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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3563, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347055

RESUMO

Early life unpredictability is associated with both physical and mental health outcomes throughout the life course. Here, we classified adverse experiences based on the timescale on which they are likely to introduce variability in children's environments: variations unfolding over short time scales (e.g., hours, days, weeks) and labelled Stochasticity vs variations unfolding over longer time scales (e.g., months, years) and labelled Volatility and explored how they contribute to the development of problem behaviours. Results indicate that externalising behaviours at age 9 and 15 and internalising behaviours at age 15 were better accounted for by models that separated Stochasticity and Volatility measured at ages 3 to 5. Both externalising and internalising behaviours were specifically associated with Volatility, with larger effects for externalising behaviours. These findings are interpreted in light of evolutionary-developmental models of psychopathology and reinforcement learning models of learning under uncertainty.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Aprendizagem
2.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 33(1): e2015, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study validated the Japanese version of the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Rating Scale-5 (ADHD-RS-5) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale. We extended the ADHD-RS-5 by adding the oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder subscales to compare the two rating scales psychometrically. METHODS: We examined the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and criterion validity of the two rating scales in 135 Japanese outpatients aged 6-18 years. RESULTS: The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were good for all the subscales of the two rating scales except for the conduct disorder subscale of the ADHD-RS-5 extended. Good construct validity was revealed by expected correlational patterns between subscales from the two rating scales and the Children Behavior Checklist. The criterion validity was good for all the subscales of the two rating scales rated by parents, while teacher-ratings revealed substantially lower predictive ability for all the subscales. Agreement between parent- and teacher-ratings of the two rating scales was generally moderate and using predictive ratings alone of both ratings showed the best predictive ability among the integration methods examined. CONCLUSION: The two rating scales have sound psychometric properties and will aid in screening and severity assessment of externalizing disorders in Japanese clinical settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Japão , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
3.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 146-152, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322518

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the mediating role of empathy and emotional competence in the association between family functioning and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors among adolescents in China. Methods: In this study, we used the data from the June-July 2022 survey of Chengdu Positive Child Development (CPCD) cohort. All respondents were 5th-9th graders from six primary or secondary schools in Chengdu. The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI), the empathy subscale of the Chinese version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (C-IRI), and the emotional competence (EC) subscale of the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYD) were used to evaluate the respondents' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, family functioning, empathy, and emotional competence, respectively. The average score derived from the total score of a scale divided by the number of entries in each dimension was used as the final score of the scale. Independent samples t-tests or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to examine the differences in family functioning, empathy, emotional competence, and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors across student groups with different demographic characteristics (sex, grade, and region). Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between family functioning, empathy, emotional competence, and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. AMOS 24.0 was used to validate the hypothesized model and structural equation modeling was used to analyze the mediating effects of empathy and emotional competence between family functioning and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors among adolescents. Results: A total of 3026 eligible participants were included, including 1548 (51.16%) male students and 1478 (48.84%) female students. Among the respondents, 798 (26.37%) were 5th graders, 738 (24.39%) were 6th graders, 567 (18.74%) were 7th graders, 614 (20.29%) were 8th graders, and 309 (10.21%) were 9th graders. In addition, 2064 (68.21%) of all respondents were from urban areas and 962 (31.79%) were from rural areas. The results of the difference analysis showed that the differences in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors were statistically significant between students of different grades (P=0.004), and that the differences in family functioning and empathy scores were also statistically significant between students of different grades (all P<0.001), whereas the differences in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors were not statistically significant between sexes and regions (P=0.919, 0.959). The results of correlation analysis showed that family functioning scores (the higher the score, the worse the family functioning) were significantly negatively correlated with empathy and emotional competence (r=-0.482, -0.432, P<0.01), and significantly positively correlated with internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors (r=0.220, P<0.01). Empathy was significantly positively correlated with emotional competence (r=0.402, P<0.01). Empathy and emotional competence were significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors (r=-0.115, -0.305, P<0.01). Emotional competence partially mediated the relationship between family functioning and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, with a mediation effect value being 0.042 (95% [confidence interval] CI: 0.031-0.057). Empathy and emotional competence had chain mediation effect between family functioning and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, with the value of the mediation effect being 0.010 (95% CI: 0.007-0.014). Conclusion: Family functioning influences adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in a direct way and through the chain-mediating roles of empathy and emotional competence.


