Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.202
Filtrar
1.
Ceska Gynekol ; 89(1): 52-55, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418254

RESUMO

A deficit or problematic achievement of female orgasm is often classified as a sexual disorder that creates complications in the sex life of couples. This assumption is generally accepted, even though vaginal anorgasmia is an accepted statistical norm and non-coital methods of generating female orgasm are not as easy as they are for men. Female orgasms manifest themselves in different ways; they are variable and can be dependent on a number of variable factors. Some theories suggest a high degree of correlation between the capacity for orgasmic experience, sexual attitudes and behaviour, but also with reproductive potential or the stability of the given couple's relationship. Female orgasm is often seen as a discriminatory mechanism influencing attitudes towards sexuality or even as a kind of fertility catalyst. There is no consensus on the importance of female orgasm. The results of some relevant studies refute theories about the female orgasm's positive influence on adaptive functions of the couple's relationship, as well as its influence on fertility. The orgasm in women is most likely an evolutionary by-product of its male variant, since the clitoris and penis have an identical embryonic basis of development. Female anorgasmia should not be considered an unquestioned diagnosis, let alone a psychiatric construct leading to a paradigm in which anorgasmia is categorically the cause of frustration or other problems.


Assuntos
Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Orgasmo , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Coito , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2181, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326446

RESUMO

Do psychedelics affect sexual functioning postacutely? Anecdotal and qualitative evidence suggests they do, but this has never been formally tested. While sexual functioning and satisfaction are generally regarded as an important aspect of human wellbeing, sexual dysfunction is a common symptom of mental health disorders. It is also a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a first line treatment for depression. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the post-acute effects of psychedelics on self-reported sexual functioning, combining data from two independent studies, one large and naturalistic and the other a smaller but controlled clinical trial. Naturalistic use of psychedelics was associated with improvements in several facets of sexual functioning and satisfaction, including improved pleasure and communication during sex, satisfaction with one's partner and physical appearance. Convergent results were found in a controlled trial of psilocybin therapy versus an SSRI, escitalopram, for depression. In this trial, patients treated with psilocybin reported positive changes in sexual functioning after treatment, while patients treated with escitalopram did not. Despite focusing on different populations and settings, this is the first research study to quantitively investigate the effects of psychedelics on sexual functioning. Results imply a potential positive effect on post-acute sexual functioning and highlight the need for more research on this.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Humanos , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Psilocibina/farmacologia , Psilocibina/uso terapêutico , Escitalopram , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e078794, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are disproportionately impacted by HIV and often face multiple HIV-related stigmas. Addressing these stigmas could reduce SGM HIV vulnerability but little is known about how the stigmas operate and intersect. Intersectional stigma offers a lens for understanding the experiences of stigmatised populations and refers to the synergistic negative health effects of various systems of oppression on individuals with multiple stigmatised identities, behaviours or conditions. This review aims to (1) assess how often and in what ways an intersectional lens is applied in HIV-related stigma research on SGM populations in SSA and (2) understand how intersectional stigma impacts HIV risk in these populations. DESIGN: Scoping review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews. DATA SOURCES: Public health and regional databases were searched in 2020 and 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles in French and English on HIV-related stigma and HIV outcomes among men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and/or transgender individuals in SSA. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Articles were screened and extracted twice and categorised by use of an intersectional approach. Study designs and stigma types were described quantitatively and findings on intersectional stigma were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Of 173 articles on HIV-related stigma among SGM in SSA included in this review, 21 articles (12%) applied an intersectional lens. The most common intersectional stigmas investigated were HIV and same-sex attraction/behaviour stigma and HIV, same-sex attraction/behaviour and gender non-conformity stigma. Intersectional stigma drivers, facilitators and manifestations were identified across individual, interpersonal, institutional and societal socioecological levels. Intersectional stigma impacts HIV vulnerability by reducing HIV prevention and treatment service uptake, worsening mental health and increasing exposure to HIV risk factors. CONCLUSION: Intersectional approaches are gaining traction in stigma research among SGM in SSA. Future research should prioritise quantitative and mixed methods investigations, diverse populations and intervention evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estigma Social
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 243: 104171, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320412

