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Med Clin North Am ; 106(1): 1-12, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823724


Medicine's acceptance of addiction as a medical concept has waxed and waned over time. Addiction, as a disease, fits with modern disease definitions and scientific advances in elucidating the interactions between neurobiology and environment. Definitions of addiction need to acknowledge the complex interactions of brain circuits, genetics, environmental factors, and individual life experiences. Addiction aligns with diagnostic categories of substance use disorders that do not rely on tolerance and withdrawal as defining characteristics. Shifts in social and political views of addiction continue to propel and mirror changes in addiction treatment approaches and terminology within the medical community.

Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Assistência Integral à Saúde/métodos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Comportamento/ética , Comportamento Aditivo/história , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965252


The endeavor to understand the human brain has seen more progress in the last few decades than in the previous two millennia. Still, our understanding of how the human brain relates to behavior in the real world and how this link is modulated by biological, social, and environmental factors is limited. To address this, we designed the Healthy Brain Study (HBS), an interdisciplinary, longitudinal, cohort study based on multidimensional, dynamic assessments in both the laboratory and the real world. Here, we describe the rationale and design of the currently ongoing HBS. The HBS is examining a population-based sample of 1,000 healthy participants (age 30-39) who are thoroughly studied across an entire year. Data are collected through cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological testing, neuroimaging, bio-sampling, questionnaires, ecological momentary assessment, and real-world assessments using wearable devices. These data will become an accessible resource for the scientific community enabling the next step in understanding the human brain and how it dynamically and individually operates in its bio-social context. An access procedure to the collected data and bio-samples is in place and published on Trail registration:

Encéfalo/fisiologia , Meio Social , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Comportamento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Sensação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261308, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972107


Early presentation for childhood cataract surgery is an important first step in preventing related visual impairment and blindness. In the absence of neonatal eye screening programmes in developing countries, the early identification of childhood cataract remains a major challenge. The primary aim of this study was to identify potential barriers to accessing childhood cataract services from the perspective of parents and carers, as a critical step towards increasing the timely uptake of cataract surgery. In-depth interviews were conducted using a pre-designed topic guide developed for this study to seek the views of parents and carers in nine geographic locations across eight states in India regarding their perceived barriers and enablers to accessing childhood cataract services. A total of 35 in-depth interviews were conducted including 30 at the hospital premises and 5 in the participants' homes. All interviews were conducted in the local language and audio taped for further transcription and analysis. Data were organised using NVivo 11 and a thematic analysis was conducted utilising the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), an integrative framework of behavioural theories. The themes identified from interviews related to 11 out of 12 TDF domains. TDF domains associated with barriers included: 'Environmental context and resources', 'Beliefs about consequences' and 'Social influences'. Reported enablers were identified in three theoretical domains: 'Social influences', 'Beliefs about consequences' and 'Motivations and goals'. This comprehensive TDF approach enabled us to understand parents' perceived barriers and enablers to accessing childhood cataract services, which could be targeted in future interventions to improve timely uptake.

Comportamento , Catarata/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Criança , Cultura , Meio Ambiente , Objetivos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Motivação , Comportamento Social
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260833, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905583


The traits of two subspecies of western honey bees, Apis mellifera scutellata and A.m. capensis, endemic to the Republic of South Africa (RSA), are of biological and commercial relevance. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of important phenotypes found in these subspecies remains poorly understood. We performed a genome wide association study on three traits of biological relevance in 234 A.m. capensis, 73 A.m. scutellata and 158 hybrid individuals. Thirteen markers were significantly associated to at least one trait (P ≤ 4.28 × 10-6): one for ovariole number, four for scutellar plate and eight for tergite color. We discovered two possible causative variants associated to the respective phenotypes: a deletion in GB46429 or Ebony (NC_007070.3:g.14101325G>del) (R69Efs*85) and a nonsense on GB54634 (NC_007076.3:g.4492792A>G;p.Tyr128*) causing a premature stop, substantially shortening the predicted protein. The mutant genotypes are significantly associated to phenotypes in A.m. capensis. Loss-of-function of Ebony can cause accumulation of circulating dopamine, and increased dopamine levels correlate to ovary development in queenless workers and pheromone production. Allelic association (P = 1.824 x 10-5) of NC_007076.3:g.4492792A>G;p.Tyr128* to ovariole number warrants further investigation into function and expression of the GB54634 gene. Our results highlight genetic components of relevant production/conservation behavioral phenotypes in honey bees.

