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1.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113734, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649327

RESUMO

Treatment with exogenous additives during composting can help to alleviate the accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) caused by the direct application of pig manure to farmland. In addition, nano-cellulose has an excellent capacity for adsorbing pollutants. Thus, the effects of adding 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg nano-cellulose to compost on the bacterial communities, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and ARGs were determined in this study. After composting, treatment with nano-cellulose significantly reduced the relative abundance of ARGs, which was lowest in the compost product with 600 mg/kg added nano-cellulose. Nano-cellulose inhibited the rebound in ARGs from the cooling period to the maturity period, and weakened the selective pressure of heavy metals on microorganisms by passivating bio-Cu. The results also showed that MGEs explained most of the changes in the abundances of ARGs, and MGEs had direct effects on ARGs. The addition of 600 mg/kg nano-cellulose reduced the abundances of bacterial genera associated with ermQ, tetG, and other genes, and the number of links (16) between ARGs and MGEs was lowest in the treatment with 600 mg/kg added nano-cellulose. Therefore, adding 600 mg/kg nano-cellulose reduced the abundances of ARGs by affecting host bacteria and MGEs. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the positive effect of nano-cellulose on ARG pollution in poultry manure, where adding 600 mg/kg nano-cellulose was most effective at reducing the abundances of ARGs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Celulose , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , Suínos
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125925, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614558

RESUMO

The present study was focused on vermicomposting of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and its mixtures with straw pellets. The process was evaluated in terms of biological and physico-chemical properties. The greatest number and biomass of earthworms was found in the treatment with 25% vol. SCG + 75% vol. straw pellets. In this treatment, the upper youngest layer exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.5-fold greater earthworm number and biomass, respectively, than the bottom oldest layer. Earthworm weight decreased in direct proportion to the layer age. The oldest treatment layer was characterized by lesser contents of fungi and six hydrolytic enzymes, compared to the younger layers. Further, the oldest treatment layer had suitable agrochemical properties. Earthworms were able to substantially reduce the caffeine stimulant content, which is considered the most representative pharmaceutically active compound.


Assuntos
Café , Compostagem
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125894, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523556

RESUMO

Phosphate additives especially superphosphate can reduce nitrogen loss, and increase phosphorus availability in composting. This study investigated the changes of different heavy metals fractions and their relationship with bacterial community and abiotic factors during pig manure composting with adding equimolar H3PO4, H2SO4 and K2HPO4. Results showed that both acidic and alkaline labile phosphate increased the potential ecological risk of heavy metals compared to control, but K2HPO4 decreased the accumulation of exchangeable Zn and Mn by 12% and 15% than that with H3PO4 and H2SO4 addition. Network analysis showed that K2HPO4 enhanced the proportion of negative links in bacterial species with heavy metals, but H3PO4 decreased the stability of bacterial network. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that pH was the key factor on metal speciation and risk with phosphate additives than bacterial role. The study presented theoretical basis for additive selection in controlling composting nitrogen fixation and environmental risk.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Fosfatos , Solo , Suínos
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125871, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523563

RESUMO

High concentration of NH4+-N in food waste digestate (FWD) produced from biological treatment of food waste is considered as a major threat on the composting process resulting in production of immature compost. Hence, a laboratory batch composting study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using biochar as a physical additive to ameliorate the inhibitory effect of NH4+-N and to mitigate the nitrogen loss during FWD composting. FWD was co-composted with tobacco biochar at a dosage of 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% (dw) in bench-scale composters with a controlled aeration system. The addition of 10% biochar enhanced the degradation rate resulting in 44% higher carbon decomposition than the control. Besides, 10% biochar amendment reduced NH3 and N loss by 58% and 5%, respectively and significantly reduced NH4+-N content to HKORC limit of < 700 mg/kg dw within 5 days showing the beneficiary impact of biochar addition.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos Fortificados , Cinética , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125906, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523564

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the impacts of the Fenton-like reaction on hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, humic substance (HS) formation, laccase activity and microbial communities during composting to optimize composting performances. The results indicated that the activity of laccase in the presence of the Fenton-like reaction (HC) (35.92 U/g) was significantly higher than that in the control (CP) (29.56 U/g). The content of HS in HC (151.91 g/kg) was higher than that in CP (131.73 g/kg), and amides, quinones, aliphatic compounds and aromatic compounds were promoted to form HS in HC by 2D-FTIR-COS analysis. Proteobacteria contributed most greatly to AA1 at phylum level, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas abundances increased in HC. Redundancy analysis indicated that there was a strong positive correlation among the Fenton-like reaction, laccase and HS. Conclusively, the Fenton-like reaction improved the activity of laccase, promoted the formation of HS and enhanced the quality of compost.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Lacase , Esterco , Solo
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125851, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523577

