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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129958, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122523

RESUMO

In recent years, Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) films were wildly used due to its biodegradable properties. However, there are few reports of strains that can high efficiently degrade PBAT. Thermobifida fusca FXJ-1, a thermophilic actinomycete, was screened and identified from compost. FXJ-1 can efficiently degrade PBAT at 55 °C in MSM medium. The degradation rates of the pure PBAT film (PF), PBAT film used for mulching on agricultural fields (PAF), and PBAT-PLA-ST film (PPSF) were 82.87 ± 1.01%, 87.83 ± 2.00% and 52.53 ± 0.54%, respectively, after nine days of incubation in MSM medium. Cracking areas were monitored uniformly distributed on the surfaces of three kinds of PBAT-based films after treatment with FXJ-1 using scanning electron microscopy. The LC-MS results showed that PBAT might be degraded into adipic acid, terephthalic acid, butylene adipate, butylene terephthalate and butylene adipate-co-terephthalate, and these products are involved in the cleavage of ester bonds. We also found that amylase produced by FXJ-1 played an important role in the degradation of PPSF. FXJ-1 also showed an efficient PBAT-based films degradation ability in simulating compost environment, which implied its potential application in PBAT and starch-based film degradation by industrial composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poliésteres , Adipatos/química , Alcenos , Amilases , Ésteres , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poliésteres/química , Amido/química , Thermobifida
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128253, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334868

RESUMO

Improper disposal of antibiotic fermentation dregs poses a risk of releasing antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria to the environment. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of biochar addition to lincomycin fermentation dregs (LFDs) composting. Biochar increased compost temperature and enhanced organic matter decomposition and residual antibiotics removal. Moreover, a 1.5- to 17.0-fold reduction in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was observed. Adding biochar also reduced the abundances of persistent ARGs hosts (e.g., Streptomyces, Pseudomonas) and ARG-related metabolic pathways and genes (e.g., ATP-binding cassette type-2 transport, signal transduction and multidrug efflux pump genes). By contrast, compost decomposition improved due to enhanced metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. Overall, adding biochar into LFDs compost reduced the proliferation of ARGs and enhanced microbial community metabolism. These results demonstrate that adding biochar to LFDs compost is a simple and efficient way to decrease risks associated with LFDs composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lincomicina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fermentação , Esterco/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética
3.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116694, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343400

RESUMO

Poor management of crop residues leads to environmental pollution and composting is a sustainable practice for addressing the challenge. However, knowledge about composting with pure crop straw is still limited, which is a novel and feasible composting strategy. In this study, pure corn straw was in-situ composted for better management. Community structure of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms during composting was deciphered using high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that the compost was mature with organic matter content of 37.83% and pH value of 7.36 and pure corn straw could be composted successfully. Cooling phase was major period for cellulose degradation with the highest ß-glucosidase activity (476.25 µmol·p-Nitr/kg·dw·min) and microbial diversity (Shannon index, 3.63; Chao1 index, 500.81). Significant compositional succession was observed in the functional communities during composting with Streptomyces (14.32%), Trichoderma (13.85%) and Agromyces (11.68%) as dominant genera. ß-Glucosidase-producing bacteria and fungi worked synergistically as a network to degrade cellulose with Streptomyces (0.3045**) as the key community revealed by multi-interaction analysis. Organic matter (-0.415***) and temperature (-0.327***) were key environmental parameters regulating cellulose degradation via influencing ß-glucosidase-producing communities, and ß-glucosidase played a key role in mediating this process. The above results indicated that responses of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms to cellulose degradation were reflected at both network and individual levels and multi-interaction analysis could better explain the relationship between variables concerning composting cellulose degradation. The work is of significance for understanding cellulose degradation microbial communities and process during composting of pure corn straw.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Streptomyces , Trichoderma , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Solo , Celulose/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Esterco
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128288, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370939

