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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e446-e455, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are extremely marginalised and stigmatised, and therefore experience immense psychosocial stress. As current HIV prevention interventions in India do not address mental health or resilience to these stressors, we aimed to evaluate a resilience-based psychosocial intervention in the context of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention. METHODS: We did a multicity, randomised, clinical efficacy trial in Chennai (governmental tuberculosis research institute) and Mumbai (non-governmental organisation for MSM), India. Inclusion criteria were MSM, aged 18 years or older, who were at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission, defined as having any of the following in the 4 months before screening: anal sex with four or more male partners (protected or unprotected), diagnosis of an STI, history of transactional sex activity, or condomless anal sex with a man who was of unknown HIV status or serodiscordant. Participants were required to speak English, Tamil (in Chennai), or Hindi (in Mumbai) fluently. Eligible individuals were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a resilience-based psychosocial HIV prevention intervention, consisting of group (four sessions) and individual (six sessions) counselling alongside HIV and STI voluntary counselling and testing, or a standard-of-care control comprising voluntary counselling and testing alone. The primary outcomes were number of condomless anal sex acts with male partners during the past month (at baseline and 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after randomisation), and incident bacterial STIs (at 12 months after randomisation). Resilience-related mediators included self-esteem, self-acceptance, and depression. Recruitment is now closed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02556294. FINDINGS: Between Sept 4, 2015, and June 28, 2018, we enrolled 608 participants; 305 (50%) were assigned to the psychosocial intervention condition and 303 (50%) were assigned to the control condition. 510 (84%) of 608 men completed an assessment at 4 months after randomisation, 483 (79%) at 8 months, and 515 (85%) at 12 months. 512 (99%) of 515 men had STI data from the 12-month assessment. The intervention condition had a 56% larger reduction in condomless anal sex acts (95% CI 35-71; p<0·0001) from baseline to 4-month follow-up, 72% larger reduction (56-82; p<0·0001) from baseline to 8-month follow-up, and 72% larger reduction (53-83; p<0·0001) from baseline to 12-month follow-up, compared with the standard-of-care control condition (condition by time interaction; χ2=40·29, 3 df; p<0·0001). Improvements in self-esteem and depressive symptoms both mediated 9% of the intervention effect on condomless anal sex acts. Bacterial STI incidence did not differ between study conditions at 12-month follow-up. INTERPRETATION: A resilience-based psychosocial intervention for MSM at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission in India was efficacious in reducing condomless anal sex acts, with evidence for mediation effects in two key target resilience variables. HIV prevention programmes for MSM in India should address mental health resilience to augment reductions in the risk of sexually transmitted HIV. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Aconselhamento/métodos , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Clin Ethics ; 32(1): 3-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656453

RESUMO

This article discusses how careproviders of all types can help people with differences of sexual development (DSD): people with ambiguous genitalia, who used to be referred to as intersexed. Careproviders may be in a unique position to benefit these people by offering to discuss difficult issues that concern them, even when the discussions are brief. Specific interventions include learning about people with DSD, whether through the literature or in the clinic; treating them with optimal respect; raising difficult topics such as sex, fertility, and social stigma; encouraging them and helping them to meet others with DSD; and sharing the strengths that we can see that they have. We have come far, but have a long way to go.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiologia , Humanos , Estigma Social
3.
J Clin Ethics ; 32(1): 69-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656458

