Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.842
Filtrar
1.
Rev. Psicol., Divers. Saúde ; 13(1)abr. 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551270

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: A avaliação neuropsicológica tem alta relevância na adolescência e em situação de conflito com a lei, com privação de liberdade em instituições socioeducativas, pode auxiliar, compondo abordagens psicossociais que identifiquem as funções neuropsicológicas, situando-as a partir da historicidade do indivíduo. Deste modo, para compreender esse problema, foi objetivo desse estudo avaliar e descrever as funções neuropsicológicas de adolescentes meninas privadas de liberdade em instituição socioeducativa. MÉTODOS: As participantes foram 19 meninas avaliadas com os instrumentos: Barratt Scale, Inventário de Expressão de Raiva, teste Wisconsin de classificação de cartas, protocolo neuropsicológico, questionário para uso de drogas e Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. RESULTADOS: O uso de drogas na vida ocorreu em 80,0% dos casos. Verificaram-se altos escores de impulsividade total (M=75,8, DP=5,4), traço de raiva (M=24,5, DP=7,3) e respostas perseverativas (M =38,5, DP =19,9). Em conjunto com PCL-R total (M=17,5, DP=3,6) e com QI total (M=79,1, DP=16,2), esses níveis auxiliaram na caracterização das funções de autocontrole. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados foram interpretados como indicativos de baixo funcionamento executivo, altos níveis de raiva, de impulsividade, de uso de drogas e de traços de psicopatia. Foram relatadas adversidades durante a infância, o que pode ter contribuído para um desempenho prejudicado nas funções cognitivas e emocionais dessas meninas.


OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological assessment is highly relevant in adolescence and in situations of conflict with the law, with deprivation of liberty in socio-educational institutions, it can help, composing psychosocial approaches that identify neuropsychological functions, situating them based on the individual's historicity. Therefore, to understand this problem, the objective of this study was to evaluate and describe the neuropsychological functions of adolescent girls deprived of liberty in a socio-educational institution. METHODS: The participants were 19 girls evaluated with the following instruments: Barratt Scale, Anger Expression Inventory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Neuropsychological protocol, drug use questionnaire and Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. RESULTS: Lifetime drug use occurred in 80.0% of cases. There were high scores for total impulsivity (M=75.8, SD=5,4), trait anger (M=24.5, SD=7.3) and perseverative responses (M=38.5, SD=19.9). Together with total PCL-R (M=17.5, SD=3.6) and total IQ (M=79.1, SD=16), these levels helped to characterize self-control functions. CONCLUSIONS: The data were interpreted as indicating low executive functioning, high levels of anger, impulsivity, drug use and psychopathic traits. Adversities were reported during childhood, which may have contributed to impaired performance in the cognitive and emotional functions of these girls.


OBJETIVO: La evaluación neuropsicológica es de gran relevancia en la adolescencia y en las situaciones de conflicto con la ley, con privación de libertad en instituciones socioeducativas, puede ayudar, componiendo enfoques psicosociales que identifiquen funciones neuropsicológicas, las situando en función de la historicidad del individuo. Por tanto, para comprender esta problemática, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar y describir las funciones neuropsicológicas de niñas adolescentes privadas de libertad en una institución socioeducativa. MÉTODOS: Las participantes fueron 19 niñas evaluadas con los siguientes instrumentos: Escala de Barratt, Inventario de Expresión de Ira, Test de clasificación de cartas de Wisconsin, protocolo neuropsicológico, cuestionario de consumo de drogas y Lista de Verificación de Psicopatía de Hare Revisada. RESULTADOS: El consumo de drogas durante la vida ocurrió en el 80,0% de los casos. Hubo puntuaciones altas en impulsividad total (M = 75,8, DE = 5,4), rasgo de ira (M = 24,5, DE = 7,3) y respuestas perseverativas (M = 38,5, DE = 19,9). Junto con el PCL-R total (M=17,5, DE=3,6) y el CI total (M=79,1, DE=16,2), estos niveles ayudaron a caracterizar las funciones de autocontrol. CONCLUSIONES: Se interpretó que los datos indicaban un bajo funcionamiento ejecutivo, altos niveles de ira, impulsividad, consumo de drogas y rasgos psicopáticos. Se informaron adversidades durante la infancia, que pueden haber contribuido al deterioro del desempeño en las funciones cognitivas y emocionales de estas niñas.


