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1.
Brain Nerve ; 71(12): 1357-1371, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787625

RESUMO

The prefrontal cortex is greatly developed in primates and is considered to play an important role in cognitive control of behavior. In the visual and motor systems, research into the functional division between cortical areas has advanced. The prefrontal cortex has also been shown to be divided into several areas which have different anatomical connections with other brain sites. However, the functional division among prefrontal cortical areas has been less well studied. Knowledge of the functional division is expected to help in understanding the cognitive control of complex behaviors in terms of more elementary processes.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Cognição , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurociências
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 803-816, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047569

RESUMO

A formação de Redes Sociais Virtuais (RSVs) em comunidades como o Facebook tornou-se um importante instrumento de busca por socialização e informação. Este artigo apresenta dados sobre fontes de informação utilizadas por responsáveis de crianças com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) e como essas interferem na percepção de suporte interpessoal e nos processos de governança em saúde. No estudo quantitativo, participaram 90 membros das três maiores RSVs sobre TEA. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado questionário semiestruturado, cujas respostas foram quantificadas para melhor visualização. Os resultados demonstraram que a participação nessas redes é a principal fonte de informação para metade dos participantes, especialmente para a parcela da população com menor renda; 70/90 voluntários informaram se sentir amparados pelos parceiros de RSV e 63/90 se sentem desamparados pela sociedade em geral. Este fenômeno pode ser explicado pela formação de laços sociais marcados pela reciprocidade de situações vividas.


The formation of Virtual Social Networks (RSVs) in communities as Facebook has become an important tool for searching for socialization and information. This article presents data on the sources of information used by those responsible for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and how they interfere in the perception of interpersonal support and health governance processes. In the quantitative study, 90 members from the 3 largest RSVs on ASD participated. For the data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was used. Responses were quantified to facilitate visualization of the data. The results showed that participation in these networks is the main source of information for half of the participants, especially for the portion of the population with lower income; 70/90 volunteers reported feeling supported by RSV partners and 63/90 reported feeling helpless by society in general. A phenomenon that can be explained by the formation of social bonds marked by the reciprocity of lived situations.


La formación de Redes Sociales Virtuales (RSVs) en comunidades como Facebook se ha convertido en un importante instrumento de búsqueda de socialización e información. Este artículo presenta datos sobre fuentes de información utilizadas por responsables de niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), y cómo interfieren en la percepción de soporte interpersonal y en los procesos de gobernanza en salud. Se trató de estudio cuantitativo, participaron 90 miembros de las 3 mayores RSVs sobre TEA. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario semiestructurado. Las respuestas se cuantificaron para facilitar la visualización de los datos. Los resultados demostraron que la participación en esas redes es la principal fuente de información para la mitad de los participantes, especialmente para la parcela de la población con menores ingresos; 70/90 voluntarios informaron sentirse amparados por los socios de RSV y 63/90 informaron sentirse desamparados por la sociedad en general. Fenómeno que puede ser explicado por la formación de lazos sociales marcados por la reciprocidad de situaciones vividas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Apoio Social , Governança Clínica , Rede Social , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Relações Interpessoais , Socialização , Comportamento , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Internet , Acesso à Informação , Mídias Sociais , Governança
3.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25042, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048325

RESUMO

O objetivo foi identificar os padrões de comportamento em aulas de Educação Física (EF) de alunos com diagnóstico de TDAH nas escolas primárias de Barcelona (Espanha). Seis estudantes e seus seis professores de Educação Física foram observados durante 42 aulas inteiras de Educação Física. Os professores foram entrevistados após o conjunto de observações por um tempo médio de 65 minutos. Os alunos com TDAH mostraram três categorias de comportamentos desejáveis e quatro categorias de comportamentos indesejáveis; 18,65% dos comportamentos registrados foram desejáveis e 81,35% indesejáveis. Os resultados sugerem que os professores devem se concentrar não apenas nas dificuldades colocadas pelo transtorno (ou seja, comportamentos indesejáveis), mas devem melhorar os aspectos positivos dos alunos com TDAH. A maneira de gerenciar a classe, o tipo de jogos, atividades esportivas e incentivar atividades criativas, aumentar os comportamentos desejáveis nas sessões de PE