RESUMO

Color is not just about aesthetics but also communicates specific information and has important implications for psychological functioning. It has been shown that the color red enhances perceived attractiveness when evaluating the opposite sex, which we call the red-attractiveness effect. However, few studies have attached importance to the social context in which attractiveness ratings are made, which means that the red-attractiveness effect is rarely explained by analyzing the role of social context. We conducted two experiments to test the red-attractiveness effect in Chinese culture and the influence of context (affiliation or competitive) on the red-attractiveness effect. Experiment 1 (160 Chinese college students, 80 males) showed that the opposite-sex target in red, compared to white, was rated more attractive, and the red-attractiveness effect was applicable to Chinese culture. Experiment 2 (480 Chinese college students, 240 males) found that perceived attractiveness was strengthened in the affiliation context and weakened in the competitive context, that is, the main effect of context was significant. We did not find any significant effect of the color red in either context, that is, the color main effect was not significant. However, the results indicate that red can enhance perceived attractiveness when evaluating the opposite sex. This study demonstrates that the red attractiveness effect may exist in different cultural backgrounds and contexts.


Assuntos
Estética , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , População do Leste Asiático , Feminino , Cor
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 510, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who are sexually active are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which can cause serious difficulties for their reproductive health. However, despite the high global burden of STIs, most infections are preventable with education for behavioral change. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Efficacy of Mobile-Based Educational Intervention Using Instructional Systems Design in Promoting Preventive Behaviors for Sexually Transmitted Infections among Iranian Women. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial aimed at promoting preventive behaviors related to STIs in Iranian women with an educational intervention based on the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) in 2022. The participants in this study were recruited from a single center, specifically the Health House No. 3 located in District 11 of Tehran Municipality. Two instruments were used in the present study: a) a valid scale titled: "Four-Scale of STI Preventive Behaviors", and b) a researcher-made Questionnaire titled: "Social perception affecting sexually transmitted infections (SOPESTI)". These tools contain 8 demographic items and specific questions with a total of 68 five-point Likert scales. The intervention comprised three phases: a pre-test (baseline), a training program, and two follow-up assessments (4 and 12 weeks after the start of the training program). The experimental group received education through a mobile app, while the control group received no intervention. SPSS v.26 was used, with a significance level of P < 0.05. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-tests, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 80 women, with a mean age of 36.524 ± 6.91 (experiment group) and 34.78 ± 8.20 (control group), respectively, participated in the trial. The study revealed a statistically significant difference in the mean score for eight domains, including STIs Knowledge, STIs Vulnerability, STIs Preventive Self-efficacy, STIs Prevention intentions, STIs Perceived social exclusion, STIs Perceived cognitive barriers, STIs Perceived social support, and STIs Perceived risks in the experiment group following the intervention compared to before the intervention (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that a mobile-based educational intervention based on the ISD model had a significant effect on the preventive behaviors of STIs in Iranian women. These results highlight the potential benefit of mobile health in enhancing reproductive health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov IRCT20200602047638N1. Registered on 22 May 2021 with the IRCTID, V1.0. https://www.irct.ir/trial/55632.


