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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200106, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101977

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic and what we have (re)learned from the world experience of adopting prevention measures recommended by the World Health Organization as well as the epidemiological overview in the world, in Latin America and in Brazil. Results: the World Health Organization has pointed out that the path to reduce the speed of circulation of the virus, control and decrease in the number of cases and deaths resulting from this pandemic can only be accomplished with mass adoption of fundamental measures that include hand hygiene, alcohol gel use, cough etiquette, cleaning surfaces, avoiding agglomerations and social distancing. The epidemiological curve of the disease clearly shows the devastating proportions in Italy, Spain and the United States, surpassing China in death records, due to the delay in adopting the aforementioned measures. In Brazil, the rapid progression in relation to the world and Latin America points to an important increase in the number of cases. Conclusion: this is possibly the most serious pandemic in recent human history, and its course can be influenced by the rigor in adopting individual and collective behavioral measures.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la pandemia de COVID-19 y lo que hemos (re)aprendido de la experiencia mundial para la adopción de las medidas de prevención recomendadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como el panorama epidemiológico en el mundo, en América Latina y en Brasil. Resultados: la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha señalado que el camino hacia la reducción de la velocidad de circulación del virus, el control y la reducción del número de casos y muertes resultantes de esta pandemia solo se puede lograr con la adopción masiva de medidas fundamentales que incluyan la higiene de las manos, uso de alcohol en gel, etiqueta respiratoria, limpieza de superficies, evitando hacinamiento y distancia social. La curva epidemiológica de la enfermedad muestra claramente las proporciones devastadoras en Italia, España y Estados Unidos, superando a China en los registros de defunciones, debido a la demora en la adopción de estas medidas. En Brasil, la rápida progresión en relación con el mundo y América Latina apunta a un aumento importante en el número de casos. Conclusión: esta pandemia es posiblemente la más grave en la historia humana reciente y su curso puede verse influenciado por el rigor en la adopción de medidas de comportamiento individuales y colectivas.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a pandemia da Covid-19 e o que temos (re)aprendido com a experiência mundial para adoção das medidas de prevenção preconizadas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde bem como o panorama epidemiológico no mundo, na América Latina e no Brasil. Resultados: a Organização Mundial de Saúde tem apontado que o caminho para a redução da velocidade de circulação do vírus, o controle e queda do número de casos e óbitos decorrentes dessa pandemia só poderá ser alcançado com adoção em massa de medidas fundamentais que incluem higienização das mãos, uso do álcool em gel, etiqueta respiratória, limpeza de superfícies, evitar aglomerações e distanciamento social. A curva epidemiológica da doença mostra claramente as proporções devastadoras na Itália, Espanha e nos Estados Unidos, superando a China em registros de óbitos, devido ao atraso na adoção dessas medidas. No Brasil, a progressão rápida em relação ao mundo e à América Latina aponta um importante aumento do número de casos. Conclusão: essa pandemia possivelmente é a mais grave da história recente da humanidade e seu curso pode ser influenciado pelo rigor na adoção de medidas comportamentais individuais e coletivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Prevenção de Doenças , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Betacoronavirus , Isolamento de Pacientes , Distância Social , Comportamento , Educação em Saúde
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180314, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101976

