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1.
Aggress Behav ; 50(2)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707774

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine adolescents' beliefs about fighting as mediators of longitudinal relations between perceptions of parental support for fighting and nonviolence and changes in adolescents' physical aggression. Participants were 2,575 middle school students (Mage = 12.20, SD = 1.02; 52% female; 83% African American) from the southeastern U.S. attending schools in communities with high rates of violence. Participants completed four waves of assessments every 3 months (i.e., fall, winter, spring, and summer). Each belief subscale mediated relations between perceptions of parental support for fighting and nonviolence and changes in aggression. Parental support for nonviolence was negatively associated with beliefs supporting reactive aggression and positively associated with beliefs against fighting. Parental support for retaliation was positively associated with beliefs supporting reactive and proactive aggression, and negatively associated with beliefs against fighting. Parental support for fighting as sometimes necessary was positively associated with beliefs supporting reactive aggression and beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary. Beliefs supporting reactive and proactive aggression and beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary were positively associated with aggression, whereas beliefs against fighting was negatively associated with aggression. Parents' support for fighting and for nonviolence may directly and indirectly reduce adolescents' physical aggression by influencing beliefs about the appropriateness of using aggression for self-defense and to attain a goal. This highlights the importance of jointly investigating multiple types of parental messages and types of beliefs about fighting.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão , Relações Pais-Filho , Violência , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Agressão/psicologia , Masculino , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Violência/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais
2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 53, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory actions are increasingly used to tackle issues such as excessive alcohol or sugar intake, but such actions to reduce sedentary behaviour remain scarce. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on sedentary behaviour call for system-wide policies. The Chinese government introduced the world's first nation-wide multi-setting regulation on multiple types of sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents in July 2021. This regulation restricts when (and for how long) online gaming businesses can provide access to pupils; the amount of homework teachers can assign to pupils according to their year groups; and when tutoring businesses can provide lessons to pupils. We evaluated the effect of this regulation on sedentary behaviour safeguarding pupils. METHODS: With a natural experiment evaluation design, we used representative surveillance data from 9- to 18-year-old pupils before and after the introduction of the regulation, for longitudinal (n = 7,054, matched individuals, primary analysis) and repeated cross-sectional (n = 99,947, exploratory analysis) analyses. We analysed pre-post differences for self-reported sedentary behaviour outcomes (total sedentary behaviour time, screen viewing time, electronic device use time, homework time, and out-of-campus learning time) using multilevel models, and explored differences by sex, education stage, residency, and baseline weight status. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses indicated that pupils had reduced their mean total daily sedentary behaviour time by 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -15.9 to -11.7%, approximately 46 min) and were 1.20 times as likely to meet international daily screen time recommendations (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.32) one month after the introduction of the regulation compared to the reference group (before its introduction). They were on average 2.79 times as likely to meet the regulatory requirement on homework time (95% CI: 2.47 to 3.14) than the reference group and reduced their daily total screen-viewing time by 6.4% (95% CI: -9.6 to -3.3%, approximately 10 min). The positive effects were more pronounced among high-risk groups (secondary school and urban pupils who generally spend more time in sedentary behaviour) than in low-risk groups (primary school and rural pupils who generally spend less time in sedentary behaviour). The exploratory analyses showed comparable findings. CONCLUSIONS: This regulatory intervention has been effective in reducing total and specific types of sedentary behaviour among Chinese children and adolescents, with the potential to reduce health inequalities. International researchers and policy makers may explore the feasibility and acceptability of implementing regulatory interventions on sedentary behaviour elsewhere.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Tempo de Tela , Jogos de Vídeo , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Exercício Físico , Estudantes , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Cancer Control ; 31: 10732748241255538, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Promoting cancer preventive behaviors among adolescents, especially those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, is crucial due to the significant impact of health behaviors in adolescence on disease risk in adulthood. With India witnessing a rise in cancer incidence and mortality, adolescence becomes a pivotal stage for establishing healthy habits, emphasizing the need for early cancer prevention efforts. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used survey data from 2242 adolescents attending public schools of Mumbai, India. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine the associations between cancer preventive behaviors and: (1) the individual and social determinants of health, and (2) media exposure. FINDINGS: Merely 21.5% of the adolescents ate fruits and vegetables daily, 50% of the adolescents exercised 3 or more times a week, and 20% of the adolescents admitted having used tobacco and/or supari. Girls were found to have lower odds of exercising, as well as using tobacco and/or supari. Wealth and father's education were positively associated with all 3 cancer preventive behaviors. Media exposure was negatively associated, with television exposure linked to reduced fruits and vegetables consumption, while movies and social media exposure were associated with increased tobacco and/or supari use. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that individual and social determinants of health and media exposure can influence cancer preventive health behaviors in low socio-economic status (SES) adolescents. Efforts to increase awareness to promote cancer preventive behaviors among the adolescents, particularly low SES adolescents, a population more vulnerable to poor health outcomes, is critical.


