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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250931, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360206

RESUMO

The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), an insect pest originating in Australia and which feeds only on Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) plants, has spread to several countries. The populations of this insect commonly reach high populations on Eucalyptus plants since its entry into Brazil, and also indicated an unrecorded behavioral. The objectives of this study were to describe a peculiar adaptation in the feeding habit of G. brimblecombei and to register the new habit. The oviposition and feeding by G. brimblecombei, commonly, on the leaves of Eucalyptus, started to occur, also, on lignified twigs. This suggests a not yet recorded adaptation of this insect to reduce insect × plant intraspecific competition.


O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), um inseto praga originário da Austrália e que se alimenta apenas de plantas de Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), se espalhou por vários países. Esse inseto, geralmente, atinge grandes populações em plantas de Eucalyptus desde sua entrada no Brasil e, também, indicou um comportamento diferente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever uma adaptação peculiar no hábito alimentar de G. brimblecombei e registrar o novo hábito. A oviposição e alimentação por G. brimblecombei, geralmente, nas folhas de Eucalyptus, passaram a ocorrer, também, em ramos lignificados. Isso sugere uma adaptação diferente desse inseto para reduzir a competição intraespecífica inseto × planta.


Assuntos
Animais , Oviposição , Comportamento , Eucalyptus/parasitologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-10, ene.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213088

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes self-management (DSM) is essential for patients to achieve better health outcomes. However, previous studies have demonstrated that the performance of DSM is not optimal. This study was designed to identify the significant determinants of self-management behavior in type 2 diabetes(T2DM) patients to improve DSM. Method: A convenient sampling method was employed in this study. Data were collected from a community health center from January to February 2021 in Nanjing city, China. A total of 431 patients completed the self-administered questionnaires. A structural equation model based on the theory of planned behavior(TPB) was adopted for analysis. Results: TPB model presents excellent goodness of fit of data. Attitude (β=0.161, P < 0.01), subjective norms (SN) (β=0.239, P < 0.001), and perceived behavior control (PBC) (β=0.197, P < 0.001) were strong predictors of intention. Intention (β=0.230, P < 0.001) and PBC (β=0.259, P < 0.001) had a direct effect on self-management behavior. The impact of attitude and SN on behavior was significantly mediated via behavioral intention. Conclusion: The application of TPB to self-management behavior in T2DM patients can significantly enhance our understanding of theory-based self-management behavior. This predictive model could potentially be a valuable tool and provide a feasible approach for formulating more targeted and population-specific DSM interventions in future research. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autocontrole , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento , Análise de Classes Latentes
3.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-10, ene.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213092

RESUMO

The ability to empathize with another person's inner experience is believed to be a central element of our social interactions. Previous research has focused on cognitive (e.g., theory of mind) and emotional (e.g., emotional contagion) empathy, and less on behavioral factors (i.e., the ability to respond empathically). Recent studies suggest that the Default Mode Network (DMN) mediates individual variability in distinct empathy-related behaviors. However, little is known about DMN activity during actual empathic responses, understood in this study as the ability to communicate our understanding of the others’ experience back to them. This study used an empathy response paradigm with 28 participants (22-37 years old) to analyze the relationship between the quality of empathic responses to 14 empathy-eliciting vignettes and patterns of attenuation in the DMN. Overall, the results suggest that high levels of empathic response, are associated with sustained activation of the DMN when compared with lower levels of empathy. Our results demonstrate that the DMN becomes increasingly involved in empathy-related behavior, as our level of commitment to the other's experience increases. This study represents a first attempt to understand the relation between the capacity for responding in a supportive way to others’ needs and the intra-individual variability of the pattern of the DMN attenuation. Here we underline the critical role that the DMN plays in high-level social cognitive processes and corroborate the DMN role in different psychiatric disorders associated with a lack of empathy. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento , Emoções , Empatia , Universidades , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
4.
An. psicol ; 39(1): 119-126, Ene-Abr. 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213846

RESUMO

This study examined the role of social interest and empathy in helping and not helping adults during floods. Participants were split into two groups with helping behaviors (N=90) and without helping behaviors (N = 90) during floods from six cities, Khuzestan province, Iran. A demo-graphic questionnaire, the Social Interest Scale (SIS), and the Question-naire Measure of Empathic Tendency (QMET)) were used in this study. Analysis showed that people in the helping group had higher social interest than those in the control group. Also, individuals with helping behaviors had greater performance in susceptibility to emotional contagion, extreme emotional responsiveness, tendency to be moved by others' positive emo-tional experiences, tendency to be moved by others' negative emotional experiences, sympathetic tendency, willingness to be in contact with others who have problems, and the total score of empathy than persons in the control group.These findings can be combined with the emergency aid programs in natural disasters.(AU)