Assuntos
Neuropsicologia , Mulheres , Comportamento
2.
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 1-10, Ene-Abr, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229710

RESUMO

En fechas recientes, el Secretario General de Naciones Unidas, António Guterres, presentaba una nota técnica sobre ciencias del comportamiento (United Nations, 2021) y su aplicación por parte de distintas organizaciones de Naciones Unidas, para lograr cubrir los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenibles 2030. Asimismo, otras organizaciones de ámbito supranacional están también creando o bien unidades propias de «análisis y diseño del comportamiento» o bien liderando iniciativas específicas. Hasta la fecha, no se ha analizado la estructura de este tipo de unidades. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es conocer, a través de un estudio observacional de sus sitios web, tanto la estructura de las unidades de análisis de determinantes del comportamiento de organizaciones supranacionales como su composición, así como los principales tipos de proyectos que llevan a cabo y las implicaciones y oportunidades que representan para los profesionales de la psicología.(AU)


Recently, the United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres, presented a technical note on behavioral science (United Nations, 2021) and its application by different UN organizations, in order to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. Other supranational organizations are also setting up their own «behavioral analysis and design units» or leading specific initiatives. So far, the structure of such behavioral analysis units has not been examined. The aim of our work is to find out, through an observational study of their websites, both the structure and composition of the behavior design and analysis units of supranational organizations, as well as the main types of projects they carry out and the opportunities and implications created for psychology professionals.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Organizações , Comportamento , Análise do Comportamento Aplicada , Psicologia
3.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 5-40, Abr 1, 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232220

RESUMO

El diagnóstico categorial de los trastornos de la personalidad (TTPP) ha sido criticado por diversas razones, entras las que se encuentran el solapamiento de síntomas entre distintos trastornos, su elevada comorbilidad o el carácter dicotómico de su diagnóstico. Estas críticas han llevado al desarrollo de un planteamiento dimensional en las últimas versiones de los sistemas de clasificación, DSM-5/DSM-5-TR y CIE-11, considerando dos aspectos: el funcionamiento de la personalidad y una serie de rasgos patológicos. A pesar de la cuantiosa literatura publicada desde principio de este siglo sobre esta propuesta dimensional, no está claro, a día de hoy, que tenga alguna utilidad clínica. La vaga, abstracta y poco operativizable exposición de lo que constituye el funcionamiento de la personalidad y la compleja y forzada designación de rasgos mayores y menores (facetas) en el DSM-5/DSM-5-TR o sólo mayores y opcionales en la CIE-11, complican el diagnóstico dimensional de los TTPP. En este trabajo se discuten todas estas cuestiones en un intento de aportar algo de luz para un futuro menos sombrío que el actual panorama de los TTPP.(AU)


The categorical diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs) has been criticized forvarious reasons, among which are overlapping of symptoms between differentdisorders, their high comorbidity, and the dichotomous nature of their diagnosis.These criticisms have led to the development of a dimensional approach in thelatest versions of the classification systems, DSM-5/DSM-5-TR and ICD-11,considering two substantial aspects for its new diagnosis: personality functioning,and a series of pathological features. Despite the large amount of literature thathas been published since the beginning of this century on this dimensionalproposal, it is not clear, to date, that this approach enhances clinical utility. Thevague, abstract, and inoperative exposition of what constitutes personalityfunctioning and the complex and forced designation of major and minor traits(facets) in the DSM-5/DSM-5-TR, and only major and optional traits in the ICD-11,complicate, in an unusual way, the dimensional diagnosis of PDs. This paperdiscusses all of these issues in an attempt to shed some light on the potentially darkfuture of the current PDs panorama.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Comportamento , Psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças
4.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 41-63, Abr 1, 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232221

