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1.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 86: 105509, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336212

RESUMO

Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) has been proven to act as a lysophospholipase (LysoPLA) and phospholipase B (PLB) in mammalian cells. In this study, we took human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells as the research object and explored the effect of NTE on phospholipid homeostasis. The results showed that phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels significantly increased (> 40%), while glycerophosphocholine (GPC) decreased (below 60%) after NTE gene was knockdown in the cells (NTE < 30% of control), which were prepared by gene silencing with dsRNA-NTE. However, in the NTE-overexpressed cells (NTE > 50% of control), which were prepared by expressing recombinant catalytic domain of NTE, LPC remarkably decreased (below 80%) and GPC enhanced (> 40%). Mipafox, a neuropathic organophosphorus compound (OP), significantly inhibited NTE-LysoPLA and NTE-PLB activities (> 95-99% inhibition at 50 µM), which was accompanied with a decreased GPC level (below 40%) although no change of the PC and LPC levels was observed; while paraoxon, a non-neuropathic OP, suppresses neither the activities of NTE-phospholipases nor the levels of PC, LPC, and GPC. Thus, we concluded that both the stable up- or down-regulated expression of NTE gene and the loss of NTE-LysoPLA/PLB activities disrupts phospholipid homeostasis in the cells although the inhibition of NTE activity only decreased GPC content without altering PC and LPC levels.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Fosfolipídeos , Animais , Humanos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Homeostase , Lisofosfolipase/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipase/farmacologia , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/farmacologia , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/farmacologia , Mamíferos/metabolismo
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 220: 114841, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323162

RESUMO

Enzyme-mediated dephosphorylation reaction is the important approach to realize the inactivation and detection of hazardous phosphate chemicals. To date, many phosphatases-like nanozymes (e.g., CeO2) have demonstrated the catalytic hydrolysis ability of the phosphomonoesters, rather than phosphotriester, and the CeO2 nanozyme only work under relatively harsh conditions of high temperature, and large dosage. Thus, exploration of efficient nanozymes for the rapid dephosphorylation of phosphotriester under mild conditions remains a challenge. Here, a novel CeO2@NC nanozyme is developed with excellent phosphatases-like activity based on substrate synergistic effect, in which, CeO2 nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon (NC) material. Taking paraoxon as the model substrate, such CeO2@NC nanozyme can drive rapid dephosphorylation of phosphotriester over a broad temperature range, which not only significantly outperforms natural phosphatases and neat CeO2, but also can preserve >80% of the optimal activity after exposure of harsh conditions, such as strong acidic/basic medium, high temperature of up to 80 °C. The excellent catalytic performance could be due to that Ce(IV)/Ce(III) species act as the active sites to realize the polarization and hydrolysis of P-O bond while NC template works as the synergistic group to adsorb the substrate. Furthermore, a simple colorimetric assay is developed for the rapid and selective detection of paraoxon. Overall, this work not only develops a highly efficient phosphatases-like nanozyme via substrate synergetic strategy, but also opens an interesting avenue for the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cério , Praguicidas , Paraoxon , Colorimetria , Cério/química , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/análise , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 220: 114890, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395730

RESUMO

It is of great significance to on-site detection of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) for pollution monitoring and poisoning estimation. Herein, we developed a portable hydrogel test kit for on-site detection of OPs, which is based on the integration of agarose hydrogel with dual-emission coordination polymers (CPs) nanocomposite comprised of Ru(bpy)32+ and zinc (II)-based CPs (ZnCPs) loaded with thioflavin T (ThT). Different from Ru(bpy)32+ with stable fluorescence in acidic environment, ThT@ZnCPs is highly sensitive to H+, which destroys the structure of ZnCPs as a host and quenches ThT@ZnCPs fluorescence. The distinct fluorescence behaviors of Ru(bpy)32+ and ThT@ZnCPs in acidic environment enable the hydrogel test kit to exhibit ratiometric fluorescence responses to acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which hydrolyzes acetylcholine to acetic acid and provides H+. On this basis, combining the inhibition effect of OPs to AChE activity, a ratiometric fluorescence method for OPs detection was established with the hydrogel test kit, and satisfactory results have been achieved in buffered aqueous solutions and apple juice samples. Attractively, by employing smartphone as a signal readout, on-site quantitation of OPs was accomplished with the features of easy to use, portability and low cost, demonstrating a great promising for point-of-care testing in food safety monitoring.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Inseticidas , Nanocompostos , Hidrogéis , Polímeros , Acetilcolinesterase , Compostos Organofosforados , Organofosfatos
4.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136808, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223822

