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1.
J Environ Qual ; 48(4): 1038-1046, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589689

RESUMO

Given the presence of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in livestock manures, it is important to identify the key pathways by which land-applied manure-derived soil amendments potentially spread resistance. The goal of this field-scale study was to identify the effects of different types of soil amendments (raw manure from cows treated with cephapirin and pirlimycin, compost from antibiotic-treated or antibiotic-free cows, or chemical fertilizer only) and crop type (lettuce [ L.] or radish [ L.]) on the transport of two antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs; 1 and ) via storm runoff from six naturally occurring storms. Concurrent quantification of sediment and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; and enterococci) in runoff permitted comparison to traditional agricultural water quality targets that may be driving factors of ARG presence. Storm characteristics (total rainfall volume, storm duration, etc.) significantly influenced FIB concentration (two-way ANOVA, < 0.05), although both effects from individual storm events (Kruskal-Wallis, < 0.05) and vegetative cover influenced sediment levels. Composted and raw manure-amended plots both yielded significantly higher 1 and B levels in runoff for early storms, at least 8 wk following initial planting, relative to fertilizer-only or unamended barren plots. There was no significant difference between 1 or B levels in runoff from plots treated with compost derived from antibiotic-treated versus antibiotic-free dairy cattle. Our findings indicate that agricultural fields receiving manure-derived amendments release higher quantities of these two "indicator" ARGs in runoff, particularly during the early stages of the growing season, and that composting did not reduce effects of ARG loading in runoff.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Bovinos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Esterco , Microbiologia do Solo , Verduras
2.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1534-1542, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589710

RESUMO

Calcium superphosphate and apple ( Mill.) waste can be used for controlling N loss and improving compost quality during composting, whereas integrated addition of the two additives on composting process remains unexplored. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of combined use of calcium superphosphate and apple waste on NH and NO emissions and compost quality during pig manure and wheat ( L.) straw composting. Mixtures of pig manure and wheat straw were combined with 6% phosphate fertilizer (PF), 15% apple waste (AW), 3% phosphate fertilizer + 7.5% apple waste (PA1), or 1.8% phosphate fertilizer + 10.5% apple waste (PA2) based on dry weight of the initial mixtures; a treatment with no additives served as a control (CK). The PF treatment took 3 d longer to reach thermophilic phase than the CK, PA1, and PA2 treatments. The treatments of PF and PA1 reduced NH and NO emissions by 67 and 45%, respectively. Moreover, N loss in PF and PA1 treatments (31.8 and 30.1%, respectively) was significantly less than in the CK. A pot experiment showed that application of the compost with PA1 treatment could increase plant height and dried biomass of Chinese pakchoi ( L. ssp.). We recommend adding 3% phosphate fertilizer and 7.5% apple waste to pig manure during composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Malus , Animais , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Fosfatos , Solo , Suínos
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122239, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610491

RESUMO

This work was aimed to determine the effects of different minerals on humic acid (HA) formation. Minerals can stimulate the formation of complex compounds, however, whether they can promote the conversion of complex compounds to HA has not been verified. Four treatments were setup from chicken manure mixed with rice hull and then added biochar (BC), montmorillonite (MMT) and biochar combined with montmorillonite (BC-MMT) for composting, while the control check (CK) was composted without minerals. The results showed that HA concentration was increased by 28.09%, 40.79%, 45.39% and 38.96% during CK, BC, BC-MMT and MMT composting. However, the bacterial community was the main reason for affecting HA concentration. Network analysis showed that obligate and facultative core microbes drove HA formation, and these driving effects were affected by minerals. Therefore, the core bacterial community promoted HA formation, which provided an insightful method to improve HA production.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Galinhas , Substâncias Húmicas , Esterco , Minerais , Solo
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610497

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the effects of biochar, montmorillonite and their mixture on nitrogen availability and nitrogen loss during chicken manure composting. Four lab-scale composting experiments, the control (CK), 5% biochar addition (BC), 5% montmorillonite addition (M) and 2.5% biochar + 2.5% montmorillonite addition (BCM), were established. Results showed that the addition of BC, M and BCM significantly improved the contents of bioavailable organic nitrogen and NH4+-N in composts. In addition, BC and BCM reduced N loss by 19.2% and 12.2%, respectively, in comparison with CK. Significant shift of key bacterial communities associated with N transformation were also found in four treatments. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models indicated different additives changed the correlation among bacterial communities, environmental factors and organic N fractions. Comparison of N availability and N loss indicated that the combination of biochar and montmorillonite are more effective than that of separate application during composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Bentonita , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo
5.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109675, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614261