RESUMO

Targeted options to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from composting is scarce due to challenges in disentangling the complex N2O production pathways. Here, combined approaches of nitrogen form analysis, isotopocule mapping, quantitative PCR, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing were used to differentiate N2O production pathways and decipher the underlying biochemical mechanisms. Results suggested that most N2O was produced at the latter stage through nitrifier denitrification. The bioelectrochemical assistance through applying an electric potential reduced N2O emissions by 28.5-75.5%, and the underlying mitigation mechanism was ammonia oxidation repression, as evidenced by the observed reduction in the proportion of the amoA containing family Nitrosomonadaceae from 99% to 83% at the lower voltage and to a negligible level at the higher voltage assessed, which was attributed to their depressed competitiveness for oxygen with heterotrophs. The findings provide evidence that the bioelectrochemical assistance could function as a nitrification inhibitor to minimize compost derived N2O emissions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Nitrificação , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125867, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523583

RESUMO

The effects of FeSO4 on nitrogen loss and humification were investigated in the composting of cow dung and corn straw. The results showed that all groups met the ripening requirements after 50 days: the temperature was above 50 °C for 12- 17 days; the products had pH values of 6.4-7.6, electrical conductivities of 1.06-1.33 ms·cm-1, NH4+-N contents of 37.2-61.8 mg kg-1, and the seed germination index of 95%-101%. FeSO4 reduced nitrogen losses by 9.21-15.65% compared to the control group. FeSO4 also improved the compost humification process: the humus substances (HS) contents in the compost product with FeSO4 were 109.82-129.86 g·kg-1, higher than 106.31 g·kg-1 in the control group. The compost product in 3.75% FeSO4 treatment had the highest maturity degree. This study showed that FeSO4 could inhibit the mineralization of organic matter during the composting and accelerate the formation of HS.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Bovinos , Nitrogênio , Solo , Temperatura , Zea mays
8.
Waste Manag ; 135: 130-139, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496309

RESUMO

Aerobic composting is a promising alternative for the recycling of rice straw (RS), and an applicable nitrogen source is necessary to improve the process. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and microbial community dynamics of RS composting using urea or protein hydrolysate from leather waste (PHL) as a nitrogen source. Results showed that PHL addition achieved a faster temperature increase rate at start-up (1.85 ℃·h-1 vs 1.07 ℃·h-1), higher volatile solid degradation efficiency (48.04% vs 46.98%), and greater germination indices (111.72% vs 89.87%) in the end products, as compared to urea. The major bacterial phyla included Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in both composting processes. Although the bacterial communities in both processes succeeded in a similar pattern according to different composting phases, PHL addition accelerated the succession rate of the microbial community. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that bacterial community composition was strongly correlated with physicochemical properties such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), NH4+, pH, temperature, and total nitrogen (TN) content. These results proved the potential of using PHL as a nitrogen source to improve the RS composting process.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Microbiota , Oryza , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Solo , Ureia
9.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113702, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517230

RESUMO

Composting and vermicomposting have attracted attention in relation to both waste management and the potential to produce organic amendments that could improve soil quality. The main differences between compost depend on the feedstock, the production process, and the degree of maturity. In the present study, samples of compost of different origin (food and green waste, livestock waste, algae waste, urban waste or sewage sludge) or subjected to different composting methods (traditional or using earthworms) were collected for analysis. Additionally, samples collected at various stages of the composting process were compared (raw material, 15 and 30 days of composting, and final compost). Different analysis and techniques were used to establish the chemical composition, physicochemical and acid-base properties of compost samples and the organic matter extracts. The correlations obtained (between the abundance of acid groups in different extracts of the compost or between the cation exchange capacity and the C/N atomic ratio) would allow for predicting the compost behaviour based on certain characteristics, and a reduction in the number of parameters determined experimentally, thus facilitating comparisons between different compost. In addition, the potential value of the compost as amendment was tested with a Haplic Cambisol from a mining area. The application of compost increased the pH, the organic matter and nutrient content, and promoted seed germination and root growth.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oligoquetos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Esgotos , Solo
10.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113736, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521000