RESUMO

This article aims to make a case for the need to sensitize the medical community on the importance of providing sexual health information in the care of intersex adolescents and young adults for whom sexuality and intimacy are sensitive subjects-and to go beyond a narrow focus on surgical outcomes. For this purpose, this article gives voice to the lived experience of "Emma," a young adult who identifies as intersex. Setting up strong collaboration between medical teams and intersex support groups might be the best way forward to provide high-quality care to youth born with variations of sex characteristics.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/psicologia , Pessoas Intersexuais/educação , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Humanos , Pessoas Intersexuais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
4.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 26, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A coherent sexuality education program for adolescents is part of their sexual and reproductive rights and can help them have a healthier future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and intervention preferences of Iranian stakeholders regarding comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in male adolescents based on the IMB model (information, motivation, behavioral skills). METHODS: This study was a qualitative study that was analyzed through a directed content analysis approach. Individual interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs) were used for data collection. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in two schools and the Education Department in Sari and the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education in Tehran from March 2019 to August 2019. Data saturation was achieved after 28 interviews and 1 FGDs with 9 participants. Finally, two sets of data were coded and analyzed using directed content analysis. RESULTS: In this study, five themes emerged as (1) role of institutions; (2) role of organizations; (3) need for stakeholder's partnership; (4) need for adolescent sexuality socialization management; and (5) need for enhancing the teachers' professional competence, which seemed to influence the implementation of CSE in male adolescents. Participants also expressed a number of intervention preferences for CSE. The most important of these was the change in macro policies, helping to create a culture against all forms of violence and breaking the taboo of sexuality education for children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed the need for a CSE program for adolescents' sexuality socialization. The finding showed that teachers required training to enhance their professional competence about sexuality issues. Therefore, it is necessary to design and implement culture-appropriate skill based programs to enhance the teachers' professional competence regarding the adolescents' sexual health.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Percepção , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Educação Sexual , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Educação Sexual/métodos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Participação dos Interessados , Adulto Jovem
5.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(1): 263-275, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398703

RESUMO

College students often confide in their friends following sexual assaults. Friends' reactions may include a variety of emotions and helping behaviors; prior victimization, knowing the accused, and rape myth acceptance may affect these. A sample of 1016 students at a religiously affiliated university completed quantitative surveys measuring their rape myth acceptance, history of sexual assault victimization, disclosures received, and reactions to the most recent disclosure. A subset of 636 students (506 females, 130 males) reported receiving at least one rape disclosure from a friend. Regression analysis of the subset revealed that participants' rape myth acceptance, victimization histories, and relationships to the accused influenced reactions to friends who were sexually assaulted. Students who endorsed rape myths were less likely to lend support to survivors; they were also more likely to experience shame and anger, and to blame their sexually assaulted friends. Students who shared friends with both the survivor and the accused were more likely to offer support to the survivor, experience feelings of divided loyalty, and blame the survivor. Blaming or feeling embarrassed toward survivors was associated with a tendency to advise them on how to avoid revictimization. This suggests that some disclosure recipients focused on their friend's behavior to explain the sexual assault. Cognitive dissonance theory may partially explain the findings.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(1): 69-82, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398706

RESUMO

Gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) men are at higher risk of negative body image. As having a negative body image is related to negative mood, sexual, and health outcomes, identifying and providing community-friendly tools for GBQ men is important. This paper describes the creation and evaluation of Rainbow Reflections, a comic anthology developed to promote awareness of and communication about body image. Rainbow Reflections includes comics from 38 trans- and cis-GBQ artists who drew inspiration from personal narratives based on pre-determined themes in the empirical literature and interactive inserts based on evidence-based practice. To evaluate Rainbow Reflections, 167 trans- and cis-GBQ men completed pre-post measures before/after viewing a selection of comics and responded to an open-ended question about their experience. Overall, participants rated the comic book positively, with a majority (61.1%) indicating that they would recommend the book to a friend. After viewing the comics, participants reported greater comfort with initiating conversations about body image, greater satisfaction with their bodies, and reported higher estimates of how common body image concerns are for queer men. Themes that emerged from open-ended responses included participants reflecting on personal struggles (~ 30%), relating with the stories of others (~ 22%), reflecting on the standards of queer men (~ 18%), recognizing cis-privilege (~ 11%), reflecting on others' struggles (~ 9%), negative feedback about the comics (~ 7%), and balancing masculine and feminine (~ 3%). Results of the study provide preliminary evidence for Rainbow Reflections as an effective community-friendly tool to promote awareness of and communication about body image for GBQ men.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Pesquisa Empírica , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Livros , Comunicação , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 667-681, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398695