Assuntos
Empatia , Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População do Leste Asiático , Família , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Criança
4.
J Affect Disord ; 350: 197-202, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220109

RESUMO

Positive associations between difficulties in emotion regulation and PTSD symptom severity have been consistently found in the literature. Little is known whether these associations are the result of reciprocal effects between the two constructs. This study investigated the reciprocal relationship between post-traumatic stress symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties. The study used a longitudinal design with two time points. The sample consisted of 293 patients who were all in treatment for PTSD. We estimated the cross-lagged panel model with latent variables. The results showed a significant cross-lagged effect of emotion regulation difficulties on post-traumatic stress symptoms. This finding highlights that emotion regulation difficulties play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress. Therefore, exploring emotion regulation difficulties early on in treatment may support the effectiveness of trauma-focused interventions.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Comportamento Problema , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Emoções , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 917: 170408, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281643

RESUMO

Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) during early embryonic development is associated with the increased risk of developmental neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral disorders in children. In our previous study, we demonstrated that exposure to PFOA affected locomotor activity and disrupted dopamine-related gene expression in zebrafish larvae. Consequently, we continue to study the dopaminergic system with a focus on dopamine levels and dopamine's effect on behaviors in relation to PFOA exposure. In the present study, we found a decrease in dopamine levels in larval zebrafish. We studied the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, which is responsible for regulating dopamine levels through the reuptake of dopamine in neuronal cells. We demonstrated that exposure to PFOA disrupted the glycosylation process of DAT, inhibited its uptake function, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in dopaminergic cells. Besides, we conducted a light-dark preference test on larval zebrafish and observed anxiety/depressive-like behavioral changes following exposure to PFOA. Dopamine is one of the most prominent neurotransmitters that significantly influences human behavior, with low dopamine levels being associated with impairments such as anxiety and depression. The anxiety-like response in zebrafish larvae exposure to PFOA implies the link with the reduced dopamine levels. Taken together, we can deduce that glycosylation changes in DAT lead to dysfunction of DAT to regulate dopamine levels, which in turn alters behavior in larval zebrafish. Therefore, alternation in dopamine levels may play a pivotal role in the development of anxiety/depressive-like behavioral changes induced by PFOA.


Assuntos
Caprilatos , Fluorocarbonos , Comportamento Problema , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Dopamina , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/farmacologia , Larva , Glicosilação
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1018, 2024 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200250

RESUMO

Parent-child interactions are a critical pathway to emotion socialization, with disruption to these processes associated with risk for childhood behavior problems. Using computational linguistics methods, we tested whether (1) play context influenced parent-child socioemotional language, and (2) child conduct problems or callous-unemotional traits were associated with patterns of socioemotional or nonsocial language across contexts. Seventy-nine parent-child dyads (children, 5-6 years old) played a socioemotional skills ("social context") or math ("nonsocial context") game at home. We transcribed and analyzed game play, which had been audio recorded by participants. The social context elicited more socioemotional and cognitive words, while the nonsocial context elicited more mathematical words. The use of socioemotional language by parents and children was more strongly correlated in the social context, but context did not moderate the degree of correlation in cognitive or mathematical word use between parents and children. Children with more conduct problems used fewer socioemotional words in the social context, while children with higher callous-unemotional traits used fewer cognitive words in both contexts. We highlight the role of context in supporting socioemotionally rich parent-child language interactions and provide preliminary evidence for the existence of linguistic markers of child behavior problems. Our results also inform naturalistic assessments of parent-child interactions and home-based interventions for parents and children facing socioemotional or behavioral challenges.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Infantil , Idioma , Relações Pais-Filho
7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 51, 2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253552

