Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34.474
Filtrar
1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e36283, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103400

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a influência das composições familiares na ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência. Método:estudo caso-controle, realizado com 74 gestantes adolescentes, grupo de casos, e 74 adultas jovens sem história pregressa de gravidez na adolescência, grupo controle, pareadas pela variável renda familiar. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas realizadas no período deagosto a outubro de 2016 em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, e em seguida analisados pelos métodos estatísticos descritivo e inferencial. Resultados: identificou-se associação entre a ocorrência do desfecho com pertencer a famílias não nucleares, não permanecer a mesma família durante a infância e adolescência, e a constituição de uma família própria no período da adolescência. Conclusão:verificou-se que adolescentes inseridas em famílias não nucleares estão mais expostas a fatores de risco para ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência, quando comparadas às jovensprovenientes de famílias com ambos os pais.


Objective: to analyze the influence of family compositions in the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence. Method:this is a case-control study performed with 74 pregnant adolescents, group of cases, and 74 young adults without background history of pregnancy during adolescence, group control, paired by family income. Data were collected through structured interviews conducted in the period from August to October 2016 in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, and then analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results:we identified an association between the occurrence of the outcome and the belonging to non-nuclear families, as well as the non-belonging to the same family during childhood and adolescence, besides the constitution of an own family in the period of adolescence. Conclusion: checked that adolescents inserted in nonnuclear families are more exposed to risk factors for the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence when compared to young people coming from families with both parents.


Objetivo: analizar la influencia de las composiciones familiares en la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente. Método: estudio caso-control efectuado con 74 adolescentes embarazadas, grupo de casos, y 74 jóvenes adultas sin historia anterior de embarazo en la adolescencia, grupo de control, agrupadas por sus ingresos familiares. Los datos se recopilaron mediante entrevistas estructuradas conducidas en el periodo de agosto a octubre de 2016 en Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, y posteriormente analizados por los métodos estadísticos descriptivo e inferencial. Resultados:se identificó una asociación entre la ocurrencia del desenlace y la pertenencia a las familias no nucleares, no permanencia en la misma familia durante niñez y adolescencia, y la constitución de una familia propia en el periodo de la adolescencia. Conclusion: comprobado eso que las adolescentes insertadas en familias no nucleares están más expuestas a los factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente en comparación con las jóvenes provenientes de familias con ambos padres biológicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Características da Família , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMO

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Atitude , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Psicometria
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 85-92, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190653

RESUMO

Antisocial behaviors in adolescents are present and prevalent around the world and have harmful consequences for individuals and societies. The research focused on antisocial behaviors in young people has been very fruitful, but studies are usually fragmented and focused on specific problem behaviors either in school or outside of school. Although victim-offender overlap was described in many studies, most projects focused either on victims or on offenders. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted to discover patterns of antisocial behavior from a comprehensive perspective, including different problem behaviors in and out of schools, focusing on both victimization and offending. A sample of 450 early adolescents was followed-up during one school year. Latent class and latent transition analyses were performed and identified four groups of students. These groups were: low antisocial, highly antisocial and victimized, high bullying victimization, and high offending outside of school. Transition analyses showed that the low antisocial and offenders outside of school groups were relatively stable over time. Students in the high bullying victimization group transitioned to different groups, and students in the highly antisocial and victimized group either remained in the highly antisocial group or transitioned to high offending outside of school. Findings suggest that single antisocial behaviors are not common and students who display one problem behavior usually display other problem behaviors. Early adolescents who are involved in antisocial behaviors in one time period frequently remain involved one year later. It is therefore possible that the antisocial potential of some adolescents is expressed in different contexts. This has important implications for research and practice that need to adopt a more holistic and comprehensive approach