RESUMO

Hay un creciente interés por entender los trastornos de la personalidad (TTPP) desde el modelo de los cinco factores. Miller et al. (2005) y Costa y McCrae (2005) propusieron dos conjuntos de escalas basadas en las facetas del “Inventario de personalidad NEO-revisado” (NEO PI-R) para evaluar los TTPP del DSM-5. Existen baremos españoles para las escalas de Miller et al. (2005) a partir de muestras de selección de personal, pero no son apropiados en contextos con deseabilidad social baja. Se presentan datos normativos, de fiabilidad y validez convergente/ discriminante para ambos conjuntos de escalas con voluntarios de la población general española (N= 682). Los índices de consistencia interna y validez convergente/ discriminante fueron excelentes o buenos para todas las escalas, especialmente para las de Miller et al. (2005). Las diferencias entre la muestra de voluntarios y de selección de personal (d= 0,61) y entre varones y mujeres (d= 0,34-0,38) justifican el desarrollo de baremos para los dos conjuntos de escalas de TTPP para situaciones de deseabilidad social baja y separados por sexo. Se discute su utilidad en diferentes contextos.(AU)


There is increasing interest in understanding personality disorders (PDs) fromthe five-factor model. Miller et al. (2005) and Costa and McCrae (2005) proposedtwo sets of scales based on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) facetsto assess DSM-5 PDs. There are Spanish norms for the scales of Miller et al. (2005)based on personnel selection samples, but they are not appropriate for contextswith low social desirability. Normative, reliability, and convergent/discriminantvalidity data are presented for both sets of scales with volunteers from the generalSpanish population (N= 682). The internal consistency and convergent/discriminantvalidity indices were excellent or good for all scales, especially for those of Miller etal. (2005). The differences between the sample of volunteers and that of personnelselection (d= 0.61) and between males and females (d= 0.34-0.38) justify the development of norms for the two sets of PD scales for situations of low socialdesirability and separate for males and females. Their usefulness in differentcontexts is discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Espanha , Psicologia , Comportamento , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 65-87, Abr 1, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232222

RESUMO

Este artículo presenta dos estudios que evalúan la validez de constructo y la fiabilidad del “Cuestionario de esquemas desadaptativos tempranos de Young – versión breve” (YSQ-S3; Young, 2005). El primer estudio, con 1004 participantes, mostró que el YSQ-S3 tenía una excelente fiabilidad global ( de Cronbach= 0,97;  = 0,97); mientras que los factores mostraron una fiabilidad de aceptable a buena según el rango en que se ubicaron los coeficientes de fiabilidad mínimo y máximo de las 18 escalas ( de 0,67 a 0,89 y  de 0,67 a 0,86). El análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC) mostró que el modelo de 18 factores de primer orden correlacionados tenía los mejores índices de ajuste. Además, mediante el AFC con factores de segundo orden, se halló evidencia que respalda la organización jerárquica del instrumento en cinco dominios de segundo orden. El estudio 2, con 806 participantes, replicó exitosamente el mejor modelo del estudio 1 frente a uno alternativo. Se concluye que el YSQ-S3 es un instrumento válido y fiable para la población adulta colombiana.(AU)


This article presents two studies evaluating the construct validity andreliability of the "Young's Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire - ShortVersion" (YSQ-S3; Young, 2005). The first study, with 1004 participants, showedthat the YSQ-S3 had excellent overall reliability according (Cronbach’s α= .97; ω=.97); while the factors showed acceptable to good reliability according to therange in which the minimum and maximum reliability coefficients of the 18 scaleswere placed (α from .67 to .89 , and ω from .67 to .86) . Confirmatory factoranalysis (CFA) showed that the model with 18 first-order correlated factors had he best fit indices. In addition, using CFA with second-order factors, evidencewas found to support the hierarchical organization of the instrument into fivesecond-order domains. Study 2, with 806 participants, successfully replicated thebest model of study 1 against an alternative one. It is concluded that the YSQ-S3is a valid and reliable instrument for the Colombian adult population.K EY WORDS : factor structure, validity, reliability, early maladaptive schemas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicometria , Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicologia , Comportamento , Colômbia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 111-123, Abr 1, 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232224