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the Empathic Orientation in Nursing students of the Universidad Metropolitana of Barranquilla (Colombia). Method: a descriptive, exploratory and transversal study in which the Jefferson Medical Empathy Scale in an anonymous and confidential manner was applied to 489 students from the first to fourth undergraduate year of the Nursing Program of the Universidad Metropolitana (Barranquilla, Colombia); the corresponding ethical and methodological rigor was kept. Results: the ANOVA results were not significant in the Academic Year factor and in the interaction (p=0.261), but significant by Gender. It was observed that behavior was different in both genders. The masculine gender tends to descend between the first and third undergraduate year and female gender also descends between first and second undergraduate year to later reach the average levels of empathy of the male gender. Conclusion: the results obtained show that the means of the variable studied do not show a great difference between the different undergraduate courses, nevertheless, a slight increase in the fourth undergraduate year is observed. There were significant differences between genders, the scores observed in men students were higher than those obtained from women students.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a orientação empática em estudantes de enfermagem da Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla (Colombia). Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório e transversal, no qual a Escala de Empatia Médica de Jefferson, de forma anônima e confidencial, foi aplicada a 489 alunos do primeiro ao quarto ano de graduação do Programa de Enfermagem da Universidad Metropolitana (Barranquilla, Colombia). o rigor ético e metodológico correspondente foi mantido. Resultados: os resultados da ANOVA não foram significativos no fator Ano Acadêmico e na interação (p=0,261), mas significativos por Gênero. Observou-se que o comportamento foi diferente em ambos os sexos. O gênero masculino tende a descer entre o primeiro e o terceiro ano de graduação e o gênero feminino também desce entre o primeiro e o segundo ano de graduação para atingir posteriormente os níveis médios de empatia do gênero masculino. Conclusão: os resultados obtidos mostram que as médias da variável estudada não apresentam grande diferença entre os diferentes cursos de graduação. no entanto, observa-se um ligeiro aumento no quarto ano de graduação. Houve diferenças significativas entre os sexos, os escores observados nos estudantes do sexo masculino foram superiores aos obtidos nas estudantes do sexo feminino.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la orientación empática en estudiantes de enfermería de la Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla (Colombia). Método: un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio y transversal en el que se aplicó la Escala de Empatía Médica de Jefferson de forma anónima y confidencial a 489 estudiantes del primer a cuarto año de pregrado del Programa de Enfermería de la Universidad Metropolitana (Barranquilla, Colombia); guardando el rigor ético y metodológico correspondiente. Resultados: los resultados de ANOVA no fueron significativos en el factor Año Académico y su interacción (p=0.261), pero significativos para género. Se observó que el comportamiento fue diferente en ambos géneros. El género masculino tiende a descender entre el primer y tercer año de pregrado, y el Género femenino también desciende entre el primer y segundo año de pregrado para luego alcanzar los niveles promedio de empatía del género masculino. Conclusión: los resultados obtenidos muestran que las medias de la variable estudiada no muestran gran diferencia entre los diferentes cursos de pregrado, sin embargo, se observa un ligero aumento en el cuarto año de pregrado. Hubo diferencias significativas entre géneros, las puntuaciones observadas en los estudiantes hombres fueron más altas que las obtenidas en las mujeres estudiantes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Empatia , Estudantes , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Universidades , Comportamento
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4961, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999287

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has heightened discussion of the use of mobile phone data in outbreak response. Mobile phone data have been proposed to monitor effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions, to assess potential drivers of spatiotemporal spread, and to support contact tracing efforts. While these data may be an important part of COVID-19 response, their use must be considered alongside a careful understanding of the behaviors and populations they capture. Here, we review the different applications for mobile phone data in guiding and evaluating COVID-19 response, the relevance of these applications for infectious disease transmission and control, and potential sources and implications of selection bias in mobile phone data. We also discuss best practices and potential pitfalls for directly integrating the collection, analysis, and interpretation of these data into public health decision making.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Bases de Dados Factuais , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18053, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093497

RESUMO

While large scale mobility data has become a popular tool to monitor the mobility patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic, the impacts of non-compulsory measures in Tokyo, Japan on human mobility patterns has been under-studied. Here, we analyze the temporal changes in human mobility behavior, social contact rates, and their correlations with the transmissibility of COVID-19, using mobility data collected from more than 200K anonymized mobile phone users in Tokyo. The analysis concludes that by April 15th (1 week into state of emergency), human mobility behavior decreased by around 50%, resulting in a 70% reduction of social contacts in Tokyo, showing the strong relationships with non-compulsory measures. Furthermore, the reduction in data-driven human mobility metrics showed correlation with the decrease in estimated effective reproduction number of COVID-19 in Tokyo. Such empirical insights could inform policy makers on deciding sufficient levels of mobility reduction to contain the disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Comportamento , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Uso do Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio/epidemiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5094, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037225