RESUMO

Antimicrobial activity contributes to plant disease control property of composts but its source is still not clear. From composting cow manure during secondary fermentation, 50 microbial strains with antifungal activity were isolated and identified. Two bacterial strains Bacillus mojavensis B282 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa F288, antagonistic against both phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, were respectively used as the inoculum of compost for secondary fermentation. Inoculation of B282 or F288 significantly shifted microbial community structure of compost and genera functionally linked to antagonistic activity and plant growth promotion were enriched. Notably, culturable cells of B282 increased by about 40 times during secondary fermentation. The inoculation of each strain significantly increased antifungal activity of compost extracts and enhanced disease suppressive effects of compost on wheat root rot. This study demonstrates that inoculation of compost-indigenous microorganisms could improve antimicrobial activity of compost and provides a low-cost strategy for producing bio-organic fertilizers with biocontrol function.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Fermentação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Esterco , Fertilizantes/análise , Bactérias , Solo/química
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128191, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374714

RESUMO

For purpose of clarifying the impact on particle size of bulking agents on humification and relevant mechanisms, different length (<2 cm, 2 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm) of branch and straw were blended with swine manure individually for 100 days aerobic composting. Results demonstrated that, 2 cm and 5 cm of branch and straw promoted the highest degradation of DOC by 41.49 % and 58.42 %, and increased the humic substances by 23.81 % and 55.82 % in maturity stage, respectively, compared with other treatments. As shown in microbial consequence, the maximum relative abundance of humus funguses increased by 99.55 % and 99.92 % at phylum, and 98.95 % and 99.24 % at genus in 2 cm and 5 cm of branch and straw treatment, thus verifying the result in variation of humus content. In a word, particle size could result in obvious impact on humification, and the optimized size were about 2 cm and 5 cm of branch and straw.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Suínos , Animais , Esterco , Tamanho da Partícula , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158889, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150589

RESUMO

Compost application is a widely recommended agricultural practice to improve soil fertility. As almost all compost is likely polluted with plastic we hypothesize that compost application is a major input pathway for microplastics (MPs) into agricultural soil. To attribute the plastic load of soil to compost application, we investigated MPs in topsoil (0-30 cm) of a controlled, long-term fertilizer trial with application of compost made of municipal biowaste (0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1a-1), which ended 11 years ago. Microplastics were analyzed via density separation (ZnCl2) and light microscopy; testing this method recovered 92 ± 10 % of spiked plastic items. The fields of the long-term compost trial showed a MP load of 0-64 items kg-1, corresponding to MP stocks in the plough layer (0-30 cm) that ranged from 38.2 ± 55.5 million to 171.4 ± 57.5 million items ha-1. Microplastic stocks and contents increased with increasing amount of compost application. Thus, we confirm compost as a major input pathway for MPs into agricultural soil, with the effect still visible after 11 years. Comparison of calculated plastic input based on MP contents of recent German compost with MP loads found in soil revealed that overall compost application explained <6 % of total MP stocks. We assume that compost applied in earlier days contained higher plastic loads than recent ones, reflecting current awareness and successful efforts in reducing plastic loads during compost production. However, as the plots at the border of the field had up to 18 times higher MP loads than the inner plots of the trial, we suggest that littering also contributed significantly to MP pollution. Thus, even if given compost applications still add plastics to environment, other sources such as littering can already have become the dominating input pathway.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Solo , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Fertilizantes
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130049, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179623

RESUMO

Humic acids (HAs) coupled with humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) can facilitate contaminants reduction. Molecular-weight (MW) of HA governs the chemical and HRMs behavior. However, MW of HAs with chemical characteristics linking to HRMs in different wastes composting have never been investigated. Results from the HPSEC-UV analysis showed that composting significantly increased weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of HA with a broad range from 675 Da to 27983 Da, and governing heterogeneous chemical characteristics. In proteinaceous composts, MW< 4000 Da of HAs were greatly related to alkyl and carbonyl, while MW> 20000 Da of HAs were presented by oxygen-nitrogenous functional groups, methyl, and alkyl groups. For cellulosic composts, MW< 1500 Da and 4000-10000 Da of HAs were characterized by aliphatic ethers and aromatic groups. MW> 20000 Da of HAs were constructed by phenols, methoxy and nitrogen functional groups. In lignocellulosic composts, MW> 20000 Da of HAs were only characterized by aromatic groups. Furthermore, seven groups of HRMs adapted to the heterogeneous chemical characteristics within HAs ranked by MW were recognized. Consequently, the possible routes that composting properties response to the connections of HRMs-chemical structures-MW of HAs in proteinaceous, cellulosic and lignocellulosic composts were constructed, respectively. Our results can help to develop the fine classification-oriented approach for recycling utilization of organic wastes.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Peso Molecular , Solo/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Éteres , Oxigênio/análise
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130047, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194960

