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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806998

RESUMO

In recent times, food safety has become a topic of debate as the foodborne diseases triggered by chemical and biological contaminants affect human health and the food industry's profits. Though conventional analytical instrumentation-based food sensors are available, the consumers did not appreciate them because of the drawbacks of complexity, greater number of analysis steps, expensive enzymes, and lack of portability. Hence, designing easy-to-use tests for the rapid analysis of food contaminants has become essential in the food industry. Under this context, electrochemical biosensors have received attention among researchers as they bear the advantages of operational simplicity, portability, stability, easy miniaturization, and low cost. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have a larger surface area to volume compared to other dimensional nanomaterials. Hence, researchers nowadays are inclined to develop 2D nanomaterials-based electrochemical biosensors to significantly improve the sensor's sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility while measuring the food toxicants. In the present review, we compile the contribution of 2D nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors to test the food toxicants and discuss the future directions in the field. Further, we describe the types of food toxicity, methodologies quantifying food analytes, how the electrochemical food sensor works, and the general biomedical properties of 2D nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Nanoestruturas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802750

RESUMO

Milk is an important dietary requirement for many populations due to its high nutritional value. However, increased demand has also made it prone to fraudulent activity. In this sense, scientists have sought to develop simple, low-cost, and portable techniques to achieve quality control of milk in industry and farms as well. This work proposes a new instrumentation system based on acoustic propagation and advanced signal processing techniques to identify milk adulteration by industrial contaminants. A pair of transmitter-receiver low-cost piezoelectric transducers, configured in a pitch-catch mode, propagated acoustic waves in the bovine milk samples contaminated with 0.5% of sodium bicarbonate, urea, and hydrogen peroxide. Signal processing approaches such as chromatic technique and statistical indexes like the correlation coefficient, Euclidian norm and cross-correlation square difference were applied to identify the contaminants. According to the presented results, CCSD and RMSD metrics presented more effectiveness to perform the identification of milk contaminants. However, CCSD was 2.28 × 105 more sensitivity to distinguish adulteration in relation to RMSD. For chromatic clustering technique, the major selectivity was observed between the contamination performed by sodium bicarbonate and urea. Therefore, results indicate that the proposed approach can be an effective and quick alternative to assess the milk condition and classify its contaminants.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Leite , Acústica , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ureia
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803914

RESUMO

Intelligent food packaging is emerging as a novel technology, capable of monitoring the quality and safety of food during its shelf-life time. This technology makes use of indicators and sensors that are applied in the packaging and that detect changes in physiological variations of the foodstuffs (due to microbial and chemical degradation). These indicators usually provide information, e.g., on the degree of freshness of the product packed, through a color change, which is easily identified, either by the food distributor and the consumer. However, most of the indicators that are currently used are non-renewable and non-biodegradable synthetic materials. Because there is an imperative need to improve food packaging sustainability, choice of sensors should also reflect this requirement. Therefore, this work aims to revise the latest information on bio-based sensors, based on compounds obtained from natural extracts, that can, in association with biopolymers, act as intelligent or smart food packaging. Its application into several perishable foods is summarized. It is clear that bioactive extracts, e.g., anthocyanins, obtained from a variety of sources, including by-products of the food industry, present a substantial potential to act as bio-sensors. Yet, there are still some limitations that need to be surpassed before this technology reaches a mature commercial stage.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 144, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance among Shigella species isolated from food and stool samples. Using cross sectional study method, Shigella spp. were isolated from food and clinical samples using culture-based, biochemical and serological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relatedness among the isolates were evaluated using disk diffusion and RAPD-PCR methods respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of Shigella spp. were 4.84 and 7.7% in food and stool samples respectively. All food isolates were Sh. sonnei. 91.42% of the Shigella stool isolates were Sh. sonnei. 62.5% of food isolates were resistant to tetracycline. 46.8, 50 and 65.8% of clinical isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin and azithromycin respectively. 50 and 85.7% of the food and clinical isolates respectively were MDR. Dendrogram generated by RAPD-PCR showed that the isolates from food and stool samples were categorized in a same group. Close genetic relatedness between MDR Shigella isolates from food and clinical samples indicate that foods can be considered as one of the main vehicles for transmission of MDR Shigella to human causing acute diseases. Survey of MDR Shigella among food and clinical samples is strongly suggested to be implemented.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria/tratamento farmacológico , Fezes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Disenteria/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Shigella/genética
5.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103780, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875208