Assuntos
Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Irã (Geográfico) , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Escolaridade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Sante Publique ; 35(6): 87-127, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388405

RESUMO

Introduction: In French rural areas, getting information about sexual health and identifying health actors on the topic is difficult for teenagers. Despite national and international guidelines, school-based sex education programs remain insufficient in France. The aim of this project was to develop a school-based psycho-affective and sexual health program (PASHP) for teenagers, led by an interprofessional primary care team (IPCT) in Montval-sur-Loir (Sarthe) and to coordinate local stakeholders. Method: The IPCT developed the PASHP using a community-based participatory research method. The first step identified the target population and its needs for sex education. The second step was to create a steering group to tailor PASHP interventions in a participatory way and to define the PASHP's aims and execution arrangements. The third step aimed at carrying out the PASHP and getting stakeholders' and the target population's feedback. Results: The PASHP, carried out in the 2020­2021 and 2021­2022 school years, included an intervention about contraception and sexually transmitted infections, artistic workshops on consent or gender stereotypes, group discussions, and an intervention about pornography to assist parents. Conclusion: The PASHP developed and coordinated by the Montval-sur-Loir IPCT is innovative because of its organization. It coordinates local stakeholders, teenagers, and their parents in a disadvantaged rural area, respecting national guidelines on sex education.


Introduction: En milieu rural français, s'informer sur la santé sexuelle et identifier des acteurs de santé dans ce domaine s'avère difficile pour les adolescents. Malgré les recommandations nationales et internationales, les programmes de prévention en milieu scolaire restent insuffisants en France. L'objectif du projet mené par la maison de santé pluriprofessionnelle (MSP) de Montval-sur-Loir (Sarthe) était de proposer un plan de prévention psychoaffective et sexuelle (PPAS) en milieu scolaire en coordonnant des acteurs locaux. Méthode: La MSP a élaboré le PPAS par une méthode de recherche-intervention. La première étape évaluait les besoins en santé sexuelle du territoire et identifiait la population cible. La deuxième étape était la création d'un comité de pilotage pour l'élaboration participative du PPAS et la définition du cadre conceptuel et des modalités d'intervention. La troisième étape correspondait au déroulement du PPAS et au retour d'expérience des intervenants et des participants. Résultats: Le PPAS s'adressait aux élèves de quatrième des deux collèges de Montval-sur-Loir durant les années scolaires 2020-2021 et 2021-2022. La co-construction du PPAS a abouti à une intervention sur la contraception et les infections sexuellement transmissibles, des ateliers artistiques à propos du consentement et des stéréotypes de genre, des groupes de parole, une intervention sur la pornographie visant les parents d'élèves. Conclusion: Le PPAS créé par la MSP de Montval-sur-Loir est novateur car il coordonne les acteurs de santé locaux autour des adolescents et de leurs parents, dans un milieu rural défavorisé, en respectant les recommandations nationales sur l'éducation à la santé sexuelle.


Assuntos
Educação Sexual , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Anticoncepção , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0276416, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394159

RESUMO

Early adolescence is a period characterized by enormous biological, cognitive, sexual, emotional, and social changes. Sexual curiosity and the desire to acquire sexual health (SH) information are part of these developments. Understanding the SH knowledge acquisition process is critical for designing interventions that can best support very young adolescents (VYAs). This study explored the SH knowledge acquisition processes among VYA girls aged 10 to 14 years who attended the DREAMs Girl Only Clubs (GOCs) and those who did not. The GOCs were a part of a larger comprehensive HIV prevention project called DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe) which provided an evidence-based core package of interventions to VYAs to prevent HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 VYA girls aged 10-14 years in two rural southern districts of Zomba and Machinga in Malawi. Twenty-three VYA girls were GOC participants and 20 VYAs were not. Guided by the Social Ecological Model, a thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data with the assistance of Nvivo 12 software. The SH knowledge acquisition processes were the interaction of various factors at the microsystem (self-efficacy, attitudes, trust and the beginning of menstruation), mesosystem (communication of SH issues between VYAs and their immediate family and peers), and exosystem levels (availability of life skills programs and mother-groups in schools and availability of GOCs). Compared to Non-GOC participants, GOC participants demonstrated an in-depth knowledge of SH issues and positive sexual behaviors such as HIV testing. Limitations to SH knowledge acquisition were adult messages' focus on sexual relationship avoidance and on girls who have started menstruation; the perception of adults not being knowledgeable about SH and school teachers hiding some SH information. VYAs' SH interventions that provide VYAs with accurate, consistent, and age-appropriate SH information such as the GOCs have the potential to address the limitations that other sources have in reaching VYAs. Integrating such interventions with programs that empower parents, other adults, and teachers with comprehensive SH information and with skills on how to deliver SH information to VYAs can enhance VYAs' SH knowledge acquisition and influence positive behavior change.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Saúde Sexual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Saúde Sexual/educação , Saúde Reprodutiva , Malaui , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
8.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 27(2): 111-118, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181177

