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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 5-17, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191343

RESUMO

La epidemia de la COVID-19 ha puesto en primer plano tensiones entre valores que se sintetizan en un dilema ético-político clásico: "seguridad-libertad" o "la salud como bien común-la salvaguarda de las libertades individuales". Al tratarse de una emergencia sociosanitaria, las medidas para su contención implican costes y sacrificios. También restricciones de derechos y libertades básicas. Determinar quién tiene que cargar con los costes se convierte en una cuestión acuciante con implicaciones morales. En este artículo, se plantea un ejercicio de filosofía aplicada a la salud pública en ocasión de esta pandemia y, a su vez, una genealogía de la relación entre la salud y la solidaridad basada en la máxima ciceroniana salus populi suprema lex esto


The COVID-19 epidemic has brought to the fore tensions between values that are synthesized in a classic ethical-political dilemma: "security-freedom" or "health as a common good-the safeguard of individual liberties". As it is a socio-sanitary emergency, the measures for its containment involve costs and sacrifices. Also, restrictions on basic rights and freedoms. Determining who has to bear the costs and what their magnitude should be becomes a pressing question with moral implications. In this article, an exercise in philosophy applied to public health is presented on the occasion of this pandemic and, in turn, a genealogy of the relationship between health and solidarity based on the Ciceronian maxim salus populi suprema lex esto


L'epidèmia de la COVID-19 ha posat en primer pla tensions entre valors recollits en un dilema ètico-polític clàssic: "seguretat-llibertat" o "la salut com a bé comú-la salvaguarda de les llibertats individuals". Quan es tracta d'una emergència sociosanitària, les mesures per a la seva contenció impliquen costos I sacrificis. També restriccions de drets I llibertats bàsiques. Determinar qui ha de carregar amb els costos esdevé una qüestió urgent amb implicacions morals. En aquest article, es planteja un exercici de filosofia aplicada a la salut pública en qüestió d'aquesta pandèmia i, a la vegada, una genealogia de la relació entre la salut I la solidaritat basada en la màxima ciceroniana salus populi suprema lex esto


Assuntos
Humanos , Liberdade de Circulação , Quarentena , Controle Social Formal , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pandemias
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233415, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730264

RESUMO

Structured doctoral education is increasingly preferred compared to the individual model. Several science policy organisations give recommendations on how to structure doctoral education. However, there is little research on to what extent these recommendations find their way into practice. In our study, we first compared European and German recommendations on doctoral education with, second, the institutional regulations of structured doctoral programmes (N = 98) in the life sciences at twelve different German universities. Additionally, we third asked doctoral graduates (N = 1796) of these structured doctoral programmes and graduates of individual doctoral studies about their experience in doctoral education. Fourth, we contrasted the regulations of structured doctoral programmes with the reported experiences of their graduates. We found significant deviations of the reported practices of graduates from the regulations of their organisations, regarding the student admission, supervision and curricular activities of doctoral candidates. The efficacy of structured versus traditional doctoral education should be examined based on reported practice rather than on the respective written regulations.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Social Formal , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596255

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) scourge has challenged the world's health systems and presented multiple socio-economic and public health challenges to the states it has affected. Zimbabwe has been affected by the pandemic, and in response, the government has set up an array of measures, including a national lockdown, to curb transmission. While it is critical to maintain such vigorous containment measures, socio-economic pressures in Zimbabwe will challenge the sustainability of the lockdown. Given the potential for lift of the lockdown before the Covid-19 pandemic ends, we discuss the Covid-19 pandemic situation in Zimbabwe and viewpoints on important considerations and strategies for lifting the lockdown.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Espaço Pessoal , Populações Vulneráveis , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528624

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) scourge has challenged the world's health systems and presented multiple socio-economic and public health challenges to the states it has affected. Zimbabwe has been affected by the pandemic, and in response, the government has set up an array of measures, including a national lockdown, to curb transmission. While it is critical to maintain such vigorous containment measures, socio-economic pressures in Zimbabwe will challenge the sustainability of the lockdown. Given the potential for lift of the lockdown before the Covid-19 pandemic ends, we discuss the Covid-19 pandemic situation in Zimbabwe and viewpoints on important considerations and strategies for lifting the lockdown.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Espaço Pessoal , Populações Vulneráveis , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
8.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 43-50, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114597

RESUMO

La biometría ha tenido una rápida expansión como tecnología, siendo cada vez más accesible para el público general, prestando utilidad a los gobiernos y a la sociedad en el manejo de la seguridad ciudadana. Se aplica para la verificación o la identificación de la identidad de un individuo y, desde un punto de vista puramente técnico, constituye un problema de reconocimiento de patrones. En Chile, el marco legal acerca del manejo de datos personales no incluye específicamente a la biometría. A la fecha, se encuentra en trámite un nuevo proyecto de ley que considera tanto los datos biométricos como los perfiles biológicos. En otros países, los informes de las últimas dos décadas, que analizan el uso de biometría, plantean como principal foco de preocupación, desde el punto de vista ético, el derecho a la privacidad de los individuos, entregándose orientaciones prácticas acerca de la aplicación apropiada de estas tecnologías. Finalmente, desde un breve análisis de la biopolítica, se contextualiza el papel que cumple la biometría y los requerimientos éticos básicos para su desarrollo en dicho marco.