This study investigates factors that can influence cancer preventive behaviors among low socioeconomic status (SES) adolescents, focusing on dietary habits, physical activity, and avoidance of tobacco and areca nut. Our study gathered data from an underrepresented population of India, which is more vulnerable to poor health outcomes and have less access to health care. Our findings can alert public health officials, policy makers and non-governmental organizations to target this population and customize their intervention strategies to promote health and prevent cancer.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Comunicação , Exercício Físico , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e00092023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747756

RESUMO

This article aims to identify the association of sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours with bullying perpetration and victimization among high school students. The adolescents (n=852) answered a questionnaire about bullying (victims and perpetrators), sociodemographic factors (sex, age, maternal education, and participant's work status), tobacco use, alcohol use, illicit drug experimentation, physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed. Older adolescents were less likely to be victims of bullying. Females were less likely to be perpetrators or victims of bullying. Adolescents who were working were more likely to be involved in bullying in both forms. Participation in non-sport activities and alcohol consumption were associated with higher odds of bullying victimization. We have identified specific populational subgroups that are more susceptible to being victims and/or perpetrators of bullying, which could support tailor-specific interventions to prevent bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Estilo de Vida , Estudantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e00992023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747758

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the association between the school context and the occurrence of multiple partners among adolescents, considering individual variables (age, gender, Bolsa Família, LGB, early sexual initiation and use of alcohol or drugs in the last sex). Cross-sectional study with multilevel analysis carried out in 2018 with adolescent students from Olinda, Brazil. The variable (multiple partners) was collected based on the 'Youth Risk Behavior Survey' questionnaire. School context variables were time in school (regular school vs. full/semi-full school) and the Social Vulnerability Index of the school district. Of 2,500 participants, 1,044 were analyzed for being sexually active and most had two or more partners (63.89%). Regular school students were more likely (OR 1.47, CI 1.10-1.97) to have multiple sexual partners compared to those in full-day schools/half-day schools. However, no association was found in relation to the SVI of the schools' neighborhoods (OR 1.18, IC 0.82-1.70). More time spent at school was associated with fewer chances of multiple sexual partners, while studying in schools located in highly vulnerable neighborhoods was not associated with the occurrence of multiple sexual partners among adolescents.


