the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale were collected in the focal regions. Structural equation modeling was performed by SPSS AMOS version 26 to verify the study hypotheses. Bootstrapped 95% confidence interval was reported. Statistical significance was indicated by the p-value below 0.05. RESULTS: Among the 1,134 returned questionnaires, about 40% of them aged 18-20 years and 21-23 years, respectively. 53.8% were male. 40.7% had been playing digital and video games for over 10 years. The prevalence of gaming disorder was 4.32%. The model fitness indices reflected that the constructed model had an acceptable model fit (χ2(118) = 558.994, p < 0.001; χ2/df = 4.737; CFI = 0.924; TLI = 0.890; GFI = 0.948; RMSEA = 0.058; SRMR = 0.0487). Dispositional mindfulness fully mediated the effect of positive urgency and negative urgency on the risk of gaming disorder. The effect of lack of premeditation on the risk of gaming disorder was partially mediated by dispositional mindfulness. However, dispositional mindfulness did not mediate the effect of sensation seeking on the risk of gaming disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The varied associations between dispositional mindfulness and the five impulsivity traits hints that improving some impulsive traits may increase dispositional mindfulness and so lower the risk of gaming disorder. Despite further studies are needed to verify the present findings, it sheds light on the need to apply interventions on gamers based on their impulsivity profile. Interventions targeting at emotion regulation and self-control such as mindfulness-based interventions seem to be effective to help gamers with dominant features of urgency and lack of premeditation only. Other interventions shall be considered for gamers with high sensation seeking tendency to enhance the effectiveness of gaming disorder prevention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Adulto , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Austrália/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8605, 2024 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615065

RESUMO

Adolescence is characterized by increased impulsive and risk-taking behaviors. To better understand the neural networks that subserves impulsivity in adolescents, we used a reward-guided behavioral model that quantifies age differences in impulsive actions in adult and adolescent rats of both sexes. Using chemogenetics, we identified orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) projections to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) as a critical pathway for age-related execution of impulsive actions. Simultaneous recording of single units and local field potentials in the OFC and DMS during task performance revealed an overall muted response in adolescents during impulsive actions as well as age-specific differences in theta power and OFC-DMS functional connectivity. Collectively, these data reveal that the OFC-DMS pathway is critical for age-differences in reward-guided impulsive actions and provide a network mechanism to enhance our understanding of how adolescent and adult brains coordinate behavioral inhibition.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado , Neostriado , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Encéfalo , Procedimentos Clínicos
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 280, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narcissism has been implied as a putative risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, previous research did not disentangle the degree of substance use from substance-related problems, the symptoms of SUDs. This preregistered study addressed the open question whether grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and their constituent traits convey specific SUD risk, that is, explain substance-related problems beyond the degree of use. Furthermore, we tested whether impulsivity or substance use motives linked to narcissistic self-regulation mediate this association. METHODS: Narcissism, impulsivity, substance use motives, past-year substance use, and substance-related problems were assessed in 139 (poly-)substance users, 121 of whom completed a one-year follow-up. For significant longitudinal associations between narcissism factors and substance-related problems controlled for the degree of use, we tested impulsivity and substance use motives as mediators. RESULTS: Grandiose narcissism (r =.24, p =.007) and its constituent factors antagonistic (r =.27, p =.003) and agentic narcissism (r =.18, p =.050), but not vulnerable narcissism, prospectively predicted substance-related problems beyond the degree of substance use. Associations of grandiose narcissism and antagonistic narcissism with substance-related problems were fully mediated by impulsivity, but not substance use motives. Impulsivity explained roughly one third of the association of both grandiose (P̂M = 0.30) and antagonistic narcissism (P̂M = 0.26) with substance-related problems. DISCUSSION: We demonstrate that grandiose narcissism- particularly antagonistic but also agentic narcissism- is specifically linked to substance-related problems beyond the degree of substance use. The mediating effect of impulsivity but not substance use motives suggests that impulsivity may be a more important mechanism than narcissistic self-regulation in promoting SUD in narcissism. However, future studies may use more targeted measures than substance use motives to further probe the role of self-regulation. Similar result patterns for alcohol compared to all substances together indicate that mechanisms may be alike across substances. In conclusion, narcissistic individuals may not use substances more but have a higher SUD risk, informing prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Motivação , Delusões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...