RESUMO

Brain lesions do not just disable but also disconnect brain areas, which once deprived of their input or output, can no longer subserve behaviour and cognition. The role of white matter connections has remained an open question for the past 250 years. Based on 1333 stroke lesions, here we reveal the human Disconnectome and demonstrate its relationship to the functional segregation of the human brain. Results indicate that functional territories are not only defined by white matter connections, but also by the highly stereotyped spatial distribution of brain disconnections. While the former has granted us the possibility to map 590 functions on the white matter of the whole brain, the latter compels a revision of the taxonomy of brain functions. Overall, our freely available Atlas of White Matter Function will enable improved clinical-neuroanatomical predictions for brain lesion studies and provide a platform for explorations in the domain of cognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conectoma , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Comportamento , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237914, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886684

RESUMO

Factors beyond a person's control, such as demographic characteristics at birth, often influence the availability of rewards an individual can expect for their efforts. We know surprisingly little how such differences in opportunities impact human motivation. To test this, we designed a study in which we arbitrarily varied the reward offered to each participant in a group for performing the same task. Participants then had to decide whether or not they were willing to exert effort to receive their reward. Across three experiments, we found that the unequal distribution of offers reduced participants' motivation to pursue rewards even when their relative position in the distribution was high, and despite the decision being of no benefit to others and reducing the reward for oneself. Participants' feelings partially mediated this relationship. In particular, a large disparity in rewards was associated with greater unhappiness, which was associated with lower willingness to work-even when controlling for absolute reward and its relative value, both of which also affected decisions to work. A model that incorporated a person's relative position and unfairness of rewards in the group fit better to the data than other popular models describing the effects of inequality. Our findings suggest opportunity-gaps can trigger psychological dynamics that hurt productivity and well-being of all involved.


Assuntos
Motivação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Material well-being, beliefs, and emotional states are believed to influence one's health and longevity. In this paper, we explore racial differences in self-rated health, happiness, trust in others, feeling that society is fair, believing in God, frequency of sexual intercourse, educational attainment, and percent in poverty and their association with mortality. STUDY DESIGNS: Age-period-cohort (APC) study. METHODS: Using data from the 1978-2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index (GSS-NDI), we conducted APC analyses using generalized linear models to quantify the temporal trends of racial differences in our selected measures of well-being, beliefs, and emotional states. We then conducted APC survival analysis using mixed-effects Cox proportional hazard models to quantify the temporal trends of racial differences in survival after removing the effects of racial differences in our selected measures. RESULTS: For whites, the decline in happiness was steeper than for blacks despite an increase in high school graduation rates among whites relative to blacks over the entire period, 1978-2010. Self-rated health increased in whites relative to blacks from 1978 through 1989 but underwent a relative decline thereafter. After adjusting for age, sex, period effects, and birth cohort effects, whites, overall, had higher rates of self-rated health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.63, 2.16), happiness (OR = 2.05; 1.77, 2.36), and high school graduation (OR = 2.88; 2.34, 3.53) compared with blacks. Self-rated health, happiness, and high school graduation also mediated racial differences in survival over time. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that some racial differences in survival could be partly mitigated by eliminating racial differences in health, happiness, and educational attainment. Future research is needed to analyze longitudinal clusters and identify causal mechanisms by which social, behavioral, and economic interventions can reduce survival differences.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Estudos de Coortes , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/etnologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are recognized as one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Human behavior is reportedly one of the critical factors in the occurrence of such injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of abnormal driving behaviors with the frequency and severity of RTIs among drivers in Hamadan, west of Iran. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 800 people driving, who were selected by multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected using a three-part self-administered questionnaire including demographic, social and driving characteristics; the Manchester driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ); as well as information on a history of the occurrence of the injuries caused by the crashes and the severity of them. Data were statistically analyzed using numerical indices, linear regression analysis, Pearson correlation, ordinal logistic regression model and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The highest and lowest mean percentages of abnormal driving behavior were related to unintentional violations (19.13) and Lapses (16.44), respectively. "Changing radio stations and listening to music while driving", "overtaking a driver who drives slowly", and "unintentionally exceeding the speed limit" were the three highest behaviors associated with road traffic injuries, with the mean and standard deviation of (1.93 ± 1.4), (1.90±1.4), (1.58±1.3), respectively. Age, gender, educational level, driving experience and driving hours during the day were significantly associated with DBQ dimensions and severity of road traffic injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that socio-demographic characteristics were significantly correlated with driving behavior. In addition, driving behaviors were correlated with traffic crashes and the resulting injuries. The findings of this study can be utilized to develop driving behavior interventions among the drivers.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comportamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Botswana is currently undergoing rapid epidemiological transition indicated by a decline in infectious diseases and an increase in chronic non-communicable diseases and their associated risk factors. The main aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of multimorbidity among the adult population in Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study called Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Study (NCDs study) was conducted in March, 2016. Using multistage cross sectional sampling design, 1178 male and female respondents aged 15 years and above were interviewed across 3 cities and towns, 15 urban villages and 15 rural villages. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess covariates of multimorbidity. The statistical significant level was fixed at p <0 .05. RESULTS: Prevalence of multimorbidity in the sampled population was estimated at 5.4%. Multivariate results indicate that the odds of multimobridty were significantly high among women (AOR = 3.34, 95% C.I. = 1.22-21.3) than men. On the other hand, the odds of multimorbidity were significantly low among young people aged below 24 years (AOR = 0.01, 95% C.I. = 0.00-0.07), currently married people (AOR = 0.24, 95% C.I. = 0.07-0.80) and individuals in the 2nd wealth quintile (AOR = 0.20, 95% C.I. = 0.05-0.75) compared to their counterparts. For behavioural risk factors, alcohol consumption (AOR = 4.80, 95% C.I. = 1.16-19.8) and overweight/obesity (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12-2.61) were significantly associated with high multimorbidity prevalence. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity was found to be more prevalent among women, alcohol consumers and overweight/obese people. There is need to strengthen interventions encouraging healthy lifestyles such as non-consumption of alcohol, physical activity and healthy diets. Moreover, there is need for a holistic approach of health care services to meet the needs of those suffering from multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(4): 314-327, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873747