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are mainly associated with respiratory infections. However, there is evidence that highly pathogenic HCoVs, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), infect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are shed in the fecal matter of the infected individuals. These observations have raised questions regarding the possibility of fecal-oral route as well as foodborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Studies regarding the survival of HCoVs on inanimate surfaces demonstrate that these viruses can remain infectious for hours to days, however, there is limited data regarding the viral survival on fresh produce, which is usually consumed raw or with minimal heat processing. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the persistence of HCoV-229E, as a surrogate for highly pathogenic HCoVs, on the surface of commonly consumed fresh produce, including: apples, tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce. Herein, we demonstrated that viral infectivity declines within a few hours post-inoculation (p.i) on apples and tomatoes, and no infectious virus was detected at 24h p.i, while the virus persists in infectious form for 72h p.i on cucumbers and lettuce. The stability of viral RNA was examined by droplet-digital RT-PCR (ddRT-PCR), and it was observed that there is no considerable reduction in viral RNA within 72h p.i.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano 229E/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/virologia , Verduras/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Ontário , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
6.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103794, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875222

RESUMO

The emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 as a global pandemic has increased popular concerns about diseases caused by viruses. Fermented foods containing high loads of viable fungi and bacteria are potential sources for virus contamination. The most common include viruses that infect bacteria (bacteriophage) and yeasts reported in fermented milks, sausages, vegetables, wine, sourdough, and cocoa beans. Recent molecular studies have also associated fermented foods as vehicles for pathogenic human viruses. Human noroviruses, rotavirus, and hepatitis virus have been identified in different fermented foods through multiple routes. No severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus or close members were found in fermented foods to date. However, the occurrence/persistence of other pathogenic viruses reveals a potential vulnerability of fermented foods to SARS-CoV-2 contamination. On the other side of the coin, some bacteriophages are being suggested for improving the fermentation process and food safety, as well as owing potential probiotic properties in modern fermented foods. This review will address the diversity and characteristics of viruses associated with fermented foods and what has been changed after a short introduction to the most common next-generation sequencing platforms. Also, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via fermented foods and preventive measures will be discussed.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bacteriófagos , Micovírus
7.
J Water Health ; 19(2): 203-215, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901018

RESUMO

The rationale for this study was to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of the Vea irrigation water and resultant effects on the quality of fresh vegetables produced in the area and associated implications for consumers' health. A total of 45 water samples were collected from the reservoir and canals. Also, 16 vegetable samples comprising four samples each of tomatoes, carrots, spring onions, and cabbages were collected from four farms with installed irrigation systems fed by the Vea Dam. The irrigation water samples were analyzed for total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC), Escherichia coli, pH, and turbidity, while the samples of vegetables were analyzed for TC and FC, and E. coli. The results showed that except for pH, the bacterial loads and turbidity of the sampled vegetables and irrigation water were above the standards of the WHO and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Food. Comparatively, the samples of cabbage recorded the highest levels of microbial contamination. The study suggests that the water should be treated before being used for irrigation; consumers should ensure that vegetables are properly washed and cooked/treated before consumption; and periodic monitoring and assessment should be done to ensure that the adverse effects of these activities are forestalled.


Assuntos
Verduras , Qualidade da Água , Irrigação Agrícola , Escherichia coli , Contaminação de Alimentos , Jardinagem , Gana , Microbiologia da Água
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 44-48, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxin contaminants of cereals and cereal products that pose a significant threat to food safety. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DON and ZEA in different organic and conventional unprocessed cereals and cereal products that are available on the Polish agricultural fields and market. A total of 78 unprocessed cereal and cereal product samples of organic and conventional production were sampled from agricultural fields situated in western Poland and from available on the Polish market packaged comercial products produced by different domestic manufacturers. All samples were analyzed for DON and ZEA by HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). RESULTS: Results. Co-occurrence of DON was detected in cereals from the organic production system, the average content was 285.25 ± 134,04 µg kg -1 and from the conventional system - 373.71 ± 171,20 µg kg -1 , In flour from organic farming, the average DON content was 213.80 ± 151,28 µg kg -1, in conventional flour the average was 336.29 ± 188,90 µg kg -1. The range of DON concentrations in samples of cereal products from organic and conventional farms was detected in 26.3% and 31.6%, whereas the average concentrations of DON in cereal products was 199.60 ± 149.82 µg kg -1 and 387.67 ± 250.24 µg kg -1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mycotoxins contamination seen in organic cereals and cereal products does not statistical differ from that witnessed in their conventional counterparts.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Tricotecenos/análise , Zearalenona/análise , Farinha/análise , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Polônia , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 72-80, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mycotoxins - secondary mould metabolites with undesirable effects for humans - are common in the environment. These toxins are mainly produced by fungi of the genera Penicilium, Aspergillus and Fusarium. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of various sources of antioxidants (blueberries lyophilisate, cranberries lyophilisate and cinnamon powder), at 5 different concentrations (3%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%), to inhibit the formation of mycotoxins during the storage of cereal products. Analysed cereal samples included selected cereal grains, bran and cereal products intended for consumption by children. RESULTS: The results showed that supplementation of oat brans with the highest concentrations of blueberry lyophilisate resulted in a significant decrease in the mycotoxins levels; specifically: 20% concentration reduced the level of HT-2 toxin by 10.7% in one sample, while 30% concentration reduced it by 9.4% and 17.4% in 2 other samples. A similar result was measured for oat bran samples supplemented with the cranberry lyophilisate: specifically, 20% concentration significantly reduced the level of HT-2 toxin by 10.6% in one sample, while 30% concentration reduced it by an average of 18.0% ± 6,0% in 5 other samples. Finally, cinnamon powder supplementation caused a significant reduction in HT-2 levels in all stored samples, even at its lowest concentration. 30% supplementation resulted in HT-2 reduction in cereal samples by 67.1% - 76.1%, in wheat bran samples by 57.5% - 69.2%, in oat bran samples by 83.4% - 87.0% and by 55.0% - 100% in samples of cereal products intended for consumption by children. CONCLUSIONS: Natural products used in the experiment (blueberry, cranberry, cinnamon) inhibited the formation of mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Grão Comestível/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tricotecenos/análise , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 354: 129533, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743447