Este estudio examina el papel del interés social y la empatía en ayudar y no ayudar a los adultos durante las inundaciones. Los participantes se dividieron en dos grupos con comportamientos de ayuda (N = 90) y sin comportamientos de ayuda (N = 90) durante las inundaciones de seis ciudades, provincia de Juzestán, Irán. En este estudio se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, la Escala de Interés Social (SIS) y el Cuestionario de Medida de Tendencia Empática (QMET). El análisis mostró que las personas en el grupo de ayuda tenían mayor interés social y empatía que las del grupo de control. Este estudio describe cómo, en resumen, el interés social y la empatía contribuirían a ayudar a las personas afectadas por las inundaciones a salvar sus vidas y sus propiedades. Estos hallazgos se pueden combinar con los programas de ayuda de emergencia en desastres naturales y se convertirán en información pública.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Empatia , Inundações , Socorro de Urgência , Comportamento , Desastres Naturais , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Irã (Geográfico) , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 15(1): 43-52, enero 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214648

RESUMO

Background: Child-to-parent violence is a family issue that needs a systemic and integral approach for its evaluation. The main objective of this longitudinal study was to assess the moderating effects of adolescents’ borderline personality and psychopathic traits (grandiose-manipulative, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions) in the predictive association between inadequate parental strategies (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, and ignoring misbehavior) and child-to-parent violence. Sex differences were analyzed. Method: The community sample comprised 671 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years old (Mage = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% girls, 47.7% boys, and 1.5% non-binary), assessed twice, six months apart from each other. Results: Results showed slightly different patterns of violence towards fathers and mothers – ignoring misbehavior predicted aggression toward mothers, while psychological aggression predicted aggression toward fathers. Moderation analyses showed that the predictive association from ignoring misbehavior to both child-to-father violence (CFV) and child-to-mother violence (CMV) was only significant for adolescents who were high in the psychopathic trait of callous-unemotional, and the predictive association from psychological aggression to CFV was only significant in those adolescents who scored low in the borderline personality trait. Some sex specificities emerged. Conclusions: These findings support the relevance of working on parents’ discipline strategies and add the need to work on adolescents’ emotional regulation to prevent or deal with child-to-parent violence. (AU)


Antecedentes: La violencia filioparental (VFP) es una problemática familiar cuya evaluación requiere una perspectiva sistémica e integral. El objetivo principal de este estudio longitudinal fue evaluar los efectos moderadores de los rasgos límite y psicopáticos (dimensiones grandiosa-manipulativa, fría-insensible e impulsiva-irresponsable) en adolescentes en la relación predictiva entre estrategias inadecuadas parentales (agresión psicológica, castigo físico e ignorar el mal comportamiento) y la VFP. Se analizaron diferencias por sexo de los adolescentes. Método: La muestra comunitaria estuvo compuesta por 671 adolescentes, de edades comprendidas entre 12 y 17 años (Medad = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% chicas, 47.7% chicos y 1.5% no binarios), evaluadas en dos momentos con seis meses de diferencia. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron patrones ligeramente diferentes en la violencia hacia padres y madres: ignorar el mal comportamiento predijo la violencia hacia los madres, mientras que la agresión psicológica predijo la la violencia hacia los padres. Los análisis de moderación mostraron que la asociación predictiva entre ignorar el mal comportamiento y la violencia hacia ambos progenitores era significativa solo en adolescentes con rasgos elevados de frialdad emocional y que la relación predictiva entre agresión psicológica y violencia hacia el padre fue significativa solamente en adolescentes con bajos niveles de rasgos límite. Se observaron algunas especificidades según el sexo de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: Estos resultados abundan en la importancia de trabajar en las estrategias de disciplina parentales y en la regulación emocional de los adolescentes en la prevención de la VFP o en su intervención. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência Doméstica , Personalidade , Adolescente , Comportamento
6.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 21-37, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214807

RESUMO

La ira en el deporte parece ser, aparentemente, una característica intrínseca en el desarrollo de este, sobre todo cuando es la competición la que marca el contexto en el que se desarrolla. Se inicia así, un trabajo de revisión sistemática cuyo objetivo fue conocer el estudio de la ira en deportistas y su relación con variables de personalidad, que pudiesen estar en el origen de aquella o que en cierta medida pudiesen explicar comportamientos violentos. En primer lugar, se seleccionaron las palabras clave (ira, personalidad y deporte) y a continuación se buscaron y seleccionaron en las bases de datos “Web of Science”, “SCOPUS”, “Dialnet”, PsycInfo”, “Psicodoc”, “PubMed” y “SPORTDiscus” aquellos artículos que tuvieran relación con esa temática, obteniendo tras la depuración descrita en el apartado de metodología, un total de 10 artículos, pudiendo señalar como más relevante la conclusión de que, entre otras, existe una estrecha relación entre determinados patrones de personalidad y comportamientos agresivos en el contexto deportivo. A partir de ahí se han discutido las principales aportaciones que han realizado los investigadores pudiendo establecer, como futuras líneas de investigación y aplicación práctica, la utilización de muestra femenina con el fin de generalizar a la totalidad de la población, la creación de cuestionarios estándar que midan las variables de la misma forma y, sobre todo, la instauración de programas de gestión emocional para controlar esos patrones desadaptativos. (AU)