RESUMO

Diversos estudios demuestran que la dependencia emocional es un problema relevante por sus consecuencias en todos los ámbitos de la vida. Los esquemas cognitivos tempranos y las dificultades en la regulación emocional son unos de los factores implicados en su etiología. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la relación entre estas variables, hipotetizando que las dificultades en la regulación emocional median la relación entre los esquemas disfuncionales tempranos y la dependencia emocional. Participaron 711 españoles jóvenes, de entre 18 y 30 años, con una edad media de 21,32 años (DT= 2,94). Los resultados mostraron una correlación positiva entre las tres variables y que las dificultades en la regulación emocional mediaban la relación entre los esquemas disfuncionales tempranos y la dependencia emocional en el caso del Abandono, la Dependencia, la Subyugación, la Inhibición emocional, el Autocontrol insuficiente, la Defectuosidad y el Autosacrificio. Este estudio muestra cómo se pueden relacionar estas variables y proporciona información útil para ayudar a las personas con dependencia emocional.(AU)


Several studies show that emotional dependence is a relevant problembecause of its consequences in all areas of life. Early cognitive schemas anddifficulties in emotional regulation are some of the factors involved in itsaetiology. The aims of the present study were to analyse the relationship betweenthese variables, hypothesising that difficulties in emotional regulation mediate therelationship between early dysfunctional schemas and emotional dependence.The sample consisted of 711 young Spanish participants aged between 18-30years, with an average age of 21.32 years (SD= 2.94). The results showed apositive correlation between the three variables and that difficulties in emotionalregulation mediated the relationship between early dysfunctional schemas and emotional dependence in the case of Abandonment, Dependence, Subjugation,Emotional inhibition, Insufficient self-control, Defectiveness and Self-sacrifice. Thisstudy gives us a clearer picture of how these variables are related and providesinformation that could be of great use in assisting people with emotionaldependence.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento do Adolescente , Espanha , Psicologia , Comportamento
7.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 165-180, Abr 1, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232227

RESUMO

El temperamento difícil es un conjunto de características conductuales asociadas a la salud mental y un predictor significativo de psicopatología. El objetivo de este estudio era investigar qué características temperamentales pueden considerarse atributos del temperamento difícil en adultos lituanos. La muestra consistió en 429 adultos de entre 18 y 79 años de edad. Se utilizó el “Cuestionario de temperamento adulto” para evaluar las características temperamentales y el temperamento difícil percibido. Los datos se analizaron mediante un enfoque de métodos mixtos. Los resultados mostraron que el conjunto de atributos percibidos como constitutivos del temperamento difícil incluye características como el estado de ánimo negativo, la intensidad de las reacciones emocionales, la baja adaptabilidad, el retraimiento y la baja regularidad. El análisis de los datos cuantitativos reveló una inesperada relación negativa entre el temperamento difícil percibido y la característica de ritmicidad, mientras que en los datos cualitativos surgió una nueva categoría de terquedad. Estos hallazgos aportan nuevos conocimientos tanto sobre las especificidades culturales del temperamento difícil como sobre el contenido del constructo temperamento en general. Estos resultados también pueden ayudar en el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones sobre el temperamento difícil, así como en la planificación de intervenciones de salud mental y asesoramiento psicológico.(AU)


Difficult temperament is a set of behavioral characteristics that areassociated with mental health and a significant predictor of psychopathology.This study aims to investigate which temperamental characteristics can beconsidered attributes of difficult temperament in Lithuanian adults. The sampleconsisted of 429 adults between 18 and 79 years of age. The Adult TemperamentQuestionnaire was used to assess temperamental characteristics and perceiveddifficult temperament. Data were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach. Theresults revealed that the set of attributes perceived as constituting difficulttemperament includes characteristics such as negative mood, intensity ofemotional reactions, low adaptability, withdrawal, and low regularity.Quantitative data analysis uncovered an unexpected negative relationshipbetween perceived difficult temperament and the rhythmicity characteristic, whilea new category of stubbornness emerged in the qualitative data. The findingsprovide new knowledge about both the cultural specifics of difficult temperamentand the content of the temperament construct in general. These results can alsoaid in the development of further research on difficult temperament, as well as inthe planning of mental health interventions and psychological counseling.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Comportamento , Temperamento , Temperamento/classificação , Saúde Mental , Psicopatologia
8.
Rev. esp. sanid. penit ; 26(1): 9-17, Ene-Abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231142