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are high surface-to-volume ratio crystalline hybrid porous coordination materials composed of metal ions as nodes and organic linkers. The goal of this paper was to provide an updated and comprehensive state-of-the-art review of MOFs for different food applications such as active food contact materials, antimicrobial nanocarriers, controlled release nanosystems for active compounds, nanofillers for food packaging materials, food nanoreactors, food substance nanosensors, stabilizers and immobilizers for active compounds and enzymes, and extractors of food contaminants. Extraction and sensing of several food contaminants have been the main food applications of MOFs. The other applications listed above require further investigation, as they are at an early stage. However, interesting results are being reported for these other fields. Finally, an important limitation of MOFs has been the use of non-renewable feedstocks for their synthesis, but this has recently been solved through the manufacture and use of γ-cyclodextrin-based MOFs.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos
11.
Food Chem ; 354: 129552, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756332

RESUMO

Pesticide residues are one of the most important issues affecting food safety. In this review, the general situation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables based on the background of the Chinese fruit and vegetable industry is first described. On the basis of primary processing of agricultural products, the effects of processing methods on the removal and metabolism of pesticide residues are reviewed in this paper. In addition, the transformation mechanism of pesticides in crops and in the environment is discussed. Finally, this study summarizes the development trend of pesticide-residue monitoring methods. With the prohibition of a large number of pesticides in China, the risk of pesticide residues is gradually reduced. However, some highly toxic pesticides can still be detected. Furthermore, the development of high-resolution mass spectrometry screening methods and rapid and intelligent detection instruments is the development trend for pesticide monitoring in the future.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Verduras/química
12.
Food Chem ; 354: 129590, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756333

RESUMO

Honey is widely consumed by humans, due to its multiple applications as a food constituent and its therapeutic effects. This study reports on the discrimination of honey products from different geographical and botanical sources, as well as honey products containing distinct forms of syrup used in honey adulteration. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS)-based proteomic analysis combined with chemometrics was successfully applied in identifying characteristic proteins that can be used as biomarkers of the original source of honey. Honey samples from different producing regions (Tainan, Changhua, and Taichung), countries (Taiwan and Thailand), and distinct botanical sources (longan and litchi) were clearly distinguished by the developed orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model with good fitness and prediction ability. Furthermore, we successfully discriminated the adulteration of honey with syrup in different proportions (even with honey content as low as 20%) with this proteomic SWATH-MS platform.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Mel/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Néctar de Plantas/análise , Proteômica , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos
13.
Food Chem ; 354: 129548, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761333

RESUMO

A low-cost and portable paper-based analytical device has been developed for high throughput and on-site monitoring TC residue in milk through visualized colorimetric reaction. The filtration and concentration effect induced by the porous nature of paper contribute to strengthen the color intensity, leading to quantitative and sensitive detection of tetracycline reaching 1 ppm detection limit, with the linear range of 1-100 ppm both in water and milk samples. The applicability was demonstrated by detection of TC in 18 different types of real milk samples with good recovery ranging from 88% to 113%. Furthermore, the dynamic degradation behavior of tetracycline was monitored through the device. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of colorimetric detection of tetracycline in milk using the paper-based device. This simple, fast, cost-effective (~$0.50 per device) and equipment-free paper-based platform provides a promising tool for future application in food and environmental safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Papel , Tetraciclina/análise , Animais , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Água/química
14.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116832, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725536

