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1.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2157-2166, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer, particularly stage III, improves survival after curative D2 gastrectomy. We investigated the clinical value of the lymph-node ratio (LNR; number of metastatic lymph nodes/number of lymph nodes examined) for selecting the appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen in patients with D2-resected stage II/III gastric cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the data of 819 patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Of them, 353 patients received platinum-based chemotherapy and 466 received TS-1. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their LNR (LNR 1, 0-0.1; LNR 2, > 0.1-0.25; and LNR 3, > 0.25), and their disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: The DFS curves of the patients were well separated according to stage and LNR. In multivariate analyses, an LNR > 0.1 was strongly associated with the 3-year DFS (hazard ratio 2.402, 95% confidence interval 1.607-3.590, P < 0.001). Platinum-based chemotherapy improved the 3-year DFS compared to TS-1 in patients with LNR 3 group in stage III gastric cancer (platinum vs. TS-1, median DFS 26.87 vs. 16.27 months, P = 0.028). An LNR > 0.1 was associated with benefiting from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III gastric cancer patients with lymphovascular invasion (platinum vs. TS-1, median DFS 47.57 vs. 21.77 months, P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The LNR can be used to select the appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with D2-resected gastric cancer, particularly in stage III.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Comportamento de Escolha , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Gastrectomia , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/classificação , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Uracila/uso terapêutico
2.
J Insect Sci ; 19(3)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234208

RESUMO

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a destructive pest of tomato that can cause up to 100% yield loss. The predatory bug Nabis pseudoferus (Remane) (Hemiptera: Nabidae) and the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are natural enemies of this pest. Since the interaction between predators and parasitoids in different trophic levels including intraguild predation (IGP) can decrease or increase the efficiency of natural enemies, the effects of age-dependent parasitism of host eggs on IGP between these two species were investigated under laboratory conditions. In no-choice and choice preference tests, the predatory bug was exposed to 40 parasitized and nonparasitized eggs of different ages (24, 48, and 72 h old). Investigation of switching behavior was conducted using various combinations of tomato leafminer eggs (30:90, 45:75, 60:60, 75:45, and 90:30 nonparasitized:parasitized eggs) using eggs of different ages (24, 48, and 72 h old). In no-choice tests, the highest feeding rate of the predatory bug was 39.21 ± 0.36 eggs on 24-h-old nonparasitized eggs and the lowest feeding rate was 1.4 ± 0.80 eggs on 72-h-old parasitized eggs. In choice tests, comparison of the Manly's ß indices indicated that the predatory bug preferred to feed on nonparasitized eggs with 48- and 72-h-old eggs, but there was no significant preference for the 24-h-old eggs. Results of switching test showed that the linear regression between Manly's ß index and different ratios of nonparasitized eggs to parasitized and nonparasitized eggs was not significant in 72-h-old eggs. However, this regression was significant with 24- and 48-h-old eggs and the predator's preference was dependent upon the ratio of nonparasitized and parasitized tomato leafminer eggs. Results of the current study showed that the increasing age of parasitized egg decreased intensity of IGP between N. pseudoferus and T. brassicae.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Óvulo/parasitologia , Comportamento Predatório , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 261: 193-198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156115

RESUMO

The rapidly growing number of health-related Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) has not been matched by studies of their impact on decision or policymaking. However, it is widely assumed that this impact has been very limited, despite the potential relevance of the resulting average preferences to group policy development. The main, but at the moment essentially speculative, explanation offered, focuses on the methodological quality of the DCEs and their reporting. An alternative explanation, equally speculative, lies in the research-practice gap created by the conceptualisation of the DCE as a purely research exercise, not supplemented by any attempt to translate the findings into analytic decision support form. This also applies in the clinical decision context, where there are frequent claims that DCE results can assist in an individual's decision making. In the absence of suggestions as to how group results can analytically facilitate preference-sensitive care (and legally informed consent), we propose a generic add-on for DCEs with 'real' options, attributes, and attribute levels. This takes the form of a multi-criteria analysis-based decision support tool. Exemplars, showing how preference-sensitive individualised opinions can be derived from published DCEs for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding and Prostate Cancer Screening, may be consulted online.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Neoplasias da Próstata , Telemedicina , Comportamento de Escolha , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Preferência do Paciente , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia
4.
J Insect Sci ; 19(3)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087084

