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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 381, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The method of displaying nutrition information labels on the front of food packaging (FOP: Front of Pack) has been implemented worldwide to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of the UK's Traffic Light Food (TLF) label, known as the FOP label, influences the dietary choices of Japanese youth and promotes healthy dietary choices. METHODS: Diet selection was performed for one week each during the baseline and intervention periods. During the intervention period, TLF labels were displayed on meal images of the intervention group. Participants chose what they would like to have for dinner of the day from 15 images. Each meal was scored based on the color of the nutrition label, and a comparison between groups was made to determine whether TLF labeling influenced meal selection for dinner. The psychological stress caused by the presence or absence of nutrition labels and nutritional components when choosing meals was also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 69 participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Dietary choice scores indicated that the TLF-labeled group made significantly healthier dietary choices than the unlabeled group. Additionally, the TLF-labeled group showed a significant increase in the percentage of people conscious of nutritional components when choosing meals. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of people conscious of protein, a nutritional ingredient not indicated on the TLF label, was observed. During the test period, no difference in psychological stress caused by the presence and absence of the TLF labels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of TLF labels also encouraged healthy dietary choices among Japanese university students. The use of FOP nutrition labels should be considered in Japan to prevent lifestyle-related diseases through healthy dietary choices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry Number: UMIN000047268. Registered March 23, 2022.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Humanos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Japão , Universidades , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Estudantes
2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(3): e26585, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401135

RESUMO

Temporal discounting, the tendency to devalue future rewards as a function of delay until receipt, is influenced by time framing. Specifically, discount rates are shallower when the time at which the reward is received is presented as a date (date condition; e.g., June 8, 2023) rather than in delay units (delay condition; e.g., 30 days), which is commonly referred to as the date/delay effect. However, the cognitive and neural mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. Here, we examined the date/delay effect by analysing combined fMRI and eye-tracking data of N = 31 participants completing a temporal discounting task in both a delay and a date condition. The results confirmed the date/delay effect and revealed that the date condition led to higher fixation durations on time attributes and to higher activity in precuneus/PCC and angular gyrus, that is, areas previously associated with episodic thinking. Additionally, participants made more comparative eye movements in the date compared to the delay condition. A lower date/delay effect was associated with higher prefrontal activity in the date > delay contrast, suggesting that higher control or arithmetic operations may reduce the date/delay effect. Our findings are in line with hypotheses positing that the date condition is associated with differential time estimation and the use of more comparative as opposed to integrative choice strategies. Specifically, higher activity in memory-related brain areas suggests that the date condition leads to higher perceived proximity of delayed rewards, while higher frontal activity (middle/superior frontal gyrus, posterior medial frontal cortex, cingulate) in participants with a lower date/delay effect suggests that the effect is particularly pronounced in participants avoiding complex arithmetic operations in the date condition.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Recompensa
3.
Evol Psychol ; 22(1): 14747049241234291, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403963

RESUMO

Parents want daughters- and sons-in-law who are similar to their children, and children want spouses who are similar to themselves. In turn, the question arises: Do parents agree among themselves on how much similarity they desire in their prospective in-laws concerning their children? Moreover, do parents and children agree on the level of similarity they desire in an in-law and a spouse, respectively? Furthermore, to exercise an in-law preference for similarity, parents need to assess how their children score in traits deemed desirable in a spouse. This raises the question of whether mothers and fathers perceive their children similarly, and whether they perceive their children in the same way their children perceive themselves in these traits. The current study aimed to address these questions using a sample of 356 families from China, focusing on four desirable traits: good looks, good providers, good economic prospects, and good family background. Our results indicated that parents preferred sons- and daughters-in-law who were similar to their children, and mothers and fathers concurred on the level of similarity they desired between their children and their in-laws. Additionally, parents desired as much similarity between their children and their in-laws as their children desired between themselves and their spouses. Furthermore, we found that mothers and fathers concurred on how they perceive their children across the four desirable traits. Finally, both parents scored their children higher in these traits than their children scored themselves.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Casamento , Criança , Humanos , Casamento/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Relações Pais-Filho , Cônjuges/psicologia
4.
Patient ; 17(2): 109-120, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363501

