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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 606-622, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711400

RESUMO

What Causes Future-Related Stress in Immigrant and German Adolescents and how do they Cope with these Stressors? In the present study, the stress perception and coping of German and immigrant adolescents with regard to future stress were compared. The 1,789 adolescents (164 immigrated, 1,625 German adolescents) at the age of fifteen completed questionnaires on the assessment of stress and coping with regard to future stress. Immigrated youth show a higher stress burden in the domain future than German adolescents. The fear of becoming unemployed was a major stressor in both groups, and both groups were also very active in tackling future-related problems. However, German youths show an even more active approach to coping with future stress and involve parents or friends more often. Migrant youth have higher levels of the coping style withdrawal, especially in emotion regulation and resignative withdrawal. The ability to reflect on the solution of future-related stressors is quite high in both groups. Worries about the increasing destruction of the environment are more important for German youth, while migrant youth care more about how they should reconcile work and family life later.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Emoções , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 592-605, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711402

RESUMO

Coping with Stress During Childhood and Adolescence Humans already start to show stress responses on a physical and mental level in early childhood. Numerous studies have demonstrated age- and gender-related differences in experiencing and managing stress. During the transitional period of adolescence young people often experience higher stress-levels. This might lead to a higher vulnerability for maladaptive stress responses. In other words, adolescents who do not have adequate coping strategies to deal with the developmental challenges of puberty might be at risk for later physical and mental symptoms. On the other hand, adequate coping strategies represent a protective factor. Therefore, education and prevention in home and school settings are of particular relevance for adolescent age groups.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
3.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1208-1212, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022310

RESUMO

Objetivo: Discutir a percepção de adolescentes acerca da sexualidade no espaço escolar. Método: estudo descritivo e exploratório, de natureza qualitativa, realizado com quarenta e seis adolescentes em três escolas públicas do município de Macapá, capital do Estado do Amapá. A coleta de dados ocorreu através de entrevistas realizadas com a autorização dos respectivos responsáveis, posteriormente transcritos e submetidos à análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática. Resultados: Obteve-se a formação da seguinte categoria: a sexualidade no cotidiano dos adolescentes - um desafio para a educação sexual e reprodutiva, em que foi trabalhado estes aspectos: a sexualidade relacionada ao ato de gerar filhos; o desconhecimento dos adolescentes acerca da saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Conclusão: torna-se relevante a aproximação entre profissionais da educação e saúde para reverem as práticas pedagógicas ofertadas aos estudantes, sendo necessário avaliar as metodologias aplicadas e buscar novas propostas que alcancem as necessidades de informações necessárias para que adolescentes


Objective: The study's purpose has been to discuss the adolescents' perception about sexuality in the scholar framework. Methods: It is a descriptive-exploratory study with a qualitative approach, which was carried out with forty-six adolescents from three public schools in Macapá city, Amapá State. Data collection took place through interviews lead by the authorization of the respective parents/relatives. The data was later transcribed and submitted to content analysis by the thematic modality. Results: The following category was achieved: sexuality in the adolescents' daily life - a challenge for sexual and reproductive education; where the following aspects were addressed: sexuality related to the act of generating children; adolescents' lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Therefore, it is relevant to improve the relationship between education and health professionals aiming to reappraisal the pedagogical practices offered to students. Furthermore, it is necessary to assess the applied methodologies and to pursue new proposals that can reach the adolescents' information needs


Objetivo: Discutir la percepción de adolescentes acerca de la sexualidad en el espacio escolar. Método: estudio descriptivo y exploratorio, de naturaleza cualitativa, realizado con cuarenta y seis adolescentes en tres escuelas públicas del municipio de Macapá, capital del Estado de Amapá. La recolección de datos ocurrió a través de entrevistas realizadas con la autorización de los respectivos responsables, posteriormente transcritas y sometidas al análisis de contenido en la modalidad temática. Resultados: Se obtuvo la formación de la siguiente categoría: la sexualidad en el cotidiano de los adolescentes - un desafío para la educación sexual y reproductiva, en que se trabajó estos aspectos: la sexualidad relacionada al acto de generar hijos; el desconocimiento de los adolescentes acerca de la salud sexual y reproductiva. Conclusión: se hace relevante la aproximación entre profesionales de la educación y salud para revisar las prácticas pedagógicas ofrecidas a los estudiantes, siendo necesario evaluar las metodologías aplicadas y buscar nuevas propuestas que alcancen las necesidades de informaciones necesarias para que adolescentes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Educação Sexual , Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde Reprodutiva , Brasil , Sexualidade , Saúde Sexual
4.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 262-266, Septiembre 2019. Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022768