RESUMO

Flame retardants, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP), are frequently detected in surface water. However, the effects of FRs exposure on aquatic organisms especially freshwater microalgae are still unclear. In this study, the toxicities of TBBPA, TDCPP and TBP to microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana, in terms of growth inhibition, photosynthetic activity inhibition and oxidative damage, were investigated, and according ecological risks were assessed. The results showed that TBBPA, TDCPP and TBP had inhibitory effects on C. sorokiniana, with 96 h EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) values of 7.606, 41.794 and 49.996 mg/L, respectively. Fv/Fm decreased as the increase of exposure time under 15 mg/L TBBPA. Under 50 mg/L TDCPP and 80 mg/L TBP exposure, Fv/Fm decreased significantly after 24 h. However, Fv/Fm rose after 96 h, indicating that the damaged photosynthetic activity was reversible. The content of chlorophyll a decreased, as the increase of TBBPA concentration from 3 to 15 mg/L. However, chlorophyll a increased first and then decreased, as the increase of TDCPP and TBP concentrations from 0 to 50 mg/L and 0-80 mg/L, respectively. Results indicated that C. sorokiniana could use the phosphorus of TDCPP and TBP to ensure the production of chlorophyll a. The risen content of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde as well as superoxide dismutase activity indicated that exposure to FRs induced oxidative stress. Additionally, the risk quotients showed that tested FRs had ecological risks in natural waters or wastewaters. This study provides insights into the toxicological mechanisms of different FRs toward freshwater microalgae for better understanding of according environmental risks.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Retardadores de Chama , Microalgas , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Clorofila A , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Água Doce
5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 286: 122021, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283209

RESUMO

A novel fluorescent sensor was developed in this study based on glutathione-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs@GSH) to detect organophosphorus pesticide residues in Radix Angelica Sinensis. GQDs@GSH was synthesized by a one-step pyrolysis method with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 33.9% and its structure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. GQDs@GSH exhibited excellent fluorescence property showing strong blue fluorescence under UV irradiation. The fluorescence of GQDs@GSH could be quenched by Fe3+ by electron transfer and the quenched fluorescence could be recovered due to the strong chelating and reducing ability of phytic acid (PA). Under the catalyzation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChOx), acetylcholine (ACh) could be decomposed to H2O2, which could further oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+ thus quenching the fluorescence of GQDs@GSH once again. Coumaphos, a kind of organophosphorus pesticide, could inhibit AChE activity, thus making the quenched fluorescence turn on again. Several parameters influencing the fluorescence response such as Fe3+, PA, ACh and coumaphos concentration, pH value and reaction time were optimized. Based on such a fluorescence "off-on-off-on" ngkmechanism, GQDs@GSH was successfully applied to the detection of coumaphos in Radix Angelica Sinensis. A good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and coumaphos concentration was obtained in the range of 0.1-10.0 µmol·L-1. By a standard addition method, the recoveries were measured to be 101.44-117.90% with RSDs lower than 1.98%. The biosensor system is simple, sensitive and accurate. It has a good application prospect in the detection of organophosphorus pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine and agricultural products, and also expanded the application scope for glutathione as a highly selective biological molecule.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis , Grafite , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Pontos Quânticos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Grafite/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Compostos Organofosforados , Acetilcolinesterase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cumafos , Glutationa/química
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 823-830, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375964