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can significantly impact the brain development of the fetus, leading to long-term cognitive and behavioral problems. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the acute and chronic effects of binge-like alcohol exposure during the third trimester equivalent in postnatal day 7 (P7) mice on brain cell viability, synapse activity, cognitive and behavioral performance, and gene expression profiles at P60. Our results showed that alcohol exposure caused neuroapoptosis in P7 mouse brains immediately after a 6-hour exposure. In addition, P60 mice exposed to alcohol during P7 displayed impaired learning and memory abilities and anxiety-like behaviors. Electrophysiological analysis of hippocampal neurons revealed an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in alcohol-treated P60 mice compared to controls, with decreased excitation and increased inhibition. Furthermore, our bioinformatic analysis of 376 dysregulated genes in P60 mouse brains following alcohol exposure identified 50 synapse-related and 23 mitochondria-related genes. These genes encoded proteins located in various parts of the synapse, synaptic cleft, extra-synaptic space, synaptic membranes, or mitochondria, and were associated with different biological processes and functions, including the regulation of synaptic transmission, transport, synaptic vesicle cycle, metabolism, synaptogenesis, mitochondrial activity, cognition, and behavior. The dysregulated synapse and mitochondrial genes were predicted to interact in overlapping networks. Our findings suggest that altered synaptic activities and signaling networks may contribute to alcohol-induced long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments in mice, providing new insights into the underlying synaptic and mitochondrial molecular mechanisms and potential neuroprotective strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais , Camundongos , Etanol , Mitocôndrias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , DNA Mitocondrial , Cognição
8.
Psicothema ; 36(1): 26-35, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of conduct problems in children, and their social and health impact, little is known about gender differences in their characteristics, determinants and implications. This three-year longitudinal study explored the diversity of individual trait configurations in children with conduct problems, assessing whether 1) the same profiles can be identified in boys and girls and, 2) the predictors and outcomes of these profiles are invariant across genders. METHOD: A multigroup analysis of latent profiles based on temperamental and psychopathic traits was performed on a sample of 401 young children (50.87% girls) with high scores in conduct problems. RESULTS: Both the number of profiles and the means and variances of compositional variables were similar across genders, but the distributions were different. Four profiles were identified, and girls belonged to the least problematic group more frequently. While the predictors were invariant across genders, outcomes were not. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the literature on heterogeneity in conduct problems by identifying specific constellations of traits in both boys and girls and shows the importance of considering gender in understanding the progression of conduct problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Temperamento , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Longitudinais
9.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(1): e6054, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the number and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and associated caregiver distress between those with and without a noted history of psychological trauma among those referred to a specialised national dementia NPS support service. METHODS: This was a 5-year retrospective observational study of records from the Dementia Support Australia NPS support service. NPS were reported by formal or informal caregivers at service entry using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home version or Questionnaire version. A history of psychological trauma was recorded in the person's social or medical history and/or endorsed as a contributor to NPS by a trained dementia consultant after a comprehensive clinical review. Regression was used to examine the impact of a recorded history of psychological trauma on NPS severity and associated caregiver distress, controlling for age and sex. RESULTS: Among 41,876 eligible referrals with dementia, 6% (n = 2529) had some reference in their records to a history of psychological trauma. Referrals with a recorded history of psychological trauma were rated with a higher rate of both NPS severity (mean = 12.0) and associated caregiver distress (mean = 16.5) at service entry than those without a recorded history of psychological trauma (means = 10.7 and 14.5, respectively). A recorded history of psychological trauma was associated with higher odds of psychotic symptoms, agitation/aggression, irritability, disinhibition, affective symptoms and night-time behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic stress symptoms may represent a neglected target for intervention to reduce the impact of NPS in people with dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Comportamento Problema , Trauma Psicológico , Humanos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Humor Irritável , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 9, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) are the most common mental health issues during adolescence, and their incidence has increased in recent years. The system of care for adolescents with EBP is known to have several problems, making the provision of care less than optimal, and attention needs to be given to potential improvements. We, therefore, aimed to examine what needs to be done to improve the system of care for adolescents with EBP and to assess the urgency and feasibility of the proposed measures from the perspective of care providers. METHODS: We used Concept mapping, a participatory mixed-method research, based on qualitative data collection and quantitative data analysis. A total of 33 stakeholders from 17 institutions participated in our study, including psychologists, pedagogues for children with special needs, teachers, educational counsellors, social workers and child psychiatrists. RESULTS: Respondents identified 43 ideas for improving of the system of care for adolescents with EBP grouped into 5 clusters related to increasing the competencies of care providers, changes at schools and school systems, support for existing services, transparency of the care system in institutions and public administration, and the adjustment of legislative conditions. The most urgent and feasible proposals were related to the support of awareness-raising activities on the topic of EBP, the creation of effective screening tools for the identification of EBP in adolescents, strengthening the role of parents in the process of care, comprehensive work with the family, creation of multidisciplinary support teams and intersectoral cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: Measures which are more accessible and responsive to the pitfalls of the care system, together with those strengthening the role of families and schools, have greater potential for improvements which are in favour of adolescents with EBP. Care providers should be invited more often and much more involved in the discussion and the co-creation of measures to improve the system of care for adolescents with EBP.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Emoções , Pais/psicologia
11.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 48(1): 120-127, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38239164