Anger in sport seems to be, apparently, an intrinsic characteristic in the development of sport, especially when it is the competition that marks the context in which it develops. I began a systematic review of the study of anger in athletes and its relationship with personality variables, which could be at the origin of this explain violent behavior. The procedure we followed was firstly, selection of the key words (anger, personality and sport) and then we searched and selected in the databases "Web of Science", "SCOPUS", "Dialnet", "PsycInfo", "Psicodoc", "PubMed" and "SPORTDiscus" those articles that were related to this topic. After thefiltering described in the methodology section, a total of 10 articles were obtained. The most relevant conclusion was that there is a close relationship between certain personality patterns and aggressive and/or unsportsmanlike behavior in the sports context. The main contributions made by the researchers have been establishing as future lines of research and practical application the use of a female sample to be able to generalize to the whole population, the creation of standard questionnaires that measure the variables in the same way and, above all, the creation of emotional management programs to control these maladaptive patterns. (AU)


A raiva no desporto parece ser, aparentemente, uma característica intrínseca no desenvolvimento do desporto, especialmente quando é a competição que marca o contexto em que este se desenvolve. Assim, eu comencei uma revisão sistemática do estudo da raiva nos atletas e da sua relação com as variáveis de personalidade que poderiam estar na origem da mesma ou que, até certo ponto, poderiam explicar comportamentos violentos. Primeiro, foram selecionadas as palavras-chave (raiva, personalidade e desporto) e depois as bases de dados "Web of Science", "SCOPUS", "Dialnet", "PsycInfo", "Psicodoc", "PubMed" e "SPORTDiscus" foram pesquisadas e selecionadas para os artigos relacionados com este assunto, Após a filtragem descrita na secção de metodologia, foi obtido um total de 10 artigos, sendo a conclusão mais relevante que, entre outros, existe uma relação estreita entre certos padrões de personalidade e comportamentos agressivos no contexto desportivo. A partir daí, foram discutidas as principais contribuições feitas pelos investigadores, estabelecendo como linhas futuras de investigação e aplicação prática a utilização de uma amostra feminina a fim de generalizar a toda a população, a criação de questionários padrão que medem as variáveis da mesma forma e, sobretudo, o estabelecimento de programas de gestão emocional para controlar estes padrões maladaptados. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia do Esporte , Ira , Personalidade , Comportamento
7.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 190-205, ene.-abr. 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-214819

RESUMO

O projeto RespirArFundo, através de uma metodologia mista quantitativa e qualitativa teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de um programa de intervenção (22 “sessões teórico-práticas”), com realização de diferentes tipos de atividades, para melhorar os níveis de aptidão física, bem-estar e qualidade de vida (QdV) em professores e funcionários de uma escola secundária da região centro de Portugal. Pretendeu-se ainda avaliar os níveis de satisfação dos participantes com o projeto e identificar as principais barreiras e facilitadores à sua participação. A fase de intervenção deste projeto decorreu entre janeiro e junho de 2021. A amostra foi constituída por 26 profissionais da escola (19 professores e 7 funcionários não docentes), sendo na sua maioria (92.3%) do sexo feminino (53.7 ± 5.0 anos). Para a avaliação da aptidão física foram utilizados os testes “levantar e sentar da cadeira”, “levantar, percorrer 2.44m e sentar” e o “teste de preensão manual”. Para a avaliação do bem-estar recorreu-se às escalas PANAS, SWLS e SVS enquanto o WHOQOL-Bref foi utilizado para a avaliação da QdV. Foi ainda realizado um grupo focal. Apóso programa, verificou-se que os participantes melhoraram no teste “levantar e sentar na cadeira” (η2=0.51), em relação ao momento inicial. Para além disso, os participantes revelaram níveis elevados de satisfação com o programa e percecionaram a existência de benefícios físicos e de bem-estar associados ao projeto, adotando hábitos saudáveis. A importância do projeto foi reconhecida pela Direção da escola, tendo sido atribuídas horas específicas para que o projeto continuassea funcionar nos seguintes anos letivos. (AU)