RESUMO

In this study, the impact of biochar on the degradation of organophosphate esters (OPEs) during the aerobic composting of sewage sludge was investigated. Three treatments were conducted with different percentages of biochar in the compost, including 5 %, 10 %, and 20 %. The treatment with 10 % of biochar showed the longest thermophilic phase compared to that of 5 % and 20 % of biochar, which greatly promoted the decomposition of organic matter. In addition, the degradation rate of the hard-to-degrade chlorinated-OPEs was significantly increased by 10 % biochar, reaching to 57.2 %. Correspondingly, approximately 43.6 % of the total concentration of OPEs (Σ6OPEs) was eliminated in the presence of 10 % of biochar, which was higher than the treatments with 5 % and 20 % of biochar. Biochar significantly influenced the microbial community structure of compost, but the previously reported organophosphorus-degrading bacteria did not play a major role in the degradation of OPEs. The redox ability of the increased oxygen-containing functional groups such as quinone on the surface of biochar and the biochar-mediated electron transfer ability may play an essential role in the degradation of OPEs during the composting process.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esgotos/química , Organofosfatos , Oxigênio , Quinonas , Solo/química
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 712-722, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375952

RESUMO

The sulfur-containing odor emitted from sludge composting could be controlled by sulfide oxidizing bacteria, yet mesophilic strains show inactivation during the thermophilic stage of composting. Aimed to investigate and characterize the thermotolerant bacterium that could oxidize sulfide into sulfate, a heterotrophic strain was isolated from sewage sludge composting and identified as Paenibacillus naphthalenovorans LYH-3. The effects of various environmental factors on sulfide oxidation capacities were studied to optimize the sulfate production, and the highest production rate (27.35% ± 0.86%) was obtained at pH 7.34, the rotation speed of 161.14 r/min, and the inoculation amount of 5.83% by employing Box-Behnken design. The results of serial sulfide substrates experiments indicated that strain LYH-3 could survive up to 400 mg/L of sulfide with the highest sulfide removal rate (88.79% ± 0.35%) obtained at 50 mg/L of sulfide. Growth kinetic analysis presented the maximum specific growth rate µm (0.5274 hr-1) after 22 hr cultivation at 50°C. The highest enzyme activities of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (0.369 ± 0.052 U/mg) and sulfur dioxygenase (0.255 ± 0.014 U/mg) were both obtained at 40°C, and the highest enzyme activity of sulfite acceptor oxidoreductase (1.302 ± 0.035 U/mg) was assessed at 50°C. The results indicated that P. naphthalenovorans possessed a rapid growth rate and efficient sulfide oxidation capacities under thermophilic conditions, promising a potential application in controlling sulfur-containing odors during the thermophilic stage of sludge composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Paenibacillus , Esgotos/química , Sulfatos , Cinética , Sulfetos , Óxidos de Enxofre , Oxirredutases , Enxofre
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159009, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162579

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of Fe3+ on the quinone redox cycling driving lignocellulosic degradation in composting systems was investigated. The results showed that the degradation rates of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were higher in the experimental group (CT) with Fe2(SO4)3 addition than in the blank group (CK) (CT, 52.55 %, 45.14 %, 56.98 %; CK, 49.63 %, 37.34 %, 52.3 %). Changes in the abundance of key enzymes for quinone reduction (AA3_1, AA3_2, AA6) and the structural succession of microbial communities were analyzed by metagenomic analysis. Among them, Fe2(SO4)3 had the most significant effect on AA3_2, with an approximately 8-fold increase in abundance compared to the beginning of composting. The dominant phylum in the composting process was Actinobacteria. In conclusion, the addition of Fe2(SO4)3 contributed to the quinone redox cycling and effectively improved the degradation rate of lignocellulose in composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Lignina/metabolismo , Metagenômica , Solo , Quinonas , Oxirredução , Esterco/microbiologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158920, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181810