RESUMO

Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is a commonly used organophosphate-based flame retardant and can bio-accumulate in human tissues and organs. As its structure is similar to that of neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, the neurotoxicity of TDCIPP has raised widespread concerns. TDCIPP can increase neuronal apoptosis and induce autophagy. However, its regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression upregulation of the DNA Damage-Inducible Transcript 4 (DDIT4) protein, which might play essential roles in TDCIPP-induced neuronal autophagy and apoptosis, was observed in TDCIPP-treated differentiated rat PC12 cells. Furthermore, we determined the protective effect of the DDIT4 suppression on the autophagy and apoptosis induced by TDCIPP using Western blot (WB) and Flow cytometry (FACS) analysis. We observed that TDCIPP treatment increased the DDIT4, the autophagy marker Beclin-1, and the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3II) expressions and decreased the mTOR phosphorylation levels. Conversely, the suppression of DDIT4 expression increased the p-mTOR expression and decreased cell autophagy and apoptosis. Collectively, our results revealed the function of DDIT4 in cell death mechanisms triggered by TDCIPP through the mTOR signaling axis in differentiated PC12 cells. Thus, this study provided vital evidence necessary to explain the mechanism of TDCIPP-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Autofagia , Organofosfatos , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Ratos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Organofosforados , Células PC12 , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 284: 121798, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054953

RESUMO

Fenamiphos (Fena), an organophosphorous pesticide, is widely used in agricultural soils to control nematodes and thrips. This nematicide is harmful to fish, birds and humans and, causes several diseases. Therefore, the determination of the nematicide is crucial. Fena has been generally detected by enzyme-based systems which require specific conditions. Herein, we integrated a xanthene moiety and a pyrimidine moiety to obtain an enzyme-free detection system for Fena and, a fluorescent sensor (N-(6-(diethylamino)-9-(pyrimidin-5-yl)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-ethylethanaminium hexafluorophosphate(V)) (RosPm) was easily prepared. The colorimetric and spectroscopic properties of RosPm were investigated using the UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. RosPm exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity to Fena over all the metal ions, the anions and pesticides tested in acetonitrile (ACN)/water (H2O) (v:v, 1:1) solution. RosPm showed a clear visual change from purple to light-purple resulting fluorescent quenching with Fena. This sensor could be preferred for detecting Fena in vegetable samples such as tomato, pepper, and cucumber, and visualizing Fena in living MFC-7 cells.


Assuntos
Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas , Verduras , Acetonitrilas , Animais , Ânions , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Íons , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Pirimidinas , Solo , Verduras/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Xantenos
8.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137058, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419266

RESUMO

As one of the most widely used polymers, the intrinsic brittleness and high flammability bring about a stringent requirement for the practical application of epoxy resins (EPs). It is difficult to toughen EP without compromising its mechanical and thermal properties for many conventional toughening agents. Here, a novel furan-derived bio-based polyphosphazene (PFMP) with a flexible backbone and rigid side groups was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution reaction between polydichlorophosphazene (PDCP) and furfuralcohol. The resultant PFMP was incorporated into EP to realize exceptional toughening, strengthening, and flame retardant function. By adding 15% of PFMP, the limit oxygen index value is from 25% (EP) to 33% (EP/PFMP-15) and reaches the UL-94 V-0 rating. According to the cone calorimeter results, EP/PFMP-15 exhibits exceedingly reduced peak heat release rate (pHRR) (50.2%) and total heat release (THR) (49.6%). The significantly increased fire performance index (FPI) and decreased fire growth rate index (FIGRA) of EP/PFMP-15 demonstrate an improvement in its flame retardancy. The catalytic carbonization effect (condensed phase) and radical quenching effect (gas phase) of PFMP account for the greatly improved flame retardancy. Moreover, the impact and tensile tests indicate that PFMP can ameliorate the mechanical performance of EP with a maximum increase of impact strength (111.8%) and elongation at break (35.2%) for EP/PFMP-5. With 15% PFMP added, the tensile strength of EP/PFMP-15 increases by 40.4%. This work demonstrates that PFMP is expected to overcome shortcomings (flammability, toughness, and strength) of EP and spread its applied fields.