RESUMO

Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) are a frequently used method to explore the preferences of patients and other decision-makers in health. Pretesting is an essential stage in the design of a high-quality choice experiment and involves engaging with representatives of the target population to improve the readability, presentation, and structure of the preference instrument. The goal of pretesting in DCEs is to improve the validity, reliability, and relevance of the survey, while decreasing sources of bias, burden, and error associated with preference elicitation, data collection, and interpretation of the data. Despite its value to inform DCE design, pretesting lacks documented good practices or clearly reported applied examples. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to define pretesting and describe the pretesting process specifically in the context of a DCE, (2) to present a practical guide and pretesting interview discussion template for researchers looking to conduct a rigorous pretest of a DCE, and (3) to provide an illustrative example of how these resources were operationalized to inform the design of a complex DCE aimed at eliciting tradeoffs between personal privacy and societal benefit in the context of a police method known as investigative genetic genealogy (IGG).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Preferência do Paciente , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Breastfeed Med ; 19(2): 137-138, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386994
6.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 3, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388756

RESUMO

Decision-making has been observed to be systematically affected by decoys, i.e., options that should be irrelevant, either because unavailable or because manifestly inferior to other alternatives, and yet shift preferences towards their target. Decoy effects have been extensively studied both in humans and in several other species; however, evidence in non-human primates remains scant and inconclusive. To address this gap, this study investigates how choices in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) are affected by different types of decoys: asymmetrically dominated decoys, i.e., available and unavailable options that are inferior to only one of the other alternatives, and phantom decoys, i.e., unavailable options that are superior to another available alternative. After controlling for the subjective strength of initial preferences and the distance of each decoy from its target in attribute space, results demonstrate a systematic shift in capuchins' preference towards the target of both asymmetrically dominated decoys (whether they are available or not) and phantom decoys, regardless of what options is being targeted by such decoys. This provides the most comprehensive evidence to date of decoy effects in non-human primates, with important theoretical and methodological implications for future comparative studies on context effects in decision-making.


Assuntos
Cebus , Comportamento de Escolha , Animais , Previsões
7.
Nutrients ; 16(4)2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398868

RESUMO

Public health policies have been widely utilized to improve population nutrition, such as the newly announced front-of-pack labels (FOPLs) that will be applied to Canadian prepackaged foods to help consumers make healthier selections. However, research on similar health logos in the food service sector has been limited. This study explores the potential application of FOPL-style health logos in the food service sector and its impact on consumer behaviors. A survey was conducted among 1070 Canadians to assess their awareness, perception, and support for health logos on restaurant menus. The results indicate that while participants value healthy food options when dining out, taste, price, and convenience remain the primary factors influencing their choices. Most participants were unaware of existing FOPL policies and demonstrated mixed responses regarding the influence of similar health logos on their restaurant selection. However, a majority expressed a desire to see FOPL-style health logos on menus, and nutrient profile ratings and logos indicating nutrient limitations or encouragements were listed as preferred health logos. Notably, females indicated higher supportiveness for FOPL-style health logos on menus and individuals with food allergies exhibited higher agreement in the likelihood of eating at a restaurant displaying labels. Additionally, findings revealed that FOPL-style health logos alone may not significantly deter consumers from purchasing labelled menu items, especially if price is affected. Overall, this study highlights the need for further understanding consumer perceptions to effectively develop and implement FOPL initiatives in the food service sector.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , População norte-americana , Feminino , Humanos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Canadá , Alimentos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento de Escolha
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(1): e1011678, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175848

RESUMO

Reinforcement learning (RL) models are used extensively to study human behavior. These rely on normative models of behavior and stress interpretability over predictive capabilities. More recently, neural network models have emerged as a descriptive modeling paradigm that is capable of high predictive power yet with limited interpretability. Here, we seek to augment the expressiveness of theoretical RL models with the high flexibility and predictive power of neural networks. We introduce a novel framework, which we term theoretical-RNN (t-RNN), whereby a recurrent neural network is trained to predict trial-by-trial behavior and to infer theoretical RL parameters using artificial data of RL agents performing a two-armed bandit task. In three studies, we then examined the use of our approach to dynamically predict unseen behavior along with time-varying theoretical RL parameters. We first validate our approach using synthetic data with known RL parameters. Next, as a proof-of-concept, we applied our framework to two independent datasets of humans performing the same task. In the first dataset, we describe differences in theoretical RL parameters dynamic among clinical psychiatric vs. healthy controls. In the second dataset, we show that the exploration strategies of humans varied dynamically in response to task phase and difficulty. For all analyses, we found better performance in the prediction of actions for t-RNN compared to the stationary maximum-likelihood RL method. We discuss the use of neural networks to facilitate the estimation of latent RL parameters underlying choice behavior.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Reforço Psicológico , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Comportamento de Escolha
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1314, 2024 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225380