Abelhas/genética , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento , Dopamina/metabolismo , Genes de Insetos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Feromônios/genética , Feromônios/metabolismo , África do Sul
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937066


This study was concerned with how accurate people are in their knowledge of population norms and statistics concerning such things as the economic, health and religious status of a nation and how those estimates are related to their own demography (e.g age, sex), ideology (political and religious beliefs) and intelligence. Just over 600 adults were asked to make 25 population estimates for Great Britain, including religious (church/mosque attendance) and economic (income, state benefits, car/house ownership) factors as well as estimates like the number of gay people, immigrants, smokers etc. They were reasonably accurate for things like car ownership, criminal record, vegetarianism and voting but seriously overestimated numbers related to minorities such as the prevalence of gay people, muslims and people not born in the UK. Conversely there was a significant underestimation of people receiving state benefits, having a criminal record or a private health insurance. Correlations between select variables and magnitude and absolute accuracy showed religiousness and IQ most significant correlates. Religious people were less, and intelligent people more, accurate in their estimates. A factor analysis of the estimates revealed five interpretable factors. Regressions were calculated onto these factors and showed how these individual differences accounted for as much as 14% of the variance. Implications and limitations are acknowledged.

Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Religião , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-21, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352455


Los trastornos del neurodesarrollo corresponden a un grupo de cuadros clínicos de base neurobiológica. En el caso particular del trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), las dificultades centrales están dadas por deficiencias de la comunicación / interacción social y por la presencia de patrones de comportamiento restrictivos o repetitivos. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento se basan actualmente en criterios comportamentales. Según datos recogidos en diferentes países, al menos 1 niño sobre 100 se desarrolla con alguna forma de autismo. Visto los resultados positivos asociados con las intervenciones tempranas, desde hace algunos años se realizan importantes esfuerzos con el objetivo de disminuir la edad la identificación. En entornos pediátricos es indispensable una familiarización con los criterios actuales de diagnóstico, los procesos de evaluación comportamental y etiológica, las condiciones médicas y comporta-mentales asociadas (trastornos del sueño y de la alimentación, convulsiones, síntomas gastrointestinales) que afectan la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del niño y su familia. Con el objetivo de promover prácticas basadas en evidencia sobre identificación y diagnóstico, varias guías clínicas y estándares de práctica han sido publicados en diferentes países. El siguiente artículo revisa y sintetiza estas recomendaciones sobre la identificación y el diagnóstico del TEA en los primeros años de vida. Esta revisión ha sido efectuada a la luz de recomendaciones de la comunidad internacional que recalcan la necesidad de programas y servicios locales basados en evidencia y sensibles culturalmente, particularmente en contextos de medianos y bajos ingresos.

Neurodevelopmental disorders correspond to a group of neurobiological-based clinical pictures. In the particular case of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), central difficulties are caused by deficiencies in communication/social interaction and by the presence of restrictive or repetitive behavior patterns. Diagnosis and treatment are currently based on behavioral criteria. According to data collected in different countries, at least 1 child out of 100 develops with some form of autism. Given the positive results associated with early interventions, for some years now, important efforts have been made with the aim of reducing the age of identification. In pediatric settings, familiarization with current diagnostic criteria, behavioral and etiological evaluation processes, and associated medical and behavioral conditions (sleep and eating disorders, seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms) affect the functionality and quality of life of the child and his family. To promote evidence-based practices on identification and diagnosis, several clinical guidelines and standards of practice have been published in different countries. The following article reviews and synthesizes these recommendations on the identification and diagnosis of ASD in the first years of life. This review has been carried out in light of recommendations from the international community that emphasize the need for evidence-based and culturally sensitive local programs and services, particularly in low and middle income settings.