RESUMO

Objetivos: El cuestionario de agresión (AQ) de Buss-Perry (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; Buss y Perry, 1992) es una medida utilizada en la población en general. Existe un debate sobre la interpretación de las puntuaciones y la utilidad de una versión más breve (AQ-SV [short version]). El objetivo de este estudio es analizar y comparar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión larga (AQ-LV [long version]) y la breve y comprobar la fiabilidad de la versión breve en una muestra de varones encarcelados. Material y método: La muestra estaba formada por 236 varones encarcelados (edad media de 40,4 años) del Centro Penitenciario Ocaña I (Toledo), que se ofrecieron a participar en el estudio. La muestra se seleccionó mediante la técnica de muestreo aleatorio por niveles, basada en el número de reclusos internos. También se incluyó una lista aleatoria de posibles sustitutos en caso de negativa a ser entrevistados, interrumpiéndose la sustitución en caso de dos negaciones consecutivas. Este estudio es un diseño descriptivo transversal. Resultados: La versión breve de la escala demostró un mejor ajuste que la versión larga, como indican los valores mayores del índice de ajuste comparativo (CFI, comparative fit index) y los menores del cuadrado medio residual ponderado (WRMR, weighted root mean square residual). El número de penas de prisión se asoció positivamente con la agresión física, la agresión verbal, la ira y la hostilidad. Los coeficientes fueron ligeramente superiores para la versión breve que para la versión larga. Discusión: La versión breve del cuestionario AQ es un instrumento válido y de utilidad para medir la agresividad en contextos penitenciarios en relación con la versión larga, y se correlaciona con subescalas de agresión con más fuerza que la versión larga.(AU)


Objectives: The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992) is a broad measurement tool used with the general public in Spain. There is some debate regarding the interpretation of AQ scores and the usefulness of a shorter version. The aim is to study and compare the psychometric properties of the long and short version of the AQ and check the reliability of the short version in a sample of male prisoners. Material and method: The sample was composed of 236 incarcerated males (mean age of 40.4 years of age) from Ocaña 1 prison center who volunteered to participate in the study. The sample was selected by using the tiered random sampling technique based on the internal inmate number. A random list of possible substitutes was also included in the event of refusal to be interviewed, with replacement being discontinued in the event of two consecutive refusals. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional design. Results: The short version of the scale demonstrated better adjustment than the long version, as indicated by the larger CFI and smaller WRMR values. The number of prison sentences was positively associated with physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. The coefficients were slightly higher for the short version of the scale than the long one. Discussion: The short version of the AQ is a valid instrument for measuring aggressiveness in prison contexts in relation to the long version, and correlates with subscales of aggression more strongly than the long one.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Prisioneiros , Agressão/classificação , Psicometria , Violência , Comportamento , Comportamento Perigoso , Espanha , Prisões , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100423], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230362

RESUMO

Background/objective: A neurocognitive model of distancing has systematically identified a set of brain regions that support the control mechanisms for emotion regulation (ER). However, the temporal dynamics of these control mechanisms during ER remains unclear. Method: To address this issue, we recorded behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) data to compare proactive and reactive ER modes in an adapted ER task (N = 30 adults). In different ER modes, participants were instructed to downregulate their negative emotional experiences by applying the reappraisal tactic of distancing. Results: The behavioral results showed that proactive ER, which involves preparing for the upcoming regulation, reduced the negative emotional experience more than reactive ER, which involves no preparation process, in the reappraisal-negative condition. This indicated that proactive ER was more effective than reactive ER in regulating negative emotions. Event-related potential (ERP) and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) results showed that ER through distancing involved two phases: First, the reappraisal cue enhanced the allocation of attention to activate the mental building blocks and constructed a new perspective in the preparation process. Second, participants who benefited from the preparation process initiated the ER earlier and adaptively re-engaged in the ER if time permitted. Conclusions: Taken together, the control mechanisms underlying the preparation process influence the timing of ER, while the control mechanisms underlying the regulation process determine the regulatory effect.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e55, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311453