RESUMO

Contrafreeloading is the behavior of working for food when also provided with identical food that does not require effort to obtain. This behavior has been observed in humans and non-human animals, including domesticated species. In the current investigation, we assessed whether companion animals, specifically domestic dogs, contrafreeload when presented with two feeders simultaneously, a snuffle mat (a work for food device) and a tray (a freely available food device). Thirty-eight pet dogs participated in the study in which ten feeding trials were presented where food was distributed equally in both feeders. Three overarching research questions were considered: (1) Do dogs prefer to contrafreeload and/or are they willing to contrafreeload, (2) is activity (step count) or body condition score (BCS) related to contrafreeloading behavior and, (3) does previous experience with puzzle feeders impact contrafreeloading behavior? Two general linear models were conducted assessing the effects of sex, experience, age, activity and BCS on the proportion of first choices to the snuffle mat (ICs) and the number of interactions with the snuffle mat while food was still available in the tray (INs). Overall, when assessing the proportion of first choices to each feeder, dogs demonstrated a willingness to contrafreeload but not a preference to contrafreeload. In a reduced model, only one term, owner-reported body condition score, had a significant effect, suggesting that dogs with a higher BCS demonstrated a greater proportion of first choices for the snuffle mat (F (1,36) = 7.72, p = 0.009, η2p = 0.177). In evaluating the number of interactions with the snuffle mat while food was still available in the tray, the model was not significant (F (5,29) = 1.231, p = 0.320, η2p = 0.175). This study represents the first investigation of contrafreeloading in domestic pet dogs and informs recommendations for canine enrichment.


Assuntos
Lobos , Animais , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Modelos Lineares , Comportamento de Escolha
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is common, negatively affects quality of life and has limited treatment options. Inhibition of purinergic signalling is a promising therapeutic approach but is associated with taste-related adverse effects. Little is known about treatment preferences from the perspective of patients with chronic cough, such as trade-offs between efficacy and side effect. METHODS: Patients with chronic cough completed an online discrete choice experiment survey in which they answered a series of questions requiring a choice between two constructed treatment options characterised by varying attribute levels. Selection of cough and taste-related attributes was informed by qualitative interviews and clinical trial data. Logit-based models were used to analyse resulting choice data. RESULTS: The discrete choice experiment survey was completed by 472 participants with chronic cough. Among study attributes, frequency of intense cough attacks was the most important to participants, followed by taste change, frequency of night-time coughing and frequency of daytime coughing. To accept the least preferred taste disturbance of a bitter, metallic, chalky or oily taste change, participants required either: (1) elimination of night-time cough along with a slight reduction in daytime cough; (2) elimination of daytime cough along with a pronounced reduction in night-time or (3) reduction in intense cough attacks from 7 to 2 times per week. Two distinct preference patterns were identified, each placing different importance on efficacy versus side effect trade-offs. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with chronic cough were willing to accept some taste disturbances in exchange for improved efficacy of chronic cough treatments. Knowledge of patient preferences can facilitate shared decision-making.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Preferência do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Tosse/terapia
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1269, 2024 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219006

RESUMO

In traditional offline health-seeking behavior, patients consistently exhibit a preference for similar types of physicians due to limited access to physicians' information. Nevertheless, with the advent of online health consultation platforms offering comprehensive physicians' information for patients, raises the question: do patients continue to exhibit uniform preference for physicians? To address this issue, we first employed a behavioral experiment to discern patients' preferences for different types of physicians' information under different health involvement, and then conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to furnish neural/physiological evidence. The results showed that health involvement modulates patients' preferences, when health involvement was low, patients had diverse preferences for physicians, that is, different types of physicians' information could individually impact patients' choice and could serve as substitutes for each other. When health involvement was high, patients' preference for physicians were uniform, highlighting that the collective influence of different types of physicians' information on patients' choice behavior. From the neural level, an explanation for the results was that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) brain regions, two key brain regions reflecting individual cognitive resource allocation, had different activation levels under different health involvement, indicating that patients allocated different cognitive resources.