El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar los patrones de conducta del alumnado diagnosticado con TDAH en las clases de Educación Física (EF) en las escuelas de Educación Primaria de Barcelona (España). Seis estudiantes y sus docentes de EF fueron observados durante 42 sesiones completas. Los maestros fueron entrevistados después del conjunto de observaciones durante un tiempo promedio de 65 minutos. El alumnado con TDAH mostró tres categorías de conductas deseables y cuatro categorías de conductas no deseables. El 18,65% de las conductas registradas fueron deseables y el 81,35% no deseables. Los resultados sugieren que el profesorado debería centrarse no solo en las dificultades planteadas por el trastorno (es decir, conductas no deseables), sino que deberían mejorar los aspectos positivos de los estudiantes con TDAH. La forma de administrar la clase y las actividades deportivas y el fomento de actividades creativas mejoran las conductas deseables en las sesiones de EF


The purpose of the study was to identify the behavioral patterns of students diagnosed with ADHD in Physical Education (PE) classes in primary schools of Barcelona, Spain. Six students and their PE teachers were observed during 42 entire lessons. After the observations, teachers were interviewed for 65 minutes on average. Students with ADHD displayed three categories of desirable behavior and four categories of undesirable behavior; 18.65% of behaviors registered were desirable and 81.35% were undesirable. The results suggest that teachers should not only focus on the difficulties posed by the disorder (i.e., undesirable behaviors), but also enhance the positive aspects of students with ADHD. The way to manage sections, give sports lessons and encourage creative activities enhance desirable behaviors in PE lessons


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estudantes , Educação Física e Treinamento , Comportamento , Observação , Ensino Fundamental e Médio
4.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 592-599, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a chronic condition with serious sequela, including primarily bone fractures, and impacts on almost all spheres of human life. It is important for patients undergoing treatment to accept their health status and feel satisfied with life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between socio-demographic factors, duration of the illness, self-assessment of the patient's knowledge of osteoporosis, and also between illness management support and acceptance of the illness and life satisfaction among females with chronic osteoporosis, resident in rural areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study, conducted from September 2016 - June 2017, involved 207 patients of the Clinic of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation and the Clinic of Gynaecology at the Independent Public Teaching Hospital No. 4 in Lublin, eastern Poland. The study used the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's range test, and chi-squared test. A p-value of <0.05 defined statistical significance of differences. The analysis was performed using commercial SPSS Statistics 19 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: The respondents showed average acceptance of their illness (22.2±6.9) and relatively low satisfaction with life (14.7±5.6). Older age, low level of education, poor living conditions, prolonged illness, and frequent ailments are all associated with lower acceptance of the illness and poorer life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: As part of their treatment, chronically ill patients should be provided with appropriate support, in particular from healthcare personnel, health education and improved living conditions.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/terapia , Polônia , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 194-217, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019282