RESUMO

We comment on the limits of relying on prior literature when constructing the design space for an integrative experiment; the adaptive nature of social and behavioral phenomena and the implications for the use of theory and modeling when constructing the design space; and on the challenges of measuring random errors and lab-related biases in measurement without replication.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Viés , Humanos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(9): e2313925121, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386710

RESUMO

We administer a Turing test to AI chatbots. We examine how chatbots behave in a suite of classic behavioral games that are designed to elicit characteristics such as trust, fairness, risk-aversion, cooperation, etc., as well as how they respond to a traditional Big-5 psychological survey that measures personality traits. ChatGPT-4 exhibits behavioral and personality traits that are statistically indistinguishable from a random human from tens of thousands of human subjects from more than 50 countries. Chatbots also modify their behavior based on previous experience and contexts "as if" they were learning from the interactions and change their behavior in response to different framings of the same strategic situation. Their behaviors are often distinct from average and modal human behaviors, in which case they tend to behave on the more altruistic and cooperative end of the distribution. We estimate that they act as if they are maximizing an average of their own and partner's payoffs.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Comportamento , Humanos , Altruísmo , Confiança
13.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 57(1): 39-54, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937462

RESUMO

Behavior analysts have much to offer nonbehavioral professionals who work with the communities that we serve. Successful dissemination of behavior-analytic technologies to these professionals could potentially improve their practice. Although the literature contains some exemplary examples of successful dissemination, our discipline would benefit from a blueprint for conducting this important work. In this article, I share our experiences disseminating behavioral technologies to educators, law enforcement officers, and health care providers who engage with neurodiverse individuals. These experiences form the basis of a recommended blueprint for dissemination, which awaits empirical support. After describing this tentative blueprint, I provide suggestions for future research on how best to disseminate our technologies to nonbehavioral professionals, the ideal content of those dissemination activities, and the conditions under which professionals may be more likely to embed our technologies into their best practices.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Papel Profissional , Humanos , Ciências do Comportamento
14.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 29: e54827, 2024. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529189

RESUMO

RESUMO. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o conhecimento de crianças e pré-adolescentes em relação aos termos que designam as forças de caráter e compreender como percebem a expressão desses traços nos próprios comportamentos e nos de outras pessoas. Foram entrevistados 17 participantes, de oito a 13 anos (M = 10,6; DP = 1,5). Para cada força foram feitas sete perguntas, que investigavam a definição do termo e exemplos da expressão da força nos outros e nos próprios entrevistados. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas para análise de conteúdo, ao fim gerando categorias para cada força. As forças descritas com maior facilidade pelos participantes e suas respectivas definições foram criatividade (capacidade de criar coisas), curiosidade e amor ao aprendizado (busca de conhecimento e novas experiências), honestidade (falar a verdade), amor (comportamento de dar carinho), bondade (ajudar e cuidar do outro), trabalho em equipe (realização de trabalhos colaborativos em brincadeiras ou atividades escolares), perdão (08 categorias a respeito de sua definição, sem destaque para alguma) e esperança (desejar acontecimento futuro). Esses achados podem tornar mais acessível o desenvolvimento e a avaliação das forças nessa faixa etária.


