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1.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 118(2): 327-336, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121592

RESUMO

The Ideal Free Distribution suggests the relative allocation of the number of organisms foraging across two or more resource sites will match the relative density of reinforcement patches in those resource sites. This initial project sought to develop a new method of foraging research for dogs by using a commercially available treat dispenser in basic behavioral research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Ideal Free Distribution equation could describe the behavior of the domesticated dog in a daycare setting. Toward this end, we recorded dog behavior in a free operant arrangement on various variable-time schedules of reinforcement. Results indicated matching occurred in the dog sample, which corresponded with the Ideal Free Distribution equation, with a slight visual appearance toward undermatching, consistent with extant literature on group foraging. Furthermore, there was a lack of bias in the current sample of foraging dogs. Implications and future directions involve extending foraging research in the domesticated dog. That the study occurred in a local dog daycare specifically highlights how practical concerns in animal welfare and/or training can be addressed in rigorous ways with strong conceptual foundations in the experimental analysis of behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Reforço Psicológico , Animais , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078610

RESUMO

Background: The development of the organic food market in Poland is currently at a fairly high level. There is a growing demand for organic food, but the share of total sales remains low. There are still many barriers related to the availability of organic food and information about it. In addition, consumers are skeptical of the inspection system in organic farming and admit that these foods do not meet their expectations regarding sensory qualities. Methods: The article conducted its own research, using an author's survey questionnaire, which was distributed in Lublin Province. The research sample consisted of 342 respondents and was diverse in terms of gender, age and place of residence. The purpose of the analysis was to ascertain the determinants affecting the choice of organic food. For the study, the method of correspondence analysis was used, the purpose of which was to isolate characteristic groups of consumers who exhibit certain behaviors towards organic products. Results: Respondents admitted that they buy organic food several times a month, most often spending an amount of EUR 10-20 (per month). They also paid attention to product labeling, with labels read mostly by residents of small towns (up to 30,000 residents). Respondents were also asked about the reasons why they do not buy organic food. The results of the analysis show that respondents believe it is too expensive, but they also cannot point out differences with other products. Conclusions: The main purpose of this article was to study the preferences of organic food buyers and to identify factors that determine their choice but that may also be barriers to purchasing this category of food. These issues need to be further explored so as to create recommendations in this regard for various participants in the organic food market.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos Orgânicos , Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Agricultura Orgânica , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5639, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163352

RESUMO

Humans procrastinate despite being aware of potential adverse consequences. Yet, the neuro-computational mechanisms underlying procrastination remain poorly understood. Here, we use fMRI during intertemporal choice to inform a computational model that predicts procrastination behavior in independent tests. Procrastination is assessed in the laboratory as the preference for performing an effortful task on the next day as opposed to immediately, and at home as the delay taken in returning completed administrative forms. These procrastination behaviors are respectively modeled as unitary and repeated decisions to postpone a task until the next time step, based on a net expected value that integrates reward and effort attributes, both discounted with delay. The key feature that is associated with procrastination behavior across individuals (both in-lab and at-home) is the extent to which the expected effort cost (signaled by the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) is attenuated by the delay before task completion. Thus, procrastination might stem from a cognitive bias that would make doing a task later (compared to now) appear as much less effortful but not much less rewarding.


Assuntos
Procrastinação , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa , Tempo
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166460