Assuntos
Médicos , Humanos , Médicos/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Preferência do Paciente
12.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296681, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241251

RESUMO

Context-dependence is fundamental to risky monetary decision-making. A growing body of evidence suggests that temporal context, or recent events, alters risk-taking at a minimum of three timescales: immediate (e.g. trial-by-trial), neighborhood (e.g. a group of consecutive trials), and global (e.g. task-level). To examine context effects, we created a novel monetary choice set with intentional temporal structure in which option values shifted between multiple levels of value magnitude ("contexts") several times over the course of the task. This structure allowed us to examine whether effects of each timescale were simultaneously present in risky choice behavior and the potential mechanistic role of arousal, an established correlate of risk-taking, in context-dependency. We found that risk-taking was sensitive to immediate, neighborhood, and global timescales: risk-taking decreased following large (vs. small) outcome amounts, increased following large positive (but not negative) shifts in context, and increased when cumulative earnings exceeded expectations. We quantified arousal with skin conductance responses, which were related to the global timescale, increasing with cumulative earnings, suggesting that physiological arousal captures a task-level assessment of performance. Our results both replicate and extend prior research by demonstrating that risky decision-making is consistently dynamic at multiple timescales and that the role of arousal in risk-taking extends to some, but not all timescales of context-dependence.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Assunção de Riscos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0292011, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170684

RESUMO

In preference reversals, subjects express different rankings over a set of alternatives depending on how preferences are elicited. In classical reversal tasks, for instance, subjects often select a safe bet over a risky one when given a choice between the two in a pair, but then assign a higher monetary evaluation to the risky bet. Motivated by a rich literature on context-dependent preferences, we conjecture that comparisons across bets in a pair can influence both Choice and Evaluation. Yet deciders are less likely to mentally compare the bets in the latter case, as bets are typically evaluated in isolation. This asymmetry between Choice and Evaluation is, we surmise, one cause of the reversals. If we further assume that memory decay affects mental comparisons in Evaluation, the account predicts order and timing effects on the reversal probability. We run several treatments designed to facilitate or hinder the retrieval from memory of the alternative bet during evaluation of a bet. However, the reversal rate does not vary across treatments in the predicted direction, and we find no systematic order or timing effects. We conclude that reversals are not influenced by the ease with which subjects recall the alternative bet during the evaluations, which suggests in turn that a relatively smaller frequency of comparisons across bets during the (typically isolated) evaluations is not a significant cause of reversals.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Probabilidade , Motivação , Rememoração Mental
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 24, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The shortage of public health personnel and the uneven distribution between urban and rural areas are thorny issues in China. Master of public health (MPH) is an integral part of public health human resources in the future, and it is of far-reaching significance to discuss their work preferences. The present study wants to investigate the job preference of MPH, understand the relative importance of different job attributes, and then put forward targeted incentive measures. METHODS: Discrete choice experiment (DCE) was used to evaluate the job preference of MPHs in two medical colleges in Liaoning Province. Attributes include employment location, bianzhi, working environment, career development prospects, work value and monthly income. Thirty-six choice sets were developed using a fractional factorial design. Mixed logit models were used to analysis the DCE data. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 327 MPHs. All the attributes and levels included in the study are statistically significant. Monthly income is the most important factor for MPHs. For non-economic factors, they value career development prospects most, followed by the employment location. Respondents' preferences are heterogeneous and influenced by individual characteristics. Subgroup analysis showed that respondents from different family backgrounds have different job preferences. Policy simulation suggested that respondents were most sensitive to a salary increase, and the combination of several non-economic factors can also achieve the same effect. CONCLUSIONS: Economic factors and non-economic factors significantly affect the job preference of MPHs. To alleviate the shortage and uneven distribution of public health personnel, more effective policy intervention should comprehensively consider the incentive measures of the work itself and pay attention to the individual characteristics and family backgrounds of the target object.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Estudantes de Saúde Pública , Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Salários e Benefícios , Renda , China , Comportamento de Escolha , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Comp Eff Res ; 13(2): e230033, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226909

