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1.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959979

RESUMO

Impulsive and compulsive behaviors have both been observed in individuals with obesity. The co-occurrence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more strongly associated with impulsivity, although there are no conclusive results yet. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity and compulsivity was conducted in individuals with obesity in the absence or presence of T2D, compared with healthy, normal-weight individuals, with highly impulsive patients (gambling disorders), and with highly compulsive patients (anorexia nervosa). Decision making and novelty seeking were used to measure impulsivity, and cognitive flexibility and harm avoidance were used for compulsivity. For impulsivity, patients with obesity and T2D showed poorer decision-making ability compared with healthy individuals. For compulsivity, individuals with only obesity presented less cognitive flexibility and high harm avoidance; these dimensions were not associated with obesity with T2D. This study contributes to the knowledge of the mechanisms associated with diabetes and its association with impulsive-compulsive behaviors, confirming the hypothesis that patients with obesity and T2D would be characterized by higher levels of impulsivity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Comportamento Compulsivo/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Psicometria , Autorrelato
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 4): e20210680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817039

RESUMO

The present study aimed to establish the associations between hopelessness, depression and impulsivity with respect to suicidal ideation and behavior, and to explore the role that impulsivity plays in the mechanism that operates between depression and hopelessness. Through an empirical observational study, with an analytical scope based on a cross-sectional design for a sample of 228 university students and using The Inventory of Suicide Orientation (ISO-30); Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS); and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). The results indicated a significant positives correlations between BDI, BHS, BIS and ISO-30. Regression analysis showed that depression, impulsivity and hopelessness explain between 57% and 67% of the variance in the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. Through the analysis of structural equation modeling, three models were established showing that impulsivity mediates the relationship between depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation and behavior. This study has implications for mental health intervention and research, in that it emphasizes the importance of impulsivity traits as factors that act as triggers in the association between the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Ideação Suicida , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modelos Estruturais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
3.
Biomed Khim ; 67(5): 411-417, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730554

RESUMO

Orexin and its receptors are involved in the mechanisms of pathological craving for alcohol and psychoactive drugs. The orexin system is also involved in the mechanisms of non-chemical forms of addiction: binge eating and gambling. The aim of this work was to study the level of orexin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex of rats prone to impulsivity in behavior in a model for studying the elements of gambling addiction (a variant of the Iowa Gambling Task test). Brain structures were isolated on the 22nd day of the experiment. The expression of the OX1R gene was higher in the hypothalamus by 122% and in the hippocampus by 149% in rats that preferred to receive a high reward, but with a low probability as compared with a group of animals that preferred a low level of reinforcement, but with a 100% probability. In the prefrontal cortex, on the contrary, no significant changes were observed in the level of OX1R mRNA. The level of OX2R mRNA insignificantly changed in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex of rats prone to impulsivity in behavior. The data indicate involvement of OX1R in the hypothalamus and hippocampus in mechanisms mediating impulsive behavior and the choice of the significance of positive reinforcement in terms of its varying strength and probability.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Hipotálamo , Animais , Comportamento Impulsivo , Receptores de Orexina/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos
4.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13046, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606113

RESUMO

Mouse tracking, a new action-based measure of behavior, has advanced theories of decision making with the notion that cognitive and social decision making is fundamentally dynamic. Implicit in this theory is that people's decision strategies, such as discounting delayed rewards, are stable over task design and that mouse trajectory features correspond to specific segments of decision making. By applying the hierarchical drift diffusion model and the Bayesian delay discounting model, we tested these assumptions. Specifically, we investigated the extent to which the "mouse-tracking" design of decision-making tasks (delay discounting task, DDT and stop-signal task, SST) deviate from the standard "keypress" design of decision making tasks. We found remarkable agreement in delay discounting rates (intertemporal impatience) obtained in the keypress and mouse-tracking versions of DDT (ρ = 0.90) even though these tasks were given about 1 week apart. Rates of evidence accumulation converged well in the two versions (DDT, ρ = .86; SST, ρ = .55). Omission/commission error in SST showed high agreement (ρ = .42, ρ = .53). Mouse-motion features such as maximum velocity and AUC (area under the curve) correlated well with nondecision time (ρ = -.42) and boundary separation (ρ = .44)-the amount of information needed to accumulate prior to making a response. These results indicate that the response time (RT) and motion-based decision tasks converge well at a fundamental level, and that mouse-tracking features such as AUC and maximum velocity do indicate the degree of decision conflict and impulsivity.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Tempo de Reação , Recompensa
5.
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 788-798, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613932