RESUMEN. Este estudio buscó analizar el conocimiento de niños y pre-adolescentes sobre los términos que fueron designados como fortalezas de carácter, y comprender cómo perciben estos rasgos en sus proprios comportamientos y en los de otras personas. Diecisiete participantes entre ocho y trece años fueron entrevistados (M = 10.6; SD = 1.5). Para cada fortaleza, se hicieron siete preguntas, que investigaron la definición del término y ejemplos prácticos de su expresión. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas para el análisis de contenido, creando categorías para cada fortaleza. Las fortalezas descritas por los participantes con mayor facilidad y sus respectivas definiciones fueron: creatividad (capacidad de crear cosas), curiosidad y amor por el aprendizaje (búsqueda de conocimiento y nuevas experiencias), honestidad (decir la verdad), amor (comportamientos afectivos), amabilidad (ayudar y cuidar a los demás), trabajo en equipo (desempeño del trabajo colaborativo en juegos o actividades escolares), perdón (ocho categorías con respecto a su definición, sin énfasis en ninguna) y esperanza (deseo por un evento futuro). Estos hallazgos pueden facilitar el desarrollo y la evaluación de las fortalezas con este grupo de edad.


ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze the children and pre-adolescents' knowledge regarding terms that designate character strengths and to understand how they perceive the expression of these traits in their and other people's behavior. Seventeen participants aged eight to thirteen were interviewed (M = 10.6; SD = 1.5). For each strength, seven questions were asked, which investigated the definition and examples of the strength expression. The interviews were recorded and transcribed for content analysis, generating categories for each strength. The strengths most easily described by the participants and their respective definitions were: creativity (ability to create things), curiosity and love for learning (searching for knowledge and new experiences), honesty (speaking the truth), love (acts involving affection), kindness (helping and caring for others), teamwork (collaborative works in games or school activities), forgiveness (eight categories regarding their definition, without highlighting any) and hope (longing for a future event). These findings may make developing and evaluating character strengths in this age group more accessible.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Caráter , Criança , Compreensão , Comportamento , Criatividade , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Comportamento Exploratório , Perdão , Esperança , Psicologia Positiva/educação , Dinâmica de Grupo/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Amor
15.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2024. (WHO/EURO:2024-9205-48977-72979).
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376501

RESUMO

Behaviours are central to many environmental and health challenges, including actions by individuals, communities, commerce, industry and health service providers. Infrastructure, service and information provision, legislation, and regulation all play critical roles in enabling, supporting and promoting positive behaviours for a sustainable future. Behavioural and cultural insights (BCI) provide an approach to systematically understand behaviour and facilitate the changes needed to disrupt the negative impacts and promote positive environmental impacts on our health. This policy brief explores how a BCI approach can improve outcomes by increasing understanding of behavioural and cultural determinants, and by creating more evidence-based and cost-effective policies and interventions to address environment and health challenges.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Cultura , Política de Saúde , Comportamento
16.
17.
Копенгаген; Всемирная организация здравоохранения. Европейское региональное бюро; 2024. (WHO/EURO:2024-8325-48097-72712).
em Russo | WHO IRIS | ID: who-375879

RESUMO

В сентябре 2022 г. государства – члены Европейского региона ВОЗ признали важность определенных моделей поведенияи культурных контекстов их реализациис точки зрения здоровья, приняв региональную резолюцию об анализе поведенческихи культурных факторов (АПКФ) в интересах здоровья и справедливости, а также рамочную основу для действий, включая пять стратегических обязательств и связанныес ними целевые ориентиры. Государства-членыдоговорились предоставлять ВОЗ отчетностьо проделанной работе в области АПКФ разв два года начиная с периода за 2021–2022 гг. (базовый уровень) до 2025–2026 гг. В первом докладе о положении дел описываются мероприятия и деятельность за период 2021–2022 г., осуществленные органами общественного здравоохранения (ООЗ) в 48 странах, территориях, единицах и субъектах Европейского региона, представляющих 44 государства-члена. Собранные данные показывают, что цели, поставленные на 2026 г., носят амбициозный характер. Исследования в области АПКФ провели большинство ООЗ, причем три четверти ООЗ использовали полученные сведения для разработки мер политики, услуг и коммуникации в области здравоохранения. Были представлены примеры конкретной работы в области АПКФ, которая, однако, зачастую не отличается системностьюи не охватывает вопросы здравоохранения и целевые группы населения в рамках комплексного подхода.Лишь в небольшом числе ООЗ достигнутый прогресс оценивается как достаточный для обеспечения благоприятных условий для осуществления АПКФ. О наличии необходимых кадровых и финансовых ресурсов и взаимодействии с заинтересованными сторонами для интеграции АПКФ в стратегии и планы в области здравоохранения сообщает примерно каждый третий ООЗ.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Cultura , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa
18.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2024. (WHO/EURO:2024-8378-48150-71442).
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-375793