RESUMO

Sexting is a form of intimate communication available in today's digital society consisting of exchanging erotic-sexual content online. However, doing it without the consent of the person appearing in the content is becoming a normalized form of cyberviolence among adolescents. To advance our understanding of this phenomenon, further research is needed on its facilitating factors, which may include those related to its potential moral dimension and online disinhibition. This study aims to analyze, according to gender and age, the relationship between nonconsensual forwarding of erotic-sexual content, differentiating between the type of content and the gender of the person appearing in it, moral disengagement, and toxic online disinhibition. A total of 1,611 adolescents (47.9 percent girls) aged 12-15 years (M = 13.4; SD = 1.0) participated in the study. Moral disengagement and toxic disinhibition have been shown to facilitate nonconsensual forwarding of erotic-sexual content, but their relevance varies depending on the type of content, and whether girls or boys appear in it. Facilitating factors for nonconsensual forwarding of content featuring boys include age, the diffusion of the consequences, and toxic online disinhibition. For girls, identifying with the male gender and cognitive restructuring were the main facilitators. These findings represent an original advance in the field of study by discriminating between the type of content forwarded and the gender of the person who appears in it. The differences found contribute toward explaining the processes that lead to making immoral decisions when sexting and help lay the foundations for designing psychoeducational programs in the future.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Literatura Erótica
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 156, 2024 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interplay of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and self-perception of risk for HIV among people who inject drugs is complex and understudied, especially among temporary migrant workers who inject drugs (MWID) while in a host country. In Russia, Tajik migrants make up the largest proportion of Moscow's foreign labor. Yet, HIV knowledge and self-perceived risk in association with sexual risk behavior among male Tajik MWID in Moscow remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This research examines knowledge about HIV transmission, self-perception of HIV risk, and key psychosocial factors that possibly contribute to sexual risk behaviors among male Tajik labor MWID living in Moscow. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with 420 male Tajik labor MWID. Modified Poisson regression models investigated possible associations between major risk factors and HIV sexual risk behavior. RESULTS: Of the 420 MWID, 255 men (61%) reported sexual activity in the last 30 days. Level of HIV knowledge was not associated in either direction with condom use or risky sexual partnering, as measured by sex with multiple partners or female sex workers (FSW). Lower self-perceived HIV risk was associated with a greater likelihood of sex with multiple partners (aPR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.40) and FSW (aPR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.59), but was not associated with condom use. Police-enacted stigma was associated with sex with multiple partners (aPR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49) and FSW (aPR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.54). While depression and lower levels of loneliness were associated with condomless sex (aPR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.24; aPR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.92, respectively), only depression was associated with condomless sex with FSW (aPR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.54). CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevention programing for male Tajik MWID must go beyond solely educating about factors associated with HIV transmission to include increased awareness of personal risk based on engaging in these behaviors. Additionally, psychological services to counter depression and police-enacted stigma are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Migrantes , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Moscou/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Autoimagem
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(1): 288-297, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the presence of psychopathological symptoms and the relations of these dimensions with the quality of life and sexual function in a group of women affected by systemic scleroderma. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-one women with systemic scleroderma were invited to participate in the study; 65 agreed to participate, while 6 declined. Four questionnaires were administered to the patients: a specific socio-demographic questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41). RESULTS: Of all the participants in this study, 48% of patients showed a clinical score on SCL-90-R Somatization, 45% on depression, and 37% on obsessive-compulsive. As hypothesized, psychopathological symptoms were related to lower quality of life since somatization and depression predicted the total score of health-related quality of life and lower sexual functions, showing a specific effect of depression on sexuality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted the presence of an association between psychopathological symptoms and reduced sexual functioning and the associations between somatization and the health-related quality of life dimensions in scleroderma patients. Furthermore, our results sustain the importance of also considering the mental health of patients with systemic sclerosis, within an integrated biopsychosocial care model.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Humanos , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 67, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233849