RESUMO

Background and aims: In the current study we have sought to clarify the contribution of metacognitions concerning smartphone use relative to smartphone use expectancies in the relationship between well-established predisposing psychological factors and problematic smartphone use (PSU). We tested a model where psychological distress, impulsivity, and proneness to boredom predict metacognitions about smartphone use and smartphone use expectancies, which in turn predict PSU. Methods: A sample of 535 participants (F = 71.2%; mean age = 27.38 ± 9.05 years) was recruited. Results: The model accounted for 64% of the PSU variance and showed good fit indices (χ 2 = 16.01, df = 13, P = 0.24; RMSEA [90%CI] = 0.02 [0-0.05], CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.03). We found that: (i) when it comes to psychological distress and boredom proneness, negative metacognitions, and both positive and negative expectancies play a mediating role in the association with PSU, with negative metacognitions showing a dominant role; (ii) there is no overlap between positive expectancies and positive metacognitions, especially when it comes to smartphone use as a means for socializing; (iii) impulsivity did not show a significant effect on PSU Direct effects of the predictors on PSU were not found. Discussion and conclusions: The current study found additional support for applying metacognitive theory to the understanding of PSU and highlight the dominant role of negative metacognitions about smartphone in predicting PSU.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Metacognição , Modelos Psicológicos , Smartphone , Adulto , Tédio , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 501, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599148

RESUMO

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder impairing the quality of life of the affected individuals. The domestic dog can spontaneously manifest high hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention which are components of human ADHD. Therefore, a better understanding of demographic, environmental and behavioural factors influencing canine hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention could benefit both humans and dogs. We collected comprehensive behavioural survey data from over 11,000 Finnish pet dogs and quantified their level of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. We performed generalised linear model analyses to identify factors associated with these behavioural traits. Our results indicated that high levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention were more common in dogs that are young, male and spend more time alone at home. Additionally, we showed several breed differences suggesting a substantial genetic basis for these traits. Furthermore, hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention had strong comorbidities with compulsive behaviour, aggressiveness and fearfulness. Multiple of these associations have also been identified in humans, strengthening the role of the dog as an animal model for ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Animais , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
7.
Res Dev Disabil ; 119: 104107, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628338