RESUMO

Dentro de los daños intencionales en adolescentes, las autoagresiones se han convertido en los últimos años en un tema de interés clínico, social y público, en constante investigación. Una conducta autolesiva es toda conducta autodeliberada destinada a producir daño físico directo en el cuerpo, sin la intención de provocar la muerte. Objetivos: Describir los casos de pacientes con autoagresiones que fueron atendidos por el equipo de adolescencia (clínica pediátrica y salud mental) en el Hospital Garrahan desde el año 2015 al 2017. Diseño observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los adolescentes que fueron evaluados en conjunto por el servicio de adolescencia y salud mental. Resultados: Se atendieron 17 casos, rango de edad 12 a 16 años, 14 mujeres. Los motivos de consulta fueron variados, el principal mecanismo de autoagresión elegido fue cortes superficiales en antebrazo y piernas. La mayoría presentó como factor de riesgo principal conflictos familiares, coincidiendo con la bibliografía revisada. Un abordaje integral por personal capacitado en un servicio amigable es necesario para no perder la oportunidad de pesquisar estas situaciones. Así, mediante un trabajo interdisciplinario disminuir los riesgos que conllevan estas conductas (AU)


Within intentional harm in adolescents, over the last years selfinjury has become an issue of clinical, social, and public interest in ongoing research. Self-injurious behavior is all deliberate behavior aimed at producing direct physical harm to the body, without the intention to cause death. Objectives: To describe cases of patients with self-injurious behavior seen by the adolescents team (pediatrics and mental health) at Garrahan Hospital between 2015 and 2017. A retrospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted. All adolescents seen together by the Departments of Adolescence and Mental Health were included in the study. Results: 17 patients were evaluated, with ages ranging from 12 to 16 years; 14 were girls. Main complaints were varied. The main mechanism of self-injury were superficial cuts on the forearms and legs. The main risk factor in the majority of patients were family conflicts, as reported in the literature. A comprehensive approach by trained personnel from a friendly team is necessary so as not to lose the opportunity to screen this type of situations. An interdisciplinary approach may reduce the risks associated with these behaviors (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Ferimentos Penetrantes/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudo Observacional
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 568-573, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence (EI) is described as the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically. It is considered as one of the most important predictors of success, quality of relationships, and overall happiness. Dynamically changing environment of the youth and young adults in recent years may influence their EI development, affecting their lives significantly. The purpose of this study was to analyse the way how the Internet is used by high school students, to determine the amount of time they spend on the Internet, identify the level of EI and to explore if there is any correlation between those factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 1450 high school students from Katowice, at the age from 18 to 21 years took part in an anonymous survey consisting of three parts: The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Short Form (TEIQue-SF), Internet Addiction Test and authorial test giving information about the way of spending time online. The questionnaires were collected from May 2018 to January 2019. RESULTS: 1.03% of the respondents fulfilled the Internet addiction criteria. Students at risk for addiction (33.5%) turned out to be a larger group. A statistically significant correlation between TEIQue-SF and Internet Addiction Test score (P<0.0001, r=-0.3308) was observed. Another significant correlation was found between TEIQue-SF score and amount of time spend on the Internet (p<0.0001, r=-0.162). CONCLUSION: A significant part of high school students used Internet excessively. Such behaviours were positively correlated with lower EI test results.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Internet , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pneumologie ; 73(10): 592-596, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499561