RESUMO

Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the divergences in perception of parental practices, positive behavior and problems between parents and children. The participants, parents and adolescents, collaborated voluntarily and were examined in the following dyads: 248 fathers-sons, 241fathers-daughters, 237 mothers-sons, and 241 mothers-daughters. The psychometric instruments used were the Strengths and Difficulties Scale and the Parental Practices Scale for mothers and fathers. To achieve the main objective, correlation analysis, path analysis and differences of means with related samples were performed. The results showed correlations, from moderate to low, between parental practices, problems and prosocial behavior. In addition, different predictive factors of the children's behaviors were obtained, according to the sex of the parents and the parental practices they implemented. Finally, there were divergences between reports of parental practices, prosocial behavior and problems between parents and their children. Therefore, it is concluded that parental behavior is oriented according to the sexual role of their children, which involves social desirability.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como finalidade analisar as divergências na percepção das práticas parentais, no comportamento positivo e nas problemáticas entre pais e filhos. Os participantes, pais e adolescentes, colaboraram de maneira voluntária e foram avaliados nas seguintes díades: 248 pais-filhos, 241 pais-filhas, 237 mães-filhos e 241 mães-filhas. Os instrumentos utilizados foram a Escala de Capacidades e Dificuldades e a Escala de Práticas Parentais para mães e pais. Para alcançar o objetivo principal, realizaram-se análises de correlação, análises de caminhos e diferenças de médias com amostras relacionadas. Os resultados mostraram correlações - de moderadas a baixas - entre as práticas parentais, os problemas e a conduta pró-social, além de diferentes fatores preditivos das condutas dos filhos a partir do gênero dos pais e das práticas parentais exercidas. Houve divergências entre os relatórios de práticas parentais, conduta pró-social e problemas entre os pais e seus filhos. Conclui-se que a conduta parental é orientada de acordo com o gênero dos filhos, o que implica certa desejabilidade social relacionada com seu papel como homens ou como mulheres.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad analizar las divergencias en la percepción de las prácticas parentales, el comportamiento positivo y las problemáticas entre padres e hijos. Los participantes, padres y adolescentes, colaboraron de manera voluntaria y se evaluaron en las siguientes díadas: 248 padres-hijos, 241 padres-hijas, 237 madres-hijos, y 241 madres-hijas. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la Escala de Capacidades y Dificultades y la Escala de Prácticas Parentales para madres y padres. Para lograr el objetivo principal se realizaron análisis de correlación, análisis de senderos y diferencias de medias con muestras relacionadas. Los resultados mostraron correlaciones -de moderadas a bajas- entre las prácticas parentales, los problemas y la conducta prosocial, además de diferentes factores predictores de las conductas de los hijos a partir del sexo de los padres y las prácticas parentales ejercidas. Se presentaron divergencias entre los reportes de prácticas parentales, conducta prosocial y problemas entre los padres y sus hijos. Se concluye que la conducta parental se orienta según el sexo de los hijos, lo cual implica cierta deseabilidad social relacionada con su rol como hombres o como mujeres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Relações Pais-Filho , Comportamento , Família , Comunicação
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 9): 495, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences able to mobilize themselves and to increase their copy-number in the host genome. In the past, they have been considered mainly selfish DNA without evident functions. Nevertheless, currently they are believed to have been extensively involved in the evolution of primate genomes, especially from a regulatory perspective. Due to their recent activity they are also one of the primary sources of structural variants (SVs) in the human genome. By taking advantage of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics tools, recent surveys uncovered specific TE structural variants (TEVs) that gave rise to polymorphisms in human populations. When combined with RNA-seq data this information provides the opportunity to study the potential impact of TEs on gene expression in human. RESULTS: In this work, we assessed the effects of the presence of specific TEs in cis on the expression of flanking genes by producing associations between polymorphic TEs and flanking gene expression levels in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. By using public data from the 1000 Genome Project and the Geuvadis consortium, we exploited an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach integrated with additional bioinformatics data mining analyses. We uncovered human loci enriched for common, less common and rare TEVs and identified 323 significant TEV-cis-eQTL associations. SINE-R/VNTR/Alus (SVAs) resulted the TE class with the strongest effects on gene expression. We also unveiled differential functional enrichments on genes associated to TEVs, genes associated to TEV-cis-eQTLs and genes associated to the genomic regions mostly enriched in TEV-cis-eQTLs highlighting, at multiple levels, the impact of TEVs on the host genome. Finally, we also identified polymorphic TEs putatively embedded in transcriptional units, proposing a novel mechanism in which TEVs may mediate individual-specific traits. CONCLUSION: We contributed to unveiling the effect of polymorphic TEs on transcription in lymphoblastoid cell lines.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcrição Genética , Elementos Alu/genética , Animais , Comportamento , Linhagem Celular , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Repetições Minissatélites/genética
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12441-12451, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674783

RESUMO

Sesamin, a lignan from sesame seed, has been reported to attenuate chronic mild stress-induced depressive-like behaviors. Gut microbiota play pivotal roles in mediating psychological behaviors by regulating gut barrier integrity and systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we found that oral sesamin administration (50 mg/kg·bodyweight/day) significantly attenuated depressive, aversive, repetitive, and anxiety-like behaviors in a long-term multiple nonsocial stress-treated mice model. Sesamin inhibited stress-induced gut barrier integrity damage, reduced circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, and suppressed neuroinflammatory responses. Moreover, sesamin treatment also restructured the gut microbiome by enhancing the relative abundances of Bacteroidales and S24-7. The correlation analysis indicated that the microbiota composition changes were strongly correlated with behavioral disorders, serotonin, norepinephrine, and LPS levels. In conclusion, sesamin has preventive effects on stress-induced behavioral and psychological disorders, which might be highly related to the reshaped microbiota composition. This study provides a clue for understanding the systemic mechanism of anti-depression effects of sesamin.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dioxóis/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sesamum/química , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/microbiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Estresse Psicológico
8.
Metas enferm ; 22(9): 28-32, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185039