RESUMO

In this literature overview, we share with the reader challenges faced by LGBTQ + individuals pursuing medical education, from undergraduate to postgraduate training. The LGBTQ + acronym has evolved to encompass the diverse spectrum of sexual orientation and gender identities. Recently, the term "Sexual and Gender Minority" (SGM) has emerged as an umbrella term to provide consistency in research advancing SGM health. The unique obstacles LGBTQ + trainees encounter are highlighted throughout this article, including external factors influencing career decisions, a lack of LGBTQ + healthcare curricula, discriminatory social interactions, limited mentorship opportunities, and a higher mental health burden. These challenges have the capacity to affect educational experiences, personal well-being, and professional growth. Additionally, we examine the impact of inclusive institutional climates on LGBTQ + trainees' selection of medical schools and residency programs, as they may prioritize inclusiveness and diversity when making their choice. In postgraduate training, LGBTQ + trainees continue to face challenges, exemplified by disparities in placement rates and discriminatory experiences based on sexual orientation and gender identity. We describe the gap in current research and its long-term impact of these challenges on career paths. Hostile environments persist in certain specialties, and the lack of LGBTQ + mentorship and support can hinder academic pursuits. We shed light on the unique and pervasive challenges faced by LGBTQ + trainees throughout their medical education journey, while emphasizing the need for inclusive policies, support systems, and research to address these challenges. With increasing research and studies, we hope to create a medical workforce and community that better represents the diverse communities it serves.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 64, 2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218760

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period cause significant physical and psychological changes in mothers, leading to changes in their sexual self-concept and adverse effects on their sexual self-confidence and self-efficacy. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of sexual education on postpartum women's sexual self-efficacy and self-confidence. METHOD: This randomized interventional study was conducted on 115 women who had given birth at least six weeks ago and attended healthcare centers. Using convenience sampling, the researchers randomly allocated the participants into two intervention and control groups through a block size of six. The intervention group received six 90-minute online training sessions based on the sexual self-concept model over one month, while the control group received routine care. To collect data, the self-efficacy and sexual confidence questionnaires by Buzwell and Rosenthal were used before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and one month later. RESULTS: The study findings demonstrated no significant differences in demographic characteristics, sexual self-confidence, and sexual self-efficacy scores between the two groups before the intervention. However, the repeated measures ANOVA results revealed a substantial increase in sexual self-confidence and self-efficacy scores over time in the intervention group immediately after participating in the training sessions and one month later. CONCLUSION: Considering the effect of training based on the sexual self-concept model on postpartum women, the researchers recommend using this model to improve their sexual self-efficacy and self-confidence after childbirth. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at the Iranian Registry Clinical Trial (IRCT20220530055025N1).