Assuntos
Resinas Epóxi , Retardadores de Chama , Biomassa , Compostos Organofosforados
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158779, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116658

RESUMO

In this study, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), phthalates, and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were analyzed in indoor household dust collected during the COVID-19 related strict lockdown (April-July 2020) period. Floor dust samples were collected from 40 households in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The levels of most of the analyzed chemicals were visibly high and for certain chemicals multifold high in analyzed samples compared to earlier studies on indoor dust from Jeddah. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the primary chemical in these dust samples, with a median concentration of 769,500 ng/g of dust. Tris (2-butoxy ethyl) phosphate (TBEP) and Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) contributed the highest among PFRs and BFRs with median levels of 5990 and 940 ng/g of dust, respectively. The estimated daily exposure in the worst case scenario (23,700 ng/kg bw/day) for Saudi children was above the reference dose (20,000 ng/kg bw/day) for DEHP, and the hazardous index (HI) was also >1. The long-term carcinogenic risk was above the 1 × 10-5, indicating a risk to the health of Saudi young children from getting exposed to DEHP from indoor dust. This study draws attention to the increased indoor pollution during the lockdown period when all of the daily activities by adults and children were performed indoors, which negatively impacted human health, as suggested by the calculated risk. However, the current study has limitations and warrants more monitoring studies from different parts of the world to understand the phenomenon. At the same time, this study also highlights another side of COVID-19 related to our lives.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Dietilexilftalato , Retardadores de Chama , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Poeira , Organofosfatos/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Fosfatos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159048, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162567

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pollutants (OPs), which are compounds containing carbon­phosphorus bonds or phosphate derivatives containing organic groups, have received much attention from researchers because of their persistence in the aqueous environment for long periods of time and the threat they pose to human health. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been widely applied to the removal of OPs from aqueous solutions due to its better removal effect and environmental friendliness. In this review, the removal of OPs from aqueous matrices by heterogeneous photocatalysis was presented. Herein, the application and the heterogeneous photocatalysis mechanism of OPs were described in detail, and the effects of catalyst types on degradation effect are discussed categorically. In particular, the heterojunction type photocatalyst has the most excellent effect. After that, the photocatalytic degradation pathways of several OPs were summarized, focusing on the organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphorus flame retardants, such as methyl parathion, dichlorvos, dimethoate and chlorpyrifos. The toxicity changes during degradation were evaluated, indicating that the photocatalytic process could effectively reduce the toxicity of OPs. Additionally, the effects of common water matrices on heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of OPs were also presented. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of heterogeneous photocatalysis removal of OPs are summarized and presented.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Poluentes Ambientais , Praguicidas , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Compostos Organofosforados , Água
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129890, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084467