RESUMO

Microbial degradation is the main responsible for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soils, and the understanding of this process is pivotal to define effective bioremediation approaches. To evaluate the contribution of several microbial groups in soil anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene degradation, the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and machine learning techniques were employed. To this end, PLFAs and PAH concentrations were analysed, along 274 days of incubation in mesocosms, in soils artificially contaminated with anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, subjected to different treatments: untreated soil and soils treated with biowaste compost or fungal consortium. Random forest models, figuring anthracene or benzo[a]pyrene concentrations as dependent variables and PLFAs as predictors, were then built to evaluate the contribution of each variable in PAH degradation. PLFA profiles varied substantially among soil treatments and along time, with the increase of Actinomycetes in soils added with fungi and other Gram+ bacteria in compost amended soils. The former, together with fungi, are primarily responsible for anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene degradation in both treated soils, a process in which also metanotrophs and other Gram+ and Gram- bacteria participate. In untreated soil, the cooperation of a multitude of different microorganisms was, instead, responsible for PAH removal, a process with lower efficiency in respect to treated soils.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122199, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586731

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of adding biochar and montmorillonite alone on the correlations between bacteria and bioavailability of heavy metals (HM) during chicken manure composting. Three composting experiments were conducted, containing the without ameliorant, 10% biochar and 10% montmorillonite. The results showed that biochar and montmorillonite ameliorants significantly reduced the bioavailability of Cu by 90.3%, 81.2%, while that of Zn by 11.7%, 15.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, they also significantly changed bacterial community structure and enhanced the correlation between bacterial bands (i.e., 19, 24, 26 and 30) and HM fractions. This correlation was validated in network analysis. Structural equation models further confirmed that bacteria had a complete and effective pathway to influence the bioavailability of HM. In summary, this study suggested that biochar and montmorillonite additions were an effective regulation method to reduce the bioavailability of HM from composting system.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bentonita , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carvão Vegetal , Galinhas , Esterco , Solo
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122044, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520859

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate variations of bacterial community and functional characteristics during the continuous thermophilic composting (CTC). Also their differences were discussed when amended with ceramsite and recycled ceramsite as the porous bulking agent. Results showed that the bacterial community shifted greatly and bacterial diversity increased as the CTC proceeded. Firmicutes and Chloroflexi was one of the major phyla at the active and late phase respectively. While Actinobacteria was the dominant phyla during the whole CTC. With the addition of ceramsite and recycled ceramsite, no significant difference was found of the overall bacterial variation trends. But the major phyla of Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria and major genes related to amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism increased significantly, especially when the recycled ceramsite was added. Redundancy analysis indicated that the succession of bacterial community was tightly related with the pH, water soluble organic carbon, NH4+-N, organic matter and germination index.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Bactérias , Carbono , Esterco , Reciclagem , Solo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122132, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526931

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the effect of Fenton pretreatment on organic fractions, enzymes activities and microbial communities during composting. In this study, rice straw was chosen to be composted after pretreatment. The results indicated that Fenton pretreatment significantly increased the degradation of organic matter and coarse fiber contents, which might be the reason that Fenton pretreatment enhanced lignocellulose-degrading enzymes activities during composting, including CMCase, FPase, xylanase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase and laccase. Additionally, Fenton pretreatment reshaped bacteria community. The key enzymes and environmental factors, which affected organic fractions degradation were identified by redundancy analysis. Furthermore, structural equation modeling and variation partitioning analysis further revealed possible mechanisms of organic fractions degradation in different treatments during composting. In summary, the combined application Fenton pretreatment and composting improved lignocellulose degradation efficiency, which provided for an effective and environment-friendly way to manage lignocellulose wastes.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Lignina , Solo
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122131, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541977