Assuntos
Período Pós-Parto , Comportamento Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Parto Obstétrico , Irã (Geográfico) , Mães , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 239, 2024 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV remains a leading cause of death for adolescents and young people aged 10-24 years. HIV prevention requires multisectoral approaches that target adolescents and young people, addressing HIV risk pathways (e.g., transactional sex, gender-based violence, and school attendance) through bundled interventions that combine economic strengthening, health capabilities, and gender equality education. However, best practices are unknown because evidence on multisectoral programming targeted to adolescents and combining these components has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on bundled interventions combining health and economic strengthening components for adolescents and young people and their effects on HIV/STI incidence and risk factors. We included studies from Africa published between 2005 and 2023, combining at least one economic strengthening and one health component, directed toward adolescents and young people aged 10-24 years. Included studies measured programmatic impacts on primary outcomes: HIV and STI incidence/prevalence; and mediators as secondary outcomes: sexual behaviours, sexual and reproductive health, school attendance, health-seeking behaviours, and violence. We conducted key word searches in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, imported titles/abstracts from the initial search, and reviewed them using the inclusion criteria. Full texts of selected articles were reviewed and information was extracted for analysis. Findings from the full texts identified were summarized. RESULTS: We reviewed 58 studies, including 43 quantitative studies and 15 qualitative studies, evaluating 26 unique interventions. A majority of studies reviewed were conducted in Eastern and Southern Africa. Interventions reviewed showed a greater number of significant results in improving economic outcomes; mental health and psychosocial outcomes; sexual and reproductive health knowledge and services utilization; and HIV prevention knowledge and testing. They showed fewer significant results in improving outcomes related to HIV incidence/prevalence; sexual risk behaviours; gender-based violence; gender attitudes; education; STI incidence, prevalence and testing; and sexual debut. CONCLUSIONS: Our review demonstrated the potential for bundled, multisectoral interventions for preventing HIV and facilitating safe transitions to adulthood. Findings have implications for designing HIV sensitive programmes on a larger scale, including how interventions may need to address multiple strata of the social ecological model to achieve success in the prevention of HIV and related pathways.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Humanos , Adolescente , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , África Austral
14.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0291207, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social work case management services are increasingly available to youth who want to exit commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, few empirical studies investigate the efficacy of such services, particularly whether these services promote an exit from CSE. Guided by ecological systems theory and the Intentions to Exit Prostitution (IEP) model, this study investigates the efficacy of social work case management services for youth CSE survivors. METHODS: Youth survivors of CSE (n = 95) participated in a one-group, quasi-experimental double pre/posttest design study. Measures included the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (Cop-SE), and a modified version of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) surveys at zero- and six-months following study commencement. The research team also collected demographic and victimization data, the number and type of social work case management services received, and goal plan data. Analyses included repeated measures tests and linear and multinomial logistic regressions to determine if doses of social work case management are predictive of the positive short-term outcomes that are linked to increased readiness to exit CSE. RESULTS: Youth CSE survivors experienced upward trends in perceived social support and coping self-efficacy scores between zero- and six-months following study commencement. Linear and logistic regressions demonstrated that variables like months of service time, trafficking classification, goal counts, race, and age can predict outcomes like survivor social support, coping self-efficacy, and intention to change behaviors that can lead to revictimization. IMPLICATIONS: Results suggest social work case management services that improve coping self-efficacy and perceived social support can lead to cognitive changes that promote an exit from CSE. Practitioners should target services that adhere to dimensions of the IEP as these improvements are likely to support positive outcomes for youth survivors of CSE.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Autoeficácia , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adaptação Psicológica
15.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295821, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170685

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A growing body of research has demonstrated extensive mental health disparities affecting sexual minority populations, yet little research has assessed how these disparities may affect cognitive functioning among subgroups of sexual minorities. METHODS: Data come from the 2021 National Health Information Survey (NHIS). Survey-weighted linear regression analyses were used to assess self-reported measures of cognition, stratified by subgroups sexual identity. In particular, we focused on the association between symptoms of depression or anxiety and each of the measures of cognition, adjusting for demographic covariates. RESULTS: Among 31,994 NHIS participants in the 2021 survey, 5,658 (17.7%) reported at least some difficulty in remembering or concentrating. Basic demographic differences existed when assessing any cognitive difficulty, particularly for bisexual participants (aOR = 2.73; 95% CI: 2.07, 3.60) and participants identifying as a different identity (aOR = 4.22; 95% CI: 2.72, 6.56). Depression was significantly associated with cognitive difficulty with the largest relationship observed among gay/lesbian participants (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.49). The association between anxiety and cognitive difficulty was smallest among bisexuals (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.18) and relatively consistent across other subgroups: heterosexuals (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.24), gay/lesbians (aOR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.36), and those with a different identity (aOR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.35). CONCLUSION: There is a clear set of health disparities between sexual minority subgroups and heterosexuals across all cognitive difficulties. Future research should focus on developing a better understanding of differences in cognition based on sexual minority status while also working to ascertain how disparities vary among sexual minorities.