RESUMO

Objetivo: evidenciar, durante el rito del velatorio, la existencia de diferencias de género en la sociedad, así como en función de la edad y la cercanía con la persona difunta. Método: se realizó una investigación cualitativa utilizando la técnica de observación participante y un diario de campo durante el velatorio de un difunto. La población de estudio fue una familia española residente en Tarragona, caucásica, de clase media, católica no practicante; también se incluyeron el resto de familiares menos allegados, así como amigos y conocidos de la familia. El ámbito de estudio fue la sala del tanatorio. La observación se llevó a cabo durante seis de las 12 horas que duró el velatorio. Resultados: se estudiaron 57 sujetos con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y 76 años (30 eran mujeres y 27 varones). Se observaron diferencias de género en el comportamiento, así como en función de la edad y la relación con el difunto. Estas diferencias condicionaron el modo de agruparse (según sexo y edad), la situación física para ocupar el lugar (mujeres más próximas al difunto que los hombres), las manifestaciones públicas de dolor (solo en mujeres) y el luto (únicamente viuda e hija). Conclusiones: el velatorio es un acto social de relación, donde el modo de actuar de las personas difiere en función del género al que pertenecen, la relación que les une con el difunto y la zona del velatorio donde se sitúen. Los asistentes se agrupan en función del sexo y la edad, asumiendo roles de género predeterminados por la sociedad y la cultura


Objective: to observe, during the rite of wake, the existence of differences by gender in society, as well as based on age and closeness with the deceased person. Method: a qualitative research was conducted, using the participant observation technique and a field diary during the wake for a deceased person. The study population was a Spanish family living in Tarragona, Caucasian and middle-class, who were non-practicing Catholics; those relatives not within the nuclear family were also included, as well as friends and acquaintances of the family. The setting of the study was the funeral parlour. The wake lasted 12 hours, and observation was conducted during six of them. Results: fifty-seven (57) subjects were studied, between 15 and 76-year-old (30 were female and 27 were male). Differences by gender were observed in their behaviour, as well as based on age and relationship with the deceased. These differences determined the way to gather (according to gender and age), the physical location occupied (women were closer to the deceased than men), public manifestations of grief (only in women) and mourning clothes (only in the widow and daughter). Conclusions: wake is a social interaction, where the manner in which people act varies according to their gender, their relationship with the deceased, and the place where they are situated. Assistants will group together according to gender and age, adopting gender roles predetermined by society and culture


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Distribuição por Sexo , Rituais Fúnebres , Distribuição por Idade , Cultura , Comportamento , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Choro , Pesar
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2961-2972, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612540

RESUMO

The high sodium content of kimchi is a contradicting factor from its fame as a healthy food. With the aim of reducing the sodium content of kimchi, the objective of this study was to understand the effect of providing "sodium-reduced" information on the acceptance of kimchi according to the age of consumption. Six sodium-reduced kimchi samples, prepared with different percentages of sodium reduction (25% and 50%) and potassium chloride concentration (none, 0.47%, and 0.93%), were compared to control kimchi (2.0% w/v NaCl). Sensory characterization of the samples was obtained using descriptive analysis. A total of 167 kimchi consumers with balanced proportion of the young (below 40) and the old (above 40) evaluated seven kimchi samples in either of the two conditions: blind testing condition or informed testing condition where each of the samples was provided with a label that informed about "sodium reduction percentage" and "whether a salt replacer was used or not." The results showed that in terms of healthiness perception, Korean female consumers believed that kimchi with a high sodium reduction rate would contribute to health in general, though an unfavorable notion of using a salt replacer was also observed. Also, the results suggested that promoting information about sodium reduction in kimchi would generally increase consumer acceptance. However, this phenomenon was influenced not only by the sample for which the information was provided, but also by the age of consumers with different health interests and kimchi experience. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study showed simply reducing sodium and promoting it with a health claim showed limitation in achieving a high level of sodium reduction, such as a 50% reduction rate, which implied the importance of using supplementary material such as potassium chloride that can fulfill the missing saltiness and flavors of the original product. Promotion of "sodium-reduced" claims in kimchi generally results in increased consumer acceptance. However, the effectiveness of the information was dependent on which sample was provided and the age of the consumers, among whom health interests and kimchi experience differ.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Cloreto de Potássio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 24: 01-07, out. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047137