RESUMO

Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) with luminescence property are emerging as promising candidates in fluorescent methods for monitoring contaminants, but low luminescence efficiency hampers their extensive applications. Herein, GSH-Au NCs@ZIF-8 was designed by encapsulating GSH-Au NCs with AIE effect into metal-organic frameworks, achieving high luminescence efficiency and good stability through the confinement effect of ZIF-8. Accordingly, a fluorescent sensing platform was constructed for the sensitive detection of copper ions (Cu2+) and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Firstly, the as-prepared GSH-Au NCs@ZIF-8 could strongly accumulate Cu2+ due to the adsorption property of MOFs, accompanied by a significant fluorescence quenching effect with a low detection limit of 0.016 µM for Cu2+. Besides, thiocholine (Tch), the hydrolysis product of acetylthiocholine (ATch) by acetylcholinesterase (AchE), could coordinate with Cu2+ by sulfhydryl groups (-SH), leading to a significant fluorescence recovery, which was further used for the quantification of OPs owing to its inhibition to AChE activity. Furthermore, a hydrogel sensor was explored to accomplish equipment-free, visual, and quantitative monitoring of Cu2+ and OPs by a smartphone sensing platform. Overall, this work provides an effective and universal strategy for enhancing the luminescence efficiency and stability of Au NCs, which would greatly promote their applications in contaminants monitoring.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Acetiltiocolina , Cobre , Ouro , Hidrogéis , Íons , Luminescência , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/análise , Tiocolina
12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 321, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diazinon (DZN), a widely used chemical herbicide for controlling agricultural pests, is an important organophosphorus pesticide and an environmental pollutant which induces toxic effects on living organisms during long-term exposure. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a phytochemical bioactive compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of TQ against DZN-induced hepatotoxicity through alleviating oxidative stress and enhancing cholinesterase (ChE) enzyme activity. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8); a negative control group receiving corn oil; a group only receiving DZN (20 mg/kg/day); a group treated with TQ (10 mg/kg/day), and three treatment groups as TQ + DZN, receiving different doses of TQ (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day). All experimental animals were orally treated for 28 consecutive days. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. In addition, ChE activity and histopathological changes were evaluated. RESULTS: The results showed that DZN decreased GSH level (p < 0.01) and SOD activity (p < 0.01) in parallel to an increase in MDA level (p < 0.01) and increased the activity of AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH (p < 0.01) in comparison to the negative control group. Our findings demonstrated that TQ administration could diminish hepatotoxicity and reduce oxidative damage in DZN-treated rats, which could be linked to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. It was also observed that TQ 10 mg/kg remarkably increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and SOD enzymes, elevated GSH, decreased MDA, and reduced pathological alternations of the liver induced by DZN. CONCLUSION: Thymoquinone 10 mg/kg increased the activity of plasma and blood cholinesterases and reduced DZN-induced alternations of the liver. Improvement of butyryl- and acetylcholinesterase activity suggests that maybe TQ supplement could be beneficial as pre-exposure prophylaxis among farm workers spraying pesticides.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hepatite , Praguicidas , Animais , Ratos , Diazinon/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Glutationa , Superóxido Dismutase , Fosfatase Alcalina , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1060284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466523

RESUMO

Inappropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among pesticide applicators may increase urinary organophosphate (OP) metabolite levels and subsequently increase risks of cognitive performance. Therefore, this study aims to (1) compare urinary OP metabolite levels and cognitive performance between pre-and post-pesticide application seasons; (2) PPE use and factors associated with PPE use linked to increased urinary OP metabolite levels during pesticide application; and (3) the association between urinary OP metabolite levels and cognitive performance. This longitudinal follow-up study on 79 pesticide applicators was carried out between October 2021 and January 2022. The applicators were interviewed, collected urine samples, and tested for cognitive performance in pre-and post-pesticide application seasons. The results found that the levels of urinary OP metabolites in post-application season were significantly higher than those in pre-application season (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis found that increased total diethylphosphate (DEP) and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels were associated with not wearing gloves while mixing pesticides [beta (ß) ± standard error (SE) = -43.74 ± 18.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = -80.84, -6.64 for total DEP and -50.84 ± 19.26, 95% CI = -89.41, -12.26 for total DAP] and also with not wearing a mask while spraying pesticides (ß ± SE = -31.76 ± 12.24, 95% CI = -56.28, -7.24 for total DEP and -33.20 ± 12.63, 95% CI = -58.49, -7.92 for total DAP) after adjusting for covariates. The scores of Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Thai, Thai Mental State Examination, and Mini-Cognitive test in post-pesticide application were significantly lower than those in pre-pesticide application (p < 0.001). However, no association was found between urinary OP metabolite levels and cognitive decline. Our findings indicate that inappropriate PPE use during pesticide application was the major factor affecting urinary OP metabolite levels among pesticide applicators. Wearing gloves when mixing pesticides and a mask when spraying pesticides were key factors in reducing occupational exposure to OP. Exposure to OP at low levels and for short periods of exposure may not affect cognitive performance significantly. Therefore, long-term exposure and exposure to high levels of OP should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Seguimentos , Compostos Organofosforados , Organofosfatos , Cognição
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(47): 53340-53347, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380517