RESUMO

Due to increased drought frequency following climate change, practices improving water use efficiency and reducing water-stress are needed. The efficiency of organic amendments to improve plant growth conditions under drought is poorly known. Our aim was to investigate if organic amendments can attenuate plant water-stress due to their effect on the plant-soil system and if this effect may increase upon ageing. To this end we determined plant and soil responses to water shortage and organic amendments added to soil. We compared fresh biochar/compost mixtures to similar amendments after ageing in soil. Results indicated that amendment application induced few plant physiological responses under water-stress. The reduction of leaf gas exchange under watershortage was alleviated when plants were grown with biochar and compost amendments: stomatal conductance was least reduced with aged mixture aged mixture (-79 % compared to -87 % in control), similarly to transpiration (-69 % in control and not affected with aged mixture). Belowground biomass production (0.25 times) and nodules formation (6.5 times) were enhanced under water-stress by amendment addition. This effect was improved when grown on soil containing the aged as compared to fresh amendments. Plants grown with aged mixtures also showed reduced leaf proline concentrations (two to five times) compared to fresh mixtures indicating stress reduction. Soil enzyme activities were less affected by water-stress in soil with aged amendments. We conclude that the application of biochar-compost mixtures may be a solution to reduce the effect of water-stress to plants. Our findings revealed that this beneficial effect is expected to increase with aged mixtures, leading to a better water-stress resistance over time. However, while being beneficial for plant growth under water-stress, the use of amendments may not be suited to increase water use efficiency.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Secas , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Plantas , Água
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159213, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206908

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted to assess the Sb phytoavailability and its accumulation in the wheat before and after remediation, using the composted manure of poultry and sheep, and a chemical amendment (limestone). The present study evaluates the effects of amendments on Sb bioavailability in different soils and investigates the relationship between bioaccumulated Sb and its availability in spiked soils using two different single extraction methods. Furthermore, a sequential extraction procedure was used to measure different fractions of Sb in soil, in order to assess the effect of remediation. The results revealed that bioavailability of Sb were highly affected by the three soil amendments on plant height, uptake of Sb by wheat. Poultry compost (Pc) and Sheep compost (Sc) increased the residual fraction of Sb in soils, and decreased the Sb uptake by wheat, enhanced the height, biomass and dry yield of the wheat crop. While the residual fraction of Sb in soils didn't obviously increased by adding Chemical (limestone) in the four soils. It is concluded that uptake of Sb in the soils significantly decreased with the addition of amended materials in the Sb spiked soils, and poultry compost is the most effective. In the lower level of Sb contaminated soils remediated by poultry compost (Pc), the uptake of Sb in wheat decreased 63.1-74.4 %, 68.7-79.0 %, 68.9-76.9 % and 66.3-82.6 % in S1, S2, S3, S4, compared to the contaminated soils without amendments, respectively.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Ovinos , Animais , Esterco , Antimônio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Triticum , Carbonato de Cálcio
13.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116426, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240639

RESUMO

This study focused on how adding ionic liquids (IL) affects composting humification. During the warming and thermophilic phases, addition of IL increased precursors content, and increased the polymerization of humus (HS) at later stages. Furthermore, the final HS and humic acid (HA) content of experimental groups (T) groups 129.79 mg/g and 79.91 mg/g were higher than in control group (CK) 118.57 mg/g and 74.53 mg/g, respectively (p < 0.05). IL up-regulated the gene abundance of metabolism for carbohydrate and amino acid (AA), and promoted the contributions of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which affected humification. The redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the citrate-cycle (TCA cycle)(ko0020), pentose phosphate pathway (ko00030), pyruvate metabolism (ko00620), glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism (ko00630), propanoate metabolism (ko00640), butanoate metabolism (ko00650) positively correlated with HA and HI. HA and humification index (HI) positively correlated with AA metabolic pathways, and fulvic acid (FA) was negatively correlated with these pathways. Overall, metabolism for carbohydrate and AA metabolism favored compost humification. ILs improved metabolism for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, thus enhancing humification.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Líquidos Iônicos , Animais , Bovinos , Esterco , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Aminoácidos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Carboidratos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116538, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274304