RESUMO

Background: This study estimated utility values for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Previous studies have assumed that health-related quality of life does not vary between the early stages of NASH. Materials & Methods: Discrete choice experiment (DCE) surveys estimated the value of avoiding fibrosis progression. Patients also completed the EQ-5D-5L. Marginal rates of substitution estimated utility change associated with fibrosis progression. Results: DCE surveys were completed by the UK general public (n = 520) and patients with NASH (n = 154). The utility decline between fibrosis stages F1 and F4 decompensated was between -0.521 to -0.646 (depending on method). Conclusion: Three methods were used to estimate utilities for NASH, each one showed sensitivity to advancing fibrosis, including in the early stages, which is often considered asymptomatic.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Nível de Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fibrose
16.
Med Decis Making ; 44(2): 203-216, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178591

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are commonly used to elicit patient preferences and to determine the relative importance of attributes but can be complex and costly to administer. Simpler methods that measure relative importance exist, such as swing weighting with direct rating (SW-DR), but there is little empirical evidence comparing the two. This study aimed to directly compare attribute relative importance rankings and weights elicited using a DCE and SW-DR. METHODS: A total of 307 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer in Italy and Belgium completed an online survey assessing preferences for cancer treatment using DCE and SW-DR. The relative importance of the attributes was determined using a random parameter logit model for the DCE and rank order centroid method (ROC) for SW-DR. Differences in relative importance ranking and weights between the methods were assessed using Cohen's weighted kappa and Dirichlet regression. Feedback on ease of understanding and answering the 2 tasks was also collected. RESULTS: Most respondents (>65%) found both tasks (very) easy to understand and answer. The same attribute, survival, was ranked most important irrespective of the methods applied. The overall ranking of the attributes on an aggregate level differed significantly between DCE and SW-ROC (P < 0.01). Greater differences in attribute weights between attributes were reported in DCE compared with SW-DR (P < 0.01). Agreement between the individual-level attribute ranking across methods was moderate (weighted Kappa 0.53-0.55). CONCLUSION: Significant differences in attribute importance between DCE and SW-DR were found. Respondents reported both methods being relatively easy to understand and answer. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. Such studies will help to provide accurate guidance for methods selection when studying relative attribute importance across a wide array of preference-relevant decisions. HIGHLIGHTS: Both DCEs and SW tasks can be used to determine attribute relative importance rankings and weights; however, little evidence exists empirically comparing these methods in terms of outcomes or respondent usability.Most respondents found the DCE and SW tasks very easy or easy to understand and answer.A direct comparison of DCE and SW found significant differences in attribute importance rankings and weights as well as a greater spread in the DCE-derived attribute relative importance weights.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Comportamento de Escolha , Preferência do Paciente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Neurosci ; 44(5)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38296647