RESUMO

The development of a portable, quantitative, and user-friendly sensor for on-site monitoring of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) is significantly urgent to guarantee food safety. Herein, a carbon dot/cobalt oxyhydroxide composite (CD/CoOOH)-based fluorescent hydrogel sensor is constructed for precisely quantifying OPs using a homemade portable auxiliary device. As a fluorescence signal indicator, the orange-emissive CD/CoOOH composite is encapsulated into an agarose hydrogel kit for amplifying the detection signals, shielding background interference, and enhancing stability. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the substrate to produce thiocholine, which induces the decomposition of CoOOH and makes the fluorescence enhancement of the hydrogel platform possible. OPs can specifically block the AChE activity to limit thiocholine production, resulting in a decrease in platform fluorescence. The image color of the fluorescent hydrogel kit is transformed into digital information using a homemade auxiliary device, achieving on-site quantitative detection of paraoxon (model target) with a detection limit of 10 ng mL-1. Harnessing CD/CoOOH composite signatures, hydrogel encapsulation, and portable optical devices, the proposed fluorescence hydrogel platform demonstrated high sensitivity and good anti-interference performance in agricultural sample analysis, indicating considerable potential in the on-site application.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Carbono/química , Hidrogéis , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cobalto/química , Tiocolina/química
15.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 96: 104005, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367495

RESUMO

The consumption of the widely used flame retardant Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is increasing. It is now frequently detected in the environment and also domestically. Although the possibility of dermal exposure to TPP is quite high, little is known about its potential molecular toxicity mechanisms. In this study, we found that TPP caused cytotoxicity on human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and significantly inhibited the proliferation and cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HaCaT cells were sensitive to TPP-induced apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species production was induced with TPP, which increased the protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation levels. Moreover, TPP inhibited proteasome activity and increased the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. Exposure to TPP significantly increased the HSP90, HSP70, GRP94 and GRP78 protein levels. Overall, our findings indicate that TPP may pose a risk to human health and contribute to the current understanding of the risks of TPP at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Humanos , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Ubiquitina , Células HaCaT
16.
Anal Chem ; 94(47): 16470-16480, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318661

RESUMO

Exceptional surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can be achieved by on-demand mechanisms mediated by the formation of three-dimensional (3D) network supporting hotspots. Herein, a deep eutectic solvent (DES) is used to fabricate plasmonic aerogels as sustainable SERS substrates consisting of different gold nanoparticle (AuNP) heterostructures synthesized in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). This analytical approach is based on the AuNPs 3D arrangement within the CNC matrix, where the transient inter-CNCs interactions collapse after loading with the analyte aqueous solution, forming hotspots on demand. Theoretical calculations support the on-demand SERS mechanism, which consists of the hotspot formation by bringing the AuNPs closer upon activation with the liquid sample loading. To evaluate the plasmonic aerogel performance as a sensing platform, the organophosphorus pesticides edifenphos and parathion were tested in rice and tea extracts. Also, the detection of Methylene Blue in fish muscle extract resulted in a detection limit of 9.8 nM. The results demonstrate that the 3D plasmonic aerogel exhibits significantly higher SERS enhancement and sensitivity when compared to conventional 2D SERS substrates. The use of a green designer solvent, biobased ingredients, and the introduction of on-demand SERS-based sensing pave the way for further developments in the analysis of liquid samples within a sustainable framework.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Praguicidas , Animais , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Solventes , Compostos Organofosforados , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Celulose/química
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1001760, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438228

RESUMO

Many environmental factors, such as noise, chemicals, and heavy metals, are mostly produced by human activities and easily induce acquired hearing loss. Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) constitute a large variety of chemicals and have high usage with potentiate damage to human health. Moreover, their metabolites also show a serious potential contamination of soil, water, and air, leading to a serious impact on people's health. Hearing loss affects 430 million people (5.5% of the global population), bringing a heavy burden to individual patients and their families and society. However, the potential risk of hearing damage by OPs has not been taken seriously. In this study, we summarized the effects of OPs on hearing loss from epidemiological population studies and animal experiments. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of OP-induced hearing loss are elucidated from oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammatory response. Overall, this review provides an overview of OP exposure alone or with noise that leads to hearing loss in human and experimental animals.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva , Praguicidas , Animais , Humanos , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Dano ao DNA
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 248: 114301, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410143