O estudo investiga a associação entre o contexto escolar e a ocorrência de múltiplos parceiros entre adolescentes, considerando as variáveis individuais. Estudo transversal com análise multinível, realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2018 com estudantes de 14 a 19 anos. A variável desfecho (múltiplos parceiros sexuais) foi coletada com base no questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). As variáveis do contexto escolar foram tempo na escola (escola regular vs escola integral/semi-integral) e índice de vulnerabilidade social (IVS) do bairro onde a escola está localizada. De 2.500 participantes, 1.044 foram analisados por serem sexualmente ativos. A maioria dos adolescentes (63,89%) teve dois ou mais parceiros. Estudantes de escola regular (mínimo de 4h diárias) tiveram mais chances (OR 1.47, IC 1.10-1.97) de terem múltiplos parceiros sexuais quando comparados àqueles de escola integral/semi-integral (mínimo de 7h diárias). Porém, não houve associação em relação ao IVS dos bairros das escolas (OR 1.18, IC 0.82-1.70). Maior tempo na escola esteve associado a menor chance de múltiplos parceiros sexuais, enquanto estudar em escolas localizadas em bairro de alta vulnerabilidade não esteve associado à ocorrência de múltiplos parceiros sexuais entre adolescentes.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1270, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gambling abstinence when underage lowers the risk of harmful gambling in later life. However, little research has examined why many young people refrain from gambling, even though this knowledge can inform protective strategies and lower risk factors to reduce underage gambling and subsequent harm. This study draws on the lived experience of adolescent non-gamblers to explore how social determinants while growing up have shaped their reasons and choices to not gamble. METHODS: Fourteen Australian non-gamblers, aged 12-17 years, participated in an in-depth individual interview (4 girls, 3 boys) or online community (4 girls, 3 boys). Questions in each condition differed, but both explored participants' gambling-related experiences while growing up, including exposure, attitudes and behaviours of parents and peers, advertising, simulated gambling and motivations for not gambling. The analysis used adaptive grounded theory methods. RESULTS: The grounded theory model identifies several reasons for not gambling, including not being interested, being below the legal gambling age, discouragement from parent and peers, concern about gambling addiction and harm, not wanting to risk money on a low chance of winning, and moral objections. These reasons were underpinned by several social determinants, including individual, parental, peer and environmental factors that can interact to deter young people from underage gambling. Key protective factors were parental role modelling and guidance, friendship groups who avoided gambling, critical thinking, rational gambling beliefs, financial literacy and having other hobbies and interests. CONCLUSIONS: Choices to not gamble emanated from multiple layers of influence, implying that multi-layered interventions, aligned with a public health response, are needed to deter underage gambling. At the environmental level, better age-gating for monetary and simulated gambling, countering cultural pressures, and less exposure to promotional gambling messages, may assist young people to resist these influences. Interventions that support parents to provide appropriate role modelling and guidance for their children are also important. Youth education could include cautionary tales from people with lived experience of gambling harm, and education to increase young people's financial literacy, ability to recognise marketing tactics, awareness of the risks and harms of gambling, and how to resist peer and other normalising gambling influences.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Criança , Austrália , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 61, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing healthy eating habits and weight management, essential for preventing obesity and promoting overall health. This study investigates the impact of mukbang and cookbang-popular online broadcasts in Korea that feature excessive consumption of food-on the dietary habits and body image perception of Korean adolescents. With digital media, especially platforms like YouTube, becoming an integral part of daily life, these broadcasts have the potential to significantly influence adolescent health behaviors. METHODS: Employing data from the 18th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2022), this descriptive survey research explores the relationship between watching mukbang and cookbang and various health-related factors among adolescents. The survey's comprehensive dataset provided a unique opportunity to examine this association in a population that is increasingly exposed to digital media content. The analysis focused on the frequency of watching mukbang and cookbang, their impact on eating habits, body mass index (BMI), body shape perception, and body image distortion among adolescents. RESULTS: The results revealed a significant engagement with mukbang and cookbang among adolescents, with notable gender differences in viewing habits and effects. Increased frequency of viewing was associated with negative impacts on eating habits and body image perception. Furthermore, psychological factors such as stress levels and sleep quality emerged as significant predictors of the frequency of watching these broadcasts. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need for further investigation into the causal relationships between mukbang and cookbang viewership and adolescent health outcomes. The findings suggest the importance of developing targeted interventions to mitigate the negative influences of such content on adolescents' eating habits and body perceptions. Given the widespread popularity of these broadcasts, it is crucial to address their potential health implications through public health strategies, educational content, and policy development aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles among adolescents.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , República da Coreia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Televisão
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38041, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728511