Biometrics has had a rapid expansion as a technology, being increasingly accessible to the public, and lending utility to governments and society in the management of citizen security. It is applied either for verification or for identification of an individual's identity and technically constitutes a problem of pattern recognition. In Chile, the existing legal framework regarding the handling of personal data does not include specific biometrics in its regulation. A new bill that considers both biometric data and Biological profiles is in process. In addition, we revised the international reports of the last two decades that analyze the use of biometrics. The primary focus of concern of these documents, from the ethical point of view, is the right to privacy of individuals, giving practical guidance and discussion regarding the elements necessary for the application of these novel technologies in an appropriate ethically manner. Finally, we contextualize from a brief analysis of biopolitics the role of biometrics and the basic ethical requirements for its development in that framework.


A biometria teve uma rápida expansão como tecnologia, sendo cada vez mais acessível para o público geral, sendo de utilidade para os governos e à sociedade no manejo da segurança cidadã. Ela pode ser aplicada para a verificação ou estabelecimento da identidade de um indivíduo e, desde um ponto de vista puramente técnico, constitui um problema de reconhecimento de padrões. No Chile, o contexto legal acerca do manejo de dados pessoais não inclui especificamente a biometria. Atualmente, encontra-se tramitando um novo projeto de lei que considera tanto os dados biométricos como os perfis biológicos. Em outros países, os informes das últimas duas décadas que analisam o uso da biometria, propõem como principal foco de preocupação, do ponto de vista ético, o direito à privacidade dos indivíduos, entregando-se orientações práticas acerca da aplicação apropriada destas tecnologias. Finalmente, desde uma breve análise da bio-política, contextualiza-se o papel que cumpre a biometria e os requerimentos éticos básicos para seu desenvolvimento em tal contexto legal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Medidas de Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Privacidade , Identificação Biométrica/ética , Direitos Humanos , Medidas de Segurança/ética , Controle Social Formal , Chile , Gerenciamento de Dados
9.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(6): 483-489, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434400

RESUMO

To predict the spread of coronavirus disease globally and consequently prepare the hospital facilities with the required technology is a challenge. The availability of essential medical equipment to support patients affected by Covid-19 is globally limited. Areas covered This perspective gives a technical view of the pandemic focusing on the main actions taken by regulatory agencies to cope with the shortage of devices. The risk/benefit assessment and the main infection control policies in the clinical practices are also looked at. Expert opinion Regulatory agencies have amended their medical devices directives to address the pandemic, but each in a different way. In this exceptional situation scientist and technology experts in collaboration with medical specialists should work together to re-assess the risk analysis on medical equipment management and their use and re-use in this context with the aim to improve global health care Every effort must be made to provide the necessary devices at least with the minimum acceptable performances for Covid-19 patients while maintaining a high standard of safety for users. The aim of the present manuscript is to highlight the technical challenges in order to prevent, through targeted actions, operating standards from falling below the standards of care due to a lack of medical devices. Abbreviations AKI: acute Kidney Injury; ARGMD: Australian Regulatory Guidelines for Medical Devices; Covid-19: Coronavirus disease; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; ECMO: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation; EU: European Union; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; WHO: World Health Organization; MHRA: Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency; MDR: Medical Device Regulation; SARI: Severe Acute Respiratory Infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equipamentos e Provisões/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Assistência ao Paciente , Medição de Risco , Controle Social Formal
12.
J Addict Med ; 14(4): e4-e5, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433363

RESUMO

: The United States is currently in the midst of 2 public health emergencies: COVID-19 and the ongoing opioid crisis. In an attempt to reduce preventable harm to individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD), federal, state, and local governments have temporarily modified law and policy to increase access to OUD treatment and divert some individuals at high risk away from the correctional system. In this Commentary, we briefly describe how people with OUD are at increased risk for COVID-19, discuss existing policy barriers to evidence-based prevention and treatment for individuals with OUD, explain the temporary rollbacks of those barriers, and argue that these changes should be made permanent. We also suggest several additional steps that federal and state governments can urgently take to reduce barriers to care for individuals with OUD, both during the current crisis and beyond.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
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