The project RespirArFundo, through a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative), aimed to assess the effect of an intervention program (22 theoretical-practical sessions). It carried out different types of activities to improve physical fitness levels, well-being,and quality of life (QoL) in teachers and employees of a higher school in the centre region of Portugal. It was also intended to assess the satisfaction levels of the participants that participated in the project as well as to identify the main barriers and facilitators to their participation. The intervention phase of this project took place between January and June 2021. The sample consisted of 26 school professionals (19 teachers and 7 employees). The majority was female (92.3%) with a mean age of 53.7 (± 5.0 years old). In order to assess physical fitness we used the following tests “chair stand”, “8-Ft Up-&-Go” and “hand grip”. For the assessment of well-being, the PANAS, SWLS and SVS scales were used, while the WHOQOL-Bref was used to assess QoL. A focusgroup was also performed. After the program, it was found that participants improved on the test “chair stand” (η2=0.51), in relation to the initial moment. Moreover, participants revealed high levels of satisfaction with the program and perceived the existence of physical and well-being benefits associated with the project, adopting healthy habits. The importance of the project was recognized by the school's management, and specific hours were assigned so that the project continues to function in the following academic years. (AU)


El proyecto RespirArFundo, a través de una metodología mixta cuantitativa y cualitativa, tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de un programa de intervención (22 "sesiones teórico-prácticas"), con diferentes tipos de actividades, para mejorar los niveles de aptitud física, el bienestar y la calidad de vida (CdV) en profesores y empleados de una escuela secundaria en la región central de Portugal. También queríamos evaluar el grado de satisfacción de los participantes con el proyecto e identificar los principales obstáculos y facilitadores de su participación. La fase de intervención de este proyecto tuvo lugar entre enero y junio de 2021. La muestra estaba compuesta por 26 profesionales (19 profesores y 7 personal no docente), siendo la mayoría (92.3%) mujeres (53.7 ± 5.0 años). Para la evaluación de la aptitud física se utilizaron las pruebas "levantarse y sentarse de una silla", "levantarse, caminar 2.44 m y sentarse" y la " fuerza de prensiónmanual ". Se utilizaron las escalas PANAS, SWLS y SVS para evaluar el bienestar, mientras que el WHOQOL-Bref se utilizó para evaluar la CdV. También se realizó un grupo de discusión. Tras el programa, se comprobó que los participantes mejoraron en la prueba "levantarse y sentarse en una silla” (η2=0.51). Además, los participantes revelaron altos niveles de satisfacción con el programa y percibieron la existencia de beneficios físicos y de bienestar asociados al proyecto, adoptando hábitos saludables. La dirección de la escuela reconoció la importancia del proyecto y le asignó horas específicas para que continuara en los años siguientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Exercício Físico , Portugal , Docentes , Comportamento
8.
Neuroscientist ; 29(1): 8, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694922
9.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225272, jan.-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1354777

RESUMO

Aim: To compare the pre-clinical and clinical students` perceptions about the non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques in paediatric dentistry and to investigate the influence of the dental curriculum on the students` knowledge regarding this issue. Methods: A total of 283 students from the IV-and X-semester completed a questionnaire, consisted of 12 statements, describing the nonpharmacological behaviour management techniques for the treatment of paediatric dental patients. The acceptability rate was evaluated with a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. Results: The students from all courses demonstrated high acceptance for Reinforcement and Desensitization techniques and low for the Negative reinforcement and Physical restraint. The comparison between the perceptions of the pre-clinical and clinical students demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the acceptance of the physical restraint, along with Nonverbal communication, Modelling and Parental presence/absence (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results provide information about the students' knowledge and skills in behaviour management techniques together with some insights about how the educational process can modify the students` perceptions and views in dealing with paediatric dental patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Odontologia , Comportamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontopediatria , Métodos
10.
Clín. salud ; 33(3): 109-115, nov. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-212465

RESUMO

A redefinition of insight-type events is presented, an initial attempt to view insight in terms of behavior analysis in the clinical context and relevant variables are suggested for their study. This definition assumes the insight as a novel behavior that involves the search for solutions to psychological problems. Solving a problem is discovering an effective behavior pattern, based on the creation of verbal rules that help the client to reach the solution. In this problem-solving process, a new behavior emerges, explained through the solution of a transfer task. The theoretical proposal exposed allows a better understanding of this phenomenon, overcoming the problems of mentalist conceptions about the term of insight, and contributes to a better understanding of some relevant elements of change process. (AU)