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of social media on energy drink consumption among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. An online survey including demographic characteristics (3 questions), consumption patterns of energy drinks (5 questions), and Social Media Effects Scale (4 questions) was completed by 860 Saudi Arabian adolescents. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science version 29, using descriptive statistics and correlation to measure the relationship between social media and energy drink consumption. The results showed that nearly 82% of the adolescent respondents consumed energy drinks once to twice a week. Social media was the most common source of information on energy drinks (42.0%). The major findings of this study showed a positive correlation (r = .592, P > .05) between social media use and consumption of energy drinks. The study found that the average score for the Social Media Effects Scale was 5.75 out of 8, or 71.87%, indicating that social media influences the energy drinks consumption of roughly two-thirds of the study participants. Tailored action plans are required to raise awareness of the negative effects of energy drinks and change consumption patterns among the adolescent population due to a lack of knowledge and poorly controlled legislation on energy drinks.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
9.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 49: 67-72, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734457

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine the effect of digital games on the creativity of adolescents. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study using simple random sampling following the STROBE checklist. It was conducted with 384 adolescents between January and June 2022. Data were collected using the Digital Game Addiction Scale for Children and the Creative Personality Traits Scale. RESULTS: The adolescents were at risk for digital game addiction and had moderate creativity levels. The adolescents who had a male sex, had mothers who received primary education, started playing digital games before the age of 6 years, were using the internet for >5 h a day, had no activity other than playing digital games, and preferred action, adventure, and fighting games had higher digital game addiction levels than the other adolescents. In addition, the male adolescents had higher creativity levels than the female adolescents. There was a significant negative relationship between digital game addiction and creative personality traits among the adolescents. Digital game addiction had a negative effect on creativity. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents are at risk for digital game addiction and have moderate creativity levels. Digital game addiction negatively affects the development of creative personality traits. Interventions should be planned to prevent digital game addiction among adolescents, and adolescents should be guided to increase awareness of the effects of digital games on their creativity.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Personalidade , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302456, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701076

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a critical phase marked by distinct health and developmental needs and rights. It represents a pivotal time for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, emotional regulations, and relationship management. However, a recent surge in internet usage among adolescents has been observed, leading to a concerning decline in physical activity. This study aims to evaluate the level of physical activity and its correlation with internet use among adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study, conducted within educational institutions in Beni, Nepal, utilized a self-structured questionnaire to collect data on physical activity levels and associated factors. The relationship between physical activity and independent variables was assessed through the chi-square test, and regression analysis was employed to quantify the strength of this association. RESULTS: The study revealed that 75.3% of adolescents (out of 385) exhibited inadequate physical activity levels. Notably, late adolescents were more susceptible to insufficient physical activity than their middle adolescent counterparts were. Adolescents from nuclear families (UOR = 2.689, C.I = 4.074-22.822), those with higher monthly family income (UOR = 3.318, C.I = 1.209-9.105), and individuals using Wi-Fi (UOR = 1.801, C.I = 1.117-2.904) demonstrated a higher likelihood of internet addiction. Moreover, these groups were more prone to engage in inadequate physical activity (UOR = 1.1740, C.I = 0.938-3.226) compared to their counterparts not addicted to the internet. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that over two-thirds of adolescents were addicted to the Internet, and three-fourths were inadequately physically active, with late adolescents being more affected than middle adolescents. Inadequate physical activity was associated with various factors, including family type, monthly family income, monthly pocket money, father's occupation, type of school, type of internet access, and Internet Addiction Test (IAT) score. Internet-addicted adolescents were found to be more likely to be physically inactive.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Uso da Internet , Humanos , Adolescente , Nepal , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Uso da Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
11.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e9, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Individuals strive to maintain their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) by being exposed to correct information, having access to contraceptives, and promoting safe sex practices. Adolescent SRH promotion efforts should consider the influence of role models. This review explored the availability and nature of strategies and programmes on adolescents' SRH role modelling and described them using a scoping review. METHODS:  Studies were retrieved from four databases and grey literature through a search of 223 studies. The databases included EBSCO-host, Medline, Sabinet, and Pubmed. Data extraction was guided by a data-extraction tool adapted from the JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis. The characteristics of the selected studies were recorded in a Microsoft spreadsheet. Eleven studies published between 2014 and 2022 were included for the final review and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS:  Selected articles focused on adolescents' SRH; however, only two studies focused particularly on role modelling. Nonetheless, some aspects of the findings and recommendations presented could be extrapolated to adolescents' SRH role modelling. This includes adolescent-parent communication on SRH, community engagement, mentoring, positive role modelling, and information sharing through media campaigns. CONCLUSION:  There is a lack of literature on SRH role modelling because most studies did not focus on role modelling as an aspect of SRH. Therefore, research needs to be conducted on strategies and programmes focusing on SRH modelling.Contribution: The findings of this scoping review may encourage the development and implementation of strategies and programmes targeting adolescents' SRH throughout diverse communities to promote adolescent SRH.