RESUMO

Deciding whether to forego immediate rewards or explore new opportunities is a key component of flexible behavior and is critical for the survival of the species. Although previous studies have shown that different cortical and subcortical areas, including the amygdala and ventral striatum (VS), are implicated in representing the immediate (exploitative) and future (explorative) value of choices, the effect of the motor system used to make choices has not been examined. Here, we tested male rhesus macaques with amygdala or VS lesions on two versions of a three-arm bandit task where choices were registered with either a saccade or an arm movement. In both tasks we presented the monkeys with explore-exploit tradeoffs by periodically replacing familiar options with novel options that had unknown reward probabilities. We found that monkeys explored more with saccades but showed better learning with arm movements. VS lesions caused the monkeys to be more explorative with arm movements and less explorative with saccades, although this may have been due to an overall decrease in performance. VS lesions affected the monkeys' ability to learn novel stimulus-reward associations in both tasks, while after amygdala lesions this effect was stronger when choices were made with saccades. Further, on average, VS and amygdala lesions reduced the monkeys' ability to choose better options only when choices were made with a saccade. These results show that learning reward value associations to manage explore-exploit behaviors is motor system dependent and they further define the contributions of amygdala and VS to reinforcement learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Estriado Ventral , Animais , Masculino , Macaca mulatta , Reforço Psicológico , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Recompensa
18.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 40(1): e8, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to gain insight into each attribute as presented in the value of implantable medical devices, quantify attributes' strength and their relative importance, and identify the determinants of stakeholders' preferences. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used to identify attributes and levels reflecting stakeholders' preference toward the value of implantable medical devices. This design combined literature reviewing, expert's consultation, one-on-one interactions with stakeholders, and a pilot testing. Based on the design, six attributes and their levels were settled. Among 144 hypothetical profiles, 30 optimal choice sets were developed, and healthcare professionals (decision-makers, health technology assessment experts, hospital administrators, medical doctors) and patients as stakeholders in China were surveyed. A total of 134 respondents participated in the survey. Results were analyzed by mixed logit model and conditional logit model. RESULTS: The results of the mixed logit model showed that all the six attributes had a significant impact on respondents' choices on implantable medical devices. Respondents were willing to pay the highest for medical devices that provided improvements in clinical safety, followed by increased clinical effectiveness, technology for treating severe diseases, improved implement capacity, and innovative technology (without substitutes). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of DCE will improve the current evaluation on the value of implantable medical devices in China and provide decision-makers with the relative importance of the criteria in pricing and reimbursement decision-making of implantable medical devices.


Assuntos
Preferência do Paciente , Próteses e Implantes , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , China , Comportamento de Escolha
19.
Behav Processes ; 215: 104990, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232938

RESUMO

According to the Multiplicative Hyperbolic Model of reinforcer value (MHM), the overall value of a reinforcer may be defined by the multiplicative combination of a set of hyperbolic functions, each of which defines the impact of a particular feature of the reinforcer (e.g., quantity, immediacy of delivery). A previous experiment found that the relationship between the indifference volumes (qA(50)) of reinforcer A (a 0.4-M sucrose solution) and the fixed volume (qB) of reinforcer B (a 0.2-M sucrose solution: 32 - 256 µl) was consonant with this model. This paper describes a re-analysis of those data in an attempt to identify the nature of the effect of concentration on the two parameters of the size/value hyperbola (asymptote, ε, and sensitivity, Q). Comparison of two versions of the model in which (i) both parameters were free to vary as a function of qB and (ii) only ε was free to vary, showed that the latter model provided a satisfactory account of the data and that the inclusion of Q as an additional free parameter was not justified. Implications for the development of MHM are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Sacarose , Sacarose/farmacologia , Esquema de Reforço , Condicionamento Operante
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 343: 116551, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242030

RESUMO

Many countries are facing challenges in recruiting and retaining physicians, particularly in regions where the public and private sectors compete for doctors. Understanding the factors influencing physicians' job choices can help inform policies aimed at attracting and retaining this valuable workforce. This study aims to elicit the strength of physicians' preferences regarding various job-related aspects, including earnings, time flexibility, discussion of clinical cases, frequency of facilities and equipment updates, training opportunities and autonomy in decision making. To achieve this, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was administered to 697 physicians. Each participant completed a series of eight choice tasks, where they had to choose between two hypothetical jobs differing in these attributes with levels mirroring positions in the public and private sectors in Portugal. The resulting choices were analysed using mixed logit, generalized multinomial logit and latent classes models to account for diverse unobserved variations in physicians' preferences and to explore preference heterogeneity across different observable characteristics. Jobs that offered more autonomy and training opportunities were strongly preferred, as physicians would require additional compensation to work with reduced autonomy (equivalent to 28.62% of gross income) or less frequent training (equivalent to 22.75%). This study also shows that the ranking of the job characteristics is similar between physicians working exclusively in the public sector and those engaged in dual practice. Nevertheless, public sector physicians place more emphasis on the availability of frequent training possibilities and frequent updates of facilities and equipment compared to their counterparts in dual practice. These findings contribute to existing knowledge by highlighting the significance of non-monetary attributes and shedding light on the preferences of physicians across various employment scenarios. They offer valuable insights for policy development aimed at influencing physicians' allocation of time between sectors.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Médicos , Humanos , Renda , Emprego , Recursos Humanos , Comportamento de Escolha
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