RESUMO

This meeting report summarizes key points, discussions and conclusions from a regional meeting held on 12–14 September 2023 in Copenhagen, Denmark, to advance the implementation of a 5-year European regional action framework on behavioural and cultural insights (BCI) for health. In total, 112 participants attended the meeting: representatives of 48 Member States, nine partner organizations, and WHO headquarters and four regional offices. Participants discussed the status of five strategic commitments related to BCI made by Member States: engaging stakeholders; conducting research; using BCI to inform health policies service sand communication; investing human and financial resources; and implementing strategic plans for BCI. These discussions were informed by Member States’ reporting to WHO on their BCI-related activities and an interview study with national BCI focal points that explored barriers and drivers to using BCI in public health. Participants agreed that BCI is underfunded, organizational cultures often hinder efficient use of BCI, and there is a great need for capacity-building. Despite this, the meeting demonstrated widespread enthusiasm for BCI and a call for a strong community of practice across countries was voiced. The WHO Regional Office for Europe will follow up this meeting with further meetings, advocacy and technical support.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Política de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Comunicação em Saúde
19.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2024. (WHO/EURO:2024-8435-48207-71598).
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-375720

RESUMO

This report summarizes the conclusions of an interview study with public health authorities in Europe and Central Asia, exploring the barriers and drivers to advancing the use of behavioural and cultural insights (BCI) for health. With a regional WHO resolution related to this field and a regional 5-year plan with five concrete strategic commitments, WHO Regional Office for Europe jointly with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in January–February 2023 wished to gain a deeper understanding and context to the official reporting. The findings highlighted commitment to and optimism about BCI-related work and indicated that the WHO regional resolution, BCI action framework and reporting requirements are drivers of change. Barriers to advancing BCI work were related to skills (behavioural science, problem definition, trialling and impact evaluation, and translating evidence into policy or interventions); staff, funding and time; communicating messages to decisionmakers; bridging processes for research and decision-making; and organizational culture. Suggestions for possible solutions included the use of case examples to demonstrate the impact and value of BCI-related work; training; funding and staff; and awareness raising among decision-makers. Regional and international partners were asked to establish networking structures; ensure advocacy; collate good practice and case examples; and offer training and capacity-building.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Cultura , Equidade em Saúde , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250931, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360206

RESUMO

The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), an insect pest originating in Australia and which feeds only on Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) plants, has spread to several countries. The populations of this insect commonly reach high populations on Eucalyptus plants since its entry into Brazil, and also indicated an unrecorded behavioral. The objectives of this study were to describe a peculiar adaptation in the feeding habit of G. brimblecombei and to register the new habit. The oviposition and feeding by G. brimblecombei, commonly, on the leaves of Eucalyptus, started to occur, also, on lignified twigs. This suggests a not yet recorded adaptation of this insect to reduce insect × plant intraspecific competition.


O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), um inseto praga originário da Austrália e que se alimenta apenas de plantas de Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), se espalhou por vários países. Esse inseto, geralmente, atinge grandes populações em plantas de Eucalyptus desde sua entrada no Brasil e, também, indicou um comportamento diferente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever uma adaptação peculiar no hábito alimentar de G. brimblecombei e registrar o novo hábito. A oviposição e alimentação por G. brimblecombei, geralmente, nas folhas de Eucalyptus, passaram a ocorrer, também, em ramos lignificados. Isso sugere uma adaptação diferente desse inseto para reduzir a competição intraespecífica inseto × planta.


Assuntos
Animais , Oviposição , Comportamento , Eucalyptus/parasitologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...