RESUMO

A large number of partnered individuals regularly use or are in a relationship with someone who uses pornography. However, knowledge concerning the association between pornography use and partnered sexual health-sexual satisfaction, distress, and function-is fragmentary. The current study used an event-level dyadic design to examine the associations between pornography use and sexual satisfaction, distress, and function on days when partnered sexual activity occurred. A convenience sample of 217 couples (Mage = 30.2; SD = 8.3; 72 same-sex couples) completed a short survey on days of sexual activity with their partner, over a 35-day period. Self-report measures included questions about daily pornography use and masturbation as well as daily sexual satisfaction, distress, and function. Using pornography on days of partnered sexual activity was reported by half of the couples. An individual's solitary pornography use on days of partnered sexual activity was related to their partner's higher sexual distress and, for women's use only, to their own higher quality of lubrication, compared to sex days without solitary pornography use. There was no evidence of an association between pornography use on sex days, whether alone or with the partner, and all other aspects of sexual health including sexual satisfaction. Our findings capture the complexity of the associations between pornography and sexual health. Men and women's pornography use may create idealized fantasies around appearance and performance, which may lead the partner to feel distressed about their sex life. Women's pornography use might facilitate their sexual responsiveness during partnered sexual activity.


Assuntos
Orgasmo , Autorrelato , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Literatura Erótica , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Masturbação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 629-646, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398696

RESUMO

We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a U.S. nationally representative survey of individuals ages 14-24 years old on what sources of information from the past year they considered to be the most helpful about how to have sex (n = 600 adolescents ages 14-17 years old, and n = 666 young adults ages 18-24 years old). Among the 324 adolescents who indicated that they had been helped by at least one source of information, helpful information was most likely to have come from parents (31.0%) and friends (21.6%). Only 8.4% of adolescents said pornography was helpful. However, for those in the 18-24-year-old age group, pornography was the most commonly endorsed helpful source (24.5%), as compared to other possible options such as sexual partners, friends, media, and health care professionals. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that indicating that pornography was the most helpful source of information about how to have sex, compared to the other sources, was inversely associated with being female (OR = 0.32, p = .001), inversely associated with identifying as bisexual compared to heterosexual (OR = 0.15, p = .038), positively associated with being Black compared to being white non-Hispanic (OR = 4.26, p = .021), inversely associated with reporting a household income of either $25 K to $49,999 (OR = 0.31, p = .010) or $50 K to $74,999 (OR = 0.36, p = .019) compared to more than $75 K, and positively associated with having masturbated (OR = 13.20, p = .005). Subsequent research should investigate the role of pornography in both adolescent and adult sexual development, including why one-quarter of U.S. young adults say that pornography is a helpful source of information about how to have sex and what they think that they are learning from it.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Meios de Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Educação Sexual/métodos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 711-728, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403533

RESUMO

A growing number of individuals using online forums are attempting to abstain from pornography (colloquially termed "rebooting") due to self-perceived pornography-related problems. The present qualitative study explored phenomenological experiences of abstinence among members of an online "rebooting" forum. A total of 104 abstinence journals by male forum members were systematically analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of four themes (with a total of nine subthemes) emerged from the data: (1) abstinence is the solution to pornography-related problems, (2) sometimes abstinence seems impossible, (3) abstinence is achievable with the right resources, and (4) abstinence is rewarding if persisted with. Members' primary reasons for initiating "rebooting" involved desiring to overcome a perceived addiction to pornography and/or alleviate perceived negative consequences attributed to pornography use, especially sexual difficulties. Successfully achieving and maintaining abstinence was typically experienced to be very challenging due to habitual behavior patterns and/or cravings triggered by a multiplicity of cues for pornography use, but a combination of internal (e.g., cognitive-behavioral strategies) and external (e.g., social support) resources made abstinence attainable for many members. A range of benefits attributed to abstinence by members suggest that abstaining from pornography could potentially be a beneficial intervention for problematic pornography use, although future prospective studies are needed to rule out possible third variable explanations for these perceived effects and to rigorously evaluate abstinence as an intervention. The present findings shed light on what the "rebooting" experience is like from members' own perspectives and provide insights into abstinence as an approach for addressing problematic pornography use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Personalidade , Autocontrole/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Estudos Prospectivos , Recompensa , Autoimagem , Apoio Social
10.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 683-694, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469812