Humanos , Criança , Transtorno Autístico , Comportamento , Crianças com Deficiência , Diagnóstico Precoce , Diagnóstico
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 14-19, dic. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352557


Ha surgido una nueva variante de preocupación de SARS-CoV-2, cuyos efectos en la evolución de la pandemia parecen inciertos. Sin embargo, ha comenzado a surgir evidencia con respecto al comportamiento viral en cuanto a su transmisibilidad, unión a receptor de la célula hospedadora y escape del sistema inmune. Presentamos una revisión actualizada de los datos existentes en la literatura respecto a los aspectos microbiológicos y epidemiológicos que pueden ayudarnos a comprender las futuras investigaciones en esta variante.(AU)

A new variant of concern for SARS-CoV-2 has emerged, the effects of which on the evolution of the pandemic appear uncertain. However, evidence has begun to emerge regarding viral behavior in terms of its transmissibility, receptor binding on the host cell, and escape from the immune system. We present an updated review of the existing data in the literature regarding the microbiological and epidemiological aspects that can help us understand future research on this variant.(AU)

Evolução Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Virulência , Comportamento , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 25-32, Dec. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352900


Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha provocado cambios que afectan los sistemas de salud y el abordaje de las enfermedades infecciosas a nivel mundial. La esperanza de recuperar un cierto nivel de "normalidad" se basa en el desarrollo de vacunas. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las actitudes hacia la vacuna COVID-19 en la población paraguaya, explorando factores que podrían ser abordados para apoyar la campaña de vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal y descriptivo. Los participantes fueron reclutados a través de una encuesta basada en Internet, difundida a través de las redes sociales, durante el mes de marzo de 2021. Todos los participantes recibieron información completa sobre el objetivo del estudio, la privacidad y el procesamiento de datos. Resultados: De los 2297 participantes, el 67,9% (n=1559) eran mujeres, el 49,9% (n=1147) estaban empleados, el 89,1% (n=2046) reportaron educación universitaria y el 96,6% (n=2218) eran de áreas urbanas. En general, el 81,8 % (n=1879) de los participantes afirmó que estarían dispuestos a vacunarse contra el COVID-19 si hubiera una vacuna disponible. Se ha encontrado una relación significativa entre haber solicitado la vacuna antigripal y la intención de vacunarse frente al COVID-19 (p<0,0001), con un OR: 3,09 (IC 95% 2,1-4,5). Conclusión: El porcentaje de participantes inclinados a vacunarse contra el COVID-19 es similar al de aquellos que esperan una inmunización adecuada de la vacuna. Las agencias gubernamentales y de salud deben hacer un esfuerzo para brindar información precisa que responda a las inquietudes de las personas sobre la vacunación, en cualquier nivel de la sociedad.

Introduction: Insufficient physical activity is one of the main public health problems globally. Teen behavior patterns and lifestyle may affect their physical and mental health. Objectives: The objective of this study was to know the patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the adolescent population nationwide. Materials and methods: A quantitative, observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, the questionnaire of the Global School Health Survey was applied in school adolescents of the eighth and ninth grades of the 3rd cycle of Basic School Education and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of Secondary Education in 49 schools and colleges in the country. 1,803 students aged 13 to 15 years were included in this study. Results. 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 in Paraguay are active, being significantly higher in men than in women (p-value 0.000) and 22% are inactive more frequently in women than in men (p-value 0.000). It was observed that 33.5% of the adolescents had sedentary behavior, 43.4% of the adolescents did not use active displacement to attend school. Adolescents who did not participate in physical education classes at school accounted for 15.6%. Conclusion: Although 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 are active, the large percentage of inactive adolescents with sedentary behavior is worrying.

SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , População , Comportamento , Imunização , Vacinação , Vacinas contra COVID-19
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968389


A small evidence base supports the use of virtual reality in professional soccer, yet there is a lack of information available on perceptions and desire to use the technology from those employed at professional soccer clubs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare and quantify the perceptions of virtual reality use in soccer, and to model behavioural intentions to use this technology. This study surveyed the perceptions of coaches, support staff, and players in relation to their knowledge, expectations, influences and barriers of using virtual reality via an internet-based questionnaire. To model behavioural intention, modified questions and constructs from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology were used, and the model was analysed through partial least squares structural equation modelling. Respondents represented coaches and support staff (n = 134) and players (n = 64). All respondents generally agreed that virtual reality should be used to improve tactical awareness and cognition, with its use primarily in performance analysis and rehabilitation settings. Generally, coaches and support staff agreed that monetary cost, coach buy-in and limited evidence base were barriers towards its use. In a sub-sample of coaches and support staff without access to virtual reality (n = 123), performance expectancy was the strongest construct in explaining behavioural intention to use virtual reality, followed by facilitating conditions (i.e., barriers) construct which had a negative association with behavioural intention. Virtual reality has the potential to be a valuable technology within professional soccer although several barriers exist that may prevent its widespread use.

Percepção , Futebol , Realidade Virtual , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0262005, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972162


During the first half of 2019, many provinces of Iran were affected by floods, which claimed the lives of 82 people. The present study aimed to investigate the behavioral, health related and demographic risk factors associated with deaths due to floods. We measured the odds ratio and investigated the contribution and significance of the factors in relation to mortality. This case-control study was conducted in the cities affected by flood in Iran. Data were collected on the flood victims using a questionnaire. Survivors, a member of the flood victim's family, were interviewed. In total, 77 subjects completed the survey in the case group, and 310 subjects completed the survey in the control group. The findings indicated that factors such as the age of less than 18 years, low literacy, being trapped in buildings/cars, and risky behaviors increased the risk of flood deaths. Regarding the behavioral factors, perceived/real swimming skills increased the risk of flood deaths although it may seem paradoxical. This increment is due to increased self confidence in time of flood. On the other hand, skills and abilities such as evacuation, requesting help, and escape decreased the risk of flood deaths. According to the results, the adoption of support strategies, protecting vulnerable groups, and improving the socioeconomic status of flood-prone areas could prevent and reduce the risk of flood deaths.

Comportamento , Morte , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desastres , Feminino , Geografia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico) , Alfabetização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Vínculo ; 18(3): 47-54, set.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1347947


Este relato de experiência tenta abordar os emperramentos percebidos em quatro famílias, atendidas em consultório. Ao atender estas quatro famílias, cada uma com estrutura e problemas diferentes, percebemos contrastes. Uma família se coloca aglutinada, enquanto a outra, dispersada. Uma outra família é organizada e a outra, desestruturada. Estas diferenças percebidas despertaram o interesse para estudo do que ocorre com as famílias hoje. Quais mudanças e comportamentos permanecem, e quais se modificam?

This experience report attempts to address the perceived impairs in four families attended in a private practice Psychological Clinic. During the meetings with these four families, each one with different structure and problems, we perceive contrasts. One family stands agglutinated, the other scattered. Another family is organized, and the other family is unstructured. These perceived differences have aroused interest in studying what happens to families today. What changes and behaviors remain, and which ones change?

Este informe de experiencia intenta abordar los problemas percibidos en cuatro familias atendidas en una clínica privada de psicologia. Durante las reuniones con estas cuatro familias, cada una con diferentes estructuras y problemas, percibimos contrastes. Una familia está aglutinada, la otra dispersa. Otra familia está organizada y la otra familia no está estructurada. Estas diferencias percibidas han despertado interés en estudiar lo que les sucede a las familias hoy. ¿Qué cambios y comportamientos permanecen, y cuáles cambian?