Las conductas antisociales de los adolescentes están presentes en todo el mundo y tienen consecuencias perjudiciales para individuos y sociedades. La investigación centrada en las conductas antisociales de los jóvenes ha sido muy fructífera, pero los estudios están generalmente fragmentados y se centran en comportamientos problemáticos específicos, ya sea en la escuela o fuera de la escuela. Aunque la superposición víctima-agresor se ha descrito en muchos estudios, la mayoría se ha centrado en las víctimas o en los agresores. Este estudio longitudinal prospectivo se ha realizado para descubrir patrones de conducta antisocial desde una perspectiva integral, que incluye diferentes comportamientos problemáticos dentro y fuera de la escuela, centrándose tanto en la victimización como en la agresión. Se ha seguido una muestra de 450 estudiantes durante un año escolar y se han realizado análisis de clases latentes y de transiciones latentes, identificando cuatro grupos de estudiantes: bajo antisocial, altamente antisocial y victimizado, alta victimización por bullying y alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los análisis de transición mostraron que el grupo bajo antisocial y el grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela eran relativamente estables en el tiempo. Los estudiantes del grupo alta victimización por bullying hicieron la transición a diferentes grupos y los estudiantes del grupo altamente antisocial y victimizado permanecieron en su grupo o pasaron al grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los resultados indican que no son frecuentes las conductas antisociales aisladas y que los estudiantes que muestran un comportamiento problemático, generalmente, presentan otros comportamientos problemáticos. Los adolescentes que están implicados en conductas antisociales en un momento temporal con frecuencia siguen implicados un año después. Por lo tanto, es posible que el potencial antisocial de algunos adolescentes se exprese en diferentes contextos. El estudio tiene importantes implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica, ya que tienen que adoptar un enfoque más holístico e integral


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(10): 613-618, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004322

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected every aspect of daily life. Parents of adolescents, in particular, may be facing unique challenges in helping them navigate unexpected changes to their daily routine. This article discusses how adolescents may respond to stressful and traumatic situations and provides recommendations for clinicians who may be advising parents of adolescents or parenting their own children.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação não Profissionalizante , Pandemias , Poder Familiar , Pneumonia Viral , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 167-171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Video game has become the preferred form of play among youth. Substantial research has mainly examined problems related to potential negative effects of video games ranging from sedentary screen time, exposure to violence, and excessive or problematic gaming. However, over the past two decades, the use of video games in psychotherapy has become increasingly popular with a lot of applications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: After a review of the use and the effectiveness of commercial video games in the psychotherapy framework, we will share our experience in the use of video games in a child and adolescent psychiatric unit. We will illustrate it with the presentation of specific case reports. RESULT: As video games are highly popular among children and adolescents, they are also interesting tools in the psychotherapeutic work with them. It's a new kind of play therapy, considering the setting, the psychological material that expresses during the game, the interpersonal relationships between gamers, the projective representation within the avatars, the cognitive strategies within the game. CONCLUSIONS: Video games represent an essential tool in taking care of child psychiatric patients because of their popularity. They contribute greatly to build the patient/psychotherapist relationship. They help to approach cognitive, emotional and social patient's functioning, and also psychopathologic understanding and then psychiatric diagnosis.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Mentais , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Psicoterapia
7.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 210-219, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192057

RESUMO

Sexting is a recent phenomenon in which people send and receive photos, videos and/or text messages of sexual nature via smartphones or similar devices. Similar to other developed countries, it is becoming an increasingly popular practice among teenagers in Spain. Provided it has appeared very recently, scarce research has focused on examining in-depth factors involved in its initiation and maintenance. Therefore, the two main aims of this study were to determine its prevalence and to analyse the explanatory variables of the sexting behaviours. The sample consisted of 784 Spanish adolescents (52% boys and 48% girls) between 12 and 18 years of age (M = 14.44; SD = 1.61). The results showed that 24.4% have practised sexting at some time, with an average of 2.32 people (SD = 2.70). The regression analysis revealed that positive attitudes towards sexting, level of impulsivity, age, being male and having a partner are variables that predict engagement in sexting. These results are very important for designing and implementing preventive strategies that emphasise the responsible use of ICTs and social networks


El sexting es un fenómeno que consiste en el envío y la recepción de fotos, videos y/o mensajes de texto de naturaleza sexual a través de smartphones. Como en todos los demás países desarrollados, se está convirtiendo en una práctica cada vez más popular entre los adolescentes de España. Al tratarse de un fenómeno muy reciente todavía no existen muchos trabajos que hayan estudiado con profundidad su entidad y sus factores implicados. Por tanto, los dos objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia y analizar las variables explicativas del inicio y del mantenimiento de las conductas de sexting. La muestra estuvo formada por 784 adolescentes españoles (52% chicos y 48% chicas) con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (M = 14.44; DT = 1.61). Los resultados indican que el 24.4% ha practicado sexting en alguna ocasión, realizando esta conducta con una media de 2.32 personas (DT = 2.70). El análisis de regresión reveló que las actitudes positivas hacia el sexting, el nivel de impulsividad, la edad, ser hombre y el mantener una relación de pareja son variables que predicen la práctica del sexting. Estos resultados son muy importantes en la elaboración e implementación de estrategias preventivas que enfaticen el uso responsable de las TICS y las redes sociales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Parceiros Sexuais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Atitude , Motivação , Psicometria/instrumentação , Análise de Regressão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943535