Assuntos
Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual , Feminino , Comportamento do Adolescente , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Masculino , Educação Sexual
12.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 51(2): 299-310, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777485

RESUMO

Adolescence is a unique time where there are many developmental changes occurring. Teenagers are striving to establish their personal identity as they are also developing a better understanding of their gender and sexual identity while navigating social expectations both in person and online. Therefore, clinicians must continue to support adolescent patients and their families by providing accurate and timely information so that they can have the tools they need to avoid the pitfalls of an uninformed adolescent experience.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Masculino , Sexualidade/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Educação Sexual
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 94: 113-119, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Transgender youth (those whose gender identity differs from their sex assigned at birth) experience stigma and discrimination that can place them at increased risk for poor health outcomes compared with cisgender youth (those whose gender identity aligns with their sex assigned at birth). Limited population-based data exist on disparities among transgender and cisgender youth. METHODS: We examined differences in experiences of violence, substance use, mental health, suicide, sexual behavior, unstable housing, parental monitoring, and school connectedness among 98,174 transgender and cisgender high school students using data from 18 states that included an item to assess transgender identity on their 2021 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Overall, 2.9% of students identified as transgender and 2.6% questioned whether they were transgender. Among transgender students, 71.5% reported that their mental health was not good, 32.3% had attempted suicide, and 29.0% experienced sexual violence. Transgender students were more likely than cisgender students to report experiences of violence, substance use, poor mental health, suicide risk, some sexual risk behaviors, and unstable housing, and were less likely to report feeling connected to others at school. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that can address the causes of these adverse outcomes and promote the health and wellbeing of transgender youths are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estigma Social , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
14.
Trials ; 25(1): 335, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With suicide as a leading cause of death, the issue of children and adolescent suicide risks is in the spotlight today. To empower teachers in primary and secondary schools to serve as gatekeepers and to ensure the safety of children and adolescents, the systematically tailored and localized Life Gatekeeper suicide prevention program was designed for Chinese schools. OBJECTIVE: With the ultimate goal of preventing child and adolescent suicide, we aim to outline a research protocol for examining outcomes of the recently created standardized school-based Life Gatekeeper program in reducing teachers' stigma, increasing their knowledge, willingness to intervene, and perceived competence. METHODS: Participants will be recruited from eligible primary and secondary schools. Cluster sampling will be used to randomly assign each school to either the intervention group or the control group. The primary outcomes are stigma against suicide, suicide literacy, perceived competence, and willingness to intervene with suicidal individuals, which will be measured using the Stigma of Suicide Scale, the Literacy of Suicide Scale, and the Willingness to Intervene Against Suicide Questionnaire, respectively. Measurements will be taken at four time points, including pre-intervention, immediately after the intervention, 6-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The current study features innovative implementation in the real world, by using a randomized controlled trial design to examine the effectiveness of a school-based gatekeeper program among primary and secondary school teachers, following a sequence of defined and refined steps. The research will also investigate the viability of a school-based gatekeeper program for primary and secondary school teachers that could be quickly and inexpensively implemented in a large number of schools.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Professores Escolares , Estigma Social , Prevenção do Suicídio , Capacitação de Professores , Humanos , China , Adolescente , Criança , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Suicídio/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Comportamento Infantil