RESUMO

Individuals typically prefer the freedom to make their own decisions. Yet, people often trade their own decision control (procedural utility) to gain economic security (outcome utility). Decision science has not reconciled these observations. We examined how decision-makers' efficacy and security perceptions influence when, why, and how individuals exchange procedural and outcome utility. Undergraduate adults (N = 77; Mage = 19.45 years; 73% female; 62% Caucasian, 13% African American) were recruited from the psychology participant pool at a midwestern U.S. metropolitan university. Participants made financial decisions in easy and hard versions of a paid card task resembling a standard gambling task, with a learning component. During half the trials, they made decisions with a No-Choice Manager who controlled their decisions, versus a Choice Manager who granted decision control. The hard task was designed to be too difficult for most participants, undermining their efficacy and security, and ensuring financial losses. The No-Choice Manager was designed to perform moderately well, ensuring financial gains. Participants felt greater outcome satisfaction (utility) for financial gains earned via Choice, but not losses. Participants (85%) preferred the Choice manager in the easy task but preferred the No-Choice Manager (56%) in the hard task. This change in preference for choice corresponded with self-efficacy and was mediated by perceived security. We used Decision Field Theory to develop potential cognitive models of these decisions. Preferences were best described by a model that assumed decision-makers initially prefer Choice, but update their preference based on loss-dependent attentional focus. When they earned losses (hard task), decision-makers focused more on economic payoffs (financial security), causing them to deemphasize procedural utility. Losses competed for attention, pulling attention toward economic survivability and away from the inherent value of choice. Decision-makers are more likely to sacrifice freedom of choice to leaders they perceive as efficacious to alleviate perceived threats to economic security.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Jogo de Azar , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Liberdade , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1136, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patient choice, patients are expected to select the provider that best fits their preferences. In this study, we assess to what extent the hospital choice of patients in practice corresponds with their preferred choice. METHODS: Dutch patients with breast cancer (n = 631) and cataract (n = 1109) were recruited. We employed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) per condition to measure stated preferences and predict the distribution of patients across four hospitals. Each DCE included five attributes: patient experiences, a clinical outcome indicator, waiting time, travel distance and whether the hospital had been recommended (e.g., by the General Practitioner (GP)). Revealed choices were derived from claims data. RESULTS: Hospital quality was valued as most important in the DCE; the largest marginal rates of substitution (willingness to wait) were observed for the clinical outcome indicator (breast cancer: 38.6 days (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 32.9-44.2); cataract: 210.5 days (95%CI: 140.8-280.2)). In practice, it was of lesser importance. In revealed choices, travel distance became the most important attribute; it accounted for 85.5% (breast cancer) and 95.5% (cataract) of the log-likelihood. The predicted distribution of patients differed from that observed in practice in terms of absolute value and, for breast cancer, also in relative order. Similar results were observed in population weighted analyses. DISCUSSION: Study findings show that patients highly valued quality information in the choice for a hospital. However, in practice these preferences did not prevail. Our findings suggest that GPs played a major role and that patients mostly ended up selecting the nearest hospital.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Catarata , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Preferência do Paciente
6.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079769

RESUMO

In May 2020, the European Commission announced a proposal for a mandatory front-of-pack label (FoPL) for all European Union (EU) countries. Indeed, FoPLs have been recognized by several public institutions as a cost-effective measure to guide consumers toward nutritionally favorable food products. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and consumer preference of two FoPLs currently proposed or implemented in EU countries, the interpretive format Nutri-Score and the non-interpretive format NutrInform Battery, among Italian consumers. The experimental study was conducted in 2021 on a representative sample of 1064 Italian adults (mean age = 46.5 ± 14.1 years; 48% men). Participants were randomized to either Nutri-Score or NutrInform and had to fill out an online questionnaire testing their objective understanding of the FoPL on three food categories (breakfast products, breakfast cereals and added fats) as well as purchase intention, subjective understanding and perception. Multivariable logistic regressions and t-tests were used to analyze the answers. In terms of the capacity of participants to identify the most nutritionally favorable products, Nutri-Score outperformed NutrInform in all food categories, with the highest odds ratio being observed for added fats (OR = 21.7 [15.3-31.1], p < 0.0001). Overall, with Nutri-Score, Italian participants were more likely to intend to purchase nutritionally favorable products than with NutrInform (OR = 5.29 [4.02-6.97], p < 0.0001). Focusing on olive oil, participants of the Nutri-Score group had higher purchase intention of olive oil compared to those in the NutrInform group (OR = 1.92 [1.42-2.60], p < 0.0001) after manipulating the label. The interpretive format Nutri-Score appears to be a more efficient tool than NutrInform for orienting Italian consumers towards more nutritionally favorable food choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Adulto , Desjejum , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Azeite de Oliva
7.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079781