RESUMO

The study herein evaluated the effects of infiltrative anesthesia administered via different ways. Resultantly, the pain and anxiety were monitored using psychometric, physiological and biochemical methods. Sixty children aged 7-11 years (8.73 ± 1.38) were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups (n = 30): Traditional injection (control group), and computer controlled local analgesic delivery (CCLAD) (study group). Pulse, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and salivary cortisol levels were recorded, and the scales data (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Wong-Baker Faces Rating Pain Scale (WBS), Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDAS) and Face, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability Behavioral Pain Assessment Scale (FLACC)) were evaluated. The data were statistically analyzed. Age and gender had not much impact on the measured parameters (p > 0.05). SpO2 values in both groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Pulse, VAS, WBS, MCDAS, FLACC and salivary cortisol values were increased after the anesthesia in control group (p < 0.05). WBS, MCDAS, FLACC and salivary cortisol values were decreased after the anesthesia in study group compared to the control (p < 0.05). It was inferred that computer controlled local analgesic delivery system could be preferred in pediatric patients because of reduced pain and anxiety.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Humanos , Anestésicos Locais , Hidrocortisona , Anestesia Local/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade , Anestesia Dentária/métodos , Analgésicos , Computadores
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 70, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children who experience chest discomfort, palpitations, vasovagal syncope, and underlying heart disease often present a complex clinical picture. Not only are they dealing with potential cardiac issues, but they may also exhibit behavioral problems that can complicate the diagnostic and treatment process. Moreover, parental acceptance or rejection can significantly influence the child's well-being and medical outcomes in such cases. This study aims to explore the comorbidity of behavioral problems and parental acceptance-rejection in children diagnosed with these cardiac symptoms and underlying heart disease. METHODS: In a case-control study, the Parental Acceptance - Rejection Questionnaire and Parental version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was filled by parents of 314 patients from pediatric cardiology clinic. RESULTS: The control group scored substantially lower overall according to SDQ. The vasovagal syncope subgroup was found to have considerably lower scores on the subscale. The group with chest discomfort scored highly in hostility and aggression in the PARQ. In comparison to the other groups, the vasovagal syncope and chest pain group demonstrated higher scores in undifferentiated rejection and total score. CONCLUSION: This study showed a correlation between children's behavioral and emotional problems and cardiac symptoms. This states that children's relationship with their parents has an impact on their symptoms. It will be necessary to conduct further studies to determine a causal association and devise preventative measures.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Comportamento Problema , Síncope Vasovagal , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síncope Vasovagal/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Pais
13.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 86: 127-134, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) is widely used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. However, the available evidence remains unclear. METHOD: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations, LILACS, and international trial registers were searched from database inception to April 30, 2022. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared TF-CBT with any control condition for treating children and adolescents with PTSD. Analyses were performed using Review Manager version 5.3 and Stata 16.0. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020206096). RESULTS: Eleven RCTs involving 1942 patients were included. Group TF-CBT was significantly more effective than other treatments at post-treatment (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.65 to -0.22), follow-up (SMD: -0.33, 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.13), and in relieving depressive symptoms (SMD: -0.29, 95% CI: -0.49 to -0.09), but not in terms of acceptability. Subgroup analyses showed that group TF-CBT was superior to other treatments in studies including children with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) (SMD: -0.54, 95% CI: -0.79 to -0.28) and psychiatric comorbidities (SMD: -0.48, 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.23). LIMITATIONS: The small sample sizes of identified studies limited some findings. CONCLUSION: When considering effectiveness at post-treatment and follow-up or the reduction of depressive symptoms, group TF-CBT could be a good choice for children and adolescents with PTSD. Among these patients, those with PTSS or psychiatric comorbidities may benefit the most.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Comportamento Problema , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Comorbidade
14.
J Fam Psychol ; 38(2): 282-295, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227467