RESUMO

The adverse effects of high strength wastewaters on the microbial activities have created a challenge to biological treatments. Microbial fuel cell has been considered as a promising process because the electrical potential generation can stimulate microorganisms and overcome the inhibitory effect. However, several issues (e.g., scalability, high costs and maintenance) have prevented the process from the industrial applications. Elimination of the proton exchange membrane has been suggested as a remedy to the mentioned problems. In this work, a membrane-less microbial fuel cell was modified by putting the cathode within a thin sand layer (instead of the proton exchange membrane) to treat a high strength wastewater sample. The influences of the feed organic load and time of treatment in the modified system were studied in batch and continuous operations. It was revealed that the batch operation efficiency was higher for the lower feed loadings as a 5-day batch treatment removed 66 ± 4% of the 15,000 ± 500 mg/L initial chemical oxygen demand while the continuous process efficiency with 9-day hydraulic residence time was slightly more than 50%. However, the efficiency of the continuous operation for treatment of higher initial loading values was better than the batch mode with the removal efficiency of 41 ± 2% versus 12 ± 2% for a more concentrated leachate feed (45,000 ± 1000 mg/L). Finally, it was disclosed that the modified membrane-less MFC employed in this work can be effective in treatment of high strength wastewaters in larger scales with lower costs.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Compostagem , Águas Residuárias/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Prótons , Eletrodos , Eletricidade
15.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116432, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274337

RESUMO

Maintaining humidification and inhibiting nitrogen losses during vermicomposting process have emerged to be key factors for high-quality productions. Previous data have showed outstanding functions of biochar addition in improving vermicomposting quality. In this study, the influence of bamboo biochar (BB) and rice husk biochar (RHB) addition on compost maturity, humification and nitrogen loss was evaluated in the vermicomposting of cattle manure and maize straw. Results revealed that BB or RHB amendment improved organic matter decomposition, enhanced humification and maturity of compost, particularly in the 10% BB treatment, which exerted the highest humic acids content and GI value. Furthermore, BB or RHB addition significantly reduced nitrogen losses, in which the volatilization of NH3 and N2O were reduced by 24.93%-66.23% and 14.91%-55.12%. The fewest nitrogen loss was detected in the treatment of 10% BB. Biochar inhibited nirK, nirS but promoted AOB-amoA, nosZ expression; fewer N2O producing bacteria (Pseudomonas, Devosia, Luteimonas genus) were observed in the biochar treatment, and thereby decreased the N2O emission. Therefore, 10% BB addition for co-vermicomposting cattle manure and maize straw is an efficient way to increase humification, maturity, and reduce nitrogen loss, and future applications following this strategy is believed to generate better productions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Sasa , Bovinos , Animais , Esterco , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Solo , Oryza/metabolismo
16.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116560, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279772

RESUMO

Aerated compost tea (ACT) contains soluble humic substances (SHS) that are expected to alter the dynamics and ecotoxicity of Cu in soil. This study investigated the efficiency of ACT in enhancing the mobility and phytoextraction of Cu in vineyard soil. Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) was grown on a vineyard soil at three concentrations of Cu (90, 261 and 432 mg kg-1), and supplied (or not) with ACT, then sampled after 56 days to determine the amount of Cu phytoextracted. Soil was extracted with 0.01 M KCl and potentiometric analyses were performed to measure the impact of ACT on the speciation of Cu in the extraction solution. ACT was found to increase the mobility of Cu in the soil by a factor of 3-14 depending on the soil Cu content and on the soil extraction date. The increase in Cu mobility was associated with an increase in absorbance at 254 nm and with a decrease in the free ionic fraction of Cu in the KCl extract, suggesting that Cu was mainly mobilized by the SHS present in the compost tea, and through a ligand-controlled dissolution process. ACT increased Cu phytoextraction at Cu90 and Cu261 by on average 80% thanks to its positive impact on plant growth, and on Cu accumulation in plant shoots, whereas it reduced Cu phytoextraction at Cu432 due to its deleterious effect on plant growth at this soil Cu content. ACT is thus an efficient way to increase the phytoavailability of Cu in soil, but probably should not be used in vineyard soils that are highly contaminated by Cu. To obtain Cu phytoextraction yields in line with the needs of the wine sector, the use of ACT needs to be associated with the cultivation of a Cu-accumulating plant.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Cobre/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Fazendas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Chá
17.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116553, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283197