RESUMO

Previous studies on consumer yogurt preferences have mainly focused on added sugar, nutrient content, and health claims, leaving several knowledge gaps that should be filled through in-depth research. In this study, a more complete multi-attribute preference model was developed using the number of probiotic types, type of milk source, presence of edible gels (GEL), and usage of health food labels as the main yogurt attributes. A choice experiment (CE) was then conducted to investigate the relationship between multiple attribute preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP). A total of 435 valid questionnaires were collected by the convenience sampling method. The results show that (1) respondents highly value the health food label (HEA), followed by the number of probiotic types (PRO); (2) the highest WTP in the conditional logit (CL) model was New Taiwan Dollar (NTD) (USD 10.5 for HEA, and the lowest was NTD 1.0 for 100% milk powder (MLK2); (3) in the random-parameter logit (RPL) model, the highest WTP was NTD 14.6 for HEA, and the lowest was NTD 2.8 for GEL; (4) the most preferred attribute combination of yogurt was "8 or more probiotic types", "a blend of raw milk and milk powder", "the absence of edible gels", "the presence of a health food label", and "a price premium of NTD 6-10"; (5) married respondents with children were more willing to pay extra for yogurt products with a higher number of probiotic types and a health food label. The results may help the food industry understand and pay attention to consumer needs, which will, in turn, provide a reference for future product development and marketing strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Iogurte , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Pós , Taiwan
8.
Elife ; 112022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074557

RESUMO

What role do regions like the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) play in normative behavior (e.g., generosity, healthy eating)? Some models suggest that dlPFC activation during normative choice reflects controlled inhibition or modulation of default hedonistic preferences. Here, we develop an alternative account, showing that evidence accumulation models predict trial-by-trial variation in dlPFC response across three fMRI paradigms and two self-control contexts (altruistic sacrifice and healthy eating). Using these models to simulate a variety of self-control dilemmas generated a novel prediction: although dlPFC activity might typically increase for norm-consistent choices, deliberate self-regulation focused on normative goals should decrease or even reverse this pattern (i.e., greater dlPFC response for hedonistic, self-interested choices). We confirmed these predictions in both altruistic and dietary choice contexts. Our results suggest that dlPFC response during normative choice may depend more on value-based evidence accumulation than inhibition of our baser instincts.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Inibição Psicológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Autocontrole
9.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145107

RESUMO

Easier recognition and enhanced visibility of healthy options supposedly increase healthy choices, but real-world evidence remains scarce. Addressing this knowledge gap, we promoted nutritionally favourable foods in a workplace cafeteria with three choice-architectural strategies-priming posters, point-of-choice nutrition labels, and improved product placement-and assessed their effects on visual attention, food choices, and food consumption. Additionally, we developed a method for analysing real-world eye-tracking data. The study followed a pretest-posttest design whereby control and intervention condition lasted five days each. We monitored visual attention (i.e., total number and duration of fixations) and food choices with eye tracking, interviewed customers about perceived influences on food choices, and measured cafeteria-level food consumption (g). Individual-level data represents 22 control and 19 intervention participants recruited at the cafeteria entrance. Cafeteria-level data represents food consumption during the trial (556/589 meals sold). Results indicated that the posters and labels captured participants' visual attention (~13% of fixations on defined areas of interest before food choices), but the intervention had insignificant effects on visual attention to foods, on food choices, and on food consumption. Interviews revealed 17 perceived influences on food choices, the most common being sensory appeal, healthiness, and familiarity. To conclude, the intervention appeared capable of attracting visual attention, yet ineffective in increasing healthier eating. The developed method enabled a rigorous analysis of visual attention and food choices in a natural choice setting. We discuss ways to boost the impact of the intervention on behaviour, considering target groups' motives. The work contributes with a unique, mixed-methods approach and a real-world setting that enabled a multi-dimensional effects evaluation with high external validity.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Refeições , Local de Trabalho
10.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145108

RESUMO

Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to assist consumers in making healthy decisions. Based on the model of a dual-process system, the current study examined how people might be affected by nutrition labels and consuming contexts when making choices about healthy foods. Using four types of nutrition labels (i.e., the NuVal label, 5-Color nutrition label, traffic light label, and daily value label), participants were instructed to choose the healthier foods with or without time constraints in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with pairs of foods accompanied by the same type of nutrition labels to measure the efficiency of their health evaluation. In Experiment 2, two types of labels with inconsistent nutritional information were presented to participants simultaneously to measure their preference regarding the nutrition labels. Findings of the current study support the notion that the traffic light label is advantageous in terms of both the efficiency of, and preferences regarding, nutrition judgment, especially with time constraints. When there was only one type of nutrition label, participants made decisions fastest and most accurately when observing the NuVal label, regardless of time constraints. Overall, the reliable interactions between the time constraints and patterns of nutrition labels have theoretical implications for the appeal-based heuristics and rational-based processing when making health-related food decisions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 985582, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148354

