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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3019, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321176

RESUMO

Mixing animal waste and agricultural waste in certain proportions forms agricultural compost through appropriate air, time, and water supply. One of their use areas is directly used as fertilizer, and the other one is used as a material that can partially or completely replace P (peat) in the PGM (plant growth media). In this study, the initial mixtures with an appropriate C/N ratio and moisture content, which were created by mixing cow manure, chicken manure, hazelnut husk, hazelnut pruning wastes, vegetable and fruit wastes, and dry leaves, were composted for 180 days. The physicochemical properties of the mature composts were determined. Their effects on the fruit yield (weight of fruits) and plant height of pepper seedlings were evaluated in pot and field experiments. N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), Cu (copper), and Zn (zinc) content were the highest in C4 (2.59%, 1.12%, 83.11 mg/kg, and 605.3 mg/kg). K (potassium) and Mn (manganese) content in C3 (1.79% and 750.5 mg/kg) and Fe (iron) content in C1 (4025 mg/kg) were determined to be the highest. There was no phytotoxic effect of all composts on Lepidium sativum seeds. Except for pH and organic matter, C1 45%, C1 20%, C4 45%, C4 20%, and P 90% met the requirements for ideal media. The mean height of eight-week seedlings increased in media of C1 20%, C1 45%, C2 20%, C2 45%, and C4 20%, but decreased in media of C3 90%. In field studies, while the highest yield was determined in C3 as 1530 g/plant, the lowest yield was 765.5 g/plant in control. The highest mean height was observed in C3 at 76.33 cm; the lowest was 63.03 cm in control.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Compostagem , Corylus , Animais , Plântula , Esterco , Solo/química
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 396: 130424, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341046

RESUMO

In this study, a novel iron 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylate loaded on biochar (BC-FeBTC) was developed and applied to kitchen waste composting. The results demonstrated that the emissions of NH3 and N2O were significantly reduced by 57.2% and 37.8%, respectively, compared with those in control group (CK). Microbiological analysis indicated that BC-FeBTC addition altered the diversity and abundance of community structure as well as key functional genes. The nitrification genes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were enhanced, thereby promoting nitrification and reducing the emission of NH3. The typical denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas, and critical functional genes (nirS, nirK, and nosZ) were significantly inhibited, contributing to reduced N2O emissions. Network analysis further revealed the important influence of BC-FeBTC in nitrogen transformation driven by functional microbes. These findings offer crucial scientific foundation and guidance for the application of novel materials aimed at mitigating nitrogen loss and environmental pollution during composting.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Compostagem , Óxido Nitroso , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Desnitrificação , Amônia , Benzeno , Solo/química , Nitrogênio , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120145, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306857

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the microbial mechanisms for the improvement of composting efficiency driven by the compound microbial inoculum (MI) (Bacillus subtilis SL-44, Enterobacter hormaechei Rs-189 and Trichoderma reesei) during co-composting of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and chicken manure (CM). The treatments used in the study were as follows: 1) MI (inoculation with microbial inoculum), 2) CI (inoculation with commercial microbial inoculum), and 3) CK (without inoculation). The results demonstrated that MI increased the seed germination index (GI) by 25.11%, and contents of humus, humic acid (HA) and available phosphorus (AP) were correspondingly promoted by 12.47%, 25.93% and 37.16%, respectively. The inoculation of MI increased the temperature of the thermophilic stage by 3-7 °C and achieved a cellulose degradation rate of 52.87%. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that Actinobacteria (11.73-61.61%), Firmicutes (9.46-65.07%), Proteobacteria (2.86-32.17%) and Chloroflexi (0.51-10.92%) were the four major phyla during the inoculation composting. Bacterial metabolic functional analysis revealed that pathways involved in amino acid and glycan biosynthesis and metabolism were boosted in the thermophilic phase. There was a positive correlation between bacterial communities and temperature, humification and phosphorus fractions. The average dry weight, fresh weight and seedling root length in the seedling substrates adding MI compost were 1.13, 1.23 and 1.06 times higher than those of the CK, respectively. This study revealed that biological inoculation could improve the composting quality and efficiency, potentially benefiting the resource utilization of agricultural waste resources.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Animais , Esterco , Galinhas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Fósforo
4.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120195, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306858