RESUMO

Plants of Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae) from desert and Mediterranean populations in Israel differ in flower color and size. In the desert habitat, the population has higher abundance of flowers with cream color and longer petals, whereas in the Mediterranean habitat, the population has higher abundance of flowers with yellow and shorter petals. Choice experiments with honey bee foragers (Apis mellifera Linn., Apidae, Hymenoptera), the main pollinator in the natural habitat in Israel, confirmed that they are more attracted to the yellow flower morph than to the cream one. A proboscis extension response test indicated that honey bees are able to discriminate between flower scents of the desert and Mediterranean populations. Considering the advantage of plants of the yellow morph in attracting pollinators, we further tested in a common garden experiment whether these possess higher fitness than plants of the desert population. Indeed, a significant association was found between flower color and fruit set, and seed mass. In general, our results provide evidence for ecotypic differentiation between populations imposed by pollinators. The advantage of the yellow color morph in attracting pollinators may explain its dominance among plants of the Mediterranean population. We discuss why the cream color morph may be dominant in the desert habitat, considering the possibility of different pollinators, tradeoffs between traits, or pleiotropy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Polinização , Animais , Brassicaceae/química , Comportamento de Escolha , Cor , Ecossistema , Flores/química , Odorantes , Fenótipo
6.
Am J Bioeth ; 19(5): 70-72, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090529
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2291, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123269