RESUMO

Introduction: There is limited evidence on the sustainability and optimal design of China's private health insurance market, especially from the demand-side. With the increasing medical cost burden on both patients and the social security system, policy makers need data on potential clients' demand for private health insurance. Methods: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to explore potential clients' preferences for a type of government-involved private supplementary health insurance, Huimin Insurance, in China. A mixed logit model was used to evaluated participants' preferences for six attributes. Willingness to pay, subgroup analysis and interaction effects were estimated based on the initial model. Results: Among the 947 participants, 883 (93.2%) were aged 18 to 59 years and 578 (61.0%) were female. Participants had a strong preference for government involvement, extensive benefit packages, high reimbursement ratio and compensation for pre-existing conditions. With respect to the attribute of deductible, participants were indifferent between the level of CNY15,000 and CNY18,000 but had strong and significant preference for the level of CNY15,000 than CNY20,000. The premium was significantly correlated with a decline in the utility of PHI. Conclusions: All attributes had a significant impact on participants' preference for Huimin Insurance. Providing a reference point for the development of private health insurance in China, our results inform the optimal design of PHI, especially Huimin Insurance's products.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Seguro Saúde , China , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino
12.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014909

RESUMO

Front-of-pack labeling (FOPL) is a tool that enables consumers to compare foods and select healthier options. Due to low understanding of the Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) labeling among Mexicans, a law was implemented in October 2020 that modified the FOPL to a warning labeling (WL) system. The purpose of this study was to compare the perception and understanding of GDA and WL during the law modification period. We conducted a panel design with two measurements: (1) using GDA label (September 2020) and (2) using WL (October-November). We estimated differences in GDA vs. WL through multinomial logistic regression models and changes were measured through predictive margin contrasts and Wald tests. When comparing the same products with different labels, the participants reported that it would be unlikely/very unlikely that they would consume products packaged with the WL (81.5%; 95%CI: 79.2, 83.8) compared to those with GDA (24.2%; 95%CI: 21.7, 26.7). Consumers' perception was that the quantities of packaged products they should consume was small or very small when they used the WL (93.8%; 95%CI: 92.4, 95.5) compared to GDA (41.6%; 95%CI: 39.7, 44.6). When comparing food groups, participants were more confident about choosing healthy products when using the WL compared to the GDA. During the implementation of WL in Mexico, the studied population had a better perception and understanding of less healthy packaged foods when using WL, compared to the GDA label.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , México , Valor Nutritivo , Percepção
13.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014929

RESUMO

The last decades have been marked by the introduction of front-of-pack labels (FoPL) as an institutional corrective action against obesity and nutrition-related illnesses. However, FoPL-related policy-making initiatives issued by the European Union evolved over time and led to a diversity of labels with different effects on consumers' decisions. As a result, the extant literature adapted to the regulative scenario over the years and investigated the effects of the labels, creating consensus on some topics while being fragmented on others. Similarly, policy-makers adapted some regulations to the evidence supported by the research. With the aim to systematize the overall structure and evolution of the literature on FoPL, investigate the presence of a consensus on specific topics through a co-citation analysis, and examine the evolution of the consensus and co-citation networks over the years and potential research gaps, we report the results of bibliometric and co-citation analyses and a systematic literature review involving 170 papers and a selection of 49 articles published in the last months, for a total of 219 articles, analysed according to three timespans (Period 1 (1989-2011); Period 2 (2012-2016) and Period 3 (2017-2022)). Our findings highlight the interplay of policy development and FoPL research, the presence of few self-reinforcing and well-established co-citation networks based on validated evidence in the literature and the presence of alternative emerging theories that offer different and valid perspectives overlooked by mainstream co-citation research networks.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Bibliometria , Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Valor Nutritivo , Políticas , Formulação de Políticas
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 939937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35991029