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production during composting can impact the environment and human health. Especially during the thermophilic phase, H2S is discharged in large quantities. However, in sludge composting, the contributions of different sulfur-containing precursors to H2S fluxes, key functional microorganisms, and key environmental parameters for reducing H2S flux remain unclear. Analysis of cysteine (Cys), methionine (Met), and sulfate (SO42-) concentrations, multiple stepwise regression analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation analysis of metagenomes showed that Cys was the main contributor to the production of H2S and that Met was among the main sources during the first three days of composting, while the SO42- contribution to H2S was negligible. Fifteen functional genera involved in the conversion of precursors to H2S were identified by co-occurrence network analysis. Only Bacillus showed high temperature resistance (>50 °C) and the ability to reduce H2S. Redundancy analysis showed that total carbon (64.0 %) and pH (23.3 %) had significant effects on functional bacteria. H2S had a quadratic relationship with sulfur-containing precursors. All microbial network sulfur-containing precursors metabolism modules showed a highly significant relationship with Cys.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Humanos , Esgotos/química , Enxofre , Carbono
5.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120162, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310794

RESUMO

Herein, the effects of different bulking agents (sawdust and mushroom residue), on compost quality and the environmental benefits of semipermeable film composting with poultry manure were investigated. The results show that composting with sawdust as the bulking agent resulted in greater efficiency and more cost benefits than composting with mushroom residue, and the cost of sawdust for treating an equal volume of manure was only 1/6 of that of mushroom residue. Additionally, lignin degradation and potential carbon emission reduction in the sawdust group were better than those in the mushroom residue group, and the lignin degradation efficiency of the bottom sample in the sawdust group was 48.57 %. Coupling between lignin degradation and potential carbon emission reduction was also closer in sawdust piles than in mushroom residue piles, and sawdust is more environmentally friendly. The abundance of key functional genes was higher at the bottom of each pile relative to the top and middle. Limnochordaceae, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus were the core microorganisms involved in coupling between lignin degradation and potential carbon emission reduction, and the coupled relationship was influenced by electric conductivity, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen in the compost piles. This study provides important data for supporting bulking agent selection in semipermeable film composting and for improving the composting process. The results have high value for compost production and process application.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Animais , Aves Domésticas , Esterco , Lignina , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Solo
6.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 44, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367043

RESUMO

The effects of compost on physical and chemical characteristics of soil are well-studied but impacts on soil microbiomes are poorly understood. This research tested effects of green waste compost on bacterial communities in soil infested with the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Compost was added to pathogen-infested soil and maintained in mesocosms in a greenhouse experiment and replicated growth chamber experiments. Bacteria and F. oxysporum abundance were quantified using quantitative PCR. Taxonomic and functional characteristics of bacterial communities were measured using shotgun metagenome sequencing. Compost significantly increased bacterial abundance 8 weeks after amendment in one experiment. Compost increased concentrations of chemical characteristics of soil, including phosphorus, potassium, organic matter, and pH. In all experiments, compost significantly reduced abundance of F. oxysporum and altered the taxonomic composition of soil bacterial communities. Sixteen bacterial genera were significantly increased from compost in every experiment, potentially playing a role in pathogen suppression. In all experiments, there was a consistent negative effect of compost on functions related to carbohydrate use and a positive effect on bacteria with flagella. Results from this work demonstrate that compost can reduce the abundance of soilborne plant pathogens and raise questions about the role of microbes in plant pathogen suppression.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Fusarium , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Análise de Sequência
7.
Environ Int ; 184: 108469, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324928