RESUMO

The present study aims to analyze the length of stay of adults and elderly individuals in the "Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde" (VAMOS - Active Life Improving Health) program implemented in Primary Health Care (PHC) in Brazil. A total of 106 users (87.7% females) aged 55.42 years (± 12.22) were followed during 12 weeks in four Community Health Centers. Length of stay was analyzed according to sociodemographic variables (sex, age, marital status, level of education, cur-rent occupation, family income) and the indicators of VAMOS program effectiveness (physical activity level and food intake). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, survival analysis applied by the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate COX regression model were used. A significance level of 5% was adopted in all analyses. The rate of length of stay was 51.9% (n = 55). Marital status was associated with a longer length of stay (p < 0.05). Furthermore, having a partner (OR = 2.11; 95%CI: 1.16 - 3.81) was associated with a longer length of stay in the program. In conclusion, more than half of the adults and elderly individuals remained in the VAMOS Program and length of stay was greater among those with a partner


O estudo tem como objetivo analisar a permanência de adultos e idosos no Programa Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde ( VAMOS), implantado na Atenção Primária à Saúde de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina.Foram acompanhados 106 usuários (87,7% mulheres), com idade média de 55,42 anos (± 12,22) durante 12 sema-nas, em quatro Unidades Básicas de Saúde. A permanência foi analisada considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (sexo, idade, estado civil, escolaridade, ocupação atual e renda familiar mensal) e os marcadores de efetividade do VAMOS (nível de atividade física e consumo alimentar). Foi utilizada estatística descritiva, teste de Qui-Quadrado, análise de sobrevida pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e análise multivariada de regressão de COX. O nível de significância adotado foi 5%, em todas as análises. A taxa de permanência foi de 51,9% (n = 55). Estado civil foi associado com maior permanência (p < 0,05) no programa. O fato de ter companheiro (OR = 2,11; IC95%: 1,16 - 3,81) aumentou a chance de permanecer no programa. Concluiu-se que mais da metade dos adultos e idosos permaneceram no Programa VAMOS e a permanência foi maior entre aqueles com companheiro


Assuntos
Comportamento , Saúde Pública , Dieta Saudável , Atividade Motora
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10173-10185, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521349

RESUMO

Veterinary communication has evolved in the context of traditional veterinary tasks, such as diagnosing and treating sick animals, and this may encourage a directive communication style, in which the veterinarian acts as an expert, directing the client in what to do and how to do it. This type of communication style has been shown to evoke resistance to change in clients who are experiencing psychological ambivalence, a well-known aspect of farmers' herd health decisions. Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) constitutes an increasing proportion of the work of cattle veterinarians and often focuses on behavior change. The present study aimed to characterize communication styles of Swedish dairy cattle veterinarians involved in VHHM in relation to their skills in facilitating behavior change. A secondary aim was to investigate whether these skills differed among veterinarians depending on their experience in the veterinary profession or in VHHM. Audio-recorded role-play conversations (n = 123; reflecting VHHM telephone consultations) with 42 veterinarians involved in VHHM in Swedish dairy herds and audio-recorded on-farm consultations (n = 86) with 18 of those veterinarians were coded using a system developed to evaluate motivational interviewing (MI) skills. Motivational interviewing is a communication methodology aimed at facilitating clients' internal motivation to change. The MI Treatment Integrity (MITI) code identifies frequency counts of 10 verbal behaviors, and assesses 4 global variables on a Likert scale, based on 20 min of conversation. It also suggests 6 summary measurements of MI competency based on these 14 original variables. Of the 42 veterinarians, 39 also responded to a web questionnaire about their age, continuing education, and experience in the profession, in dairy herds and in VHHM. We analyzed associations between the 6 summary MITI variables from the role-play conversations and characteristics of the 39 veterinarians using logistic and linear multivariable regression models. Veterinarians in the role-play and on-farm conversations relied predominantly on giving information, questions, and persuasion in their consultation approaches. They generally did not explore the client's expectations or wishes regarding the agenda for the consultation, or acknowledge the client's right to make decisions about actions. Veterinarians gave advice without exploring the client's need for the advice or how the information was perceived. We found a significant reduction in so-called relational scores (Empathy plus Partnership) and an increase in MI-nonadherent behaviors (Persuasion plus Confront) as years of veterinary experience increased. Results showed that there is room for improvement in the communication style of veterinarians involved in VHHM. Wider literature suggests that training veterinarians in a client-centered communication methodology such as MI may increase the demand for and success of VHHM.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Entrevista Motivacional , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Comportamento , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Registros , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Medicina Veterinária
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405088