RESUMO

A growing body of research has demonstrated how the link between pornography use and various manifestations of psychological distress and dissatisfaction is explained by moral incongruence-the experience of violating one's deeply held moral values. The predictive power of moral incongruence, however, has yet to be applied to other sexual activities. Drawing on data from available waves of the General Social Surveys (1988-2018: nmen = 6590, nwomen = 7047; 1989-2018: nmen = 3558, nwomen = 4841), this study extended moral incongruence theory by testing whether engaging in same-sex or non-marital sexual activity when one rejects either as morally wrong is associated with a greater likelihood of reporting unhappiness. Analyses demonstrated that American men (but not women) who reported engaging in same-sex sex in the previous year were more likely than other men to say they were unhappy, but only if they viewed homosexuality as "always wrong." Analyses also showed that American women (not men) who reported higher frequencies of non-marital sex in the previous year were more likely than other women to report being unhappy, but only if they viewed non-marital sex as "always wrong." Though nuanced by gender, findings affirmed expectations from moral incongruence research: Sexual behavior per se is not associated with unhappiness, but moral inconsistency or conflict regarding one's sexual behavior is.


Assuntos
Relações Extramatrimoniais/psicologia , Tristeza/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 369-375, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare sexual function and quality of life (QoL) in breast cancer survivors with and without a history of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of breast cancer survivors treated at a tertiary referral hospital in Western Australia. The Female Sexual Function Index was used to determine rates of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Participants also completed the Relationship Assessment Scale, Menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire and Short Form Health Survey-36. RESULTS: A total of 427 women were invited to participate: 119 had undergone BSO and 308 were controls with at least one ovary remaining. A total of 172 women participated (overall response rate 40.3%), consisting of 76 women in the BSO group (response rate 63.9%) and 96 women with at least one ovary remaining (response rate 31.2%). There was no difference in FSD between the two groups: 63/76 (82.9%) women who had undergone BSO had FSD compared to 75/96 (78.1%) controls (p = 0.458). No difference in HSDD was observed (p = 0.084) between the BSO group 70/76 (96.0%) and the controls 96/96 (100%). Women who had undergone BSO had lower general health scores compared to the control group (p = 0.034). Both groups had similar energy levels, emotional well-being, pain scores, physical functioning levels and social functioning levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, women with prior treatment for breast cancer had high levels of FSD and HSDD, irrespective of whether they had undergone BSO. Both groups reported similar sexual function scores and QoL.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028499, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351083