RESUMO

Hyperthermophilic pretreatment composting (HPC) is superior to traditional composting (CK) with shortened maturity period and enhanced humification degree. However, the chemical and structural evolution of humic substances (HS) at the molecular level is not known. In this study, the impact of hyperthermophilic pretreatment (90 °C, 4 h) on the content and chemical composition of HS during composting were investigated. The HS content of the final compost was 87.8 g/kg and 76.7 g/kg in HPC and CK, respectively. Significantly higher humic acid/fulvic acid ratio (1.27 in HPC v.s. 0.77 in CK) was observed in HPC. 13C NMR spectroscopic data showed a higher aromatics percentage and earlier enrichment of aromatic structures in HS extracted from HPC than CK. Intensified humification of HPC was related to the increased levels of HS precursors and degradation of lignocellulose. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that aromatic C, phenolic C and O-alkyl C can be used for evaluation of the humification degree.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Animais , Substâncias Húmicas , Esterco , Solo , Suínos
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122153, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550635

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the conversion characteristics of neutral sugars during different lignocellulose wastes composting from rice straw (RS), leaf (L) and mushroom dreg (MD). The results showed that the changes of neutral sugars were different during different wastes composting, but the changes of various hexose or pentose were similar during composting of the same material. The diversity of bacterial community led to different conversion characteristics of neutral sugars. During RS composting, each neutral sugar was transformed by a specific group of bacteria. However, a group of bacteria could transform multiple neutral sugars during MD and L composting. Furthermore, GM/AX value was first applied to composting, which could be used to characterize the conversion of neutral sugars during composting. This will help to provide more efficient recommendations for lignocellulose wastes treatment and accelerating humic substances synthesis during composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Bactérias , Lignina , Solo , Açúcares
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122165, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561154

RESUMO

The influence of matured compost inoculation during sewage sludge with sawdust composting was assessed. Mature compost reduced the heating rate, thermophilic phase, peak temperature, and volatile solid degradation rate, with no significant effect on pH and germination index. Matured compost addition also increased the cellulase, peroxidase, arylsulfatase, and urease contents during the mesophilic phase, and increased the urease content but decreased the cellulase, peroxidase, protease, and arylsulfatase contents during the cooling phase, with no significant effect on enzyme activities at the thermophilic phase. Matured compost increased the diversity of bacteria during the mesophilic and thermophilic phases, but reduced the fungal diversity throughout composting. Matured compost significantly improved uniformity of the bacterial community and affected the structure of the bacterial and fungal communities, while changing the correlation between some functional microorganisms and enzyme activities. These results provide guidance for optimizing the composting process when matured compost as bulking agent.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Micobioma , Bactérias , Esgotos , Solo
12.
Waste Manag ; 100: 128-137, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536923

RESUMO

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is the most significant waste generated from the agricultural industry in Malaysia. Composting is one of the potential approaches to utilize EFB. However, composting of EFB is a time-consuming process, thus impractical for industrial application. The composting process can be shortened by introducing competent fungi into an optimal EFB composting system. This study was conducted to isolate and identify competent fungi that can naturally compost EFB. Samplings were carried out at eight different time points over a 20-weeks experimental period. The physical properties of EFB samples such as pH, residual oil content, and moisture content were measured and the EFB composting process that was indicated by the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were assessed. The fungal growth, distribution, and lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were evaluated. The results indicated that the changes in physical properties of EFB were correlated to the fungal growth. The gradual reduction in moisture content and residual oil, and the increment in pH values in EFB samples throughout the experimental period resulted in reduced fungal growth and diversity. Such phenomenon delayed EFB composting process as revealed by the changes in EFB lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contents. The most dominant and resilient fungi (Lichtheimia ramosa and Neurospora crassa) survived up to 16 weeks and were capable of producing various lignocellulolytic enzymes. Further understanding of these factors that would contribute to effective EFB composting could be useful for future industrial applications.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Frutas , Fungos , Malásia , Óleo de Palmeira
13.
Waste Manag ; 100: 151-160, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539755