Se presenta una redefinición del evento tipo insight, un intento inicial por explicar el insight en términos del análisis de la conducta en el contexto clínico, así como la propuesta de variables relevantes para su estudio. Esta definición asume el insight como una conducta novedosa que involucra la búsqueda de soluciones a problemas de carácter psicológico. Resolver un problema es descubrir un patrón de conducta efectivo, a partir de la creación de reglas verbales que ayudan al cliente a llegar a la solución. En este proceso de resolución de problemas, emerge una conducta novedosa explicada a través de la solución de una tarea de transferencia. La propuesta teórica expuesta permite una mejor comprensión del fenómeno, superando los problemas de concepciones mentalistas y contribuye a un mejor entendimiento de elementos relevantes del proceso de cambio. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento , Análise do Comportamento Aplicada , Transferência Psicológica , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Psicoterapia
11.
Indoor Air ; 32(10): e13136, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305068

RESUMO

Appropriate knowledge and actions of residents in housing are expected to reduce health effects, defined as "living literacy." With the spread of COVID-19 and the diversification of lifestyles, a quantitative evaluation of a comprehensive model that includes living literacy in the housing environment is required. In this study, the author conducted two web-based surveys of approximately 2000 different households in Japan during the summer of 2020 and winter of 2021, and a statistical analysis based on the survey results. As a result, ventilation by opening windows was observed as a new resident behavior trend under COVID-19. In addition, structural equation modeling using the survey samples confirmed the certain relationship between living literacy and subjective evaluation of the indoor environment and health effects in both periods.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Habitação , Japão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento , Estações do Ano
13.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 96: e202210062-e202210062, Oct. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211611

RESUMO

En ciencias del comportamiento, la expresiónnudge (del inglés, empujón, codazo) se refiere a cualquier aspecto de la arquitectura dela decisión que altera predeciblemente la conducta de las personas en su propio beneficio sin prohibir o restringir de forma signifi-cativa sus opciones. Sus promotores invocan elpaternalismo libertario para justificarlo, lo que significa que se promueve el beneficiodel individuo sin contar con su autonomía, pero sin llegar al punto de coartar la libertad de elección cuando ésta es manifiesta. Eneste trabajo se analiza el papel de losnudges en el ámbito de las políticas de salud. Se lleva a cabo un análisis cognitivo de ellos yse distinguen losnudges clínicos (aquellos que tienen lugar en el seno de la relación sanitario-paciente) de losnudges salubristas(específicos de políticas de salud pública). Se analizan los aspectos éticos de ambas categorías para señalar algunas de sus virtudes ylos retos éticos que plantean. El estudio se centra, de manera particular, en losnudges salubristas, para considerar si es razonable, ycon qué límites, su implementación en crisis sanitarias (por ejemplo, pandemias), donde las políticas públicas se enfrentan al dilemaentre preservar la libertad a costa de la salud pública o, por el contrario, priorizar ésta hasta el punto de limitar aquélla. Se plantea sien este contexto se deberían permitir mayores restricciones de las libertades individuales (por ejemplo, mediante confinamientos ycuarentenas obligatorias, vacunación impuesta, etc.) o bien utilizarnudges como una salida intermedia y menos lesiva de derechosindividuales para promover medidas sanitarias.(AU)


In behavioral science, the term nudge refers to any aspect of decision architecture that predictably alters people’s behavior to impro-ve the chooser’s own welfare without forbidding or significantly restricting their choices. Its promoters invokelibertarian paternalism,which means, on the one hand, that the behavior of the individual is guided without counting on his autonomy, but, on the otherhand, that this form of influence does not reach the point of restricting freedom of choice when it is manifest. This paper analyzesthe role of nudges in the field of health policies. A cognitive analysis of these nudges is carried out and are distinguished the clinicalnudges (those that take place within the healthcare professional and patient relationship) from the public health nudges (specificto public health policies). The ethical aspects of both categories of nudge will be analyzed to point out some of their virtues and theethical challenges they face. This study focuses in particular on public health nudges, to consider whether it is reasonable, and withwhat limits, their implementation in health crises (for example, pandemics). Analyzing that public policies face the dilemma betweenpreserving freedom at the expense of health or, on the contrary, prioritize health to the point of limiting freedom. It is raised whe-ther in this context greater restrictions on individual freedoms should be allowed (for example, through mandatory lockdowns andquarantines, imposed vaccinations, forced tests) or whether to use nudges as an intermediate solution and less harmful to individualrights to promote health measures.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências do Comportamento , Direitos Civis , Liberdade , Pandemias , Recusa de Vacinação , Comportamento , Saúde Pública , Ética
14.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 20(4): 1-10, Oct.-Dec. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213626