RESUMO

Despite the various benefits of humus, the changes in its chemical characteristics during composting in response to biochar addition and varying bulking agents remain to be further explored. In this study, three treatments were conducted, in which swine manure, bulking agent, and biochar were mixed at ratios of 4:1:0, 8:1:0, and 8:1:1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR), three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM), and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) were employed to characterize the chemical and structural properties of humus from multiple perspectives. The 3D-EEM spectra in this study showed a larger increase in humic acids (HAs) content (56%) and HAs to fulvic acids ratio (128%) during composting, indicating stronger humification in biochar-amended treatment. FTIR, 13C-NMR, and NEXAFS all confirmed the essential properties of HA as the core agronomic functional substance with rich aromatic and carboxyl groups, and that its aromaticity increased gradually during composting. In addition, 13C-NMR demonstrated that biochar addition and a relatively higher bulking agent ratio aided an increase in the carboxyl C proportion in HA after composting. In particular, NEXAFS revealed that biochar addition promoted the diversification of C, N, and O species in HA, with the emergence of quinone C and O-alkyl C as the main representatives. This work suggests that biochar addition and a relatively high bulking agent ratio could enhance humification and improve the agronomic function of humus.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Esterco , Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Suínos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113701, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521004

RESUMO

The agri-food industry is at the centre of the circular economy, since the co-composting of its residual flows allows their management and adds value producing fertilisers. In this work, six composting piles were prepared combining agri-food sludge (AS), different fresh vegetable wastes (pepper waste (P), tomato waste (T), and leek waste (L), and, as bulking agents, vine shoot pruning (VS), garlic stalks (GS) and avocado leaves (AL)). Classical physico-chemical and chemical determinations and advanced instrumental methods (excitation-emission fluorescence (EEM) and gravimetric (TG, DTG and DTA) techniques) were used and compared to assess organic matter evolution and evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. The thermal profiles of the composting processes were viable to show the stabilization of the agri-food sludge with the different materials tested in the mixtures, reaching adequate levels of stabilization of organic matter. Preferential degradation of peptides and proteins was observed by fluorescence. This seemed to induce a limitation in the biodegradation of the remaining organic matter, indicating that these biomolecules are key in composting dynamics, acting as limiting components during the process. The results from thermogravimetric analysis indicated the degradation of labile compounds (e.g., carbohydrates and proteins), the most recalcitrant material becoming predominant at the maturity stage of the composting process. The rise in the thermogravimetric parameter R2 was associated with the increase in the concentration of more refracting compounds, which need more energy for their decomposition.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Fertilizantes , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Peptídeos , Solo
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126154, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492935

RESUMO

Recent trends in food waste and its management have increasingly started to focus on treating it as a reusable resource. The hazardous impact of food waste such as the release of greenhouse gases, deterioration of water quality and contamination of land areas are a major threat posed by food waste. Under the circular economy principles, food waste can be used as a sustainable supply of high-value energy, fuel, and nutrients through green techniques such as anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, composting, enzymatic treatment, ultrasonic, hydrothermal carbonization. Recent advances made in anaerobic co-digestion are helping in tackling dual or even multiple waste streams at once with better product yields. Integrated approaches that employ pre-processing the food waste to remove obstacles such as volatile fractions, oils and other inhibitory components from the feedstock to enhance their bioconversion to reduce sugars. Research efforts are also progressing in optimizing the operational parameters such as temperature, pressure, pH and residence time to enhance further the output of products such as methane, hydrogen and other platform chemicals such as lactic acid, succinic acid and formic acid. This review brings together some of the recent progress made in the green strategies towards food waste valorization.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Alimentos , Hidrogênio , Metano
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7757-7767, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553251