RESUMO

Biochar promotes microbial metabolic activities and reduces N2O on aerobic composting. However, the effects of magnetic biochar (MBC) on the microbial succession and N2O emissions during pig manure composting remain unclear. Herein, a 42-day composting experiment was conducted with five treatment regimes: pig manure without biochar (CK), 5 % pig manure-based biochar (5 % PBC), 2 % MBC (2 % MBC), 5 % MBC (5 % MBC) and 7.5 % MBC (7.5 % MBC)), to clarify the variation in functional microorganisms and genes associated with nitrogen and direct interspecies electron transfer via metagenomics. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that MBC possessed more stable aromatic structures than pig manure-based biochar (PBC), indicating its greater potential for nitrous oxide reduction. MBC treatments were more effective in composting organic matter and improving the carbon/nitrogen ratio than PBC. The microbial composition during composting varied significantly, with the dominant phyla shifting from Firmicutes to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidota. Network and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that the MBC treatment enhanced the interactions of dominant microbes (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota) and accelerated the composting process. The biochar addition accelerated assimilatory nitrate reduction and slowed dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification. The Mantel test demonstrated that magnetic biochar potentially helped regulate composting nutrients and affected functional nitrogen genes. These findings shed light on the role of MBC in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions during aerobic composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Animais , Suínos , Esterco/microbiologia , Nitratos , Solo , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos
8.
Environ Int ; 184: 108460, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335625

RESUMO

Although the arsenic contamination and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting have been studied separately, there is limited information on their interactions, particularly, the relationship between arsenic biotransformation genes (ABGs) and ARGs. Therefore, the present study used different forms of arsenic stress (organic and inorganic arsenic at 10 and 50 mg/kg) in pig manure and straw co-composting, to evaluate the effects of arsenic stress on microbial community structures, metabolic function, ABGs, and ARGs. The results showed that arsenic stress had different effects on different parameters and promoted the microbial formation of humic acid and the biodegradation of fulvic acid. Inorganic arsenic showed more rapid effects on microbial community structure, visible within about 20 days, while the effects of organic arsenic were later (about 45 days) due to the necessity of transformation. Moreover, the addition of organic roxarsone and inorganic arsenic resulted in higher expression of ABGs and ARGs, respectively. Arsenic addition also caused increased expression of genes associated with replication and repair. A significant relationship was observed between ABG and ARG expression, for instance, genes involved in arsenic reduction and oxidation were influenced by genes involved in aminoglycoside and chloramphenicol resistance genes (p < 0.05). These complex interactions among microorganisms, functional genes, and external parameters contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying cross-contamination.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Compostagem , Animais , Suínos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Biotransformação , Esterco
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170649, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331290

RESUMO

Anthropogenic disturbance of soils can disrupt soil structure, diminish fertility, alter soil chemical properties, and cause erosion. Current remediation practices involve amending degraded urban topsoils lacking in organic matter and nutrition with organic amendments (OA) to enhance vegetative growth. However, the impact of OAs on water quality and structural properties at rates that meet common topsoil organic matter specifications need to be studied and understood. This study tested three commonly available OAs: shredded wood mulch, leaf-based compost, and class A Exceptional Quality stabilized sewage sludge (or biosolids) for nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) water quality, soil shear strength, and hydraulic properties, through two greenhouse tub studies. Findings showed that nitrogen losses to leachate were greater in the biosolids amended topsoils compared to leaf-compost, mulch amended topsoils, and control treatments. Steady-state mean total nitrogen (N) concentrations from biosolids treatment exceeded typical highway stormwater concentrations by at least 25 times. Soil total N content combined with the carbon:nitrogen ratio were identified to be the governing properties of N leaching in soils. Study soils, irrespective of the type of amendment, reduced the applied (tap) water phosphorus (P) concentration of ∼0.3 mg-P/L throughout the experiment. Contrary to the effects on N leaching, P was successfully retained by the biosolids amendment, due to the presence of greater active iron contents. A breakthrough mechanism for P was observed in leaf compost amended soil, where the effluent concentrations of P continued to increase with each rainfall application, possibly due to an saturation of soil adsorption sites. The addition of OAs also improved the strength and hydraulic properties of soils. The effective interlocking mechanisms between the soil and OA surfaces could provide soil its required strength and stability, particularly on slopes. OAs also improved soil fertility to promote turf growth. Presence of vegetative root zones can further reinforce the soil and control erosion.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Biossólidos , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Solo/química , Fósforo/química , Nutrientes , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Esgotos/química , Nitrogênio
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 919: 170879, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354798