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 381, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, moderate gaming behaviors can be a pleasant and relaxing experiences among adolescents. However, excessive gaming behavior may lead to gaming disorder (GD) that disruption of normal daily life. Understanding the possible risk factors of this emerging problem would help to suggest effective at preventing and intervening. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of GD and analyze its possible risk factors that adolescents with GD. METHODS: Data were collected between October 2020 and January 2021. In total, a sample of 7901 students (4080 (52%) boys, 3742 (48%) girls; aged 12-18 years) completed questionnaires regarding the Gaming-Related Behaviors Survey, Gaming Disorder Symptom Questionnaire-21 (GDSQ-21); Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale); Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ); Short-form Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran for Chinese (s-EMBU-C); and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC). RESULTS: The prevalence of GD was 2.27% in this adolescent sample. The GD gamers were a little bit older (i.e., a higher proportion of senior grades), more boys, with more gaming hours per week in the last 12 months, with more reward responsiveness, maternal rejecting and occurrence of negative life events (e.g., interpersonal relationships, being punished and bereavement factors). CONCLUSION: These possible risk factors may influence the onset of GD. Future research in clinical, public health, education and other fields should focus on these aspects for provide target prevention and early intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Criança , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia
16.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 285, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problematic Internet use (PIU) may lead adolescents to physical, emotional, social, or functional impairment due to the risky, excessive, or impulsive internet use manner. How do the experiences of adolescents influence them using the internet in a problematic manner? The answer to this question is the key to preventing and intervening PIU of adolescents. To address this question, we focus on the interactions among family (parent-adolescent conflict), school (school climate), and individual factors (PIU, depression), exploring the influence factors of PIU. METHODS: A moderated mediation model was constructed to explore the relationship between variables. Using a two-wave longitudinal design with a six-month interval between timepoints, this study collected data from 801 Chinese adolescents (411 boys, Mage = 14.68) by questionnaires. Path analysis was employed to test the model and participants' age, sex and baseline were controlled. RESULTS: Parent-adolescent conflict at Time 1 (T1) was positively related to PIU at Time 2 (T2) in adolescents. Depression at T2 mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict at T1 and PIU at T2. School climate at T2 significantly moderated the mediation effect of depression on the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict at T1 and PIU at T2. Specifically, positive school climate could significantly weaken the negative effect of depression on PIU for adolescents with low level of depression. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that parent-adolescent conflict leads to PIU in adolescents through depression whilst the school climate moderates the impacts of depression on PIU. This adds further evidence regarding the significance of systematically and consistently incorporating family and school in the alleviating of problem behaviors displayed by teens.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Depressão , Relações Pais-Filho , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , China , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Uso da Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População do Leste Asiático
17.
Trials ; 25(1): 341, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults in residential care and correctional institutions face various challenges, leading to negative life outcomes. Implementation barriers within these institutions, such as limited financial and spatial resources, pose significant hurdles to providing necessary support. Web-based approaches address these challenges by offering cost-effective, accessible solutions. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a newly developed web-based version of the existing evidence-based START NOW skills training in fostering emotion regulation and resilience among institutionalized adolescents and young adults. We present the study protocol (Version 5, August 2023) of the trial titled "Implementation of an e-version of the skills training START NOW for promoting emotion regulation and resilience in residential youth care and correctional institutions". METHODS: The study is a monocentric, prospective, confirmatory randomized controlled trial with 150 institutionalized adolescents and young adults with a need to improve resilience (predefined cut-offs). Participating institutions will be randomized to one of three conditions: (i) 9-week web-based group training guided by a facilitator, (ii) 9-week web-based self-help training, (iii) and treatment as usual. The primary endpoint is the change in psychological flexibility, assessed by the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth score, from baseline to follow-up 12 weeks post skills training. Secondary objectives encompass assessing pre-post changes in psychological flexibility and other psychological health-related outcome measures in participating adolescents, young adults, and caretakers from baseline, to post training, and to 12- and 24-week follow-ups. DISCUSSION: This study evaluates the efficacy of START NOW as web-based training for institutionalized adolescents and young adults, providing valuable insights into web-based interventions and aiming to optimize support levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION {2A AND 2B}: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05313581. Registered on 6 April 2022.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Feminino , Masculino , Prisões , Instituições Residenciais , Comportamento do Adolescente
18.