RESUMO

In this study, we considered two subscales of attention problem (AP) behaviour, inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity, as latent traits, extreme values of which indicate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined gender differences in these traits in a community sample of Russian schoolchildren and estimated the extent to which the association of AP behaviour and math achievement varied for boys and girls. The data from a three-wave longitudinal study of math achievement of 958 children (49 % girls) were used, and growth in math achievement was estimated. The levels of inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity of each child were measured based on teachers' responses using the Behaviour Rating Scale (BRS). The results demonstrated that inattentiveness had a negative association with math achievement, while hyperactivity/impulsivity was positively associated with math achievement when inattentiveness was controlled for. Inattentiveness was negatively associated with math achievement in both boys and girls. However, the size of this association decreased over time for boys, so the gap between boys with high inattentiveness and low inattentiveness decreased from grade 1 to grade 2. Meanwhile, for girls, the association between inattentiveness and math remained stable, so the gap between girls with high inattentiveness and girls with low inattentiveness did not change.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 10): 25-29, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to study impulsivity and sensation seeking in medical staff because they might shed light into the effectiveness of decision-making processes and performed responses. The aims of this study were to specify if functional impulsivity prevailed in medical staff compared to dysfunctional impulsivity; how strong the relationships between functional, dysfunctional impulsivity and sensation seeking were; furthermore, it aimed to differentiate functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, according to the size of the place where medical care was practised. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 323 medical workers and 99 medical students filled in Radoslavova and Velichkov's (2005) questionnaire measuring sensation seeking, functional impulsivity and dysfunctional impulsivity. RESULTS: Sensation seeking and functional impulsivity in medical staff did not differ statistically significantly (t(421)=1.171, p=0.242), but functional impulsivity was significantly more intensive than dysfunctional impulsivity among medical personnel (t(421)=8.132, p<0.001). Sensation seeking was significantly more strongly expressed than dysfunctional impulsivity among medical specialists (t(421)=7.388, p<0.001). Correlation analysis revealed that sensation seeking in medical specialists was more strongly related to functional impulsivity than to dysfunctional impulsivity (p<0.001). The studied medical staff practicing in the capital were more prone to functional impulsivity than the medical staff practicing in towns up to 50,000 inhabitants (pTukey=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study to reveal stronger relationships between functional impulsivity and sensation seeking in medical staff than between dysfunctional impulsivity and sensation seeking which were interpreted as an influencing factor of the quality of decision-making responses. Functional impulsivity prevailed over dysfunctional impulsivity in medical occupations, so decision-making in medical care should be more effective and timelier than inappropriate, especially for medical personnel working in the capital.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Assunção de Riscos , Humanos , Corpo Clínico , Sensação , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e26810, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaming disorder, including internet gaming disorder (IGD), was recently defined by the World Health Organization as a mental disease in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Thus, reducing IGD is warranted. Maladaptive cognitions related to internet gaming (MCIG) have been associated with IGD, while impulsivity, self-control, parental influences, and peer influences are key risk factors of IGD. Previous literature suggests that MCIG is associated with the aforementioned 4 risk factors and IGD, and may thus mediate between these risk factors and IGD. These potential mediations, if significant, imply that modification of MCIG may possibly alleviate these risk factors' harmful impacts on increasing IGD. These mediation hypotheses were tested in this study for the first time. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the mediation effects of MCIG between intrapersonal factors (impulsivity and self-control) and IGD, and between interpersonal factors (parental influences and peer influences) and IGD among adolescents in China. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, and self-administered survey was conducted among secondary school students in classroom settings in Guangzhou and Chengdu, China. All grade 7 to 9 students (7 to 9 years of formal education) of 7 secondary schools were invited to join the study, and 3087 completed the survey. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) checklist was used to assess IGD. MCIG was assessed by using the Chinese version of the Revised Internet Gaming Cognition Scale. Impulsivity, self-control, and parental or peer influences were measured by using the motor subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Brief Self-Control Scale, and the modified interpersonal influence scale, respectively. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the mediation effects of MCIG between these risk factors and IGD. RESULTS: The prevalence of IGD was 13.57% (418/3081) and 17.67% (366/2071) among all participants and adolescent internet gamers, respectively. The 3 types of MCIG (perceived rewards of internet gaming, perceived urges for playing internet games, and perceived unwillingness to stop playing without completion of gaming tasks) were positively associated with IGD. Impulsivity, self-control, parental influences, and peer influences were all significantly associated with the 3 types of MCIG and IGD. The 3 types of MCIG partially mediated the associations between the studied factors and IGD (effect size of 30.0% to 37.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Impulsivity, self-control, and interpersonal influences had both direct and indirect effects via MCIG on IGD. Modifications of the 3 types of MCIG can potentially reduce the harmful impacts of impulsivity and interpersonal influences on IGD and enhance the protective effect of self-control against IGD. Future longitudinal studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Autocontrole , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet
10.
ANS Adv Nurs Sci ; 44(4): 357-367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718256

RESUMO

Impulsivity is a central concept for many psychological models and interventions. Despite extensive research, the concept of impulsivity lacks clarity due to the diversity of definitions provided. The aims of this study were to conduct a concept analysis of impulsivity to provide a clear and workable definition of impulsivity for future nursing research. This study used Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis approach to analyze 37 articles from various disciplines. Our analysis offers promising direction in refining the concept. The findings can drive future research and enhance nurse researchers' ability to attend and explore health-related issues associated with the concept.


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Formação de Conceito , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258826, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710134

RESUMO

Risk taking is a complex heterogeneous construct that has proven difficult to assess, especially when using behavioral tasks. We present an exploratory investigation of new measure-the Assessment of Physical Risk Taking (APRT). APRT produces a variety of different outcome scores and is designed as a comprehensive assessment of the probability of success and failure, and magnitude of reward and punishment of different types of simulated physically risky behaviors. Effects observed on the simulated behaviors are hypothesized to reflect similar effects on real world physical risks. Participants (N = 224) completed APRT in a laboratory setting, half of whom had a 1.5 s delay interposed between button presses. Exploratory analyses utilizing generalized estimating equations examined the main effects and two-way interactions among five within-subject factors, as well as two-way interactions between the within-subject factors and Delay across four APRT outcome scores. Results indicated that Injury Magnitude and Injury Probability exerted stronger effects than any of the other independent variables. Participants also completed several self-report measures of risk taking and associated constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), which were correlated with APRT scores to assess the preliminary convergent and divergent validity of the new measure. After correcting for multiple comparisons, APRT scores correlated with self-reported risk taking in thrilling, physically dangerous activities specifically, but only for those who did not have a delay between APRT responses. This promising exploratory investigation highlights the need for future studies comparing APRT to other behavioral risk taking tasks, examining the robustness of the observed APRT effects, and investigating how APRT may predict real-world physical risk taking.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684543