RESUMO

Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.), Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae (BSFL) is among the solutions being explored to shift the value chain in organic waste management by producing valuable products. Although BSFL consume a range of substrates, nutrient-imbalanced materials with high hemicellulose and lignin content, e.g. manure and banana peel, yield low conversion into larval biomass. This study explored pre-treatment methods to improve the nutrient composition and digestibility of banana peel to achieve higher substrate conversion into BSFL biomass. The pre-treatment methods evaluated were microbial, chemical (non-protein nitrogen), heat-based, and combinations of these. All pre-treatments tested except heating resulted in more efficient BSFL conversion in terms of final larvae weight. The low BSFL responses in pre-treatments were caused by the observed high amounts of tannins and phenolic compounds mainly from the heating pre-treatment. Waste to biomass conversion ratio correlated negatively with substrate volatile solids (VS) and positively with the decrease in VS in pre-treatment. Microbial - 14 days pre-treatments provided the optimum pre-treatment time for the microorganisms to achieve maximum degradation of the substrates, facilitating larval assimilation of the released nutrients. Rhizopus oligosporus-14 days and ammonia + Rhizopus resulted in the most efficient BSFL treatment, measured as protein produced per kg incoming material.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Dípteros , Musa , Simuliidae , Animais , Larva , Esterco
14.
Waste Manag ; 100: 199-207, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542720

RESUMO

Land application of composted municipal solid waste (C-MSW) can divert waste from landfill but can also be a route of entry into the environment for contaminants. This study presents a preliminary human health and ecological risk assessment for organic contaminants in C-MSW generated in New South Wales, Australia, to identify and prioritise contaminants of concern. Following an initial screening assessment, terrestrial and aquatic risks were assessed by predicted soil and water concentrations, respectively. The assessment ranked contaminants as very high, high, medium or low priority. A qualitative review was then used to identify contaminants of concern, which included polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, bisphenol A and dibutyltin. Phenol was initially categorised as very high priority but due to its rapid degradation in soil, this is likely to be overly-conservative. The herbicides dicamba and MCPA were categorised as medium priority or higher but due to uncertainties in the data, these categories are also likely to be overly-conservative. A range of contaminants had concentrations below the screening criteria and were therefore considered low risk. Many contaminants were below the limit of reporting in all samples and were therefore not considered to be sufficiently distributed in the material to pose a risk. Some contaminants were detected in the material but could not be assessed as no criteria were available. The information from this study can be used by regulators when managing land application of C-MSW to ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are managed appropriately.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Resíduos Sólidos , Austrália , Humanos , New South Wales , Medição de Risco
15.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109437, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473397

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to study the possibilities to manage and recycle dog faeces (DF) using biological processes, using two approaches: composting (C) and anaerobic digestion (AD). Thus, different experiments have been carried out: i) two laboratory/pilot scale experiments (self-heating and composting tests) and one, on a commercial scale; ii) two AD experiments. In both approaches, municipal waste such as the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OMSW) and urban pruning waste (GW) were used as co-substrates. The results obtained regarding the optimization of the composting process indicated that the best strategy was the use of a 1:2 ratio of DF, a 1:4 ratio of OMSW, and a 1:4 ratio of GW, according to the thermal parameters studied (temperature and cumulative quadratic exothermic index (EXI2)), and the quality of the compost obtained. A potentially limiting factor of the process was the high salinity of the DF waste. In addition, AD experiments were performed on DF, OMSW, and GW wastes in controlled anaerobic systems at a laboratory scale. In these experiments, the biogas production obtained was 229 mL biogas/g total solids for the DF residue, 248 mL biogas/g total solids for GW, and 263 mL biogas/g total solids for OMSW. The co-digestion yields a clear improvement in the efficiency of the process against the use of a single residue, increasing the production of biogas by up to 27% with respect to that of the DF waste alone during the first 25 days of AD. The results obtained with these procedures have shown the possibilities to add value to this waste in an urban context where the circular economy represents an increasingly favourable scenario, including the generation of fertilisers and/or energy at a local scale, provided that the collection of dog faeces is optimized.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Cães , Fezes , Metano , Resíduos Sólidos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109525, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505386

RESUMO

Numerous studies on the remediation of metal-contaminated soil by compost focus on the remediation efficiency of compost, however, they have not delved into the issue of nutrients and metal speciation. In this study, the application of municipal solid wastes primary compost (MSW-C), secondary compost (MSW-SC) and the aging compost (MSW-AC) has been conducted in heavy metal contaminated soil remediation. Eight different treatments were carried out to compare the effect of three different maturity composts and their addition ratio (i.e. 0, 25%, 50%) on the changes of physical properties, nutrient content and metal morphology distribution of soil. The enhancement of Sedum aizoon growth was also compared. The results showed that the treatments applied with composts increased the nutrient, organic carbon and the cation exchange capacity. In overall, the most effective treatment method was to use MSW-AC to improve soil physicochemical properties and reduce the heavy metals immobilization, and the addition of 25% MSW-AC showed significant promotion on plant biomass accumulation and root growth. The ability of compost to improve the conditions of the contaminated soil and increase the plant stress resistance was demonstrated by analyzing the root membrane lipid peroxidation, which was lower in the soil treatments with compost, especially with MSW-AC. Based on the compost maturity indexes, soil properties, and efficiency of metal activity reduction, the treatment of 25% MSW-AC is suggested for efficient soil remediation.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Poluição Ambiental , Nutrientes , Solo
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122046, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472410