RESUMO

Cross talk between both pre- and postsynaptic components of glutamatergic neurotransmission plays a crucial role in orchestrating a multitude of brain functions, including synaptic plasticity and motor planning. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 exhibits promising therapeutic potential for many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders as a consequence of its modulatory control over diverse neuronal networks required for memory, motor coordination, neuronal survival, and differentiation. Given these crucial roles, mGluR5 signaling is under the tight control of glutamate release machinery mediated through vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) that ultimately dictate glutamatergic output. A particular VGLUT isoform, VGLUT3, exhibits an overlapping, but unique, distribution with mGluR5, and the dynamic cross talk between mGluR5 and VGLUT3 is key for the function of specific neuronal networks involved in motor coordination, emotions, and cognition. Thus, aberrant signaling of the VGLUT3-mGluR5 axis is linked to various pathologies including, but not limited to, Parkinson disease, anxiety disorders, and drug addiction. We argue that a comprehensive profiling of how coordinated VGLUT3-mGluR5 signaling influences overall glutamatergic neurotransmission is warranted. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Vesicular glutamate receptor (VGLUT) 3 machinery orchestrates glutamate release, and its distribution overlaps with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 in regional brain circuitries, including striatum, hippocampus, and raphe nucleus. Therefore, VGLUT3-mGluR5 cross talk can significantly influence both physiologic and pathophysiologic glutamatergic neurotransmission. Pathological signaling of the VGLUT3-mGluR5 axis is linked to Parkinson disease, anxiety disorders, and drug addiction. However, it is also predicted to contribute to other motor and cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Transmissão Sináptica
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877453

RESUMO

We illustrate and study the evolution of reported infections over the month of March in New York State as a whole, as well as in each individual county in the state. We identify piecewise exponential trends, and search for correlations between the timing and dynamics of these trends and statewide mandated measures on testing and social distancing. We conclude that the reports on April 1 may be dramatically under-representing the actual number of statewide infections, an idea which is supported by more recent retroactive estimates based on serological studies. A follow-up study is underway, reassessing data until June 1, using additional measures for validation and monitoring for effects of the PAUSE directive, and of the reopening timeline.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881888