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is an environmentally friendly and safe approach for remediating environments contaminated with heavy metals. Humic acid (HA) has high biological activity and can effectively complex with heavy metals. However, whether HA affects available Cd storage and the Cd accumulation ability of plants by altering the soil microenvironment and the distribution of special functional microorganisms remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of applying kitchen compost-derived HA on the growth and Cd enrichment capacity of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Additionally, the key role of HA in regulating the structure of rhizosphere soil bacterial communities was identified. HA promoted the growth of perennial ryegrass and biomass accumulation and enhanced the Cd enrichment capacity of ryegrass. The positive effect of HA on the soil microenvironment and rhizosphere bacterial community was the main factor promoting the growth of ryegrass, and this was confirmed by the significant positive correlation between the ryegrass growth index and the content of SOM, AP, AK, and AN, as well as the abundance of rhizosphere growth-promoting bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Steroidobacter, Phenylobacterium, and Caulobacter. HA passivated Cd and inhibited the translocation capacity of ryegrass. The auxiliary effect of resistant bacteria on plants drove the absorption of Cd by ryegrass. In addition, HA enhanced the remediation of Cd-contaminated soil by ryegrass under different Cd levels, which indicated that kitchen compost-derived HA could be widely used for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. Generally, our findings will aid the development of improved approaches for the use of kitchen compost-derived HA for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lolium , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo/química , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bactérias
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 129, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229333

RESUMO

In recent years organic food is gaining popularity as it is believed to promote better human health and improve soil sustainability, but there are apprehensions about pathogens in organic produces. This study was designed to understand the effect of different composts and soils on the status of the microbiome present in organically grown leafy vegetables. 16S rRNA metagenomic profiling of the leaves was done, and data were analyzed. It was found that by adding composts, the OTU of the microbiome in the organic produce was higher than in the conventional produce. The beneficial genera identified across the samples included plant growth promoters (Achromobacter, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingobacterium) and probiotics (Lactobacillus), which were higher in the organic produce. Some pathogenic genera, viz., plant pathogenic bacteria (Cellvibrio, Georgenia) and human pathogenic bacteria (Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, Streptomyces) were also found but with relatively low counts in the organic produce. Thus, the present study highlights that organic produce has lesser pathogen contamination than the conventional produce. KEY POINTS: • 16S rRNA metagenomics profiling done for organic red amaranth cultivar • Microbial richness varied with respect to the soil and compost type used • The ratio of beneficial to pathogenic genera improves with the addition of compost.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Bactérias/genética , Metagenoma
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169767, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176562

RESUMO

Inadequately managed solid organic waste generation poses a threat to the environment and human health globally. Biotransformation with the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) is emerging as talent technology for solid waste management. However, there is a lack of understanding of whether BSFL can effectively suppress potential pathogenic microorganisms during management and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the temporal variations of microorganisms in two common types of solid waste, i.e., kitchen waste (KW) and pig manure (PM). Natural composting and composting with BSFL under three different pH levels (pH 5, 7, and 9) were established to explore their impact on microbial communities in compost and the gut of BSFL. The results showed that the compost of kitchen waste and pig manure led to an increase in relative abundance of various potentially pathogenic bacteria. Temporal gradient analyses revealed that the most substantial reduction in the relative abundance and diversity of potentially pathogenic microorganisms occurred when the initial pH of both two wastes were adjusted to 7 upon the introduction of BSFL. Through network and pls-pm analysis, it was discovered that the gut microbiota of BSFL occupied an ecological niche in the compost, inhibiting the proliferation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This study has revealed the potential of BSFL in reducing public health risks during the solid waste management process, providing robust support for sustainable waste management.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Dípteros , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Larva/fisiologia , Resíduos Sólidos , Esterco , Dípteros/fisiologia
13.
J Environ Manage ; 351: 119952, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171126