RESUMO

Xylanase is efficient for xylan degradation and widely applied in industries. We found a GH11 family xylanase (Xyn11A) with high thermostability and catalytic activity from compost metatranscriptome. This xylanase has the optimal reaction temperature at 80 °C with the activity of 2907.3 U/mg. The X-ray crystallographic structure shows a typical "right hand" architecture, which is the characteristics of the GH11 family enzymes. Comparing it with the mesophilic XYN II, a well-studied GH11 xylanase from Trichoderma reesei, Xyn11A is more compact with more H-bonds. Our mutagenic results show that the electrostatic interactions in the thumb and palm region of Xyn11A could result in its high thermostability and activity. Introducing a disulfide bond at the N-terminus further increased its optimal reaction temperature to 90 °C with augmented activity. KEY POINTS: • A hyperthermophilic xylanase with high activity was discovered using the metatranscriptomic method. • The mechanisms of thermophilicity and high activity were revealed using X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics simulations. • The thermostability and activity were further improved by introducing a disulfide bond.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Cristalografia por Raios X , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/genética , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Hypocreales
14.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 652, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Composting is an important technique for environment-friendly degradation of organic material, and is a microbe-driven process. Previous metagenomic studies of composting have presented a general description of the taxonomic and functional diversity of its microbial populations, but they have lacked more specific information on the key organisms that are active during the process. RESULTS: Here we present and analyze 60 mostly high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from time-series samples of two thermophilic composting cells, of which 47 are potentially new bacterial species; 24 of those did not have any hits in two public MAG datasets at the 95% average nucleotide identity level. Analyses of gene content and expressed functions based on metatranscriptome data for one of the cells grouped the MAGs in three clusters along the 99-day composting process. By applying metabolic modeling methods, we were able to predict metabolic dependencies between MAGs. These models indicate the importance of coadjuvant bacteria that do not carry out lignocellulose degradation but may contribute to the management of reactive oxygen species and with enzymes that increase bioenergetic efficiency in composting, such as hydrogenases and N2O reductase. Strong metabolic dependencies predicted between MAGs revealed key interactions relying on exchange of H+, NH3, O2 and CO2, as well as glucose, glutamate, succinate, fumarate and others, highlighting the importance of functional stratification and syntrophic interactions during biomass conversion. Our model includes 22 out of 49 MAGs recovered from one composting cell data. Based on this model we highlight that Rhodothermus marinus, Thermobispora bispora and a novel Gammaproteobacterium are dominant players in chemolithotrophic metabolism and cross-feeding interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained expand our knowledge of the taxonomic and functional diversity of composting bacteria and provide a model of their dynamic metabolic interactions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metagenoma , Actinobacteria , Bactérias/genética , Rhodothermus
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 641, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508322

RESUMO

With the aim to recommend an integrated alternative for the combined treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) and cotton residues (CR), and the production of high value and environmentally friendly products, two compost piles were set up. The first pile (control, pile 1) consisted of ginned CR, whereas the second (pile 2) was made of CR with the addition of OMW. A series of physicochemical parameters and the culturable microbial diversity in both piles were assessed. Co-composting (pile 2) displayed higher temperatures during the whole process, a prolonged second thermophilic phase and temperature values higher than 40 °C even after the thermophilic stage. Comparing the physicochemical parameters of the pile 2 with those of the pile 1, it was deduced that pH in the former was more acidic during the onset of the process; the EC values were higher throughout the process, while the levels of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, as well as the NH4+/NO3- ratios, were lower at most of the sampling dates. By evaluating the abovementioned results, it was estimated that the co-composting process headed sooner toward stability and maturity, Isolated microorganisms from both piles were identified as members of the genera Brevibacillus, Serratia, Klebsiella, and Aspergillus, whereas active thermotolerant diazotrophs were detected in both piles at the 2nd thermophilic phase emerging a promising prospect upon further evaluation for enhancing the end-product quality. Our findings indicate that co-composting is an interesting approach for the exploitation of large quantities of agro-industrial residues with a final product suitable for improving soil fertility and health.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Olea , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Temperatura , Águas Residuárias
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125842, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469819

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of single-stage inoculation (SSI) versus two-stage inoculation (TSI) on organic carbon components, product quality and fungal community during co-composting of cattle manure and rice straw. Both inoculation methods accelerated the temperature increase and elevated the composting temperature. TSI resulted in a second fermentation stage and extended the thermophilic stage from 22 to 29 days. Compared with SSI, TSI promoted the degradation degree of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin by 25.9%, 16.5% and 47.4%, and increased the content of total nutrients and humus carbon by 5.9% and 10.5% in final products, respectively. TSI significantly increased the relative abundance of Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Neurospora, Mycothermus, Malbranchea and Gloeophyllum in the second fermentation stage. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that Aspergillus, Neurospora, Trichoderma and Gloeophyllum were the key fungi for lignocellulose degradation and humification. Redundancy analysis showed that temperature was the major environmental factor affecting fungal community succession in TSI.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Micobioma , Oryza , Trichoderma , Animais , Carbono , Bovinos , Esterco , Solo
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 84-95, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465440