Assuntos
Depressão , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Ansiedade , Cognição
16.
J Sex Med ; 21(2): 153-162, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) is the most common female sexual disorder with adverse effects on women's health and interpersonal relationships. AIM: This survey evaluated the effects of sexual counseling based on the "good enough sex" (GES) model on the sexual health variables of women with FSIAD. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio was conducted among 80 women with FSIAD in Iran in 2021. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to group A (women) and group B (couples). Women attended 4 weekly online group sexual counseling sessions based on the GES model, each lasting 120 minutes. In group B, husbands participated in sessions 2 and 3. OUTCOMES: Women's sexual health parameters-including sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, sexual distress, sexual communication, frequency of sexual intercourse, and dysfunctional beliefs-were evaluated before and 3 months after counseling. The significance threshold considered P < .007 due to Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: After the intervention, all sexual parameters except sexual dysfunctional beliefs showed significant improvement (P < .001) in both groups. During the follow-up period, the average scores for all sexual variables were slightly higher in group B vs group A. The between-group difference was significant only for frequency of sexual intercourse (P < .01). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study reaffirms the impact of the GES model as biopsychosocial therapy in managing female sexual problems. Considering men's reluctance to accompany their wives to sex clinics, counseling for women alone can play a significant role in solving sexual problems, especially in the case of FSIAD. Online sexual consultation offers cost and time savings, provides a secure space for discussing sensitive topics, and facilitates group program coordination. It ensures universal access to counseling, thereby addressing gender incompatibility issues. It is a powerful, interactive, and acceptable alternative to in-person visits, providing convenience and confidentiality for clients seeking sexual health support. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: The following were among the survey strengths: conducting a randomized controlled trial on women with FSIAD by applying an appropriate model and scales, involving spouses, and evaluating online group sexual counseling. However, the results of this study may not be generalizable to women without partners. CONCLUSION: The GES model, emphasizing intimacy and sexual dialogue, reduces unrealistic sexual expectations and improves women's sexual desire and overall health. Our results showed that instead of insisting on the physical presence of husbands in counseling sessions, clinicians should emphasize their emotional support and companionship during the treatment process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Libido , Aconselhamento/métodos , Nível de Alerta
17.
J Adolesc ; 96(2): 394-410, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviors in adolescence are associated with negative health and psychological functioning outcomes. Although the association between behavior problems and risky sexual behaviors is well established, addressing these problems requires understanding the mechanisms that help explain this association. Adolescent attachment, while related to risky sexual behavior, has not been extensively explored as an outcome of childhood externalizing problems. The two objectives of this study were to explore the links between parental and peer attachment and risky sexual behaviors and to examine the mediating effect of attachment on the links between behavior problems and risky sexual behaviors. METHODS: Five hundred and ninety-eight French-Canadian adolescents (46.2% girls), Mage at T1 = 13.23; Mage at T2 = 14.28; Mage at T3 = 17.35) participated in this longitudinal study. RESULTS: The quality of parental attachment at T2 was significantly and negatively associated with risky sexual behaviors 3 years later, at T3. More specifically, a lower quality parental attachment relationship was associated with having nonexclusive partners as well as with inconsistent condom use. Finally, parental attachment (T2) was a significant mediator between behavior problems (T1) and risky sexual behaviors (T3), but only for younger adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that in addition to behavior problems in adolescence, the quality of parental attachment relationships may help in understanding risky sexual behaviors in adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexo Seguro , Assunção de Riscos
18.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 108: 102376, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218122