RESUMO

Composting is an environmentally friendly method that facilitates the biodegradation of organic solid waste, ultimately transforming it into stable end-products suitable for various applications. The element iron (Fe) exhibits flexibility in form and valence. The typical Fe-related additives include zero-valent-iron, iron oxides, ferric and ferrous ion salts, which can be targeted to drive composting process through different mechanisms and are of keen interest to academics. Therefore, this review integrated relevant literature from recent years to provide more comprehensive overview about the influence and mechanisms of various Fe-related additives on composting process, including organic components conversion, humus formation and sequestration, changes in biological factors, stability and safety of composting end-products. Meanwhile, it was recommended that further research be conducted on the deep action mechanisms, biochemical pathways, budget balance analysis, products stability and application during organic solid waste composting with Fe-related additives. This review provided guidance for the subsequent targeted application of Fe-related additives in compost, thereby facilitating cost reduction and promoting circular economy objectives.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Resíduos Sólidos , Ferro , Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostos Ferrosos
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(2): 113, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180589

RESUMO

To enhance the efficiency of composting agricultural organic waste (AOW), this study aimed to examine the impact of inoculating tomato straw compost with two distinct microbial agents: ZymoZone (ZZ), a composite microbial agent derived from the straw compost and Effective Microorganisms (EM), a commercial microbial agent. Furthermore, in order to reactivate the microorganisms within the compost during the initial high temperature phase, 10% brown sugar was introduced as a carbon source. The objective of this addition was to assess its influence on the composting process. The findings revealed that compared to the control (CK) group, the ZZ and EM treatments extended the first high-temperature phase by 2 and 1 day, respectively. Furthermore, with the addition of 10% brown sugar, the ZZ and EM treatments remained in the second high-temperature phase for 8 and 7 days, respectively, while the CK treatment had already entered the cooling stage by then. Notably, the inoculation of microbial agents and the addition of brown sugar substantially augmented the activity of lignocellulose-related hydrolases, thereby promoting the degradation of lignocellulose in the ZZ and EM treatment groups. This was confirmed by FTIR analysis, which demonstrated that the addition of microbial agents facilitated the degradation of specific substances, leading to reduced absorbance in the corresponding spectra. XRD analysis further indicated a notable reduction in cellulose crystallinity for both the ZZ (8.00%) and EM (7.73%) treatments. Hence, the incorporation of microbial agents and brown sugar in tomato straw compost effectively enhances the composting process and improves the quality of compost products.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Solanum lycopersicum , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura , Carbono , Açúcares
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 151, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240861

RESUMO

Mushrooms are an important source of protein in the human diet. They are increasingly viewed as a sustainable meat replacement in an era of growing populations, with button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) the most popular and economically important mushroom in Europe, Australia and North America. Button mushrooms are cultivated on a defined, straw-derived compost, and the nitrogen (N) required to grow these high-protein foods is provided mainly by the addition of poultry manure and horse manure. Using the correct balance of carbon (C) and N sources to produce mushroom compost is critically important in achieving maximum mushroom yields. Changes in the amount and form of N added, the rate and timing of N addition and the other compost components used can dramatically change the proportion of added N recovered in the mushroom caps, the yield and quality of the mushrooms and the loss of N as ammonia and nitrogen oxide gases during composting. This review examines how N supply for mushroom production can be optimised by the use of a broad range of inorganic and organic N sources for mushroom composting, together with the use of recycled compost leachate, gypsum and protein-rich supplements. Integrating this knowledge into our current molecular understanding of mushroom compost biology will provide a pathway for the development of sustainable solutions in mushroom production that will contribute strongly to the circular economy. KEY POINTS: • Nitrogen for production of mushroom compost can be provided as a much wider range of organic feedstocks or inorganic compounds than currently used • Most of the nitrogen used in production of mushroom compost is not recovered as protein in the mushroom crop • The sustainability of mushroom cropping would be increased through alternative nitrogen management during composting and cropping.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Compostagem , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos , Esterco , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Amônia , Aves Domésticas , Solo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169794, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181963