RESUMO

To evaluate pesticide regulatory standards in agricultural crops, we introduced a regulatory modeling framework that can flexibly evaluate a population's aggregate exposure risk via maximum residue levels (MRLs) under good agricultural practice (GAP). Based on the structure of the aggregate exposure model and the nature of variable distributions, we optimized the framework to achieve a simplified mathematical expression based on lognormal variables including the lognormal sum approximation and lognormal product theorem. The proposed model was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrates a good match for both head and tail ends of the distribution (e.g., the maximum error = 2.01% at the 99th percentile). In comparison with the point estimate approach (i.e., theoretical maximum daily intake, TMDI), the proposed model produced higher simulated daily intake (SDI) values based on empirical and precautionary assumptions. For example, the values at the 75th percentile of the SDI distributions simulated from the European Union (EU) MRLs of 13 common pesticides in 12 common crops were equal to the estimated TMDI values, and the SDI values at the 99th percentile were over 1.6-times the corresponding TMDI values. Furthermore, the model was refined by incorporating the lognormal distributions of biometric variables (i.e., food intake rate, processing factor, and body weight) and varying the unit-to-unit variability factor (VF) of the pesticide residues in crops. This ensures that our proposed model is flexible across a broad spectrum of pesticide residues. Overall, our results show that the SDI is significantly reduced, which may better reflect reality. In addition, using a point estimate or lognormal PF distribution is effective as risk assessments typically focus on the upper end of the distribution.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5125-5132, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685697

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) as a chemical hazard may enter the milk chain during primary production at the farm and, successively, during milk processing at a dairy company. To identify the potential pathways that play a role in the occurrence of BPA, a monitoring model for risk assessment based on the identification of the hazards at each stage of milk processing was investigated. Milk samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Quantifiable levels were detected in samples obtained from the raw milk storage tank, pasteurized milk from the storage tank, and packaged milk. The highest BPA contamination levels were detected in raw milk from the storage tank (mean 0.265 µg/L). Despite the fact that dietary exposure levels were below the temporary daily intake, BPA may have adverse effects, particularly for vulnerable population groups. New monitoring programs involving each stage of milk processing should therefore be applied.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Leite , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Fenóis/análise , Medição de Risco
16.
Environ Int ; 152: 106467, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711762

RESUMO

Due to the large number of chemical food contaminants, consumers are exposed simultaneously to a wide range of chemicals which can interact and have a negative impact on health. Nevertheless, due to the multitude of possible chemical combinations it is unrealistic to test all combined toxicological effects. It is therefore essential to identify the most relevant mixtures to which the population is exposed through the diet and investigate their impact on heath. The present study aims to identify and describe the main chemical mixtures to which women enrolled in the E3N study, a large French prospective cohort, are chronically exposed through the diet. 74522 women who had answered a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1993, were included in the present study. Dietary exposure to chemical contaminates was estimated based on the food contamination measured in 186 core food in France collected between 2007 and 2009 by the French agency for food, environment and occupational health, and safety (ANSES) in the framework of the second French total diet study (2TDS). The sparse non-negative matrix under-approximation (SNMU) was used to identify mixtures of chemical substances. A k-means clustering classification of the whole study population was then performed to define clusters with similar co-exposure profiles. Overall, 8 mixtures which explained 83% of the total variance, were retained. The first mixture, entitled "Minerals, inorganic contaminants, and furans", explained the highest proportion of the total variance (38%), and was correlated in particular with the consumption of "Offal" (rho = 0.22), "Vegetables except roots" (rho = 0.20), and "Eggs" (rho = 0.19). The other seven mixtures explained between 17% and 1% of the variance. Finally, 5 clusters were identified based on the adherence to the 8 mixtures. This study, being the largest ever conducted to identify dietary exposure to chemical mixtures, represents a concrete attempt to prioritize mixtures for which it is essential to investigate combined health effects based on exposure.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Dieta , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , França , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668973

RESUMO

This research aims to assess the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's northern cities. A total of 2970 fruit samples from 12 citrus cultivars were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with a UV detector. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit were 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. About 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were found to be contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 1150 µg/kg in samples from central Punjab cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from northern cities of Pakistan were contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 320 µg/kg. About 22.1% of citrus fruit samples had PAT levels greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). The dietary intake levels of PAT ranged from 0.10 to 1.11 µg/kg bw/day in the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13 to 1.93 µg/kg bw/day in the northern cities of Pakistan.