RESUMO

Household food purchasing decision is a complex process influenced by factors such as marketing, cost, children food preference and parental choices. Most food products targeted toward children are unhealthy and are aggressively marketed to increase desirability among parents and children making healthier food selection even harder. The warning label (WL) is identified as a simple front-of-package labeling format that assist consumers to easily identify unhealthy foods and reduce their purchasing. This was a qualitative study that aimed to investigate the perceived effect of the warning label (WL) on parental food purchasing and drivers of food selection among parents. The study was conducted in a mainly rural part of South Africa, in Limpopo Province. Data were collected from 44 adult participants, all parents with children aged below 16 years selected using the snowball sampling method. Seven focus groups diversified according to age, literacy, income and urbanicity were utilized for data collection. Using a focus group discussion guide, parents were shown images of six products (crisps, soda, juice, biscuits, cereals, and yogurt) superimposed with the WL and questions asked were based on those images. Thematic analysis revealed that although some parents felt undeterred by the WL, some felt they would alter their food purchasing in the presence of the WL. Other parents felt they would reduce the frequency or the amount purchased or completely stop purchasing labeled products for their children. Motives behind perceived behavior modification included children's health being perceived as a priority and labeled products being viewed as unhealthy. Factors such as pressure from children, taste, poor nutrition knowledge and affordability seemed to influence parental food selection. These findings have important policy implications by providing evidence to policymakers that the WL may alter parental food purchasing and also provide insight into drivers of food selection among South African parents.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Pais , África do Sul
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 880251, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35991076

RESUMO

This study aimed to better understand the relationship between the street environment and walking behavior by deciphering the pedestrians' street environment preference based on their route choice behavior while walking. The route data of 219 residents were collected using an unobtrusive tracking method and subjected to binary logistic regression models to analyze the pedestrian route choice behavior. The results revealed that except for the walking distance, the trip purpose and travel status are the potential factors influencing the route choice of pedestrians. Furthermore, it was revealed that on-street parking, garbage bins, and streetlights could influence the pedestrians to select longer distance routes. In addition, pedestrians were more likely to select the shortest distance route when they were engaged in leisure activities with an accompanist. The findings of this study would offer insights, from different perspectives, into the micro-scale street environment and the walking behavior of pedestrians.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Viagem , Caminhada
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 911868, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923954

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to elicit the stated job preferences of Chinese medical staff in the post-pandemic era and identify the relative importance of different factors in the practice environment. Methods: We used an online discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey instrument to elicit the job preferences of medical staff (doctors and nurses) in tertiary hospitals in Anhui, China. Attributes and levels were generated using qualitative methods, and four attributes were considered: career development, workload, respect from society, and monthly income. A set of profiles was created using a D-efficient design. The data were analyzed considering potential preference heterogeneity, using the conditional logit model and the latent class logit (LCL) model. Results: A total of 789 valid questionnaires were included in the analysis, with an effective response rate of 73.33%. Career development, workload, respect from society, and monthly income were significant factors that influenced job preferences. Three classes were identified based on the LCL model, and preference heterogeneity among different medical staff was demonstrated. Class 1 (16.17%) and Class 2 (43.51%) valued respect from society most, whereas Class 3 (40.32%) prioritized monthly income. We found that when respect from society was raised to a satisfactory level (50-75% positive reviews), the probability of medical staff choosing a certain job increased by 69.9%. Conclusion: Respect from society was the most preferred attribute, while workload, monthly income, and career development were all key factors in the medical staff's job choices. The heterogeneity of the medical professionals' preferences shows that effective policy interventions should be customized to accommodate these drive preferences.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Comportamento de Escolha , China , Humanos , Corpo Clínico , Pandemias
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 936802, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910921