RESUMO

In recent years, the outbreak of numerous environmental risk incidents aroused widespread public concern about the amplification mechanism of environmental risk in China. However, few studies have investigated the influence path of environmental risk perception on behavioral responses in Chinese context from a micro perspective. In this article, we develop a multidimensional path model from environmental risk perception to behavioral responses, which aims to investigate how the public's environmental risk perception influence its different behavioral responses, including environmental radical behavior, environmental concern behavior and environmental protection behavior. A survey data from Chinese General Social Survey 2013 (CGSS2013), was used to test the model, including questions related to information channel (e.g., media use, interpersonal network), cognitive evaluation (e.g., environmental value, public's evaluation of environmental governance) and environmental knowledge. The results indicate that both information channel factors and cognitive evaluation factors can significantly influence the progress that from environmental risk perception to behavioral responses, of which both media use and environmental value play the amplification role in the transform process, while interpersonal network and public's evaluation of environmental governance would inhibit public's risk perception transforming into environmental behavior. Besides, environmental knowledge displays a key bridge role between information channel factors and cognitive evaluation factors. This research findings also demonstrated the evolution paths of three environmental behaviors under the same level of risk perception, namely, risk transformation and diffusion, risk perception enhancement and risk attenuation respectively.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Política Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 42: 1-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407241

RESUMO

Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have evolved into a powerful tool to investigate genetic risk factors for human diseases via a hypothesis-free scan of the genome. The success of GWAS for psychiatric disorders and behavioral traits have been somewhat mixed, partly owing to the complexity and heterogeneity of these traits. Significant progress has been made in the last few years in the development and implementation of complex statistical methods and algorithms incorporating GWAS. Such advanced statistical methods applied to GWAS hits in combination with incorporation of different layers of genomics data have catapulted the search for novel genes for behavioral traits and improved our understanding of the complex polygenic architecture of these traits.This chapter will give a brief overview on GWAS and statistical methods currently used in GWAS. The chapter will focus on reviewing the current literature and highlight some of the most important GWAS on psychiatric and other behavioral traits and will conclude with a discussion on future directions.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo
15.
Physiol Rev ; 99(4): 1877-2013, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460832