RESUMO

Importance: Engaging adolescent boys and young men in preventing violence against women is a potentially impactful public health strategy. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based, gender-transformative program (ie, Manhood 2.0) on perpetration of gender-based violence by adolescent boys and young men. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this unblinded cluster randomized clinical trial, neighborhoods were designated as the unit of clustering (1:1 allocation). Three-month (ie, time point 2 [T2]) and 9-month (ie, time point 3 [T3]) follow-ups were conducted. The trial took place in 20 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods and 1 centrally located site with concentrated disadvantage. Pittsburgh-based adolescent boys and young men (ages 13 to 19 years) were recruited between July 27, 2015, and June 5, 2017, through youth-serving organizations and community-based alternatives to residential placement for juvenile justice-involved youth. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted from June 2018 to November 2019. Interventions: Manhood 2.0, an international program adapted for adolescent boys and young men in US urban communities, encourages these individuals to challenge gender norms that foster violence against women and unhealthy sexual relationships. Individuals in the control population received job-readiness training. Each program was 18 hours. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in participant-level perpetration of sexual violence (SV) or adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) at T3. Results: Among 866 participants, 465 individuals (54%) enrolled in 11 intervention clusters and 401 individuals (46%) enrolled in 10 control clusters. In the intervention group, 325 participants (70%) were analyzed at T2 and 334 participants (72%) were analyzed at T3; in the control group, 262 participants (65%) were analyzed at T2 and 301 participants (75%) were analyzed at T3. Mean (SD) age was 15.5 (1.6) years; 609 participants (70%) self-identified as non-Hispanic Black, and 178 (20%) self-identified as Hispanic, multiracial, or other race/ethnicity other than White. Among individuals in the intervention group, 296 participants (64%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at baseline, and 173 participants (52%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at T3. Among individuals in the control group, 213 participants (53%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at baseline, and 124 participants (41%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at T3). The difference in reduction between groups was not significant. There was no evidence of an intervention effect for the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 0.86-2.01; P = .20). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings from this evaluation of a community-based gender-transformative program for adolescent boys and young men did not show a significant intervention effect in reducing SV or ARA perpetration between Manhood 2.0 and a job-readiness control program. Combining gender-transformative approaches with job-readiness programs may be relevant for violence prevention in low-resource urban settings. Attention to improving implementation and strategies to sustain such community-based efforts are needed. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02427061.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Saúde Pública/métodos , Tratamento Domiciliar/métodos , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348870

RESUMO

Adolescent sexting is a serious public health concern and is associated with adverse psychosocial outcomes, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, declining academic performance, and health problems. Effective prevention of sexting requires a comprehensive and deep understanding of the multiple contexts whereby sexting is likely to occur. The present study explores individual and contextual risk and protective factors that are associated with sexting behavior among a large sample of adolescents. Participants were high school students in midwestern U.S. (N = 2501; LGB n = 309, 76.4% female; non-LGB n = 2192, 47.4% female) who completed self-report measures of sexting and risk (e.g., pornography exposure, impulsivity) and protective (e.g., social support) factors. Path analysis models were conducted with the sexting outcome for groups of LGB and non-LGB students. Among LGB students, results indicated a significant association between sexting and parental monitoring (b = -0.08, p < 0.01); pornography exposure (b = 0.13, p < 0.05); dating partners (b = 0.01, p < 0.01); bullying perpetration (b = 0.17, p < 0.001); and delinquency (b = 0.13; p < 0.001). Among non-LGB students, significant associations were found between sexting and alcohol/substance use (b = 0.05, p < 0.001); bullying (b = 0.08, p < 0.001); and delinquency (b = 0.06, p < 0.001). Moderation analyses suggest that parental monitoring may have a buffering effect between sexting and several risk factors. Recommendations for practitioners include considering the protective factors of sexting perpetration and encouraging appropriate levels of parental monitoring and the continued importance of bullying and alcohol and drug prevention programming to decrease risk factors of sexting perpetration.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378386

RESUMO

Within the span of almost ten years, phone dating apps have transformed the dating scene by normalizing and, according to some voices, gamifying the digital quest for a partner. Despite amplified discussion on how swipe-based apps damage the fabric of intimate ties, scientific accounts on whether they have led to different relationship patterns are missing. Using 2018 survey data from Switzerland, this study provides a rich overview of couples who met through dating apps by addressing three main themes: 1) family formation intentions, 2) relationship satisfaction and individual well-being, and 3) assortative mating. The data indicate that in Switzerland, dating apps have recently taken over as main online dating context. Results further show that couples formed through mobile dating have stronger cohabiting intentions than those formed in non-digital settings. Women who found their partner through a dating app also have stronger fertility desires and intentions than those who found their partner offline. Generally, there are no differences between couples initiated through dating apps and those initiated elsewhere regarding relationship and life satisfaction. Though more data are needed to capture the full range of users' romantic and sexual experiences, current results mitigate some of the concerns regarding the short-term orientation or the poor quality of relationships formed through mobile dating. Findings finally suggest that dating apps play an important role in altering couple composition by allowing for more educationally diverse and geographically distant couples.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clín. salud ; 31(3): 147-153, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197170