RESUMO

Internalized sexual stigma is a well-established risk factor for poor mental health among sexual minority individuals. However, there has been no synthesis of the literature pertaining to risk and protective factors that influence the development of internalized sexual stigma over time. This systematic review presents findings from 31 studies addressing this question (n = 9192); 23 studies examined psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors of internalized sexual stigma among sexual minority individuals, and eight studies tested the effects of psychological interventions on internalized sexual stigma. Longitudinal studies highlight the stability of internalized sexual stigma over time, and the role of stigma and discrimination, proximal minority stressors (e.g., outness, concealment), and psychological factors (e.g., depressive and anxious symptoms, coping styles, and demoralization) in predicting subsequent internalized sexual stigma. Demographic factors appear to play only a limited role in predicting subsequent internalized sexual stigma. Finally, most intervention studies found no significant effects in reducing internalized sexual stigma, with three exceptions finding significant intervention effects among young sexual minority individuals. We conclude by outlining a theory-driven model of internalized stigma and a research agenda to test more nuanced models of internalized stigma that include multifactorial risk indices.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estigma Social , Saúde Mental , Estudos Longitudinais
19.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(2): 457-469, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167990

RESUMO

We examined whether a housing voucher intervention influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior (RSB) across 15 years in the Moving to Opportunity Study. Low-income families in public housing that resided in 5 cities were randomized to one of three treatment groups: a housing voucher to move to low-poverty neighborhoods (i.e., < 10% poverty rate), a Sect. 8 voucher but no housing relocation counseling, or a control group that could remain in public housing. Youth and their caregivers completed baseline surveys, as well as two uniform follow-ups: interim (2001-2002; 4-7 years after baseline) and final (2008-2010; 10-15 years after baseline). Approximately 4,600 adolescents (50.5% female) aged 13-20 years participated at the final timepoint. Adolescents reported on their RSB, including condom use, other contraceptive use, early sexual initiation (< 15 years old), and 2+ sexual partners in the past year. We modeled each indicator separately and as part of a composite index. We tested baseline health vulnerabilities as potential effect modifiers. The low-poverty voucher group and the Sect. 8 voucher group were combined due to homogeneity of their effects. Applying intent-to-treat (ITT) regression analyses, we found no significant main effects of voucher receipt (vs. control) on any RSB. However, we found protective effects of voucher receipt on RSB among youth with health problems that limited activity, and youth < 7 at baseline but adverse effects among females, youth > 7 at baseline, and youth who were suspended/expelled from school. Results highlight the importance of understanding how housing interventions differentially influence adolescent health and behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Habitação , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Habitação Popular , Características de Residência , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Pobreza , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
20.
Am J Manag Care ; 30(1): e19-e25, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To address a lack of research documenting telehealth use and experiences among sexual minority individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic and inform health care policies beyond the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the 2022 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a cross-sectional survey representative of US adults. METHODS: We estimated multivariable probit regressions to understand how sexual orientation was associated with reporting telehealth use, modality (video only, telephone only, both), and experiences, including the reason for, subject of most recent, and quality of the telehealth visit. We adjusted estimates based on respondents' self-reported demographics and health status. Analyses were weighted to represent the US adult population and used full information maximum likelihood to account for missing data. RESULTS: Among all HINTS respondents, having a telehealth visit within the past year was more common among sexual minority respondents than heterosexual respondents. Among telehealth users, sexual minority respondents were more likely than heterosexual respondents to say that they used telehealth because it was convenient and minimized their exposure to illnesses and that the subject of the most recent telehealth visit was mental health. They were less likely to say the subject was minor/acute care. Modality use and quality were comparable between sexual minority respondents and heterosexual respondents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show greater demand for telehealth, especially for mental health care, among sexual minority adults. Knowledge of factors driving patterns in health care utilization within minoritized communities and the implications for both telehealth access and quality are necessary to create policies that have a broad positive impact.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Telemedicina , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...