RESUMO

Microbial enzymes are crucial for material biotransformation during the composting process. In this study, we investigated the effects of adding bamboo charcoal (BC) (i.e., at 5%, 10%, and 20% corresponding to BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) on the enzyme activity levels during chicken manure composting. The results showed that BC10 could increase the cellulose and urease activities by 56% and 96%, respectively. The bacterial community structure in BC10 differed from those in the other treatments, and Luteivirga, Lactobacillus, Paenalcaligenes, Ulvibacter, Bacillus, Facklamia, Pelagibacterium, Sporosarcina, Cellvibrio, and Corynebacterium had the most important roles in composting. Compared with other treatments, BC10 significantly enhanced the average rates of degradation of carbohydrates (D-xylose (40%) and α-D-lactose (44%)) and amino acids (L-arginine (16%), L-asparagine (14%), and L-threonine (52%)). We also explored the associations among the bacterial community and their metabolic functions with the changes in the activities of enzymes. Network analysis demonstrated that BC10 altered the co-occurrence patterns of the bacterial communities, where Ulvibacter and class Bacilli were the keystone bacterial taxa with high capacities for degrading carbon source, and they were related to increases in the activities of cellulase and urease, respectively. The results obtained in this study may help to further enhance the efficiency of composting.


Assuntos
Celulase , Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Galinhas , Esterco , Solo , Urease
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468511

RESUMO

Organo-mineral fertilizers supplemented with biological additives are an alternative to chemical fertilizers. In this study, thermoresistant microorganisms from composting mass were isolated by two-step procedures. First, samples taken at different time points and temperatures (33 days at 52 ºC, 60 days at 63 ºC, and over 365 days at 26 ºC) were pre-incubated at 80 oC for 30 minutes. Second, the microbial selection by in vitro culture-based methods and heat shock at 60 oC and 100 oC for 2h and 4h. Forty-one isolates were able to grow at 60 °C for 4h; twenty-seven at 100 °C for 2h, and two at 100 °C for 4h. The molecular identification by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal gene using universal primers revealed that thirty-five isolates were from eight Bacillus species, one Brevibacillus borstelensis, three Streptomyces thermogriseus, and two fungi (Thermomyces lanuginosus and T. dupontii). Data from amylase, phytase, and cellulase activity assays and the enzymatic index (EI) showed that 38 of 41 thermo-resistant isolates produce at least one enzyme. For amylase activity, the highest EI value was observed in Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 21C2, EI= 4.11), followed by Brevibacillus borstelensis (isolate 6C2, EI= 3.66), Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 3.52), and Bacillus paralicheniformis (isolate 20C2, EI= 3.34). For phytase, the highest EI values were observed for Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 2.30) and Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 3C1, EI= 2.15). Concerning cellulose production, B. altitudinis (isolate 6C1) was the most efficient (EI= 6.40), followed by three Bacillus subtilis (isolates 9C1, 16C2, and 19C2) with EI values of 5.66, 5.84, and 5.88, respectively, and one B. pumilus (isolate 27C2, EI= 5.78). The selected microorganisms are potentially useful as a biological additive in organo-mineral fertilizers and other biotechnological processes.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Bacillus , Brevibacillus , Eurotiales , Streptomyces
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125714, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371333

RESUMO

Bacillus presents in most composts as core microbial taxa and is widely used as inoculant in composting. However, the role of Bacillus as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculant in composting and the response of indigenous bacterial community are unclear. This study used redundancy analysis (RDA), network analysis and structural equation model (SEM) to investigate the dynamics of phosphorus (P) fractions, bacterial community, and microbial interaction in composting with PSB (Bacillus sp. P6) inoculation. Results indicated that Bacillus inoculation increased Olsen P content, organic matter degradation, and bacterial diversity, benefiting P fractions mobilization during composting. RDA showed that pH was the main factor influencing P fractions transformation and bacterial taxa. Network analysis and SEM revealed that Bacillus indirectly improved the contribution of bacterial community on P mobilization by enhancing microbial interactions. Therefore, Bacillus with P solubilizing function may be a potential inoculant to regulate the biotic process of P transformation.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Compostagem , Bactérias , Interações Microbianas , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo , Solo
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125713, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371335

RESUMO

The aim of current work was to explore the impact of Cornstalk (CS) on greenhouse gaseous emission and maturation during further composting and analyzed its impact on bacterial diversity. Three kinds of immature fertilizers were collected from chicken, pig and dairy manure namely T1, T2 and T3 as control, T4, T5 and T6 were added CS into T1 to T3 and adjusted C/N to 25 namely treatment. The results illustrated that gases (N2O, CH4 and NH3) emission of CS added treatments decreased by 6.39%-24.68%, 10.60%-23.23% and 13.00%-19.58%, respectively. But the CS amendment increased CO2 emission by 15.53%-30.81%. The mineralization of carbon and nitrogen was mainly correlated to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota, CS amendment increased abundance by 22.28%, 17.79%, 1.48% and 35.90%, respectively. The strategy of employing CS would be the most feasible approach for recycling of immature manure, considering its compost quality and environmental from farm.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Animais , Gases , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Suínos
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