RESUMO

Todos los estudiantes sufren el riesgo de ser víctima de conductas agresivas de bullying durante el transcurso de su vida. Sin embargo, existen colectivos con mayor riesgo de sufrir estas conductas, en especial, el colectivo LGTB. Este estudio tiene tres objetivos: (1) analizar la prevalencia de víctimas y agresores de bullying entre adolescentes de secundaria, (2) explorar diferencias en función del sexo y (3) conocer las diferencias en función de la orientación sexual. Una muestra compuesta por 1,748 adolescentes del País Vasco cumplimentó dos cuestionarios. Los resultados evidencian (1) un elevado porcentaje de víctimas (41.6% globales, 11% severas) y de agresores (28.5% globales, 2,7% severos), (2) que las chicas muestran mayor victimización y los chicos agresión y (3) que hay un mayor porcentaje de víctimas no-heterosexuales, en especial de gais y bisexuales. En conclusión, las personas LGTB muestran una mayor vulnerabilidad a sufrir acoso escolar, por lo que es necesario desarrollar e implementar programas antidiscriminatorios en la comunidad educativa


Every student is at risk of aggressive bullying behavior during their lifetime. However, there are groups with a higher risk of suffering these aggressive behaviors, especially the LGTB group. This study has three objectives: (1) to analyze the prevalence of victims and aggressors of bullying among high school adolescents; (2) to explore differences based on sex; and (3) to identify differences based on sexual orientation. A sample consisting of 1,748 adolescents from the Basque Country completed two questionnaires. The results show (1) a high percentage of victims (41.6% global, 11% severe), as well as aggressors (28.5% global, 2.7% severe); (2) that girls show greater victimization and boys show aggression; and (3) a higher percentage of non-heterosexual victims, especially gay and bisexual. In conclusion, LGTB people show greater vulnerability to suffer bullying and, therefore, the need to develop and implement anti-discrimination programs in the educational community


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239750, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swingers, heterosexuals who, as couples, practice mate swapping or group sex with other couples or heterosexual singles, are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess changes in sexual behaviour and STI testing behaviour, as well as predictors of STI testing. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were performed, using the same internet survey in 2011 and 2018. For trend analysis, sexual behaviour and STI testing behaviour were used. Socio-demographics, swinger characteristics, sexual behaviour, and psycho-social variables were used to assess predictors of STI testing in the past year, using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1173 participants completed the survey in 2011, and 1005 in 2018. Condom use decreased for vaginal (73% vs. 60%), oral (5% vs. 2%), and anal sex (85% vs. 75%). STI positivity was reported in 23% and 30% of the participants, respectively, although testing for STI was comparable between both years (~65%). The following predictors of STI testing were significant: being female (OR = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.2-2.9), having a high swinging frequency (>12 times a year, OR = 3.7, 95%CI: 1.9-7.3), swinging at home (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0-2.7), receiving a partner notification (OR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), considering STI testing important (OR = 4.3, 95%CI: 2.2-8.5), experiencing no pressure from a partner to test (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.3-0.9), partners test for STI regularly (OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 6.2-15.9), perceiving STI testing as an obligation (OR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.3-3.5), experiencing no barriers such as being afraid of testing (OR = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.2-3.1), limited opening hours (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0-2.4), and forgetting to plan appointments (OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 2.0-4.6). CONCLUSIONS: Swingers exhibit self-selection for STI testing based on their sexual behaviour. However, STI prevention efforts are still important considering the increasing numbers of reported STIs, the decreased use of condom use, and the one-third of swingers who were not tested in the previous year.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Relações Extramatrimoniais/psicologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sexual partnerships increase the risk of transmission of HIV and can be exacerbated by substance abuse. However, the association between psychoactive substance use and multiple sexual partnerships among young people in informal settlements of low-income countries is not well known. This study established the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships and associated factors among young psychoactive-substance-users in informal settlements in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 744 young (aged 18-24 years), sexually active, psychoactive substance-users selected from 12 of the 57 informal settlements of Kampala City. The prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships and their differential distribution by socio-demographic strata was established. Modified Poisson regression models were run in Stata 14 software to generate prevalence rate ratios for the factors associated with multiple sexual partnerships. RESULTS: About 40.6% (37.9% of males and 50.0% of females) had engaged in multiple sexual partnerships in the last 30 days. Engaging in multiple sexual partnerships in the last 30 days was positively associated with being female (PR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.63); staying in the informal settlement for 6-10 years (PR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.02-1.75) and chewing khat in the last 30 days (PR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.10-3.40). CONCLUSION: Multiple sexual partnerships are highly prevalent among young psychoactive-substance-users, irrespective of the socio-demographic strata. Being female, having lived in the informal settlement for 6-10 years, and chewing khat were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners in the last 30 days. In tackling this high-risk sexual behaviour, it is recommended that risk-reduction interventions are considered for the different socio-demographic strata identified in this study, i.e. females, those who have lived in the informal settlement for about 6-10 years, and those who chew khat.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22776, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126316