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A pterygium is a wing-shaped fibro-vascular growth of conjunctiva on the superficial cornea/conjunctiva. It is an elastotic degeneration of conjunctival stroma mainly due to Ultraviolet light exposure. The prevalence of pterygium varies in different environmental conditions. Its magnitude varies widely from 1.1% to 53% globally and in Ethiopia, it reaches from 8.8% to 38.7%. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of pterygium and its associated factors among adults aged 18 years and above in Gambella town, Southwest Ethiopia, 2019. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15 to May 3, 2019, in Gambella town. A total of 402 study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire, torch, and magnifying loops were used to collect data. The data was entered into epidemiological information 7.1 and exported to statistical package for social science version 20 for analysis. The binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis model was fitted to identify factors associated with pterygium. Odds ratio with respected 95% CI was used to identify the direction and strength of association. RESULTS: A total of 400 participants were examined with a response rate of 99.50%. The mean age of the study participants was 39.9±9.8years. The prevalence of pterygium among adults aged 18 years and above in Gambella town was 127(31.80%), (95% CI: 27.3, 36.3). male sex (AOR = 2.10 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.45), sunlight exposure (AOR = 6.86 (95% CI: 4.00, 11.79) and outdoor works (AOR = 2.10 (95% CI: 1.21, 3.60) were positively associated with pterygium whereas wearing sunglass/hat was a protective factor. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pterygium was high among adults living in Gambella town. Wearing sunglass/hat and reducing exposure time to the sun was important to reduce the development of pterygium in adults.


Assuntos
Pterígio/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento , Meio Ambiente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915875

RESUMO

The paper explores the travelling behaviour of migrant groups using Facebook audience estimates. Reduced geographical mobility is associated with increased risk of social exclusion and reduced socio-economic and psychological well-being. Facebook audience estimates are timely, openly available and cover most of the countries in the world. Facebook classifies its users based on multiple attributes such as the country of their previous residence, and whether they are frequent travellers. Using these data, we modelled the travelling behaviour of Facebook users grouped by countries of previous and current residence, gender and age. We found strong indications that the frequency of travelling is lower for Facebook users migrating from low-income countries and for women migrating from or living in countries with high gender inequality. Such mobility inequalities impede the smooth integration of migrants from low-income countries to new destinations and their well-being. Moreover, the reduced mobility of women who have lived or currently live in countries with conservative gender norms capture another aspect of the integration which is referring to socio-cultural norms and gender inequality. However, to provide more solid evidence on whether our findings are also valid for the general population, collaboration with Facebook is required to better understand how the data is being produced and pre-processed.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Migrantes/psicologia , Viagem/psicologia , Comportamento , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Pobreza/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Sexismo/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes/classificação , Viagem/economia
16.
Av. enferm ; 38(2): 159-169, May-Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114686

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: compreender as percepções dos motoristas de ônibus quanto às vivências no trabalho e aos impactos em seu corpo. Métodos: estudo descritivo pautado no pensamento do fenomenólogo Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado em uma garagem de ônibus, de julho 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Foram entrevistados 24 motoristas de ônibus, com mais de dois anos de profissão. As perguntas abertas do roteiro de entrevista fenomenológica possibilitaram a livre expressão dos significados do trabalho sobre a saúde. Resultados: as relações interpessoais no trânsito impactam diretamente o estado físico e psicológico, e a relação com o tempo influencia o comportamento dos condutores. Conclusão: melhorias no trabalho e nas relações interpessoais são necessárias a fim de garantir a preservação da saúde do motorista de ônibus, que é parte essencial no processo de deslocamento da população, e atenção à saúde mental dos motoristas é pouco valorizada, mas indispensável para o trabalho com pessoas.


Resumen Objetivo: entender las percepciones de los conductores de autobuses en cuanto a las experiencias en el trabajo y los impactos en sus cuerpos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo basado en el pensamiento de fenomenólogo Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado en un garaje de autobuses de julio de 2017 a enero de 2018. Se entrevistaron 24 conductores de autobuses, con más de dos años en la ocupación. Las preguntas abiertas del guion de la entrevista fenomenológica permitieron la libre expresión del significado del trabajo sobre la salud. Resultados: las relaciones interpersonales en el tránsito afectan directamente el estado físico y psicológico, y la relación con el tiempo influye en el comportamiento de los conductores. Conclusión: mejoras en el trabajo y en las relaciones interpersonales son necesarias para garantizar la preservación de la salud del conductor de autobús, que es una parte esencial en el proceso de desplazamiento de la población, y la atención a la salud mental de los conductores es poco valorada, pero indispensable para el trabajo con personas.