Humanos , Comportamento , Família , Núcleo Familiar , Poder Familiar
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(52)2021 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930844


Although declines in intent to vaccinate had been identified in international surveys conducted between June and October 2020, including in the United States, some individuals in the United States who previously expressed reluctance said, in spring 2021, that they were willing to vaccinate. That change raised the following questions: What factors predicted an increased willingness to inoculate against COVID-19? And, to what extent was the change driven by COVID-specific factors, such as personal worry about the disease and COVID-specific misinformation, and to what extent by background (non-COVID-specific) factors, such as trust in medical authorities, accurate/inaccurate information about vaccination, vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance? This panel study of more than 8,000 individuals found that trust in health authorities anchored acceptance of vaccination and that knowledge about vaccination, flu vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance played a more prominent role in shifting individuals from vaccination hesitance to acceptance than COVID-specific factors. COVID-specific conspiracy beliefs did play a role, although a lesser one. These findings underscore the need to reinforce trust in health experts, facilitate community engagement with them, and preemptively communicate the benefits and safety record of authorized vaccines. The findings suggest, as well, the need to identify and deploy messaging able to undercut health-related conspiracy beliefs when they begin circulating.

Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/ética , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259658, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739532


OBJECTIVES: To investigate nurses' behavioral intention toward caring for COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation, as well as the factors affecting their intention. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation have many care needs and pose more challenges for nurses, which might adversely affect nurses' intention toward caring behavior. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by using simple random sampling to recruit 598 nurses from five tertiary hospitals in Sichuan Province, China. The participants responded to an online questionnaire that included questions on demographic characteristics; the Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Behavioral Intention of Nurses toward Mechanically Ventilated Patients (ASIMP) questionnaire; the Nursing Professional Identity Scale (NPIS); and the Compassion Fatigue-Short Scale (CF-Short Scale). ANOVA, Spearman correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression were performed to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean total behavioral intention score was 179.46 (± 14.83) out of a total score of 189.00, which represented a high level of intention toward caring for patients on mechanical ventilation. Multiple linear regression revealed that subjective norms (ß = 0.390, P<0.001), perceived behavioral control (ß = 0.149, P<0.001), professional identity (ß = 0.101, P = 0.009), and compassion fatigue (ß = 0.088 P = 0.024) were significant predictors of nurses' behavioral intention. CONCLUSIONS: Most nurses have a positive behavioral intention to care for COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The findings in this study provide some insight for developing effective and tailored strategies to promote nurses' behavioral intention toward caring for ventilated patients under the pandemic situation.

Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19/terapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento , China/epidemiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Pandemias , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618866


Speech production gives rise to distinct auditory and somatosensory feedback signals which are dynamically integrated to enable online monitoring and error correction, though it remains unclear how the sensorimotor system supports the integration of these multimodal signals. Capitalizing on the parity of sensorimotor processes supporting perception and production, the current study employed the McGurk paradigm to induce multimodal sensory congruence/incongruence. EEG data from a cohort of 39 typical speakers were decomposed with independent component analysis to identify bilateral mu rhythms; indices of sensorimotor activity. Subsequent time-frequency analyses revealed bilateral patterns of event related desynchronization (ERD) across alpha and beta frequency ranges over the time course of perceptual events. Right mu activity was characterized by reduced ERD during all cases of audiovisual incongruence, while left mu activity was attenuated and protracted in McGurk trials eliciting sensory fusion. Results were interpreted to suggest distinct hemispheric contributions, with right hemisphere mu activity supporting a coarse incongruence detection process and left hemisphere mu activity reflecting a more granular level of analysis including phonological identification and incongruence resolution. Findings are also considered in regard to incongruence detection and resolution processes during production.