RESUMO

We examined how mothers' daily parenting cognitions and behaviors implicated by different theoretical perspectives (i.e., relational, learning theory, and cognitive perspectives) associated in linear or nonlinear ways with disruptive child behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined levels of heterogeneity between families in these patterns and whether this heterogeneity could be explained by mother and child characteristics. Mothers of 150 children, 3-8 years; 48% girls; 68% (sub)clinical conduct problems, completed 14 daily assessments (Nassessments = 1,993). Multilevel models indicate significant associations with daily disruptive child behavior for each of the parenting indicators, except for lax discipline. Positive involvement-implicated by relational perspectives-had a consistent, negative cubic association across families. Other associations were quadratic (for parental self-efficacy) or linear (for positive reinforcement, harsh discipline, and nonviolent discipline) and differed between families. Parenting behaviors indicative of learning theory and cognitive perspectives appeared more important in families with more maternal and child mental health problems; learning theory perspectives appeared more important also in families with older children. Our findings indicate the importance of considering nonlinear patterns of parent-child interactions in the context of disruptive behavior, at least in times where families are under pandemic-related stress. The identified between-family variation could potentially provide guidance as to what parenting support is most likely to benefit different families. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Problema , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pandemias , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil
15.
J Fam Psychol ; 38(2): 296-308, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236275

RESUMO

Parenting stress reflects a discrepancy between a parent's perception of their resources, the demands of their child's needs, and the caregiving relationship and contexts (Abidin, 1992). Parenting stress can increase the risk of issues in the parent-child relationship, as well as child behavioral and emotional outcomes (Neece et al., 2012; Spinelli et al., 2021). Chronic stressors, such as living through the COVID-19 pandemic, have the potential to increase the demands of parenting and thus parenting stress. Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined parenting stress trajectories of 298 American parents with young children (Mage = 15.02 months, range = 1-34 months) over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also examined the effects of parental mental health on parenting stress, and the effects of parental mental health and parenting stress on child problem behaviors using data gathered through the Prolific survey platform. Parental mental health, measured by depressive symptoms Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10, anxiety symptoms Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and overall stress levels 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, was related to higher initial parenting stress index-short form. Changes in parenting stress over time were linked with higher levels of children's problem behaviors (CBCL). Child temperament was also related to initial parenting stress. Lower levels of household income were linked with higher levels of parental mental health symptoms and higher rates of parenting stress increases over time. These results highlight the importance of considering the well-being of all family members in child outcomes, and the ways in which different experiences and resources during the COVID-19 pandemic affect parental and child well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Problema , Testes Psicológicos , Autorrelato , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Pais/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho
17.
Behav Modif ; 48(1): 75-106, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37688442

RESUMO

It is considered best practice to conduct a functional analysis and visually inspect data collected to determine the function of problem behavior, which then informs the intervention approaches applied. Visual inspection has been described as a "subjective" process that may be affected by factors unrelated to the data. Structured decision-making guidelines have been established to address some of these shortcomings. The current paper is a follow-up to earlier work describing positive outcomes related to the viability of a decision support system based on structured criteria from Roane et al. Here, we demonstrate important improvements in a computer script's interpretation of functional analysis data, including improvement in agreement between the updated computer script version and experienced human raters (89%) compared to our original agreement outcomes (81%). This paper further supports the use of decision support systems for functional analysis interpretation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Comportamento Problema , Humanos
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 78(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147644