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the smoking behavior of adolescents from England and Germany over a period of 15 years. METHODS: Eleven repeated cross-sectional surveys involving a total of 107,485 persons aged 11 to 15 years were carried out between 2001 and 2016 in England and Germany. The following data were assessed: a) the relative proportion of young people who ever smoked a conventional tobacco product, and b) the relative proportion of adolescents, who were current smokers, i. e. teenagers who smoked "occasionally" or "constantly" or "regularly". RESULTS: In the observational period, there was a significant stronger reduction in the proportion of young people who ever smoked in Germany (from 52 % to 10 %) compared to England (from 44 % to 19 %). In the same period, the proportion of young people who smoked currently dropped by 16 percentage points to 3 % in Germany and by 12 percentage points to 7 % in England (no significant difference). CONCLUSIONS: Data indicate a stronger trend towards never smoking in Germany compared to England, and a similar falling trend on "current" smoking in both countries. Causal conclusions are not possible due to the study design.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/tendências
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 483-488, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Many studies have indicated numerous nutrition mistakes among school-aged children and adolescents in both urban and rural environments. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional habits of the Polish population, consisting of 7,974 individuals aged 12-17, from rural and urban environments, as well as to identify environmental variations of these habits and to verify the existing information on the incorrect nutrition of school-age children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research covered a group of 7,974 respondents - school-age adolescents with a similar age structure (12-17 years). The study on subjects from secondary school grades 1 - 3 was conducted in randomly selected schools from 2 random Polish provinces; 5 counties were randomly selected, followed by a choice of 2 communes: one rural and one urban. The research technique was a self-designed survey questionnaire. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson Chi 2 and V Cramer test. RESULTS: The research revealed environment-based differences in subjects' nutrition. Breakfast was consumed daily by a statistically significantly fewer subjects from the rural environment (36.31%) than from the urban areas (51.32%); second breakfast was consumed by an insignificantly smaller proportion of respondents from the urban environment (40.00%) than from the rural one (46.00%); dinner was eaten daily by 86.00% of urban subjects and 82.00% of rural respondents; afternoon tea and supper were eaten rarely by respondents from both environments. The diet of respondents was dominated by anti-health behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the respondents displayed incorrect nutritional behaviours. Nutritional mistakes occurred among respondents from both rural and urban environments, with the predominance of the rural areas.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 350-356, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to encourage bicycling to school have increased in the United States. However, little is known about how parent-child communication affects bicycle safety. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child agreement on biking instructions and their correlation with the early adolescents' real-world riding behavior. METHODS: Parent-child dyads were asked open-ended questions about instructions they had given/received about bicycling. Answers were then coded into nine categories (e.g., crossing the road, bicycle control/handling). Distributions of parent-child agreement on parent-given bicycle safety instructions were examined in relation to the adolescent's real-world riding behaviors. RESULTS: 36 parent-child dyads were included. Average age was 11.9 (Range: 10-15) for adolescents and 43.3 (Range: 30-59) for parents. Common parental instructions included: wear helmet, ride on sidewalk, and trip routing specifications. High 'ride on sidewalk' instruction (38.9% both parent and adolescent, 22.2% parent only, 16.7% adolescent only) was concerning due to potential driveway conflicts. Agreement between parents and adolescents on reported instructions was low, overall. Mean safety-relevant event rates in real-world cycling did not differ significantly between bicycle safety instruction agreement groups (both parent & adolescent reported, parent only, adolescent only, neither). The proportion of time an adolescent rode on different infrastructure types (sidewalk, street, etc.) did not vary between dyads reporting parents had given instructions to ride on the sidewalk and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight lack of agreement between parents and adolescents on cycling instructions the adolescent receives from the parent. Parent instructions to adolescents regarding bicycling safety were not associated with actual riding behaviors. Results suggest parent messaging to adolescents may be ineffective. Given parents are in a position of influence, results indicate a need for parental training on effective safety-related communication strategies to assist them in capitalizing on their parental role to increase their child's safety.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Ciclismo/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109541, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence and young adulthood are critical periods of human growth and development. Phthalates are environmental endocrine disruptors, and their health hazards in adolescents and young adults cannot be ignored. This study was undertaken to assess phthalate exposure and determine the associations between lifestyle behaviors and phthalate metabolite levels in Chinese adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy-eight adolescents and young adults aged 16-20 years were included in this study. The levels of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) and mono-(2-carboxmethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MCMHP) in the subjects' urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard index (HI) of phthalates were calculated based on urinary metabolite levels. Relevant information on the subjects was collected via questionnaires. The associations between phthalate metabolite levels and lifestyle behaviors were examined using the independent-sample t-test, Mann-Whitney test and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: In this study, the detection rates of all seven metabolites were >98%. The highest median metabolite concentration was MBP, which was 43.00 µg/L (33.11 µg/g creatinine). The highest median EDI was for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which was 2.40 µg/kg-bw/day (volume-based) and 1.51 µg/kg-bw/day (creatinine-based). 2.7% (volume-based) and 1.0% (creatinine-based) of the subjects showed excessive HITDI (HI of the tolerable daily intake) values, which indicated the cumulative risk of anti-androgenic effects. Furthermore, factors significantly associated with phthalate metabolite levels included the use of plastic food packages (DEHP metabolites), physical exercise (MEOHP), the frequency of fast food consumption (MBP), and the frequency of skin care cosmetics and color cosmetics use (MEP). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Chinese adolescents and young adults are widely exposed to phthalates and their metabolite levels are influenced by lifestyle behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilo de Vida , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Creatinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1027, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual risky behaviours continue to be significant drivers of the HIV epidemic globally. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours among adolescents (10-19 years) in Karamoja sub-region, a pastoralist and post-conflict community in North-eastern Uganda. METHODS: Between August and September 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 1439 adolescents receiving primary healthcare services at nine public health facilities located in five of the seven districts that make up Karamoja sub-region. High-risk sexual behaviour was defined as engaging in sex with two or more (2+) sexual partners in the 6 months preceding the survey or exchanging sex for money or gifts with no or inconsistent use of condoms over the same period of time. Factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours were analysed using a modified Poison regression model with log-link and Poisson-family via a generalized linear model. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent (81.8%, n = 1177) of the respondents had ever tested for HIV while 62 % (61.5%, n = 885) had ever had sex. Of those that had ever had sex, 11.4% (n = 101) reported prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours. Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was lower among men than women (adjusted prevalence ratio (adj. PR) = 0.46; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.62) and those whose sex debut was above 14 years (adj.PR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.69). However, prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly higher in adolescents who were not aware of their recent sexual partner's HIV status (adj.PR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68, 3.52) and those who used illicit drugs (adj.PR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.88, 4.05). CONCLUSION: Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly associated with having sex with partners of unknown HIV sero-status and use of illicit drugs. These findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to improve mutual HIV status disclosure between sexual partners while minimizing their use of illicit drugs/substances.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Agricultura , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 127, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Difficulty in accessing sexual and reproductive healthcare is one of the challenges young refugee women face worldwide, in addition to sexual exploitation, violence and abuse. Although Ghana hosts several refugees, little is known about their sexual behaviour and contraceptive use. This study assesses sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among female adolescent refugees in Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June and August 2016. Respondents comprised 242 female adolescent refugees aged 14-19 years. Structured validated questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistical methods and multivariate logistic regression statistical analyses methods were used to analyze data. FINDINGS: Over 78% of respondents have had penetrative sex; 43% have had coerced sex; 71% have had transactional sex; 36% have had sex while drunk, 57% have had 4-6 sexual partners in the last 12 months before the study, and 38% have had both coerced and transactional sex. Factors that predicted ever having transactional sex included being aged 14-16 compared to those aged 17-19 (AOR =4·80; 95% CI = 2·55-9·04); being from Liberia compared to being from Ghana (AOR = 3·05; 95% CI = 1.69-13·49); having a mother who had no formal education compared to having a mother with tertiary education (AOR = 5.75; 95CI = 1.94-14.99); and living alone (self) compared to living with parents (AOR = 3.77; 95CI = 1.38-10.33). However, having 1-3 sexual partners in the last 12 months as against having 4-6 partners significantly reduced the odds of ever having transactional sex (AOR = 0·02; 95% CI = 0·01-0·08). Awareness about contraceptives was 65%, while ever use of contraceptives was 12%. However, contraceptive use at last sexual intercourse was 8.2%, and current use was 7.3%. Contraceptive use was relatively higher among those who have never had sex while drunk, as well as among those who have never had transactional sex and coerced sex. Contraceptive use was similarly higher among those who had 1-3 sexual partners in the last 12 months compared to those who had 4-6 during the same time period. CONCLUSION: In this time of global migration crises, addressing disparities in knowledge and access to contraception as well as high risk sexual behaviours in refugee situations is important for reducing inequalities in reproductive health outcomes and ensuring both universal health coverage and global health justice. Sex and contraception education and counselling, self-efficacy training, and skills acquisition are needed to help young refugee women negotiate and practice safe sex and resist sexual pressures.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Refugiados , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Pais , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acquiring the habit of doing regular physical activity in adolescents has shown positive effects in the prevention of diseases and the maintenance of physical and psychological health. The objective was to explore the topics related to physical activity of a group of adolescents, to identify the barriers and motivators of regular physical activity practice. METHODS: Qualitative research of phenomenological explanatory design. The information was obtained through four Discussion Groups conducted with: a) expert professionals (6 participants); b) adolescents of both sexes (10 participants); c) female adolescents (6 participants); d) male adolescents (9 participants). RESULTS: Perceived barriers and motivations were detected in all groups of adolescents, contributing a total of 104 units of analysis. The group of experts emphasized the need to involve the family, the school, and the agents that surround the teenagers. The adolescents showed barriers related to incompatibilities due to lack of time, participation in leisure activities and demotivation due to routine and imposed activities (37; 35.5%). Motivation was related to participation in team sports and the positive influence of friends (28; 28%). The girls also showed concern about their body image and diet (39; 37.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Barriers were identified in relation to the close environment of the adolescents in three main areas: family, friends and school. Motivators were linked to social and multicultural components. Priority actions in this group are to promote activities that include team sports as a mean to enhance social support.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atividades de Lazer , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
14.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 109-124, mayo-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183641