RESUMO

The importance of the gut-brain axis in maintaining homeostasis has long been appreciated. However, the past 15 yr have seen the emergence of the microbiota (the trillions of microorganisms within and on our bodies) as one of the key regulators of gut-brain function and has led to the appreciation of the importance of a distinct microbiota-gut-brain axis. This axis is gaining ever more traction in fields investigating the biological and physiological basis of psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, age-related, and neurodegenerative disorders. The microbiota and the brain communicate with each other via various routes including the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, the vagus nerve and the enteric nervous system, involving microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, branched chain amino acids, and peptidoglycans. Many factors can influence microbiota composition in early life, including infection, mode of birth delivery, use of antibiotic medications, the nature of nutritional provision, environmental stressors, and host genetics. At the other extreme of life, microbial diversity diminishes with aging. Stress, in particular, can significantly impact the microbiota-gut-brain axis at all stages of life. Much recent work has implicated the gut microbiota in many conditions including autism, anxiety, obesity, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Animal models have been paramount in linking the regulation of fundamental neural processes, such as neurogenesis and myelination, to microbiome activation of microglia. Moreover, translational human studies are ongoing and will greatly enhance the field. Future studies will focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the microbiota-gut-brain axis and attempt to elucidate microbial-based intervention and therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/microbiologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Comportamento , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/psicologia , Disbiose , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/microbiologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia , Neuroimunomodulação , Plasticidade Neuronal , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 527, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with depression among people living with HIV/AIDS attending Gimbi General hospital, West Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 HIV/AIDS patients, from March 01 to March 30, 2018. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with depression. Possible association and statistical significance were measured using odds ratio at 95% confidence interval and P-value less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 393 HIV/AIDS patients were included in this study. Out of this, 41.7% had depression. Perceived social stigma (AOR = 6.98, 95% CI 3.07, 15.86), opportunistic infection (AOR = 9.38, 95% CI 4.21, 20.89), adverse drug reaction (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI 1.58, 8.81), absence of family/social support (AOR = 9.97, 95% CI 3.57, 27.86), and presence of other chronic diseases (AOR = 6.14, 95% CI 1.66, 22.68) were significantly associated with depression. The level of depression among HIV/AIDS patient in this study was high. The clinician should early recognize and treat drug side effects, early detect and manage opportunistic infection and other chronic diseases, and give health information about the disease for the community to reduce social stigma.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hospitais Gerais , Adulto , Comportamento , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
17.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434232

RESUMO

We examined the nutritional status and its association with behavioral psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among 741 memory clinic patients (normal cognition (NC), 152; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 271; early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD), 318). Nutritional status and BPSD were assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) and the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale (DBD), respectively. Compared to subjects with NC, more subjects with MCI and early-stage AD were at risk of malnutrition (MNA-SF, 8-11: NC, 34.2%; MCI, 47.5%; early-stage AD, 53.8%) and were malnourished (MNA-SF, 0-7: NC, 4.6%; MCI, 5.9%; early-stage AD, 8.2%). Among patients with MCI or early-stage AD, those at risk of/with malnutrition showed higher DBD scores than those well-nourished (12.7 ± 9.0 vs. 9.5 ± 7.3; p < 0.001). Moreover, analysis of covariance adjusting for confounders showed that nutritional status was significantly associated with specific BPSD, including "verbal aggressiveness/emotional disinhibition" (F = 5.87, p = 0.016) and "apathy/memory impairment" (F = 15.38, p < 0.001), which were revealed by factor analysis of DBD. Our results suggest that malnutrition is common among older adults with mild cognitive decline, and possibility that nutritional problems are associated with individual BPSD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Comportamento , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Desnutrição/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
18.
Neuron ; 103(4): 563-581, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437453

RESUMO

Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) is a leading cellular model for behavioral learning and memory with rich computational properties. However, the relationship between the millisecond-precision spike timing required for STDP and the much slower timescales of behavioral learning is not well understood. Neuromodulation offers an attractive mechanism to connect these different timescales, and there is now strong experimental evidence that STDP is under neuromodulatory control by acetylcholine, monoamines, and other signaling molecules. Here, we review neuromodulation of STDP, the underlying mechanisms, functional implications, and possible involvement in brain disorders.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 963-970, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374754

RESUMO

In literature, much attention has been devoted to the design of control strategies of exoskeletons for assistive purposes. While several control schemes were presented, their performance still has limitations in minimizing muscle effort. According to this principle, we propose a novel approach to solve the problem of generating an assistive torque that minimizes muscle activation under stability guarantees. First, we perform a linear observability and controllability analysis of the human neuromuscular dynamic system. Based on the states that can be regulated with the available measurements and taking advantage of knowledge of the muscle model, we then solve an LQR problem in which a weighted sum of muscle activation and actuation torque is minimized to systematically synthesize a controller for an assistive exoskeleton.We evaluate the performance of the developed controller with a realistic non-linear human neuromusculoskeletal model. Simulation results show better performance in comparison with a well known controller in the literature, in the sense of closed loop system stability and regulation to zero of muscle effort.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Comportamento , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Torque , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382527

RESUMO

Personalised nutrition approaches provide healthy eating advice tailored to the nutritional needs of the individual[...].


Assuntos
Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Comportamento , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais
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