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different carbon-based additives including biochar, woody peat, and glucose on humic acid, fulvic acid, and phosphorus fractions in chicken manure composting and its potential for phosphorus mobilization in soil. The results showed that the addition of glucose effectively increased the total humic substance content (90.2 mg/g) of composts, and the fulvic acid content was significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.05). The addition of biochar could effectively improve the content of available phosphorus by 59.9% in composting. The addition of carbon-based materials to the composting was beneficial for the production of more stable inorganic phosphorus in the phosphorus fraction. The highest proportion of soluble inorganic phosphorus components of sodium hydroxide was found in group with woody peat addition (8.7%) and the highest proportion of soluble inorganic phosphorus components of hydrochloric acid was found in group with glucose addition (35.2%). The compost products with the addition of biochar (humic acid decreased by 17.9%) and woody peat (fulvic acid decreased by 72.6%) significantly increased soil humic acid mineralization. The compost products with the addition of biochar was suitable as active phosphate fertilizer, while the compost products with the addition of glucose was suitable as slow-release phosphate fertilizer.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Carbono/metabolismo , Fósforo , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Fosfatos , Glucose
18.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116531, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308788

RESUMO

The influences of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) at the ratios of 0% (CK), 0.5% (F1), 1.0% (F2), 1.5% (F3), 2.0% (F4) and 2.5% (F5) on nitrogen transformation and bacterial community composition were investigated in the composting of food waste digestate (FWD) and corn straw (CS). PAAS addition increased the thermophilic temperature but had no significant effect on pH values. PAAS exerted significantly effects on the concentration of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N). The compost product in 1.0% PAAS treatment was more active in absorbing nutrients. Firmicutes (9.40-83.54%), Actinobacteriota (9.98-51.50%), Proteobacteria (0.20-27.87%) and Bacteroidota (0.11-34.69%) were the dominant phyla in FWD composting. Moreover, relative to CK, PAAS promoted the propagation of dominant bacterial phyla Firmicutes with increment of 30.05-102.06% in the thermophilic phase. Kroppenstedtia, Thermobifida and Saccharomonospora were observed to be dominant at the maturing phase and correlated with NH4+-N, NO2--N, TN and NO3--N. Therefore, they might be regarded as probable biomarkers symbolic for the maturing phase during FWD composting. The compost product had the highest maturity degree in 1.0% PAAS treatment. These results indicated that PAAS addition improved the maturity and nutrient contents of the compost product as well as altered compost bacterial community dynamics.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Nitrogênio/análise , Esterco/microbiologia , Alimentos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Solo , Bactérias , Firmicutes
19.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116421, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308953

RESUMO

Inoculation with microorganisms is an effective strategy for improving traditional composting processes. This study explored the effects of inoculation with lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms (LDM) on the degradation of organic matter (OM), methane (CH4) emissions, and the microbial community (bacteria and methanogens) during composting. The results showed that LDM accelerated the degradation of OM (including the lignocellulose fraction) and increased the CH4 releases in the later thermophilic and cooling stages during composting. At the ending of composting, LDM increased the CH4 emissions by 38.6% compared with the control. Moreover, LDM significantly increased the abundances of members of the bacterial and methanogenic community during the later thermophilic period (P < 0.05). In addition, LDM promoted the growth and activity of major bacterial genera (e.g., Ureibacillus) with the ability to degrade macromolecular OM, as well as affecting key methanogens (e.g., Methanocorpusculum) in the composting system. Network analysis and variance partitioning analysis indicated that OM and temperature were the main factors that affected the bacterial and methanogen community structures. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the higher CH4 emissions under LDM were related to the growth of methanogens, which was facilitated by the anaerobic environment produced by large amounts of CO2. Thus, aerobic conditions should be improved during the end of the thermophilic and cooling composting period when inoculating with lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms in order to reduce CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Euryarchaeota , Metano , Solo , Lignina/metabolismo , Euryarchaeota/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Esterco/microbiologia
20.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116573, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323114

RESUMO

Livestock manure is one of the main sources of heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural soil. So, it is necessary to reduce its bioavailability before used as organic fertilizer. In this study, the passivation effect of HMs and the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during four composting processes were explored. Results showed that different composting methods had a great effect on HMs passivation rate and humification degree. HMs were released during the thermophilic phase, and were bound by resynthesized humus during the cooling period. The best passivation effect of HMs was found in FV + T treatment, the passivation rate of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb reached 63.80%, 34.07%, 86.54% and 45.14%, respectively, then followed by the treatment of NV + T and SC. UV-Vis spectra and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra indicated that humus precursors were produced during thermophilic phase and the accumulation of humus mainly occurred in cooling period. This study can be used as a theoretical support for the safe utilization livestock manure.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Esterco , Galinhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Gado
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