RESUMO

El presente estudio es una revisión sistemática de las investigaciones realizadas sobre los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores relacionados con el ciberbullying entre adolescentes. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, Science Direct Journals, Scopus y Springer Journals. Luego de aplicar los criterios de inclusión a los 226 artículos encon-trados inicialmente, se tuvo como resultado un total de 39 artículos que conformaron la muestra final. El N total de las muestras fue 173.179 adolescentes. La investigación con la muestra más pequeña tuvo 90 participantes y la muestra más grande estuvo conforma-da por 72.327 personas. Los factores de riesgo y los factores protectores están relacionados con el uso de Internet y las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, aspectos familiares, sociales, psicológicos e individuales. La información consignada en esta re-visión sistemática deja ver la importancia de programas de intervención que prevengan y atiendan el ciberbullying, en los que se in-volucre a la familia, la escuela y la sociedad


The present study is a systematic review of the research on the risk and protective factors related to cyberbullying among adolescents. The research was carried out using the databases Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, Science Direct journals, Scopus and Springer journals. Applying the inclusion criteria to the 226 articles initially found, resulted in a total of 39 articles that made up the final sample. The total N of the samples was 173,179 adolescents. The research with the smallest sample had 90 participants and the largest sample was made up of 72,327 participants. The risk and protective factors are related to the use of the Internet and information and communication technologies, family, social, psychological and individual aspects. The information contained in this systematic review shows the importance of intervention programs that prevent and address cyberbullying, involving family, school and society


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Proteção , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Internet , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 57-65, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183646

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of the Building My Future program's implementation variables on attendance rate and on changes in personal, problem-solving, and community competencies. The program is run by local Social Services from Castile and Leon, Spain, and offers opportunities for adolescents to propose and carry out youth-led activities in their community. Data were accumulated from 356 participants, the majority experiencing negative psychosocial conditions, attending a total of 32 groups from 2013 to 2016. Using binary logistic regression and hierarchical linear regression analyses, results showed that having a facilitator with less professional experience, attending larger groups, having a high level of family involvement, and performing fewer modules and fewer extra activities predicted higher attendance rates and more positive task orientation, self-concept, social realization, and problem-solving competencies. Being younger, from an urban area, and having a facilitator with less professional experience predicted a higher score in community integration. These findings reveal that several program implementation components can contribute to the program's development and effectiveness and can also be considered across multiple programs in this field of practice


Este estudio examina la influencia de las variables de la aplicación del programa "Construyendo mi futuro" en el índice de asistencia y el cambio en competencias personales, de resolución de problemas y comunitarias. El programa se ofrece desde los Servicios Sociales de Castilla y León, España, brindando oportunidades para que adolescentes propongan y lleven a cabo actividades en su comunidad. Se recogieron datos de 356 participantes, la mayoría en situación de riesgo psicosocial, que asistieron a un total de 32 grupos desde el año 2013 hasta el año 2016. Mediante análisis de regresión logística binaria y regresión jerárquica lineal, los resultados indican que tener un facilitador con menos experiencia (más joven), asistir a grupos más grandes, disfrutar de un alto nivel de participación familiar y realizar menos módulos y menos actividades adicionales predecían un mayor índice de asistencia. Estas variables predijeron además una mayor orientación hacia la tarea y cambios positivos en autoconcepto, realización social y resolución de problemas. El hecho de ser joven, de zona urbana y tener un facilitador con menor experiencia profesional predecía una mayor puntuación en integración comunitaria. Estos resultados nos revelan cómo determinados componentes de la aplicación del programa pueden contribuir al desarrollo y a la eficacia del mismo, pudiendo igualmente ser considerados en otros muchos programas en este ámbito de intervención