RESUMO

Introduction: There has been a considerable increase in the concurrent use of prescribed medicines and herbal products, but most users do not have any information about drug-herb interactions. Objective: Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of pharmacological advice by community pharmacists on promoting the rational use of prescribed medicines together with herbal products. Methods: The study was one group pretest-posttest experimental design, performed on a sample of 32 people who met the following criteria: aged ≥18 years, lived in an urbanized area, have NCDs such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or cardiovascular disease, and have used prescribed medicines and herbal products concurrently. The participants were informed and practically advised on the rational use of herbal products simultaneously with prescribed medicines, the possibility of drug-herb interactions, and self-monitoring of possible adverse effects. Results: After implementing pharmacological advice, the participants showed a significant increase in knowledge of rational drug-herb use: from 5.8±1.8 to 8.4±1.6 out of a total of 10 (p<0.001), and their score in terms of appropriate behavior rose from 21.7±2.9 to 24.4±3.1 out of a total of 30 (p<0.001). Additionally, the number of patients with herb-drug interaction risk decreased statistically significantly (37.5% and 25.0%, p=0.031). Conclusion: Pharmacy-led advice on rational use of herbal products with prescribed NCD medicines is effective in terms of promoting increases in knowledge and appropriate behavior in these matters. This is a strategy for risk management of herb-drug interactions in NCD patients. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Farmácias , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Conhecimento , Comportamento
15.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 555-564, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208827

RESUMO

Underreport of symptoms and personality characteristics is a relevant problem for psychological assessment. Nevertheless, most of the studies in this field use simulation designs. This study aims at comparing underreport prevalence in real world samples of different contexts, using single-scale and multiple scale underreport indicators from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2) to identify the best one and assess its implications on the clinical scales scores. Using a Differential Prevalence Group design, 1438 participants were assessed with the MMPI-2, grouped in three samples from two non-clinical contexts (community and organizational) and one clinical context. The organizational sample had the highest prevalence of underreporting. Overall, multiple scale indicator LKS ≥ T65 performed better at distinguishing these samples. Analysis of variance revealed that LKS ≥ T65 was also the only indicator in which participants doing underreport consistently varied from honest re-sponders in the clinical scales scores, while also having lower probability of producing both type I and II errors. The existence of underreport has clear implication on the clinical scales results. The multiple scale indicator is the most robust and should be used in the detection of underreporting. This is a relevant implication for psychological assessment in different contexts, mainly in the organizational context.(AU)


La minimización de síntomas es un problema relevante para la evaluación psicológica. La mayoría de los estudios utilizan diseños de simulación. Este estudio tiene como objetivo comparar la prevalencia de la minimización de síntomas y sus implicaciones, utilizando indicadores de escala única y de escala múltiple del Inventario Multifásico de Personalidad de Minnesota-2 (MMPI-2) en muestras reales. Utilizando un diseño de Grupo de Prevalencia Diferencial se evaluaron 1438 participantes, agrupados en tres muestras: dos no clínicas (comunitario y organizacional) y una muestra clínica. La muestra organizacional tuvo la mayor prevalencia de minimización de síntomas. En general, el indicador de escala múltiple LKS ≥ T65 proporcionó los mejores resultados. El análisis de la varianza reveló que el LKS ≥ T65 era también el único indicador de diferenciación, en las escalas clínicas, de los participantes que realizaban o no la minimización de síntomas, a la vez que tenía una menor probabilidad de producir errores tipo I y II. La presencia de minimización tiene una clara implicación en las puntuaciones clínicas. El indicador de escalas múltiples es el más robusto en la detección de la minimización de síntomas y es relevante para la evaluación en diferentes contextos, principalmente en lo organizacional.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Mental , Testes de Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Depressão , Comportamento , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social , Medicina do Comportamento
16.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(3): 145-160, 15 octubre de 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402190

RESUMO

Objective.To evaluate the effectiveness of the application of an educational program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in Adopting Preventive Behaviors from Self-Medication among Women in Iran. Methods. Interventional study with pre and post phases. 200 women referring to the health centers of Urmia were selected by simple random sampling, divided into two groups of treatment and control. Data collection instruments were researcher-devised questionnaire including the questionnaire of Knowledge of Self-medication, the Questionnaire of Preventive Behaviors from Self-medication, and the questionnaire of Health Belief Model. The questionnaires were assessed for expert validity and then, were checked for reliability. The educational intervention was conducted for the treatment group during four weeks four 45-minute sessions. Results.The average scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficiency, and post-intervention performance in have increased in treatment group, comparing to the control group, All findings were statistically significant (p<0.05). Furthermore, social media, doctors, and disbelief in self-medication were more effective in increasing awareness and encouraging to have proper medication, also, the highest self-medication was in taking pain-relievers, cold tablets and antibiotics, which showed significant decrease in treatment group after the intervention. Conclusion.The educational program based onHealth Belief Modelwas effective in reducing the self-medication among the studied women. Furthermore, it is recommended to use social media and doctors to improve the awareness and motivation among people. Thus, applying the educational programs and plans according to the Health Belief Model can be influential in reducing the self-medication.


Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia de la aplicación de un programa educativo basado en el Modelo de Creencias sobre la Salud (MCS) en la adopción de conductas preventivas de la automedicación entre las mujeres de Irán. Métodos. Estudio de intervención con evaluación pre y post. Se seleccionaron 200 mujeres que acudieron a los centros de salud de Urmia, a quienes se asignaron a los dos grupos de estudio (tratamiento y control) mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple. Para la recolección de la información se utilizaron los cuestionarios sobre: Conocimientos acerca de la automedicación, conductas preventivas de la automedicación y el modelo de creencias sobre la salud. Se evaluó la validez de los cuestionarios por parte de los expertos y luego se comprobó su confiabilidad. La intervención educativa se llevó a cabo para el grupo de tratamiento durante cuatro semanas con 1 sesión semanal de 45 minutos de duración.Resultados.Las puntuaciones medias de los conocimientos, la susceptibilidad percibida, la gravedad percibida, los beneficios percibidos, las barreras percibidas, las señales para la acción, la autoeficacia y el rendimiento posterior a la intervención aumentaron en el grupo de tratamiento en comparación con el grupo de control, y todos los resultados fueron estadísticamente significativos (p<0.05). Además, los medios de comunicación social fueron eficaces para aumentar la concienciación y animar a tener una medicación adecuada. La mayor automedicación fue en la toma de analgésicos, pastillas para el resfriado y antibióticos, que mostró una disminución significativa en el grupo de tratamiento después de la intervención. Conclusión. El programa educativo basado en el Modelo de Creencias de Salud fue eficaz para reducir la automedicación entre las mujeres estudiadas. Además, se recomienda utilizar los medios de comunicación social para mejorar la concienciación y la motivación de las personas.


Objetivo. Avaliar a eficácia da aplicação de um programa educativo baseado no Modelo de Crenças em Saúde (HCM) na adoção de comportamentos preventivos de automedicação entre mulheres no Irã. Métodos. Estudo de intervenção com pré e pós avaliação. Duzentas mulheres que frequentavam os centros de saúde de Urmia foram selecionadas e alocadas nos dois grupos de estudo (tratamento e controle) por meio de amostragem aleatória simples. Para a coleta de informações, foram utilizados os questionários sobre: Conhecimento sobre automedicação, comportamentos preventivos de automedicação e o modelo de crenças sobre saúde. A validade dos questionários foi avaliada pelos especialistas e, em seguida, verificada sua confiabilidade. A intervenção educativa foi realizada para o grupo de tratamento durante quatro semanas com 1 sessão semanal com duração de 45 minutos. Resultados.Os escores médios de conhecimento, suscetibilidade percebida, gravidade percebida, benefícios percebidos, barreiras percebidas, pistas para ação, autoeficácia e desempenho pós-intervenção aumentaram no grupo de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de intervenção. controle, e todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significativos (p<0.05). Além disso, as mídias sociais foram eficazes na conscientização e no incentivo à medicação adequada. A maior automedicação foi em uso de analgésicos, antissépticos e antibióticos, que apresentou diminuição significativa no grupo de tratamento após a intervenção. Conclusão.O programa educativo baseado no Modelo de Crenças em Saúde foi eficaz na redução da automedicação entre as mulheres estudadas. Além disso, recomenda-se o uso das mídias sociais para melhorar a conscientização e a motivação das pessoas.


Assuntos
Feminino , Automedicação , Mulheres , Comportamento , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde
17.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 53(3): 53-74, septiembre 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-210806

RESUMO

A lo largo de estos años, la Planificación Centrada en la Persona (PCP) se ha encontrado con obstáculos que han impedido atender y cubrir algunas de las necesidades de las personas con discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo con problemas de conducta tanto en el ambiente familiar, profesional y personal (PCDI/PC). Por este motivo surge el presente estudio, detectar las necesidades que tienen PCDI/PC y, a su vez, las necesidades de los profesionales y familiares que afectan en la atención a las PCDI/PC mediante grupos de discusión con profesionales, familias y PCDI/PC que forman parte de Plena Inclusión Madrid. En total han participado 82 personas que se distribuyen en profesionales (sanitarios, educativos, laborales y sociales), familias y PCDI/PC y, en total, se han detectado 81 necesidades que afectan a estos tres grupos. Como conclusión, estas necesidades descubiertas están suponiendo un obstáculo para que la metodología PCP tenga efectividad en las PCDI/PC, por lo que sería interesante que en futuros trabajos se estudien dimensiones que ayuden a cubrirlas. (AU)