RESUMO

Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age. Overall, psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and/or neglect) was associated with the greatest number of adverse outcomes in almost all areas of assessment. Sexual abuse was associated with early sexual debut and youth pregnancy, attention problems, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression, although associations were not specific for sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with externalizing behavior problems, delinquency, and drug abuse. Neglect, but not emotional abuse, was associated with having multiple sexual partners, cannabis abuse and/or dependence, and experiencing visual hallucinations. Emotional abuse, but not neglect, revealed increased odds for psychosis, injecting-drug use, experiencing harassment later in life, pregnancy miscarriage, and reporting asthma symptoms. Significant cognitive delays and educational failure were seen for both abuse and neglect during adolescence and adulthood. In conclusion, child maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse and neglect, is associated with a wide range of long-term adverse health and developmental outcomes. A renewed focus on prevention and early intervention strategies, especially related to psychological maltreatment, will be required to address these challenges in the future.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estatura , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21233, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of how multicomponent school-based interventions work and their effects on health and education outcomes are needed. This paper described the methods of the Movimente Program, a school-based intervention that aims to increase physical activity (PA) and decrease sedentary behavior (SB) among Brazilian students. METHODS: This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with adolescents from 7th to 9th grade in public schools from Florianopolis, Southern Brazil. After agreement, 6 schools were randomly selected to intervention or control groups (3 schools each), and all eligible students were invited to the study. The Movimente intervention program was performed during a school year and included 3 main components: Teacher training (including face-to-face meeting, social media platform, and handbook with lesson plans); improvements in the PA environment in school; and educational strategies. Control schools continued with their traditional schedule. Baseline (March/April 2017), postintervention (November/December 2017), and maintenance (June/July 2018) evaluations included PA and SB as primary outcomes (assessed by self-report and accelerometry). Secondary outcomes included psychosocial factors related to PA and SB (e.g., social support and self-efficacy), as well as health (e.g., quality of life and nutritional status) and education (e.g., academic achievement) outcomes. A program evaluation was performed based on the RE-AIM framework. Participants, intervention staffs, and evaluators were not blinded to group assignment, but a standardized evaluation protocol was applied independently of the trial allocation. RESULTS: Statistical analyses will include a multilevel approach for repeated measurements and mediation analysis. Any side effects of the intervention will be recorded. The sample size close to that expected (n = 1090) was reached (n = 999). The results of this trial will involve valuable information about the effect and the evaluation of a multicomponent intervention carried out in a middle-income country. CONCLUSION: By creating opportunities for adolescents to be active at school using multicomponent strategies, the Movimente program has the potential to enhance students health and academic performance which may encourage the school community (e.g., teachers, principals) to adopt the program. Also, this trial will provide evidence for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers on how multicomponent program may be implemented in a school setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: NCT02944318; date of registration: 18 October 2016).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(4): 519-523, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798097

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess whether youth cigarette and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, testing, and diagnosis. METHODS: An online national survey of adolescents and young adults (n = 4,351) aged 13-24 years was conducted in May 2020. Multivariable logistic regression assessed relationships among COVID-19-related symptoms, testing, and diagnosis and cigarettes only, e-cigarettes only and dual use, sociodemographic factors, obesity, and complying with shelter-in-place. RESULTS: COVID-19 diagnosis was five times more likely among ever-users of e-cigarettes only (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82-13.96), seven times more likely among ever-dual-users (95% CI: 1.98-24.55), and 6.8 times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 2.40-19.55). Testing was nine times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 5.43-15.47) and 2.6 times more likely among past 30-day e-cigarette only users (95% CI: 1.33-4.87). Symptoms were 4.7 times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 3.07-7.16). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with youth use of e-cigarettes only and dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes, suggesting the need for screening and education.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S18-S24, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737228

RESUMO

With a few notable exceptions, adolescents do not possess the legal authority to provide consent for or refuse medical interventions. However, in some situations, the question arises regarding whether a mature minor should be permitted to make a life-altering medical decision that would be challenged if made by the minor's parent. In this article, I explore what we currently know about the adolescent brain and how that knowledge should frame our understanding of adolescent decision-making. The prevailing approach to determining when adolescents should have their decisions respected in the medical and legal context, an approach that is focused on establishing capacity under a traditional informed consent model, will be reviewed and critiqued. I will suggest that the traditional model is insufficient and explore the implications for the adolescent role in health care decision-making.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/psicologia , Mães , Patient Self-Determination Act , Autonomia Pessoal , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785004