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Carência Psicossocial , Grupos de Risco , Psicologia do Adolescente , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
16.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 67-73, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183647

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to analyze the connections between victimization and perpetration of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying with self-perceived childhood stress and diverse emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs) evaluated by parents. Participants were 1,993 students, aged 9-13 years, from the Basque Country (Spain) (49.8% females). The results of the analyses of variance (MANOVA-ANOVA) and correlational analyses showed that: (1) students who had higher scores in victimization and perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had significantly high levels of stress and many EBPs; (2) participants who had higher scores in victimization/cybervictimization and perpetration of bullying obtained higher scores in all the dimensions of stress, while those who had higher scores in cyberaggression only showed higher school stress; (3) students who had higher scores in victimization/cybervictimization manifested internalizing and externalizing EBPs, whereas those who had higher scores in perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had fewer internalizing problems; and (4) children who obtained higher scores in victimization and perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had received psychological counseling significantly more frequently in the past year than those who had lower scores in indicators of bullying/cyberbullying. The importance of preventing/intervening in bullying situations to reduce psychopathological problems is emphasized in the discussion


El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la relación entre victimización y perpetración de acoso escolar presencial y ciberacoso con el estrés infantil autopercibido y con los problemas emocionales y de conducta (PEC) evaluados por los padres. Participaron 1,993 estudiantes, de 9 a 13 años, del País Vasco (España) (49,8% mujeres). Los resultados de los análisis de varianza (MANOVA-ANOVA) y correlacionales mostraron que: (1) los estudiantes que tenían mayores puntuaciones en victimización y perpetración de acoso/ciberacoso escolares tenían significativamente alto nivel de estrés y muchos PEC; (2) los participantes que tenían puntuaciones superiores en victimización/cibervictimización y perpetración de acoso escolar obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones en todas las dimensiones del estrés, mientras que aquellos que tenían altas puntuaciones en ciberagresión únicamente mostraban mayor estrés escolar; (3) los participantes que tuvieron mayor puntuación en victimización/cibervictimización mostraban PEC internalizantes y externalizantes y aquellos con mayor puntuación en agresión/ciberagresion tenían menos problemas internalizantes; (4) los niños que obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones en victimización y perpetración de acoso/ciberacoso escolares habían acudido significativamente más al psicólogo en el último año que aquellos que tuvieron menores puntuaciones en los indicadores de acoso/ciberacoso escolares. El debate destaca la importancia de prevenir/tratar el acoso para disminuir los problemas psicopatológicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emoções Manifestas , Estresse Psicológico , Análise de Variância , Bullying/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 91-100, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183650

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to examine the relationships between transformational parenting, autonomy support displayed by mothers and fathers, and sport burnout in 360 junior soccer players (324 males, range age = 12-18 years). To this end, four steps were followed. Steps 1 and 2 tested the psychometric properties (i.e., factorial structure, internal consistency, and evidence of discriminant validity) of the Spanish version of the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ), and steps 3 and 4 examined the proposed relationships. Overall, the Spanish TPQ demonstrated adequate factorial validity and satisfactory internal consistency, representing a valid and reliable adaptation of the instrument. The results also suggested a positive association between transformational parenting and autonomy support by both parents, and a negative association between transformational parenting and sport burnout, mediated by autonomy support by mothers but not by fathers. Additionally, players who perceived their families as employing highly transformational parenting displayed lower levels of sport burnout than players who perceived their families as displaying low levels of transformational parenting behaviours. Findings support the positive consequences of displaying transformational parenting and autonomy-supportive environments in preventing young soccer players' burnout