RESUMO

Based on the Theory of Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, this study aimed to investigate factors associated with condom use intention in Chinese adolescents.In 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study using stratified cluster, convenience sampling method to assess condom use intention among senior high school students in Tianjin, China. One thousand eighty two senior high school students were anonymously surveyed through self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the pre-intentional phase of HAPA model.Among the participants, 41.5% (449/1082) were male, 54.1% (585/1082) were female, 4.4% (48/1082) were gender-deficient. The average age was 16.7 years. The final pre-intentional phase of HAPA model was acceptable (CFI = 0.95; GFI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.06). Action self-efficacy (r = 0.60) had a strong direct effect on condom use intention.The pre-intentional phase of HAPA model is valid to assess condom use intention among Chinese senior high school students. The pre-intention phase of the HAPA model could be applied to guide AIDS health educations of students, and further research is needed to evaluate the effect.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Intenção , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(5): 524-527, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198878

RESUMO

Las sexualidades son un aspecto central de la vida de las personas jóvenes. Es una labor de la salud pública entender cómo se construyen -con toda su diversidad- para dar respuestas satisfactorias en el ámbito de la salud sexual. Las características propias de la investigación cualitativa (flexible, abierta y reflexiva) brindan la oportunidad de diseñar estudios aceptados y adaptados a las realidades juveniles, especialmente en un campo sensible. Esta nota tiene como objetivo aportar claves para la captación de jóvenes. En nuestro caso, resultó imprescindible el conocimiento de informantes clave respecto a la población de estudio y el contexto de la investigación, tanto para elegir una estrategia de acercamiento y captación como para adecuar las técnicas de recogida de datos. Finalmente, se emplearon entrevistas individuales y grupos triangulares oportunísticamente en salas de espera de servicios de atención a la salud sexual especializados en jóvenes, donde ya había una predisposición a hablar de sexualidad


Sexuality is a central aspect of young's lives. It is a task of public health to understand how they are constructed with all their diversity, and to give satisfactory answers in the field of sexual health. The characteristics of qualitative research (flexible, open and reflective) provide the opportunity to design studies that are accepted and adapted to the realities of young people, especially in a sensitive field. The aim of this note is to provide clues for the recruitment of young people. In our case, the knowledge of key informants regarding the study population and the research context was essential, both to choose an approach and recruitment strategy and to adapt the data collection techniques. Finally, we used individual interviews and triangular groups opportunistically in waiting rooms of sexual health care services specialized in young people, where there was already a predisposition to talk about sexuality


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Sexualidade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/classificação , Seleção de Pacientes , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Psicossexual/classificação , Grupos Focais/métodos , Tamanho da Amostra , 25783 , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos
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