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: An association between sensory processing difficulties and behavioral problems among children has been reported in previous studies. Sleep problems among children can lead to both externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems. However, the relationships between sensory processing and sleep among children are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To develop a structural causal model (SCM) predicated on the hypothesis that sensory processing difficulties and sleep problems are closely related among preschoolers and may contribute to behavioral issues. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 168 children ages 3-5 yr who were enrolled in a preschool or an accredited kindergarten (four facilities in total) in a Japanese prefecture participated in the analysis. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: After gaining the cooperation of educators, we distributed the following items to the children's parents: an informed consent form, the Short Sensory Profile-Japanese version (SSP-J), the Japanese Sleep Questionnaire for Preschoolers (JSQ-P), and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5. Through factor analysis of the SSP-J and the JSQ-P, we identified common factors. We developed an SCM using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Four factors were identified by factor analysis: attention deficit, sensory sensitivity, sleep problems, and restless legs syndrome symptoms. The final structural equation modeling analysis had an acceptable goodness of fit (goodness-of-fit index = .862; root-mean-square error of approximation = .087). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The model suggests that sensory sensitivity and sleep difficulties may contribute to behavioral issues among preschoolers. Plain-Language Summary: The results of this study suggest that relationships exist between behavioral problems, sensory processing, and sleep among preschoolers. The authors developed a model that identified four common factors that contribute to behavioral issues among preschoolers: attention deficit, sensory sensitivity, sleep problems, and restless legs syndrome symptoms. Children's behavioral problems are an important consideration for occupational therapy practitioners working with preschoolers. Sensory processing and sleep must be accurately evaluated to address preschoolers' behavioral issues.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Sono , Percepção
19.
J Affect Disord ; 346: 252-259, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37924982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregiver behaviors such as family accommodation (FA) are negatively reinforced by reduced distress in the short term, but ultimately maintain symptoms. It is important to explore the role of FA on symptoms and impairment. The current study examined the relationship among FA, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and functional impairment in a sample of children and their caregivers who completed trauma treatment. METHOD: Participants included 183 children and their caregivers (M age = 7.89; 55.19 % female; 73.22 % non-Hispanic; 51.37 % White). Data consisted of parent-reported measures collected at baseline, post-treatment, and 12-month follow-up from a randomized control trial (RCT) comparing Stepped Care CBT for Children after Trauma and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT). Correlational, mediation, and hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to test the interrelationships among FA, child PTSS, and child functional impairment. RESULTS: FA was significantly, positively associated with total PTSS and functional impairment at baseline. Baseline FA partially mediated the relationship between baseline total PTSS and baseline functional impairment. Lastly, greater pre- to post-treatment changes in FA were mostly associated with relevant outcome variables at post-treatment and 12-month follow-up. LIMITATIONS: Study limitations include use of a single informant, cross-sectional data analysis, lack of differentiation among trauma types, concerns regarding generalizability. CONCLUSION: Assessing FA may be a helpful tool in better understanding how child PTSS relates to functional impairment following exposure to trauma. This study is clinically relevant it offers insight on the relationship among FA, PTSS, and functional impairment for families involved in trauma treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Comportamento Problema , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia
20.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 61(1): 40-51, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the UK prevalence of behavioral problems in 5-year-old children born with isolated or syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) compared to the general population and identify potentially associated factors. DESIGN: Observational study using questionnaire data from the Cleft Collective 5-Year-Old Cohort study and three general population samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). PARTICIPANTS: Mothers of children (age: 4.9-6.8 years) born with CL/P (n = 325). UK general population cohorts for SDQ scores were: Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) (n = 12 511), Office of National Statistics (ONS) normative school-age SDQ data (n = 5855), and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 9386). RESULTS: By maternal report, 14.2% of children born with CL/P were above clinical cut-off for behavioral problems, which was more likely than in general population samples: 7.5% of MCS (OR = 2.05 [1.49-2.82], P < 0.001), 9.8% of ONS (OR = 1.52 [1.10-2.09], P = 0.008), and 6.6% of ALSPAC (OR = 2.34 [1.70-3.24], P < 0.001). Children in the Cleft Collective had higher odds for hyperactivity, emotional and peer problems, and less prosocial behaviors. Maternal stress, lower maternal health-related quality of life and family functioning, receiving government income support, and maternal smoking showed evidence of association (OR range: 4.41-10.13) with behavioral problems, along with maternal relationship status, younger age, and lower education (OR range: 2.34-3.73). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest elevated levels of behavioral problems in children born with CL/P compared to the general population with several associated maternal factors similar to the general population.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/psicologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
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