RESUMO

Behavioral disinhibition is observed to be an important characteristic of many neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have linked dietary quality to levels of behavioral inhibition. However, it is currently unclear whether brain factors might mediate this. The current study investigates whether cortical and subcortical brain volumes mediate part of the association between dietary composition and behavioral disinhibition. A total of 15,258 subjects from the UK Biobank project were included in the current study. Dietary composition and behavioral disinhibition were based on Principle Component Analyses of self-reported dietary composition). As a further data reduction step, cortical and subcortical volume segmentations were input into an Independent Component Analysis. The resulting four components were used as mediator variables in the main mediation analyses, where behavioral disinhibition served as the outcome variable and dietary components as predictors. Our results show: (1) significant associations between all dietary components and brain volume components; (2) brain volumes are associated with behavioral disinhibition; (3) the mediation models show that part of the variance in behavioral disinhibition explained by dietary components (for healthy diet, restricted diet, and high-fat dairy diet) is mediated through the frontal-temporal/parietal brain volume component. These results are in part confirming our hypotheses and offer a first insight into the underlying mechanisms linking dietary composition, frontal-parietal brain volume, and behavioral disinhibition in the general adult population.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Dieta , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dieta Saudável , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Reino Unido
13.
Chin J Physiol ; 64(5): 218-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708713

RESUMO

Positive feeling or rewarding experience is crucial for individuals to operative their cognitive activities via an outcome evaluation of incentive reinforcement. For a long time, rewarding process or outcome evaluation is assumed greatly influenced by neuronal construct that holds individuals' impulsiveness, a capacity to inhibit unwanted behaviors provoked in a given situation. In the present study, we proposed that the outcome evaluation or rewarding experience can influence the occurrence of impulsiveness too. We hypothesized that animals would be more likely to deliver impulsive action in the place where it was previously associated with reinforcing process, in which central dopamine may play an important role. By employing five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), we examined whether one of the five holes where rats made a correct response to get the reward would gain a higher probability to deliver premature or perseverative activities than other holes in the next trial of 5-CSRTT under baseline or longer waiting period condition. The effects of D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 were also evaluated in the above paradigm. We demonstrated that (i) the influence on motoric impulsive response from previous rewarded experience can be described in a behavioral paradigm such as the 5-CSRTT, (ii) both prematures and perseverations at the hole associated with previous rewarding were about one-fifth of probability, however were statistically not correlated unless the interventions of inter-trial interval = 7 plus SCH23390, and (iii) the hole associated with the positive reinforcement of the 5-CSRTT appears more likely for rats to carry out an intuitive impetus under SCH23390 in a longer waiting condition. Our results may shed some insight toward the role of rewarding process in impulsive behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Animais , Dopamina , Ratos , Tempo de Reação
14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 737-748, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591516

RESUMO

Objective: Several studies suggest that alcohol and cannabis co-users are heavier drinkers and experience more alcohol-related consequences. However, day-level associations between co-use and drinking levels are mixed. One reason may be that individual characteristics moderate the daily impact of using alcohol alone or in conjunction with cannabis. The theory would suggest that highly impulsive individuals may drink more on co-use days, yet this assertion remains untested. Therefore, the current study tested whether impulsivity moderated the effect of co-use on same-day drinking quantity within veterans, a high-risk sample for substance use and impulsivity. Method: In a longitudinal observational study, co-using veterans (N = 139) completed three semi-annual assessments reporting on their daily drinking quantity and cannabis use via Timeline Followback (Observations = 19,245) and impulsivity via the UPPS-P. Mixed effect modeling was used to test hypotheses that co-use (compared to alcohol-only) days would be associated with heavier drinking for those high (but not low) in positive and negative urgency. Results: Significant interactions were found for positive urgency (PU) and lack of perseverance (LP), such that individuals at mean and low levels of PU and LP drank less on co-use (compared to alcohol-only) days. There were no significant interactions for other UPPS-P impulsivity facets. Conclusion: Findings are consistent with a substitution/compensatory effect for individuals at mean and low levels of both UPPS-P facets, and may be a byproduct of frequent cannabis use in veterans. In contrast, findings suggest that co-use and alcohol-only days may be characterized by similarly high levels of drinking for highly impulsive individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Veteranos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade
15.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 293-302, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591584