RESUMO

Social life requires us to treat each person according to their unique disposition. To tailor our behavior to specific individuals, we must represent their idiosyncrasies. Here, we advance the hypothesis that our representations of other people reflect the mental states we perceive those people to habitually experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring whether neural representations of people could be accurately reconstructed by summing state representations. Separate participants underwent functional MRI while considering famous individuals and individual mental states. Online participants rated how often each famous person experiences each state. Results supported the summed state hypothesis: frequency-weighted sums of state-specific brain activity patterns accurately reconstructed person-specific patterns. Moreover, the summed state account outperformed the established alternative-that people represent others using trait dimensions-in explaining interpersonal similarity. These findings demonstrate that the brain represents people as the sums of the mental states they experience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Neurológicos , Percepção Social , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 584, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people of working age suffering from chronic disease is increasing. Chronic diseases such as diabetes can cause negative work-related consequences in the form of early retirement or absenteeism. Providing flexible workplace accommodations may enable the person with diabetes to retain their position in the labor market. However, the successfulness of such accommodations depends largely on the perceptions of those not suffering from diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine preferences of a population of workers in Denmark for flexibility at the workplace, for people with diabetes and for people with chronic disease in general, measured as their willingness to pay (WTP). METHODS: Respondents were drawn from online panels and randomized to answer an online survey regarding flexibility at the workplace for people with diabetes or chronic disease in general. One thousand one hundred and three respondents were included in the analysis. Based on discrete choice experiments included in the survey, we analyzed WTP for five flexibility attributes: part-time, customizing job description, additional break with pay and time off for medical visits with and without pay. We further examined perceptions of the employer's responsibility to ensure workplace flexibility for five different specific chronic diseases including diabetes. Finally, we analyzed differences in WTP for flexibility across subgroups. RESULTS: Respondents' WTP was significantly higher for chronic disease in general compared to diabetes for the possibility of part-time (81€/month vs. 47€/month, p < 0.001) and customizing job description (58€/month vs. 41€/month, p = 0.018) attributes, as well as for the overall average (49€/month vs. 36€/month, p = 0.008). Ensuring workplace flexibility for patients with a specific chronic disease other than diabetes (cancer, heart disease, arthritis and COPD) was to a higher degree considered a responsibility of the employer. Average WTP for flexibility varied across subgroups, consistently yielding a larger amount for chronic disease in general. CONCLUSIONS: The population examined in this study are willing to pay less for flexibility at the workplace for people with diabetes compared to people with chronic disease in general. This finding was evident in terms of specific flexibility attributes and on average across subgroups.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento de Escolha , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 57(6): 842-849, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite modern advances in diagnosis and treatment, acute arterial mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) remains a high mortality disease. One of the key modifiable factors in AMI is the first door to operation time, but the factors attributing to this parameter are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting delay, with special focus on the pathways to treatment. METHODS: This was a single academic centre retrospective study. Patients undergoing intervention for AMI caused by thrombosis or embolism of the superior mesenteric artery between 2006 and 2015 were identified from electronic patient records. Patients not eligible for intervention or with chronic, subacute onset, colonic only, venous, or non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups according to the first speciality examining the patient (surgical emergency room [SER], surgeon examining the patient first or non-surgical emergency room [non-SER], internist examining the patient first). The primary endpoint was first door to operation time and secondary endpoints were length of stay and 90 day mortality. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients with AMI were included. Fifty patients (62%) died during the first 30 days and 53 (65%) within 90 days. Presenting first in non-SER (vs. SER) was independently associated with a first door to operation time of over 12 h (OR 3.7 [95% CI 1.3-10.2], median time 15.2 h [IQR 10.9-21.2] vs. 10.1 h [IQR 6.9-18.5], respectively, p = .025). The length of stay was shorter (median 6.5 days [4.0-10.3] vs. 10.8 days [7.0-22.3], p = .045) and 90 day mortality was lower in the SER group (50.0% vs. 74.5%, p = .025). CONCLUSIONS: The first specialty that the patient encounters seems to be crucial for both delayed management and early survival of AMI. Developing fast/direct pathways to a unit with both gastrointestinal and vascular surgeons offers the possibility of improving the outcome of AMI.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/cirurgia , Isquemia Mesentérica/cirurgia , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/cirurgia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tempo para o Tratamento , Triagem , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Clínicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Mesentérica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Mesentérica/mortalidade , Isquemia Mesentérica/fisiopatologia , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/mortalidade , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Especialização , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Behav Processes ; 164: 178-185, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082477

RESUMO

Organisms must frequently make cost-benefit decisions based on time, risk, and effort in choosing rewards to pursue. Various tasks have been developed to assess effort-based choice in rats, and experimenters have found largely similar results across tasks and brain regions. In this review, we focus primarily on the convergence of different effort-based choice tasks where quality or quantity of reward are manipulated. In the former, the rat is typically presented with the option to work for a preferred reward or select a less preferred, but freely-available reward. In such paradigms, the rewards are of different identities but are confirmed to differ qualitatively in value by a food preference task when both are freely-available. In the latter task type, rats are required to select between higher magnitude versus lower magnitudes of the same reward, but each with a similar effort requirement. We discuss the strengths/limitations of these paradigms, and describe brain regions that have been probed that result in converging or equivocal findings. Results are also reviewed with reference to a need for future work, and the broader impacts and implications of studies probing the mechanisms of effort.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Esforço Físico , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Preferências Alimentares , Recompensa
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1793, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996222

RESUMO

How deliberation on sensory cues and action selection interact in decision-related brain areas is still not well understood. Here, monkeys reached to one of two targets, whose colors alternated randomly between trials, by discriminating the dominant color of a checkerboard cue composed of different numbers of squares of the two target colors in different trials. In a Targets First task the colored targets appeared first, followed by the checkerboard; in a Checkerboard First task, this order was reversed. After both cues appeared in both tasks, responses of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) units covaried with action choices, strength of evidence for action choices, and RTs- hallmarks of decision-related activity. However, very few units were modulated by checkerboard color composition or the color of the chosen target, even during the checkerboard deliberation epoch of the Checkerboard First task. These findings implicate PMd in the action-selection but not the perceptual components of the decision-making process in these tasks.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação
13.
Perception ; 48(5): 428-436, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982405