RESUMO

Livestock manure is a major source of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Elucidation of the residual characteristics of ARGs in livestock manure following the administration of veterinary antibiotics is critical to assess their ecotoxicological effects and environmental contamination risks. Here, we investigated the effects of enrofloxacin (ENR), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic commonly used as a therapeutic drug in animal husbandry, on the characteristics of ARGs, mobile genetic elements, and microbial community structure in swine manure following its intramuscular administration for 3 days and a withdrawal period of 10 days. The results revealed the highest concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in swine manure at the end of the administration period, ENR concentrations in swine manure in groups L and H were 88.67 ± 45.46 and 219.75 ± 88.05 mg/kg DM, respectively. Approximately 15 fluoroquinolone resistance genes (FRGs) and 48 fluoroquinolone-related multidrug resistance genes (F-MRGs) were detected in swine manure; the relative abundance of the F-MRGs was considerably higher than that of the FRGs. On day 3, the relative abundance of qacA was significantly higher in group H than in group CK, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of other FRGs, F-MRGs, or MGEs were observed between the three groups on day 3 and day 13. The microbial community structure in swine manure was significantly altered on day 3, and the altered community structure was restored on day 13. The FRGs and F-MRGs with the highest relative abundance were qacA and adeF, respectively, and Clostridium and Lactobacillus were the dominant bacterial genera carrying these genes in swine manure. In summary, a single treatment of intramuscular ENR transiently increased antibiotic concentrations and altered the microbial community structure in swine manure; however, this treatment did not significantly affect the abundance of FRGs and F-MRGs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Microbiota , Animais , Suínos , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas , Esterco/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gado
17.
J Environ Manage ; 352: 120048, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246105

RESUMO

Understanding the porosity of biochar (BC) that promotes the heavy metal (HM) passivation during composting can contribute to the sustainable management of pig manure (PM). The current work aimed to explore the influence of BC with varying pore sizes on the physicochemical properties and morphological changes of HMs (including Zn, Cu, Cr, As, and Hg), and microbiota development during PM composting. The various pore sizes of BC were generated by pyrolyzing pine wood at 400 (T1), 500 (T2), 600 (T3) and 700 (T4) °C, respectively. The results revealed a positive correlation between specific surface area of BC and pyrolysis temperature. BC addition contributed to a significantly extended compost warming rate and duration of high-temperature period, as well as HM passivation, reflected in the decrease in Exc-Zn (63-34%) and Red-Cu (28-13%) content, and the conversion of Oxi-Cr (29-21%) and Red-Hg (16-5%) to more stable forms. Moreover, BC at T4 exhibited the best effect on Zn and Cu passivation due to the highest specific surface area (380.03 m2/g). In addition to its impact on HM passivation, BC addition improved the microbial environment during PM composting, leading to enhanced microbial diversity and richness. Notably, Chloroflexi and Bacteroidota played key roles in promoting the transformation of Exc-Cu and Red-Hg into stable forms. This phenomenon further stimulated the enhanced decomposition of organic matter (OM) when BC prepared at 600-700 °C was added. Therefore, it can be concluded that the regulation of BC porosity is an effective strategy to improve HM passivation and the overall effectiveness of PM composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Suínos , Animais , Esterco , Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 915: 170000, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242453