RESUMO

Introduction: Front of Package Food Labels (FoP) help consumers make healthier food choices at the point of purchase by giving details about the nutrients available in the packaged food items. Aim and Objective: A prospective multi-centric cross-sectional study was conducted in 2021 across India to evaluate the existing knowledge and attitude regarding food labels on packaged foods and beverages. Also, the objective understanding of the consumers' knowledge on different types of FoP label practiced across the world was determined. Methodology: A self-administered questionnaire was given to the respondents to gather their attitudes regarding the FoP label. Besides, they were given colored pictures of different FoP labels to seek their perception and preference for different FoP label designs. Results: Results found that packaged food and beverages were consumed by 91.3% of the participants. Awareness about the food package labeling was widely held by 95% of the participants and 88.6% of them considered this information helpful. Over half (55.4%) of the respondents considered packaged foods as healthy. Warning Labels (WL) were the most preferred food labels (93%), followed by Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL) and the difference between the two was statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). Conclusions: The awareness about FoP labels is low among the consumers. Recommendations: Evidence-based research is recommended regarding the knowledge and perception of people on the feasibility of FoP label design which may lay a foundation to formulate laws and policies regarding the front of pack labeling.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Estudos Transversais , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1079, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While involving users in healthcare decision-making has become increasingly common and important, there is a lack of knowledge about how to best design community-based health screening programs. Reviews of methods that incorporate discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are scarce, particularly for non-cancer illnesses like cardiovascular disease, diabetes and liver disease. We provide an overview of currently available applications and methods available by using DCEs in health screening programs, for chronic conditions. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken, where four electronic databases were searched for key terms to identify eligible DCE studies related to community health screening. We included studies that met a pre-determined criteria, including being published between 2011 and 2021, in English and reported findings on human participants. Data were systematically extracted, tabulated, and summarised in a narrative review. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies that used a DCE to elicit preferences for cancer (n = 26) and cardiovascular disease screening (n = 1) programmes were included in the final analysis. All studies were assessed for quality, against a list of 13 criteria, with the median score being 9/13 (range 5-12). Across the 27 studies, the majority (80%) had the same overall scores. Two-thirds of included studies reported a sample size calculation, approximately half (13/27) administered the survey completely online and over 75% used the general public as the participating population. CONCLUSION: Our review has led to highlighting several areas of current practice that can be improved, particularly greater use of sample size calculations, increased use of qualitative methods, better explanation of the chosen experimental design including how choice sets are generated, and methods for analysis.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Preferência do Paciente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2117979119, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994665

RESUMO

This research examines how school choice impacts school segregation. Specifically, this work demonstrates that even if parents do not take the racial demographics of schools into account, preference differences between Black and White parents for other school attributes can still result in segregation. These preference differences stem from motivational differences in pursuit of social status. Given that the de facto US racial hierarchy assigns Black people to a lower social status, Black parents are more motivated to seek schools that signal that they can improve their children's status. Simulations of parental school decisions at scale show that preference differences under an unmitigated school-choice policy lead to more segregated schools, impacting more than half a million US children for every 3-percentage-point increase in school-choice availability. In contrast, if Black and White parents have similar preferences, unmitigated school choice would reduce racial segregation. This research may inform public policy concerning school choice and school segregation.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Pais , Racismo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Segregação Social , Negros/psicologia , Negros/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Política Pública , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Racismo/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/provisão & distribuição , Segregação Social/psicologia , Segregação Social/tendências , Status Social , Estados Unidos , Brancos/psicologia , Brancos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e058799, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify patient preferences for efficacy, safety and convenience features of atopic dermatitis (AD) treatments. DESIGN AND SETTING: Online discrete choice experiment survey. PARTICIPANTS: Adults in the UK, France and Spain who had used AD treatments during the past 2 years. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Preferences for attributes were analysed using a multinomial logit model. Willingness to make trade-offs was expressed as the maximum acceptable decrease (MAD) in the probability of achieving clear/almost clear skin at week 16. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 404 patients (44.1±12.0 years; 65% women; 64% moderate/severe eczema). Most patients (68%) had no prior experience of using self-injectable treatments for AD or any other illness. Participants most valued increasing the chance of achieving a meaningful reduction in itch at week 16 from 20% to 50%, followed by reducing the risks of serious infections from 6% to 0% and of eye inflammation from 20% to 0%. Participants were willing to accept a decrease in the possibility of achieving clear/almost clear skin to obtain a treatment that can be paused (MAD=24.1%), requires occasional check-ups (MAD=16.1%) or no check-ups (MAD=20.9%) over frequent check-ups, is administered as a one time per day or two times per day oral pill versus a subcutaneous injection every 2 weeks (MAD=16.6%), has a 2-day over 2-week onset of action (MAD=11.3%), and can be used for flare management (MAD=5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with AD most valued treatment benefits and risks, they were willing to tolerate reduced efficacy to obtain a rapid onset, oral administration, less frequent monitoring and a treatment that can be paused. Understanding patients' preferences for AD therapies, including new targeted therapies, can aid shared decision-making between clinicians and patients and support health technology assessments.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Preferência do Paciente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Reino Unido
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