Abstract Objective: To understand the perceptions of bus drivers as to the experiences at work and the impacts on their bodies. Methods: Descriptive study based on the phenomenological approach by scholar Maurice Merleau-Ponty, held at a bus garage in the period from July 2017 to January 2018. Twenty-four bus drivers with more than two years of occupation were interviewed. Open-ended questions in the interview script allowed free expression of the phenomenological meanings of work on health. Results: Interpersonal relations directly affect bus drivers' physical and psychological state. Besides, the relationship with time in traffic influences their behavior. Conclusion: Improvements in work and interpersonal relations are necessary in order to ensure the preservation of bus drivers' health, as an essential part for the displacement of the population. Attention to drivers' mental health is little valued, although it becomes essential for a people-related type of work, such as this.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trabalho , Impactos na Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Existencialismo , Enfermagem do Trabalho , Percepção , Comportamento , Ocupações
17.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(8): 516-517, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773896

RESUMO

Why governments need to test their messages on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) before disseminating them. Baruch Fischhoff talks to Fiona Fleck.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , Medição de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000840, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845876

RESUMO

Humans' propensity to acquire literacy relates to several factors, including the ability to understand speech in noise (SiN). Still, the nature of the relation between reading and SiN perception abilities remains poorly understood. Here, we dissect the interplay between (1) reading abilities, (2) classical behavioral predictors of reading (phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming), and (3) electrophysiological markers of SiN perception in 99 elementary school children (26 with dyslexia). We demonstrate that, in typical readers, cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN relates to the degree of development of the lexical (but not sublexical) reading strategy. In contrast, classical behavioral predictors of reading abilities and the ability to benefit from visual speech to represent the syllabic content of SiN account for global reading performance (i.e., speed and accuracy of lexical and sublexical reading). In individuals with dyslexia, we found preserved integration of visual speech information to optimize processing of syntactic information but not to sustain acoustic/phonemic processing. Finally, within children with dyslexia, measures of cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN were negatively related to reading speed and positively related to the compromise between reading precision and reading speed, potentially owing to compensatory attentional mechanisms. These results clarify the nature of the relation between SiN perception and reading abilities in typical child readers and children with dyslexia and identify novel electrophysiological markers of emergent literacy.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Ruído , Leitura , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento , Criança , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Neuroimagem , Fonética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823270

RESUMO

We present a dataset of behavioral data recorded from 61 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The data was collected during a large-scale evaluation of Robot Enhanced Therapy (RET). The dataset covers over 3000 therapy sessions and more than 300 hours of therapy. Half of the children interacted with the social robot NAO supervised by a therapist. The other half, constituting a control group, interacted directly with a therapist. Both groups followed the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) protocol. Each session was recorded with three RGB cameras and two RGBD (Kinect) cameras, providing detailed information of children's behavior during therapy. This public release of the dataset comprises body motion, head position and orientation, and eye gaze variables, all specified as 3D data in a joint frame of reference. In addition, metadata including participant age, gender, and autism diagnosis (ADOS) variables are included. We release this data with the hope of supporting further data-driven studies towards improved therapy methods as well as a better understanding of ASD in general.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Informática Médica , Robótica , Comportamento , Criança , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776962

RESUMO

Deafness leads to brain modifications that are generally associated with a cross-modal activity of the auditory cortex, particularly for visual stimulations. In the present study, we explore the cortical processing of biological motion that conveyed either non-communicative (pantomimes) or communicative (emblems) information, in early-deaf and hearing individuals, using fMRI analyses. Behaviorally, deaf individuals showed an advantage in detecting communicative gestures relative to hearing individuals. Deaf individuals also showed significantly greater activation in the superior temporal cortex (including the planum temporale and primary auditory cortex) than hearing individuals. The activation levels in this region were correlated with deaf individuals' response times. This study provides neural and behavioral evidence that cross-modal plasticity leads to functional advantages in the processing of biological motion following lifelong auditory deprivation.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
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