Throughout these years, Person Centered Planning (PCP) has encoun-tered obstacles that have prevented meeting some of the needs of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities with behavior problems both in the family, professional and personal environment. For this reason, the present study arises, to detect the needs of PCDI/PC, and in turn, the needs of professionals and family members that affect the care of PCDI/PC through discussion groups with professionals, families and PCDI/PC that are part of Plena Inclusión Madrid. In total, 82 people participated, divided into professionals (health, educational, work and social), families and PCDI/PC, and in total, 81 needs have been detected that affect these three groups. In conclusion, these discov-ered needs are posing an obstacle for the PCP methodology to be effective in PCDI/PC, so it would be interesting for future studies to study measures to help cover them. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Comportamento , Tomada de Decisões , Relações Interpessoais , Terapêutica , Diagnóstico
18.
Pap. psicol ; 43(3): 225-234, Sept. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212856

RESUMO

La psicología clínica requiere de constantes desarrollos científicos que lleven a una explicación de la complejidad de los trastornos mentales y sus bases causales. Las aproximaciones evolutivas han mostrado ser de particular poder heurístico para esta tarea. Entre ellas, la Teoría de Historia de Vida (THV) incorpora avances teóricos y empíricos novedosos y significativos. No obstante, existe la necesidad de incorporar investigación y aproximaciones evolutivas adicionales de interés. Por lo tanto, en este artículo se propondrá el potencial de integración al ampliar la causalidad evolutiva en conjunción con aproximaciones de sistemas psicobiológicos de conducta. Para esto se utilizará como ejemplo el Trastorno Límite de Personalidad, ampliando su comprensión como una interacción de causas próximas entre los sistemas psicobiológicos de estrés y apego, dentro del marco de causas últimas de THV. Finalmente, se demarcarán aspectos que nutren el campo clínico con implicaciones para la evaluación y los dominios de intervención.(AU)


Clinical psychology requires continuous research to encourage integrative explanations for the complexity of mental disorders and their underlying causes. Biological evolutionary approaches have shown particular heuristic power for this endeavor. Life history theory (LHT) is an evolutionary model that incorporates novel and significant theoretical and empirical advances. However, there is a growing need for the incorporation of other successful evolutionary approaches. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to propose potential integrative connections between evolutionary causal modes, behavior systems, and LHT. For this, borderline personality disorder is used as an example of a condition that can be understood as an interaction between stress and attachment psychobiological systems (proximate causes), within the framework of ultimate causes clarified by LHT. To conclude, we will outline several aspects that could enhance the clinical field with implications for assessment and intervention.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Traços de História de Vida , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Estresse Psicológico , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento , Psicopatologia , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social
19.
Trials ; 23(1): 653, 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the American population. Furthermore, the prognosis is worse in African American as there is increased morbidity and mortality associated with it. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new online method to educate the patient population regarding prostate cancer risk, diagnosis, treatments, and their decisions about whether to be screened for the early detection of prostate cancer. METHODS: Two hundred Black male patients are recruited from different clinical sites and randomized to either the control arm (usual care) or the intervention arm (educational program). We will compare the effectiveness of the intervention to see if patients are discussing the need of getting a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and the possible benefits and harms that may result of having or not having the test, with their primary care providers. DISCUSSION: Shared decision-making (SDM) is the current standard in most cancer-screening guidelines and also a standard of person-centered care. However, there is a lack of evidence-based approaches to improve decision quality in clinical settings and an increased ambiguity of applying SDM for PSA-based screening among Black men in primary care. Our proposal to evaluate a decisional-aid intervention and measure the actual application of SDM during clinical encounters has a high potential to advance the translation path of implementing shared decision-making in clinical settings and provide evidence of the applicability of the guideline in general. INNOVATION AND OVERALL IMPACT: Given the 2018 USPSTF updated guidelines recommending shared decision-making about PSA-based screening, the increased risk of prostate cancer mortality in Black men, the challenges of evidence-based decision-making due to the underrepresentation of Blacks in major randomized clinical trials, and implicit racial bias among primary care providers, the time is ripe for interventions to improve shared decision-making about prostate cancer screening in Black men. In this study, we address communication and knowledge gaps between Black men and their primary care providers. The intervention, if proven effective, can be readily scaled across primary care practices across the U.S. and may be adapted to other types of cancer where guidelines have included shared decision-making as well. Early detection of prostate cancer may decrease mortality and morbidity in the long term.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias da Próstata , Comportamento , Tomada de Decisões , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Estados Unidos
20.
Science ; 377(6606): 589, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926020

RESUMO

Noninvasive, reversible stimulation of neural circuits can regulate behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Encéfalo , Vias Neurais , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
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