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is adversely affecting adolescents' mental health and health behaviors, particularly among those with preexisting mental health conditions and from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. However, direct tests of changes in health outcomes among vulnerable adolescents from before to during COVID-19 are limited. In addition, little is known about how to buffer adolescents, particularly those who are most vulnerable, against stress-related decrements in health. This randomized controlled trial begins to fill these gaps in the literature by exploring changes in mental health, health behaviors, executive function, emotion regulation, and mindfulness among vulnerable adolescents involved in a mentoring program during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also examined to what extent there were protective benefits of incorporating mindfulness training within a mentoring program for buffering adolescents from negative pandemic health effects. Thirty-five adolescents (Mage = 12.9, 37% female) and 32 parents (Mage = 44.75, 80% female) completed questionnaires at baseline (February 2020) and follow-up (July 2020). There were few significant reductions in health; instead, on average, youth reported improvements in sleep, emotion regulation, executive function, and mindfulness over time. Adolescents randomized to mentoring + mindfulness displayed significantly less posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and emotional impulsivity at follow-up, compared to the mentoring-as-usual condition. These pilot findings suggest that mentoring with a mindfulness training component may offer an effective strategy for protecting adolescents from deteriorations in health outcomes during COVID-19. Further, there may be unique benefits of mindfulness training for vulnerable youth as a way to adapt to stressful events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Tutoria , Atenção Plena , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
16.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5)2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479222

RESUMO

Background.The gold standard for diagnosing impulsivity relies on clinical interviews, behavioral questionnaires and rating scales which are highly subjective.Objective.The aim of this study was to develop a functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based classification approach for correct identification of impulsive adolescents. Taking into account the multifaceted nature of impulsivity, we propose that combining informative features from clinical, behavioral and neurophysiological domains might better elucidate the neurobiological distinction underlying symptoms of impulsivity.Approach. Hemodynamic and behavioral information was collected from 38 impulsive adolescents and from 33 non-impulsive adolescents during a Stroop task with concurrent fNIRS recordings. Connectivity-based features were computed from the hemodynamic signals and a neural efficiency metric was computed by fusing the behavioral and connectivity-based features. We tested the efficacy of two commonly used supervised machine-learning methods, namely the support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) in discriminating impulsive adolescents from their non-impulsive peers when trained with multi-domain features. Wrapper method was adapted to identify the informative biomarkers in each domain. Classification accuracies of each algorithm were computed after 10 runs of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure, conducted for 7 different combinations of the 3-domain feature set.Main results.Both SVM and ANN achieved diagnostic accuracies above 90% when trained with Wrapper-selected clinical, behavioral and fNIRS derived features. SVM performed significantly higher than ANN in terms of the accuracy metric (92.2% and 90.16%, respectively,p= 0.005).Significance.Preliminary findings show the feasibility and applicability of both machine-learning based methods for correct identification of impulsive adolescents when trained with multi-domain data involving clinical interviews, fNIRS based biomarkers and neuropsychiatric test measures. The proposed automated classification approach holds promise for assisting the clinical practice of diagnosing impulsivity and other psychiatric disorders. Our results also pave the path for a computer-aided diagnosis perspective for rating the severity of impulsivity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559807

RESUMO

Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is thought to lead to maladaptive behaviours and dysfunctional decision making, both in the clinical and healthy population. The seminal study reported by Luhmann and collaborators in 2011 [1] showed that IU was negatively associated with choosing a delayed, but more probable and valuable, reward over choosing an immediate, but less probable and valuable, reward. These findings have been widely disseminated across the field of personality and individual differences because of their relevance for the understanding of the role of IU in the development and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders. Given their importance it would be desirable to have replications of this study, but none have been carried out so far. The current study has been designed to replicate and extend Luhmann et al.'s results. Our sample will include 266 healthy participants (more than five times the sample size used by Luhmann et al.) to detect with a power of 95% the effect size that can be detected with a power of 33% in the original study. To increase our chances of getting such a sample size, the experiment will be conducted online, To increase our chances of getting such a sample size, the experiment will be conducted online, adding check trials to the original decision-making task to monitor participants' engagement. Additionally, we will explore the role of impulsivity in the relationship between IU and willingness to wait. This study will add empirical evidence about the role of IU in decision making and, in case of replication of Luhmann et al.'s results, will support the hypothesis that high-IU individuals may engage in inefficient or costly behaviour in exchange for less time enduring an uncertain situation.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica , Ansiedade/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Recompensa , Incerteza , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579057