Assuntos
Citrus , Malus , Patulina , Bebidas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Paquistão
18.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116715, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652183

RESUMO

Herbs and spices are food crops susceptible to contamination by toxigenic fungi. Ozone, as a decontamination approach in the industry, has attractive benefits over traditional food preservation practices. A contribution to the studying of ozone as an antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic agent in herbs and spices storage processes is achieved in this research. Nine powdered sun-dried herbs and spices were analyzed for their fungal contamination. The results indicate that licorice root and peppermint leaves were found to have the highest population of fungi while black cumin and fennel record the lowest population. The most dominant fungal genera are Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus. Ozone treatment was performed at a concentration of 3 ppm applied for exposure times of 0, 30, 90, 150, 210, and 280 min. After 280 min of exposure to ozone, the reduction of fungal count ranged from 96.39 to 98.26%. The maximum reduction in spore production was achieved in the case of A. humicola and Trichderma viride exposed for 210 min ozone gas. There was a remarkable reduction in the production of the total mycotoxin, reaching 24.15% in aflatoxins for the 150 min-treated inoculum in the case of A. flavus. The total volume of essential oil of chamomile and peppermint was reduced by 57.14 and 26.67%, respectively, when exposed to 3 ppm. For 280 min. In conclusion, fumigation with ozone gas can be used as a suitable method for achieving sanitation and decreasing microbial load in herbs and spices. Still, it is crucial to provide precautions on ozone's effect on major active constituents before recommending this method for industrial application.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Micotoxinas , Ozônio , Aflatoxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Especiarias/análise
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109127, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689972

RESUMO

We assessed the mycobiota diversity and mycotoxin levels present in wild rice (Oryza latifolia) from the Pantanal region of Brazil; fundamental aspects of which are severely understudied as an edible plant from a natural ecosystem. We found multiple fungal species contaminating the rice samples; the most frequent genera being Fusarium, Nigrospora and Cladosporium (35.9%, 26.1% and 15%, respectively). Within the Fusarium genus, the wild rice samples were mostly contaminated by the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) (80%) along with Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (20%). Phylogenetic analysis supported multiple FIESC species and gave support to the presence of two putative new groups within the complex (LN1 and LN2). Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) chemical analysis showed that most of the isolates were DON/ZEN producers and some were defined as high ZEN producers, displaying abundant ZEN levels over DON (over 19 times more). Suggesting that ZEN likely has a key adaptive role for FIESC in wild rice (O. latifolia). Mycotoxin determination in the rice samples revealed high frequency of ZEN, and 85% of rice samples had levels >100 µg/kg; the recommended limit set by regulatory agencies. DON was only detected in 5.2% of the samples. Our data shows that FIESC species are the main source of ZEN contamination in wild rice and the excessive levels of ZEN found in the rice samples raises considerable safety concerns regarding wild rice consumption by humans and animals.


Assuntos
Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Oryza/microbiologia , Tricotecenos/análise , Zearalenona/análise , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/classificação , Fusarium/metabolismo , Humanos , Filogenia
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109150, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735782

RESUMO

Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglycerol ester of the fatty lauric acids, which has a wide-spectrum antimicrobial capacity, but fails to inactivate Gram-negative bacteria, especial Salmonella. To enhance the population reduction rate of GML for Salmonella, this reagent was combined with three disinfectants: lactic acid (LA), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and trisodium phosphate (TSP), which can present acid, neutral, and alkaline in solution, respectively. The results showed that the 1% GML and a complex disinfectant (0.5% GML-0.025% LA) could powerfully inactivate Salmonella. Their population reduction rates respectively were able to achieve 99.92% and 98.29% with the vortex treatment, indicating that the vortex treatment could improve GML to destruct the outer membrane of Salmonella. During the simulation test of the soaking and rinse processing of chicken, for a short time (0 h), the effect of 0.5% GML-0.025% LA compound was better and more suitable for instantaneous inactivation than others, while for a long time (4 h), 1% GML exhibited a better bactericidal effect, which indicated it to be more suitable for long-term bacteriostasis. The characterization of color and texture for chicken samples were determined using Colormeter Ci7600, TA.XT Plus and Hyper-spectral Imager, which demonstrated that all samples treated by these complex disinfectants were not significantly different from untreated group. In conclusion, GML is a potential and superior disinfectant for the chicken process.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Lauratos/farmacologia , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Fosfatos/farmacologia
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