RESUMO

During the coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the basic strategy that is recommended to reduce the spread of the disease is to practice proper hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors, but among adolescents, low adherence is common. The present study aimed to assess the gender-dependent hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors in a national sample of Polish adolescents. The Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study was conducted in a group of 2323 secondary school students (814 males, 1509 females). Schools were chosen based on the random quota sampling procedure. The participants were surveyed to assess their knowledge and beliefs associated with hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as their actual behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of respondents gave proper answers when asked about their knowledge. However, females displayed a higher level of knowledge (p < 0.05). Most of the respondents declared not leaving home, handwashing, using alcohol-based hand rub, avoiding contact with those who may be sick, and avoiding public places as their personal protective behaviors. They declared using face masks and gloves after the legal regulation requiring people to cover their nose and mouth in public places was enacted in Poland. Regarding the use of face masks and not touching the face, no gender-dependent differences were observed, while for all the other behaviors, females declared more adherence than males (p < 0.05). Females also declared a higher daily frequency of handwashing (p < 0.0001) and washing their hands always when necessary more often than males (68.2% vs. 54.1%; p < 0.0001). Males more often indicated various reasons for not handwashing, including that there is no need to do it, they do not feel like doing it, they have no time to do it, or they forget about it (p < 0.0001), while females pointed out side effects (e.g., skin problems) as the reason (p = 0.0278). Females more often declared handwashing in circumstances associated with socializing, being exposed to contact with other people and health (p < 0.05), and declared always including the recommended steps in their handwashing procedure (p < 0.05). The results showed that female secondary school students exhibited a higher level of knowledge on hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as better behaviors, compared to males. However, irrespective of gender, some false beliefs and improper behaviors were observed, which suggests that education is necessary, especially in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(7): 452-460, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741876

RESUMO

Objectives Many local governments and elementary and junior high schools in Japan have conducted a "greeting campaign". This has been done in order to activate communication among local residents, and to instill public spirit and sociability in students' minds. However, few studies have explored the significance of greeting campaigns. The present study investigates greeting in neighborhoods and its relationship with students' spontaneous greeting behavior. The study also seeks to understand the quantity of greeting in daily life and its association with a student's community attachment and helping behavior.Methods A self-completion questionnaire survey was conducted with 1,346 students studying in the fourth and higher grades at elementary schools, and 1,357 students in the first and second grade at junior high schools. There were 2,692 valid respondents. We performed the following analyses using the data of elementary school students and junior high school students separately. A partial correlation analysis was conducted wherein gender and grade were introduced as control variables. This analysis tested the correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord. A path analysis that tested the relationship between students' greeting behavior, their attachment to residential areas, and helping behavior was also conducted.Results The results of the partial correlation analysis revealed that there was a positive correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord, regardless of gender and grade. Moreover, the results of the path analysis revealed that the frequency of being greeted was positively associated with community attachment and that the frequency of students' spontaneous greeting behavior was positively associated not only with community attachment but also with helping behavior. The goodness of model fit was high for both the data of elementary school students as well as the data of junior high school students.Conclusion We found that exchanging greetings with surrounding people in daily life enhanced students' attachment to the community. In particular, we showed that students' spontaneous greeting behavior led to their helping behavior, which supports the significance of recommending greeting at home, school, or in the local community. Since there was a correlation between the frequency of being greeted and the frequency of greeting willingly, we consider that actions of surrounding adults become important to help students acquire spontaneous greeting behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento de Ajuda , Apego ao Objeto , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Japão , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 119-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742501

RESUMO

Inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes are the major hindrances to prevent the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude toward the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome among youths in Iran. We conducted a systematic review, searching online databases until July 2018, focusing on knowledge and attitudes about the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iranian youths. We included the studies that aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of people from Iran and were conducted in the last 18 years. In total, 14 eligible papers (out of 300) were entered into the analysis, and the overall knowledge of Iranian youth toward the acquired immune deficiency syndrome was 57.6% (95% CI: 56.7%-58.5%). Also, the results of Cochran's test showed the heterogeneity of the studies (Q=1578.2, df=13, I2=79.4%, p<0.001). We concluded that our results would guide the development of population-focused knowledge and attitude about the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran, which is lacking among the general public and healthcare staff.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos
16.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 148-155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841197