Cérebro/fisiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Comportamento , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19744, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611199


Infections produced by non-symptomatic (pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic) individuals have been identified as major drivers of COVID-19 transmission. Non-symptomatic individuals, unaware of the infection risk they pose to others, may perceive themselves-and be perceived by others-as not presenting a risk of infection. Yet, many epidemiological models currently in use do not include a behavioral component, and do not address the potential consequences of risk misperception. To study the impact of behavioral adaptations to the perceived infection risk, we use a mathematical model that incorporates the behavioral decisions of individuals, based on a projection of the system's future state over a finite planning horizon. We found that individuals' risk misperception in the presence of non-symptomatic individuals may increase or reduce the final epidemic size. Moreover, under behavioral response the impact of non-symptomatic infections is modulated by symptomatic individuals' behavior. Finally, we found that there is an optimal planning horizon that minimizes the final epidemic size.

Doenças Assintomáticas/psicologia , Comportamento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255531, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613975


Some evidence suggests that people behave more cooperatively and generously when observed or in the presence of images of eyes (termed the 'watching eyes' effect). Eye images are thought to trigger feelings of observation, which in turn motivate people to behave more cooperatively to earn a good reputation. However, several recent studies have failed to find evidence of the eyes effect. One possibility is that inconsistent evidence in support of the eyes effect is a product of individual differences in sensitivity or susceptibility to the cue. In fact, some evidence suggests that people who are generally more prosocial are less susceptible to situation-specific reputation-based cues of observation. In this paper, we sought to (1) replicate the eyes effect, (2) replicate the past finding that people who are dispositionally less prosocial are more responsive to observation than people who are more dispositionally more prosocial, and (3) determine if this effect extends to the watching eyes effect. Results from a pre-registered study showed that people did not give more money in a dictator game when decisions were made public or in the presence of eye images, even though participants felt more observed when decisions were public. That is, we failed to replicate the eyes effect and observation effect. An initial, but underpowered, interaction model suggests that egoists give less than prosocials in private, but not public, conditions. This suggests a direction for future research investigating if and how individual differences in prosociality influence observation effects.

Comportamento/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19463, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593931


In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, physical distancing behavior turned out to be key to mitigating the virus spread. Therefore, it is crucial that we understand how we can successfully alter our behavior and promote physical distancing. We present a framework to systematically assess the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to stimulate physical distancing. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of this framework in a large-scale natural experiment (N = 639) conducted during an art fair. In an experimental design, we varied interventions to evaluate the effect of face masks, walking directions, and immediate feedback on visitors' contacts. We represent visitors as nodes, and their contacts as links in a contact network. Subsequently, we used network modelling to test for differences in these contact networks. We find no evidence that face masks influence physical distancing, while unidirectional walking directions and buzzer feedback do positively impact physical distancing. This study offers a feasible way to optimize physical distancing interventions through scientific research. As such, the presented framework provides society with the means to directly evaluate interventions, so that policy can be based on evidence rather than conjecture.

Comportamento , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Política Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6036, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654804


Identical physical inputs do not always evoke identical percepts. To investigate the role of stimulus history in tactile perception, we designed a task in which rats had to judge each vibrissal vibration, in a long series, as strong or weak depending on its mean speed. After a low-speed stimulus (trial n - 1), rats were more likely to report the next stimulus (trial n) as strong, and after a high-speed stimulus, they were more likely to report the next stimulus as weak, a repulsive effect that did not depend on choice or reward on trial n - 1. This effect could be tracked over several preceding trials (i.e., n - 2 and earlier) and was characterized by an exponential decay function, reflecting a trial-by-trial incorporation of sensory history. Surprisingly, the influence of trial n - 1 strengthened as the time interval between n - 1 and n grew. Human subjects receiving fingertip vibrations showed these same key findings. We are able to account for the repulsive stimulus history effect, and its detailed time scale, through a single-parameter model, wherein each new stimulus gradually updates the subject's decision criterion. This model points to mechanisms underlying how the past affects the ongoing subjective experience.

Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Recompensa , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Vibração , Vibrissas/fisiologia