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmitter hydrolase in nervous systems of animals and its number varies among species. So far, five AChEs have been identified in the natural enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata. Here we found that Ppace1, Ppace2 and Ppace5 were highly expressed in the spider brain, among which the mRNA level of Ppace5, but not Ppace1 and Ppace2, could be up-regulated by organophosphorus insecticides at their sublethal concentrations. In spider brain, the treatment by organophosphorus insecticides at the sublethal concentrations could increase total AChE activity, although high concentrations inhibited the activity. The activity that increased from the sublethal concentration pretreatment could compensate for the activity inhibition due to subsequent application of organophosphorus insecticides at lethal concentrations, and consequently reduce the mortality of spiders. PpAChE1 and PpAChE2 were highly sensitive to organophosphorus insecticides, and their activities would be strongly inhibited by the insecticides. In contrast, PpAChE5 displayed relative insensitivity towards organophosphorus insecticides, but with the highest catalytic efficiency for ACh. That meant the up-regulation of Ppace5 under insecticide exposure was important for maintaining AChE activity in spider brain, when PpAChE1 and PpAChE2 were inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides. The study demonstrated that multiple AChEs in the spider brain worked collaboratively, with part members for maintaining AChE activity and other members responding to organophosphorus inhibition, to provide protection from organophosphorus insecticides. In fields, high concentration insecticides are often applied when ineffective controls of insect pests occur due to relative-low concentration of insecticides in last round application. This application pattern of organophosphorus insecticides provides more chances for P. pseudoannulata to survive and controlling insect pests as a natural enemy.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Aranhas , Animais , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Encéfalo , Dor
19.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(11): 438, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319758

RESUMO

Terbium-based metal-organic frameworks (Tb-MOF) prepared under mild conditions was utilized to construct a fluorescence probe for determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) coupled with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acetylcholine chloride (Ach), and choline oxidase (CHO). Since OPs have obvious inhibition on the activity of AChE in the Tb-MOF/ACh/CHO/AChE system, the detection of OPs was accomplished by restoring the fluorescence of Tb-MOF resulting from reduced production of H2O2. By taking chlorpyrifos (CPF) as a pesticide model, the method exhibits high sensitivity in the linear range 0.1-4.0 µg·L-1 with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 µg·L-1 under optimum conditions (λex = 280 nm, λem = 544 nm). The Tb-MOF/ACh/CHO/AChE fluorescence system has high selectivity for CPF. The method was successfully applied to the detection of CPF in tap water and strawberry samples (recovery of 87.36-115.60% for tap water and 95.04-103.20% for strawberry). Free from complicated fabrication operation, the Tb-MOF-based system is rapid, simple, and stable, which provides a reference and new way for the design of OPs fluorescent probes in the future.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/análise , Térbio , Acetilcolinesterase , Compostos Organofosforados , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Corantes Fluorescentes , Água
20.
Anal Methods ; 14(45): 4680-4689, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349883

RESUMO

Rapid and reliable detection and quantification of pesticide residues in complex matrices by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) remain challenging due to the low level of target molecules and the interference of nontarget components. In this study, SERS was combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to develop a rapid and reliable method for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). In this method, DLLME was used to extract and enrich two representative OPPs (triazophos and parathion-methyl) from a liquid sample, and a portable Raman spectrometer was used to analyze the separated sediment using homemade gold nanoparticles colloids as enhancing substrates. The results showed that the developed method displayed good sensitivity and stability for the detection and quantification of triazophos and parathion-methyl with R2 ≥ 0.98. The calculated limits of detection (LODs) in the simultaneous detection of triazophos and parathion-methyl were 2.17 × 10-9 M (0.679 ppb) and 2.28 × 10-8 M (5.998 ppb), and the calculated limits of quantification (LOQs) were 7.23 × 10-9 M (2.26 ppb) and 7.62 × 10-8 M (19.098 ppb), respectively. Furthermore, the developed SERS method was successfully applied to the detection of triazophos and parathion-methyl in apple juice with recoveries between 78.07% and 110.87% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 2.06%. Therefore, the developed DLLME facilitated liquid SERS method exhibited good sensitivity and stability for the rapid detection and quantification of OPPs and had the potential to be applied to the rapid detection of OPPs in complex matrices.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Metil Paration , Praguicidas , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Ouro
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