Eat Weight Disord ; 29(1): 35, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ACTION Teens (NCT05013359) was conducted in 10 countries to identify perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to effective obesity care among adolescents living with obesity (ALwO), caregivers of ALwO, and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Here, we report data from participants in Italy. METHODS: The ACTION Teens cross-sectional online survey was completed by 649 ALwO (aged 12- < 18 years), 455 caregivers, and 252 HCPs in Italy in 2021. RESULTS: Most ALwO thought their weight was above normal (69%), worried about weight affecting their future health (87%), and reported making a weight-loss attempt in the past year (60%); fewer caregivers responded similarly regarding their child (46%, 72%, and 33%, respectively). In addition, 49% of caregivers believed their child would lose excess weight with age. ALwO (38%) and caregivers (30%) most often selected wanting to be more fit/in better shape as a weight-loss motivator for ALwO; HCPs most often selected improved social life/popularity (73%). ALwO (25%) and caregivers (22%) most frequently selected lack of hunger control and not liking exercise, respectively, as weight-loss barriers, while HCPs most often agreed that unhealthy eating habits were a barrier (93%). ALwO most often obtained weight-management information from family/friends (25%) and search engines (24%); caregivers most often obtained information from doctors (29%). CONCLUSION: In Italy, the impact of obesity on ALwO was underestimated by caregivers, and ALwO and HCPs had different perceptions of key weight-loss motivators and barriers. Additionally, the internet was a key information source for ALwO, which suggests new education/communication strategies are needed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV; Evidence obtained from multiple time series with/without intervention, e.g. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05013359.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obesidade Infantil/psicologia , Obesidade Infantil/terapia , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 145, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of online dating in a demographically diverse U.S. national cohort of early adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (Year 2, 2018-2020, ages 11-12; N = 10,157). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate associations between sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, household income, parental education) and early adolescent-reported online dating behaviors. RESULTS: Overall, 0.4% (n = 38) of participants reported ever using a dating app. Males (AOR 2.72, 95% CI 1.11-6.78) had higher odds of online dating compared to females, and sexual minority identification (e.g., lesbian, gay, or bisexual; AOR 12.97, 95% CI 4.32-38.96) was associated with greater odds of online dating compared to heterosexual identification. CONCLUSION: Given the occurrence of online dating among early adolescents despite age restrictions, interventions might address age misrepresentation. Adolescent sexual health education may consider incorporating anticipatory guidance on online dating, especially for males and sexual minorities. Future research could further investigate online dating patterns from early to late adolescence and associated health effects.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Criança , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais
20.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 247, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESES: During emerging adulthood, vocational indecision (i.e., the inability to make coherent career choices) develops in a heterogeneous fashion, with three distinct patterns: low; decreasing (i.e., developmental or adaptative); high and stable or increasing (i.e., chronic or maladaptive). Among the determinants of vocational indecision that have been identified in past research, academic motivation is a crucial an excellent choice, since it is at school that students' vocational choices are validated or not. According to SDT, this motivation can vary both in quantity and quality, and students tend to experience more positive academic outcomes when their motivational profile is optimal (high quantity, high quality) as opposed to suboptimal (e.g., low quantity, low quality). Thus, the purpose of this longitudinal study was to verify if the patterns found with emerging adulthood students characterized vocational indecision in adolescent students, and if supported, to predict the belonging to the most problematic trajectory by using students' academic motivational profiles. We expected several distinct trajectories of vocational indecision that would differ in shape and magnitude, and several motivational profiles that vary in quality as well as in quantity. We also expected students in high-quality or quantity motivational profiles to be less likely to follow a chronic indecision trajectory. METHOD AND RESULTS: Using data from 384 students (56% female; Mage = 13.52 years; SD = .52 at Secondary 2) surveyed annually from Secondary 2 to 5, person-centered analyses enabled estimation of motivational profile in Secondary 2 and vocational indecision trajectories during the 4-year period. Results revealed four distinct patterns of vocational indecision during adolescence labelled Low and Stable, Moderate and Stable, Developmental and Chronic Intermittent. Four motivational profiles were also identified in Secondary 2, ranging from poor (Highly Amotivated) to moderate (Autonomous-Introjected) quality of self-determination level. Also, in reference to the most self-determined profile, students in the Mixed profile were at greatest risk of following Chronically-Intermittently Undecided trajectory. Finally, the most self-determined students were at greatest probability of following the Developmentally Undecided trajectory. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings suggest that the student motivational functioning in early secondary school years could be used to identify students at risk of experiencing the negative indecision patterns across secondary school. Several theoretical and practical implications are suggested.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Motivação , Estudantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
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