RESUMO

Evidence for cross-cultural patterns of sexual differences in color preferences raised the question of whether these preferences are determined by universal principles. To address this question, we investigated most- and least-favorite color choices in a nonindustrialized community, the Hadza that has an egalitarian hunter-gatherer culture, fundamentally different from those previously investigated. We also compared color preference patterns in the Hadza with published data from Poland and Papua. Our results show that Hadza have very different color preferences than Polish and Papuan Yali respondents. Unlike many industrialized and nonindustrialized cultures, Hadza color preferences are practically the same for women and men. These observations question the idea of universal differences of color preferences between sexes and raise important questions about the determinants of color preferences.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papua Nova Guiné/etnologia , Polônia/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tanzânia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1583, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952855

RESUMO

Humans are often inconsistent (irrational) when choosing among simple bundles of goods, even without any particular changes to framing or context. However, the neural computations that give rise to such inconsistencies are still unknown. Similar to sensory perception and motor output, we propose that a substantial component of inconsistent behavior is due to variability in the neural computation of value. Here, we develop a novel index that measures the severity of inconsistency of each choice, enabling us to directly trace its neural correlates. We find that the BOLD signal in the vmPFC, ACC, and PCC is correlated with the severity of inconsistency on each trial and with the subjective value of the chosen alternative. This suggests that deviations from rational choice arise in the regions responsible for value computation. We offer a computational model of how variability in value computation is a source of inconsistent choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Modelos Neurológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1719, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979880

RESUMO

Humans typically make near-optimal sensorimotor judgements but show systematic biases when making more cognitive judgements. Here we test the hypothesis that, while humans are sensitive to the noise present during early sensory encoding, the "optimality gap" arises because they are blind to noise introduced by later cognitive integration of variable or discordant pieces of information. In six psychophysical experiments, human observers judged the average orientation of an array of contrast gratings. We varied the stimulus contrast (encoding noise) and orientation variability (integration noise) of the array. Participants adapted near-optimally to changes in encoding noise, but, under increased integration noise, displayed a range of suboptimal behaviours: they ignored stimulus base rates, reported excessive confidence in their choices, and refrained from opting out of objectively difficult trials. These overconfident behaviours were captured by a Bayesian model blind to integration noise. Our study provides a computationally grounded explanation of human suboptimal cognitive inference.


Assuntos
Cognição , Ruído , Psicofísica , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento de Escolha , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 27: 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984368

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies have shown that psychological factors, attitudes and beliefs impact on the quality of chiropractic student clinical decisions. This association has not been studied among qualified chiropractors. Our objective was to investigate if personality, psychological factors and/or unorthodox beliefs among chiropractors are related to choices of management in specific clinical scenarios. Method: In February 2018, a subsample of chiropractors (N = 700) from a practitioner-based research network in Australia known as ACORN (N = 1680), were invited to respond to an on-line anonymous questionnaire. Questions included items relating to management of specific clinical scenarios, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and the 'Big-5' personality score, adoption of a prescriptive technique system, self-rating of chiropractic abilities, and the level of importance of subluxation and chiropractic philosophy in the delivery of care. Descriptive analysis was to be reported and associations examined between i) personality and psychology factors, unorthodox beliefs and ii) scores obtained for management of specific clinical scenarios, numbers of interdisciplinary referrals, and guideline-based X-ray use. Results: The number of respondents was 141 (20%) and 33 of their responses were largely incomplete resulting in a final response rate of 108 (15.4%). In addition, some questions were left unanswered. These related mainly to IU and Big-5 personality measurements. Some sample characteristics (age, number of patients per week, hours worked per week) were similar to the larger ACORN project sample. However, the low response rate indicated that the final study sample was unlikely to be truly representative of the study population and the low number of participants made association testing unsuitable. Conclusion and recommendations: The low response rate and small study sample in this study made any substantive analysis inappropriate. For these reasons, the study was not concluded. However, the potential reasons for the low response from this large database of volunteer research participants are of interest and need to be investigated. Clearly, it is necessary to engage this population better to explore sensitive issues such as personality inventories and different practice profiles in the interest of effective health care delivery and patient safety.