RESUMO

To address the challenge of increasing nitrogen retention in compost, this study investigated the effects of microbial communities on denitrification and ammonia assimilation during sludge composting by inoculating microbial inoculants. The results showed that the retention rates of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and humic acid (HA) in MIs group (with microbial inoculants) were 4.94 % and 18.52 % higher than those in the control group (CK), respectively. Metagenomic analysis showed that Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were identified as main microorganisms contributing to denitrification and ammonia assimilation. The addition of microbial agents altered the structure of the microbial community, which in turn stimulated the expression of functional genes. During cooling period, the ammonia assimilation genes glnA, gltB and gltD in MIs were 15.98 %, 24.84 % and 32.88 % higher than those in CK, respectively. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed a positive correlation between the dominant bacterial genera from the cooling stage to the maturity stage and the levels of NO3--N, NH4+-N, HA, and TKN contents. NH4+-N was positively correlated with HA, indicating NH4+-N might be incorporated into HA. Heat map and network analyses revealed NH4+-N as a key factor affecting functional genes of denitrification and ammonia assimilation, with Nitrospira identified as the core bacteria in the microbial network. Therefore, the addition of microbial agents could increase nitrogen retention and improve compost product quality.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas , Compostagem , Esgotos/microbiologia , Inoculantes Agrícolas/metabolismo , Desnitrificação , Amônia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Solo
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2282, 2024 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280916

RESUMO

Research on the plastic contamination of organic fertilizer (compost) has largely concentrated on particles and fragments > 1 mm. Small, submillimeter microplastic particles may be more hazardous to the environment. However, research on their presence in composts has been impeded by the difficulty to univocally identify small plastic particles in such complex matrices. Here a method is proposed for the analysis of particles between 0.01 and 1.0 mm according to number, size, and polymer type in compost. As a first demonstration of its potential, the method is used to determine large and small microplastic in composts from eight municipal compost producing plants: three simple biowaste composters, four plants processing greenery and cuttings and one two-stage biowaste digester-composter. While polyethylene, PE, tends to dominate among fragments > 1 mm, the microplastic fraction contained more polypropylene, PP. Whereas the contamination with PE/PP microplastic was similar over the investigated composts, only composts prepared from biowaste contained microplastic with a signature of biodegradable plastic, namely poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate), PBAT. Moreover, in these composts PBAT microplastic tended to form the largest fraction. When the bulk of residual PBAT in the composts was analyzed by chloroform extraction, an inverse correlation between the number of particles > 0.01 mm and the total extracted amount was seen, arguing for breakdown into smaller particles, but not necessarily a mass reduction. PBAT oligomers and monomers as possible substrates for subsequent biodegradation were not found. Remaining microplastic will enter the environment with the composts, where its subsequent degradability depends on the local conditions and is to date largely uninvestigated.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Plásticos , Plásticos/análise , Microplásticos , Polímeros , Polipropilenos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 915: 169818, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184247

RESUMO

Sewage sludge is a valuable source of elements such as phosphorus and nitrogen. At the same time, heavy metals, emerging organic compounds, micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PCPs, microplastics), or some potentially dangerous bacteria can be present. In this study, the sewage sludge was aerobically treated by composting with other materials (co-composted), and the resulting substrate was tested for suitability of its use in agriculture. Closer attention was focused on the pharmaceuticals (non-steroidal antiphlogistics, sartanes, antiepileptics, caffeine, and nicotine metabolites) content and ecotoxicity of the resulting substrates in the individual phases of sludge co-composting. It has been verified that during co-composting there is a potential for reduction of the content of pharmaceutical in the substrates up to 90 %. The course of the temperature in the thermophilic phase is decisive. Growth and ecotoxicity experiments demonstrated that with a suitable co-composting procedure, the resulting stabilized matter is suitable as a substrate for use in plant production, and the risk of using sewage sludge on agricultural land is substantially reduced.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , Plásticos , Tecnologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas
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