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1.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677

RESUMO

Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.


This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.


Assuntos
Política Pública , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMO

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
3.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(3): 29-32, set./dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1121740

RESUMO

Introdução: O SARS-CoV-2 apresenta-se como um tipo de coronavírus que teve seus primeiros relatos no fim do ano de 2019, sendo declarado como uma emergência de saúde pública internacional no início do ano 2020 pela Organização mundial de saúde. Trata-se de um vírus com alto potencial de transmissibilidade, dessa forma novas medidas e protocolos de biossegurança foram empregadas durante o atendimento odontológico, com a finalidade de minimizar os danos e riscos aos profissionais e pacientes. Objetivo: Relatar as principais medidas de proteção e recomendações que devem existir em ambientes que prestam atendimentos odontológicos durante a pandemia de Covid-19. Metodologia: Foi realizada revisão de artigos presentes nas bases de dados Pubmed e Scielo do ano de 2020, assim como nos manuais atuais de biossegurança em atendimentos odontológicos. Foram utilizados os descritores COVID-19 e Dentistry, e em adicional foram utilizados 14 documentos, sendo 8 artigos e 6 manuais oficiais sobre o tema. Conclusão: Medidas de proteção devem ser empregadas durante o atendimento odontológico, sendo importante que durante a pandemia do COVID-19 haja um reforço na biossegurança dos cirurgiões dentistas, para minimizar dessa forma o risco de contágio(AU)


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 presents itself as a type of coronavirus that had its first reports at the end of 2019, being declared as an international public health emergency at the beginning of 2020 by the WHO. It is a virus with a high potential for transmissibility, so new biosafety measures and protocols were used during dental care, in order to minimize the damage and risks to professionals and patients. Objective: To report the main protection measures and recommendations that should exist in environments that provide dental care during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methodology: A review of articles in the Pubmed and Scielo databases for the year 2020 was carried out, as well as in the current biosafety manuals for dental care. The descriptors COVID-19 and Dentistry were used, and in addition 14 documents were used, 8 articles and 6 official manuals on the subject. Conclusion: Protective measures should be used during dental care, it is important that during the COVID-19 pandemic there is a reinforcement in the biosafety of dental surgeons, in order to minimize the risk of contagion(AU)


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Protocolos
8.
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036176

RESUMO

The strict quarantine measures employed as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led the global tourism industry to a complete halt, disrupting the livelihoods of millions. The economic importance of beach tourism for many destinations has led many governments to reopen tourist beaches, as soon as the number of infection cases decreased. The objective of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for understanding the key issues for beach tourism management in these circumstances. These issues include risk perception, environmental considerations directly related to beaches and COVID-19, and management strategies designed to limit the risk of contagion on the beach. The contribution of this paper lies in its interdisciplinary approach to delivering the findings from the latest studies, highly relevant for beach tourism, in psychology, health science, and environmental science (often in preprint and in press format). Particular attention was given to identifying the knowledge gaps evident in the areas of COVID-19 risk perception, with the drivers explaining the risk-taking behavior and the protective strategies employed by beachgoers. Gaps were also found in areas such as the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in bathing waters and the sand, the potential of contaminated sand being a viable route of transmission, and the impact of the use of chemical disinfectants on the marine environment and on bathers. The paper identifies research prospects in these areas, additionally pointing out other questions such as new carrying capacity methods, the opportunity given by COVID-19 in estimation of the impacts of visitation and beach-litter.


Assuntos
Praias , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036287

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine on low back pain (LBP) intensity, prevalence, and associated risk factors among adults in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). A total of 463 adults (259 males and 204 females) aged between 18 and 64 years and residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions regarding demographic characteristics, work- and academic-related aspects, physical activity (PA), daily habits and tasks, and pain-related aspects was used. The LBP point prevalence before the quarantine was 38.8%, and 43.8% after the quarantine. The LBP intensity significantly increased during the quarantine. The low back was also the most common musculoskeletal pain area. Furthermore, during the quarantine, a significantly higher LBP intensity was reported by those individuals who (a) were aged between 35 and 49 years old, (b) had a body mass index equal to or exceeding 30, (c) underwent higher levels of stress, (d) did not comply with the ergonomic recommendations, (e) were sitting for long periods, (f) did not practice enough physical activity (PA), and (g) underwent teleworking or distance learning. No significant differences were found between genders. The COVID-19 quarantine resulted in a significant increase in LBP intensity, point prevalence, and most associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036351

RESUMO

The new corona virus infection SARS-CoV2 which was later renamed COVID-19 is a pandemic affecting public health. The fear and the constraints imposed to control the pandemic may correspondingly influence leisure activities, such as birding, which is the practice of observing birds based on visual and acoustic cues. Birders are people who carry out birding observations around the globe and contribute to the massive data collection in citizen science projects. Contrasting to earlier COVID-19 studies, which have concentrated on clinical, pathological, and virological topics, this study focused on the behavioral changes of birders. A total of 4484 questionnaire survey responses from 97 countries were received. The questionnaire had an open-ended style. About 85% of respondents reported that COVID-19 has changed their birding behavior. The most significant change in birdwatchers' behavior was related to the geographic coverage of birding activities, which became more local. People focused mostly on yard birding. In total, 12% of respondents (n = 542 cases) reported having more time for birding, whereas 8% (n = 356 cases) reported having less time for birding. Social interactions decreased since respondents, especially older people, changed their birding behavior toward birding alone or with their spouse. Women reported more often than men that they changed to birding alone or with their spouse, and women also reported more often about canceled fieldtrips or society meetings. Respondents from higher developed countries reported that they spend currently more time for birding, especially for birding alone or with their spouse, and birding at local hotspots. Our study suggests that long lockdowns with strict regulations may severely impact on leisure activities. In addition, a temporal and spatial shift in birding due to the pandemic may influence data quality in citizen science projects. As nature-based recreation will be directed more toward nearby sites, environmental management resources and actions need to be directed to sites that are located near the users, e.g., in urban and suburban areas. The results can be applied with caution to other nature-based recreational activities.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus , Atividades de Lazer , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036461

RESUMO

Spanish children were locked down for 72 days due to COVID-19, causing severe disruption to their normal life. The threat posed by COVID-19 continues and clinicians, administrators, and families need to know the life conditions associated with more psychological problems to modify them and minimize their effect on mental health. The goal was to study the life conditions of adolescents during lockdown and their association with psychological problems. A total of 226 parents of 117 girls and 109 boys (mean age: 13.9; Standard deviation: 0.28) from the community that were participants in a longitudinal study answered an online questionnaire about life conditions during lockdown and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Stepwise regression analyses controlling by previous reports of SDQ were performed. Conduct, peer, prosocial, and total problems scores increased after lockdown. After adjusting for previous measures of psychopathology, worse adolescents' mental health during COVID-19 lockdown was associated with unhealthy activities, worsening of the relationships with others, and dysfunctional parenting style. It seems important to mitigate psychological stress in a situation of isolation due to a state of emergency by keeping the adolescent active and maintaining their daily habits and routines in a non-conflictive atmosphere and give support to parents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia
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