El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar las relaciones entre el estilo y el burnout deportivo de 360 jugadores de fútbol juvenil (324 hombres, rango de edad = 12-18 años). Para ello, se siguieron cuatro pasos. Los pasos 1 y 2 pusieron a prueba las propiedades psicométricas (i.e., estructura factorial, consistencia interna y evidencia de validez discriminante) de la versión en español del Cuestionario de Estilo Parental Transformacional [TPQ, según sus siglas en inglés] y a través de los pasos 3 y 4 se examinaron las relaciones propuestas. En general, la versión española del TPQ español demostró una validez factorial adecuada y una consistencia interna satisfactoria, lo que representa una adaptación válida y fiable del instrumento. Los resultados también sugirieron una asociación positiva entre el estilo parental transformacional y el apoyo a la autonomía de ambos padres y una asociación negativa entre el estilo parental transformacional y el burnout deportivo, mediado por el apoyo a la autonomía de las madres, pero no de los padres. Además, los jugadores que percibían que tenían una familia con un estilo parental muy transformacional mostraron niveles más bajos de burnout deportivo que los jugadores que percibían que tenían una familia con un estilo transformacional bajo. Los resultados apoyan las consecuencias positivas que derivan de un entorno de apoyo a la autonomía y un estilo parental transformacional para prevenir el burnout en jugadores de fútbol jóvenes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Futebol/psicologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1041, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents engage in various combinations (typologies) of physical activity and sedentary behaviors, which impact their health and wellbeing in different ways. As such, there is a need to understand the factors that may inhibit or facilitate engagement in combinations of activity-related behaviors to help inform effective intervention strategies targeting those most in need. The aim of this study was to identify ecological correlates of adolescent physical activity and sedentary behavior typologies. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 473 adolescents (15.0 ± 1.6 years, 41.4% boys) from 18 secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Intrapersonal, interpersonal and neighborhood-physical environmental factors were assessed via self-report surveys and Geographic Information Systems. Multinomial logistic regression models determined the relative risk ratio of membership of three homogenous activity-related behavior typologies based on the potential correlates. RESULTS: Higher levels of self-efficacy for physical activity, parental screen-time restriction rules, parental support for physical activity, sibling screen-time co-participation and perceptions of neighborhood pedestrian/traffic safety were associated with greater likelihood of adolescents being in the typology defined as highly active and low sedentary compared to the physically inactive, highly sedentary typology. Higher frequency of co-participation in screen-time with friends was associated with greater likelihood of adolescents being in the typology defined as moderately active, high screen-time compared to physically inactive, highly sedentary. CONCLUSIONS: A range of intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental correlates appear to play a role in adolescent activity-related typology membership. The findings may inform public health interventions targeting unique adolescent subgroups most at risk of poor health outcomes based on their engagement in combinations of activity-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Exercício/psicologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato
19.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(10): 862-868, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255602

RESUMO

A growing number of evidence-based systemic treatments for adolescents with disruptive behaviour problems exist. However, it is not clear to what extent these treatments have unique and common elements. Identification of common elements in the different treatments would be beneficial for the further understanding and development of family-based interventions, training of therapists, and research. Therefore, the aim of this Review was to identify common elements of evidence-based systemic treatments for adolescents with disruptive behaviour. Several common elements of systemic treatments were identified, showing a strong overlap between the interventions. Investigation of these common mechanisms and techniques could potentially build strong universal systemic treatment and training modules for a broad spectrum of adolescents with problem behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Adolescente , Humanos
20.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4782, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and its association with overweight and obesity among adolescent students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in public schools with adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We used the questionnaire Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The body mass index percentiles were calculated by means of table from the Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases. Possible associations were assessed using the χ2 test and binary logistic regression model. The odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated. RESULTS: We evaluated 1,169 students, and 33.9% reported having had sexual intercourse. Of those, 33% did not use a condom during their last intercourse, and 32.7% had had four or more sexual partners thus far. Regarding nutritional status, 15.3% were overweight or obese. In relation to the non-use of condoms, we observed only an association with the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.28-0.88). The number of lifetime sexual partners was associated with males (OR: 9.17; 95%CI: 4.16-20.22), sexual debut age at 13 years or less (OR: 2.51; 95%CI: 1.23-5.13) and drinking alcohol or using drugs before the last intercourse (OR: 6.16; 95%CI: 2.14-17.73). CONCLUSION: Risky sexual behavior rates were high and no association was found between risky sexual behaviors and overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais
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