RESUMO

In this study, to investigate the nitrogen and carbon characteristics throughout the composting process in different systems, four methods of composting including static treatment (ST), turning treatment (TT), forced aeration treatment (FAT), and forced aeration with acidification treatment (FAAT) were conducted. Organic matter degradation was improved in TT and FAT that accelerated the composting efficiency. The harmless time based on phytotoxicity was significantly shortened in FAT comparing with ST. However, nitrogen loss through ammonia volatilization increased 14.0%. Ammonia volatilization could be significantly decreased to 17.0% after acidification optimization with FAAT. Compared to FAT, the FAAT got an increased nitrous oxide production and decreased methane emission. Generally, the lowest global warming potential value (52.8 kg CO2-eq/t) was found in FAAT. Therefore, considering the environmental, fertilizer and toxicity indicators, the FAAT composting method is the most promising method, and has the potential to be promoted for implementation in practice.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Amônia , Carbono , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122047, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473376

RESUMO

In the present study, fly ash was used as an additive for the rapid composting of biomass and kitchen waste with jaggery as an activator. The in-vessel composting experiments were carried out in ten plastic vessels of 15 L capacity containing varying amounts of fly ash, biomass waste, and kitchen waste. The effect of fly ash on the microbial and enzymatic activity of the composting system was also ascertained. The compost in Vessel No. 10 having a combination of 50% biomass waste, 30% kitchen waste, and 20% fly ash seemed to have a significant effect on the compost quality. Statistical analysis revealed Vessel No. 10 as significantly separated from other vessels whereas microbial activity (342.67 CFU 108/g), pH (8.15), temperature (48.50 °C), and heavy metals, such as Ni (0.1239 mg kg-1), Ba (0.6109 mg kg-1), Cd (0.0004 mg kg-1) were the most influential variables for the separation.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Biomassa , Cinza de Carvão , Solo
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122031, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476566

RESUMO

The influence of pine leaf biochar (PLB) amendment on bacterial community succession and its correlation with physic-chemical parameters during pig manure (PM) composting was evaluated. The five different dosages of PLB [at 0% (T1), 2.5% (T2), 5% (T3), 10% (T4) and 15% (T5)] mixed with initial composting mass were conducted to composting for 50 days. The present study indicated that bacterial diversity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in PLB amended treatments than the control, but T4 treatment showed the highest among the all PLB applied treatment. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidete were four most abundant phyla of all the treatments. Furthermore, redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial community were significantly (p < 0.05) positively correlated with temperature, pH, TOC, CO2 and NH3 emissions, while they were negatively correlated with the N2O and CH4 emission. Overall, the results suggested that the addition of 10% PLB (T4 treatment) was a potential option to enhance the composting efficiency with significantly greater abundance of bacterial community and finally improved the compost quality.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo , Suínos
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122075, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491649

RESUMO

To enhance the humification process, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) was inoculated during different fermentation phases of the co-composting of maize straw and canola residue. The humification process was determined by evaluating cellulose and lignin contents and key enzyme activities during composting. Results showed that the cellulose and lignin degradation efficiency and humification degree of compost were significantly enhanced in the treatment that inoculated P. chrysosporium in the cooling period (T2). At the end of composting, compared with that in T1 (no inoculation), the content of cellulose and lignin in T2 decreased significantly by 40.00% and 64.30%, respectively, and compared with that in T1 and T3 (inoculation in the initial stage of composting) the content of humus in T2 increased significantly by 55.40% and 75.20%, respectively. This study confirms that inoculating P. chrysosporium during the cooling period promoted the degradation of cellulose and lignin, and therefore enhanced the compost humification.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Phanerochaete , Lignina , Solo , Zea mays
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