RESUMO

Maternal periconceptional diets have known associations with proper offspring neurodevelopment. Mechanisms for such associations include improper energy/nutrient balances between mother and fetus, as well as altered offspring epigenetics during development due to maternal nutrient and inflammatory status. Using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and assessing offspring temperament with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (n = 325, mean age = 13.9 months), we sought to test whether a maternal periconceptional diet characterized by high glycemic loading (MGL) would affect offspring temperament using adjusted ordinal regression. After limiting false discovery to 10%, offspring born to mothers in tertile 3 of glycemic loading (referent = tertile 1) were more likely to be in the next tertile of anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.51 (1.88-11.07)] and inhibition-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 3.42 (1.49-7.96)]. Male offspring were more likely to exhibit impulsive [OR (95% CI) = 5.55 (1.76-18.33)], anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.41 (1.33-15.30)], sleep dysregulation [OR (95% CI) = 4.14 (1.34-13.16)], empathy [6.68 (1.95-24.40)], and maladaptive behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 9.86 (2.81-37.18)], while females were more likely to exhibit increased anxiety-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 15.02 (3.14-84.27)]. These associations persisted when concurrently modeled with the maternal-Mediterranean dietary pattern. In a subset (n = 142), we also found MGL associated with increased mean methylation of the imprint control region of SGCE/PEG10. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance of maternal dietary patterns on offspring neurodevelopment, offering avenues for prevention options for mothers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carga Glicêmica , Comportamento do Lactente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Metilação de DNA , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/etiologia , Feminino , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Lactente , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Temperamento
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 458, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A widely used questionnaire to assess impulsivity is the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and the aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the BIS (swe-BIS). METHODS: The original BIS was translated to Swedish and back-translated by an authorized translator. The swe-BIS was administered to healthy controls (n = 113), patients with alcohol use disorder (n = 97), amphetamine use disorder (n = 37) and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD; n = 26). A subset of subjects (n = 62) completed the swe-BIS twice within 1 week. Psychometric evaluation of the swe-BIS included assessment of different indices of reliability (internal consistency, test-retest and agreement) and validity (response processess, divergent and convergent). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to assess several indices of model fit in five different models based on previously suggested subscales. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for all swe-BIS items in the full sample was 0.89, ranging from 0.78-0.87 within the different subgroups. The Pearson test-retest correlation for total score was 0.78 (p < 0.001), with greater test-retest correlations within compared to across different subscales. The Bland-Altman plot indicated high level of agreement between test and retest. The healthy individuals had lower swe-BIS score compared to the patients (t(267.3) = - 8.6; p < 0.001), and the swe-BIS total score was also significantly different between each of the four participant groups (p < 0.01 for all group comparisons). Furthermore, swe-BIS had greater correlations with impulsivity related scales compared to non-impulsivity related scales. The CFA analyses indicated that while no suggested model showed an optimal fit, the best model fit indices was found for the 3-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: The swe-BIS was found to have good to excellent psychometric properties with respect to the assessed indices of reliability and validity, supporting use of the scale in clinical research in both healthy individuals and patients with SUD and ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Suécia
20.
Biol Psychol ; 165: 108191, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530069

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that sleep deprivation results in a negativity bias, especially in the context of impaired response inhibition. In the present study we investigated spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a correlate of dopamine function, as a mediator of the relationship between subjective sleepiness and impulsivity toward negative stimuli on a Go/NoGo task. Participants rated their sleepiness on a number of measures including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and subscales of the Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ). The findings revealed that EBR mediated the relationship between sleepiness as measured by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and commission errors on negatively valanced stimuli. These findings suggest that reduced inhibition in responding to negative stimuli can be found as a function of subjective sleepiness and that changes in dopamine function may be one contributing factor explaining this relationship.


Assuntos
Sonolência , Vigília , Piscadela , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Privação do Sono
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