Assuntos
Quiroprática , Comportamento de Escolha , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manipulação Quiroprática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 19: 42-49, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate: (1) whether women self-report an ability to choose their preferred termination of pregnancy (TOP) procedure, (2) what factors influence this choice, and (3) what effect this choice has on emotional responses and satisfaction with care. STUDY DESIGN: A mixed-method prospective comparative study in which women requesting a TOP between five and eighteen weeks gestation for social reasons (as opposed to medical indications), were invited to complete a semi-structured pre-TOP interview and questionnaire, and a post-TOP questionnaire four weeks after the procedure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative data was collected using the Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. RESULTS: Pre-TOP emotion-based factors did not differ between groups. Most women felt that they were able to choose their preferred method of TOP. Their decisions were based on factors categorised as procedure-related, lifestyle or social circumstance-related, emotional, or other factors. When no choice was perceived, common reasons reported were that: (1) gestation was too far along for there to be another option, or (2) an appointment was not available within the required timeframe. When women felt that the method of TOP performed was not their choice they found the procedure more stressful. All women reported high satisfaction with care. CONCLUSION: A better understanding of the patient experience can inform service development, enabling staff to ensure that the services provided meet women's needs. The perception that one is able to choose their preferred TOP procedure is important for reducing procedure-related stress and ensuring high satisfaction with care.


Assuntos
Aborto Legal/psicologia , Emoções , Preferência do Paciente , Aborto Legal/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Science ; 364(6437): 253, 2019 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948440

RESUMO

Physiological needs produce motivational drives, such as thirst and hunger, that regulate behaviors essential to survival. Hypothalamic neurons sense these needs and must coordinate relevant brainwide neuronal activity to produce the appropriate behavior. We studied dynamics from ~24,000 neurons in 34 brain regions during thirst-motivated choice behavior in 21 mice as they consumed water and became sated. Water-predicting sensory cues elicited activity that rapidly spread throughout the brain of thirsty animals. These dynamics were gated by a brainwide mode of population activity that encoded motivational state. After satiation, focal optogenetic activation of hypothalamic thirst-sensing neurons returned global activity to the pre-satiation state. Thus, motivational states specify initial conditions that determine how a brainwide dynamical system transforms sensory input into behavioral output.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única
20.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959958

RESUMO

Nutrition education programs aim to improve food literacy domains covering the planning and management, selection, preparation and cooking and eating of healthy food. Reviews indicate programs are effective but acknowledge challenges with evaluation of community focused delivery. Food Sensations® for Adults (FSA) is a free four-week nutrition and cooking program targeted at low-to-middle income Western Australians who would like to improve their food literacy. The aim of this research was assess how effective FSA is in changing food literacy and selected dietary behaviours. Statistical analysis identified a significant increase in postprogram scores for domains of planning and management, selection and preparation using factor scores (n = 1092). The proportion of the score increase in the postprogram scores compared to the preprogram scores was 10⁻25%. There was also a significant increase in self-reported fruit and vegetable serve intake, equating to an average increase of » serve/day of fruit and ½ serve/day of vegetables. Of those classified as low food literacy, 61⁻74% improved postprogram scores in the three domains. FSA is effective in improving food literacy and dietary behaviours and the results add to the evidence base as to how effective these programs can be and for whom they should be targeted for future success.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
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