RESUMO

The research aims to study the age-related manifestations of teenagers' deviant behavior. The level of psychological health is determined (by 28 indicators) in 260 teenagers, including 141 boys and 119 girls. The 28 indicators are divided into 4 blocks (biological with basic acquisitions, age neoplasm, social) and analyzed with a 10-step property measuring scale. An analysis of family relationships is conducted in 42 examined. The main disadvantages of family education are identified. For example, depriving adolescents of their independence prevents them from acquiring basic skills and age neoplasm. When studying basic acquisitions in teenagers a deficit and personality problems are identified. It allows one to attribute teenagers to the category of people who have a low level of safety in terms of psychological health. Mandatory corrective work and including teenagers to the preventive-developing orientation group is necessary.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 578-586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes and legalization of recreational marijuana, messaging from websites and social media is shaping product perceptions and use. Quantitative research on the aesthetic appeal of these advertisements from the adolescent and young adult perspective is lacking. We evaluated (1) how adolescents and young adults perceived tobacco and marijuana messaging online and through social media platforms and (2) interactive behaviors related to these messages. METHODS: We interviewed 24 participants from the Tobacco Perceptions Study, a longitudinal study of adolescents' and young adults' (aged 17-21) tobacco-related perceptions and tobacco use. We collected qualitative data from October 2017 through February 2018, through individual semi-structured interviews, on participants' experiences and interactions with online tobacco and marijuana advertisements and the advertisements' appeal. Two analysts recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews. RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the interviews focused on the direct appeal of online messaging to adolescents and young adults; the value of trusting the source; the role of general attitudes and personal decision-making related to using tobacco and/or marijuana; the appeal of messaging that includes colors, interesting packaging, and appealing flavors; and the preference of messages communicated by young people and influencers rather than by industry. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the need for increased regulation of social media messaging and marketing of tobacco and marijuana, with a particular focus on regulating social media, paid influencers, and marketing that appeals to adolescents and young adults. The findings also suggest the importance of prevention programs addressing the role of social media in influencing the use of tobacco and marijuana.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Publicidade , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(7): 614-622, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emergency department (ED) is a common treatment setting for adolescents with clinically serious self-harm. Here, we investigated the clinical characteristics and trends of adolescents with self-harm who visited the ED in one Korean university hospital. We also compared patients with a single ED visit to those with multiple ED visits to identify the risk factor of repeated visits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients aged 12 to 18 years who presented to ED for self-harm from January 2015 to December 2019, based on electronic medical records. Self-harm included all thoughts and behaviors indicating intents to harm or hurt oneself, regardless of the degree of such attempt. RESULTS: A total of 168 individuals (male:female=31:137; average 15.99±1.64 years) presented to ED following 304 episodes (45 and 259 episodes in males and females, respectively). The number of episodes steeply increased between 2016 and 2019, and the overall number during the study showed an increasing trend (p=0.043). Repeated ED visitors with self-harm showed more history of psychiatric treatment/admission (58.3% vs. 85.4%, p=0.002; 14.2% vs. 43.9%, p<0.001), history of child abuse (32.3% vs. 53.7%, p=0.013), and familial psychiatric history (13.4% vs. 31.7%, p=0.008) compared to those with a single visit. CONCLUSION: Among Korean adolescents, the number of ED visits and repetition of ED visits for self-harm is on the rise. For adolescents presenting to ED with self-harm, the history of psychiatric treatment/admission, child abuse, and familial psychiatric history should be properly obtained to identify the risk for multiple ED visits.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(3): 354-361, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The overarching goal of this study was to provide key information on how adolescents' substance use has changed since the corona virus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic, in addition to key contexts and correlates of substance use during social distancing. METHODS: Canadian adolescents (n = 1,054, Mage = 16.68, standard deviation = .78) completed an online survey, in which they reported on their frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, cannabis use, and vaping in the 3 weeks before and directly after social distancing practices had taken effect. RESULTS: For most substances, the percentage of users decreased; however, the frequency of both alcohol and cannabis use increased. Although the greatest percentage of adolescents was engaging in solitary substance use (49.3%), many were still using substances with peers via technology (31.6%) and, shockingly, even face to face (23.6%). Concerns for how social distancing would affect peer reputation was a significant predictor of face-to-face substance use with friends among adolescents with low self-reported popularity, and a significant predictor of solitary substance use among average and high popularity teens. Finally, adjustment predictors, including depression and fear of the infectivity of COVID-19, predicted using solitary substance use during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide preliminary evidence that adolescent substance use, including that which occurs face to face with peers, thereby putting adolescents at risk for contracting COVID-19, may be of particular concern during the pandemic. Further, solitary adolescent substance use during the pandemic, which is associated with poorer mental health and coping, may also be a notable concern worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Distância Social , Vaping/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA