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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009915

RESUMO

Inertial measurement units (IMUs) fixed to the lower limbs have been reported to provide accurate estimates of stride lengths (SLs) during walking. Due to technical challenges, validation of such estimates in running is generally limited to speeds (well) below 5 m·s-1. However, athletes sprinting at (sub)maximal effort already surpass 5 m·s-1 after a few strides. The present study aimed to develop and validate IMU-derived SLs during maximal linear overground sprints. Recreational athletes (n = 21) completed two sets of three 35 m sprints executed at 60, 80, and 100% of subjective effort, with an IMU on the instep of each shoe. Reference SLs from start to ~30 m were obtained with a series of video cameras. SLs from IMUs were obtained by double integration of horizontal acceleration with a zero-velocity update, corrected for acceleration artefacts at touch-down of the feet. Peak sprint speeds (mean ± SD) reached at the three levels of effort were 7.02 ± 0.80, 7.65 ± 0.77, and 8.42 ± 0.85 m·s-1, respectively. Biases (±Limits of Agreement) of SLs obtained from all participants during sprints at 60, 80, and 100% effort were 0.01% (±6.33%), -0.75% (±6.39%), and -2.51% (±8.54%), respectively. In conclusion, in recreational athletes wearing IMUs tightly fixed to their shoes, stride length can be estimated with reasonable accuracy during maximal linear sprint acceleration.


Assuntos
, Corrida , Aceleração , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Sapatos
2.
Sports Biomech ; 21(1): 71-84, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464161

RESUMO

There is an ongoing debate regarding the advantages and harms of different running striking patterns. The purpose of this study was to explore the kinematic differences between running with a midfoot- and rearfoot striking (RFS) pattern.Multi-segment foot kinematics of 12 students were assessed while running barefoot at 3.3 m/s (±10%) using a passive optoelectronic motion analysis system. Participants performed multiple running trials while landing on the rearfoot and midfoot. Comparison of the kinematic waveforms was performed using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (1DSPM) (paired t-test). The inter-segment angle between the shank and calcaneus was found to be significantly more plantar-flexed, more inverted and more adducted in the midfoot striking (MFS) condition compared to the RFS pattern. The calcaneus-midfoot inter-segment angle was found to be more plantar-flexed in the MFS condition. The downward angulation of the metatarsals and the medial longitudinal arch angle in the late swing phase was found to be more pronounced during MFS. Differences between midfoot and RFS patterns occur in the first sub-phase of stance (0-50% of the stance phase).These findings may be of interest for the kinesiopathological or pathokinesiological reasoning processes when facing foot- and lower limb-related running injuries.


Assuntos
, Corrida , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
3.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103577, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488189

RESUMO

Bus controllers are an essential part of the London bus network. Although the bus driver is the individual directly in control of the vehicle, inputs from both the controller and driver influence operations. Currently, little research has focused on the dynamic between these parties, and how it works in the day-to-day operation of a bus. In the current study, data was collected across focus groups with controllers to understand the controller-driver relationship from the controller perspective. The objectives of the research were to: investigate interactions and working relationships between bus controllers and drivers in London and to explore the effect of controller/driver relationships on workload, stress and fatigue. It is clear that the working relationship between controllers and drivers is a challenging one, with both parties often misunderstanding the role of the other. This is made worse by the nature of communication via radio including poor quality audio leading to difficult interactions. All of the participating controllers expressed being overloaded with work, leading to feelings of stress and fatigue, with shift work and irregular hours being discussed as a cause of controller fatigue. Any steps taken to improve the difficult working relationship between drivers and controllers can be seen as beneficial because they could improve efficiency, worker wellbeing, and possibly safety.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Corrida , Fadiga , Humanos , Londres , Carga de Trabalho
4.
J Athl Train ; 56(12): 1362-1366, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911076

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Three foot-strike techniques are common in runners. If these techniques generate different sounds at the point of impact with the ground, lower limb kinetics may be influenced. No previous authors have determined whether such relationships exist. OBJECTIVES: To determine foot-ground impact sound characteristics and compare the impact-sound characteristics across foot-strike techniques and the relationships between impact-sound characteristics and vertical loading rates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Gait analysis laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 30 runners (15 women, 15 men; age = 23.5 ± 4.0 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.1 m, mass = 58.1 ± 8.2 kg) completed overground running trials with rearfoot-strike, midfoot-strike (MFS), and forefoot-strike (FFS) techniques in a gait analysis laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Impact sound was measured using a shotgun microphone, and the peak sound amplitude, median frequency, and sound duration were analyzed. Separate linear regressions, clustering participants due to repeated measures, were used to compare the sound characteristics across foot-strike techniques. Kinetic data were collected from a force plate, and the vertical loading rates were calculated. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between sound characteristics and kinetics. RESULTS: Landing with an MFS or FFS resulted in greater peak sound amplitude (P < .001) and shorter sound duration (P < .001) than a rearfoot strike. The MFS exhibited the highest median frequency among the 3 foot-strike patterns, followed by the FFS (P < .001). We did not find a significant relationship between vertical loading rates and any impact sound characteristics (P > .115). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that impact-sound characteristics may be used to differentiate foot-strike patterns in runners. However, these did not relate to lower limb kinetics. Therefore, clinicians should not solely rely on impact sound to infer impact loading.


Assuntos
Marcha , Corrida , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946292

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Physical activity has a positive impact on health, and the participation in exercise and sports, including marathons, has increased in popularity. This kind of sport requires extreme endurance, which can cause different health problems and even lead to death. Participants without sufficient preparation and, in particular, men 45 years of age and older belong to a high risk group. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of marathons and cofactors associated with marathons on the recovery of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) of non-professional ≥ 45 years old male marathoners. Materials andMethods: A total of 136 ≥ 45 year old, non-professional (amateur marathoner), male participants were recruited. Data collection involved a questionnaire, body composition measures, and BP and HR results before and after finishing the marathon. Descriptive data, t-test, Mann-Whitney or χ2 test, and Pearson's correlation were applied. Results: Participants (skiing n = 81, cycling n = 29, running n = 26; mean age 51.7 ± 7.1 years old) had previously attended a median of 35 (IQR 17.5-66) marathons and travelled 2111.5 (IQR 920-4565) km. Recovery of HR and BP after finishing and recovery time was insufficient and not associated with marathon preparation. Running was the most burdensome for HR, and cycling was most taxing for BP. Chronic diseases did not influence participation in the marathon. Conclusions: The preparation for the marathon was mainly sufficient, but recovery after the marathon was worrisome. Marathons are demanding for ≥45 year old males and may be too strenuous an activity that has deleterious effects on health.


Assuntos
Corrida de Maratona , Corrida , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistência Física
6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 67-84, Dec. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352911

RESUMO

Introducción: Las competencias transversales son aquellas que marcan y modelan el perfil del nuevo tipo de médico que se quiere formar en la malla innovada 2015 de la carrera de Medicina de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, por lo que es fundamental que sean implementadas en los tres primeros años de la carrera, acorde a lo explicitado en la visión y misión de la misma. Objetivos: El objetivo fue describir e interpretar la implementación de estas competencias transversales, según la percepción de los actores clave, estudiantes y docentes. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio de tipo cualitativo con enfoque hermenéutico, pues nos permitió aproximarnos a las opiniones y vivencias de estudiantes y docentes, agrupadas en categorías (ética, humanismo, trabajo en equipo, liderazgo y responsabilidad ambiental) y acercarnos a una interpretación de dicha información. Resultados: La ética y el humanismo son percibidas en mayor medida en las actividades extramuros, el trabajo en equipo esta visualizado en todas las asignaturas, pero requiere de ajustes en la metodología y finalmente tanto la responsabilidad ambiental como el liderazgo no son percibidas como intencionadas en las asignaturas y espacios del nuevo currículum. Conclusión: Esta investigación nos ha permitido conocer información profunda y valorar el grado de implementación de las competencias transversales, dadas las contundentes declaraciones de los sujetos informantes sobre las categorías investigadas debiendo ser replanteada la forma de inserción de las mismas en el nuevo currículum


Introduction: The transversal competences are those that shape and model the profile of the new type of doctor we wanted to train in the innovative 2015 curriculum of the course of studies of Medicine of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the National University of Asunción, so it is essential that they are implemented in the early years of the course of studies, according to the statement in the vision and mission of it. Objectives: The objective was to describe and interpret the implementation of these transversal competencies, according to the perception of key actors: students and teachers. Materials and methods: This was a qualitative research, with a hermeneutic approach, because it allowed us to get in touch with the opinions and experiences of students and teachers. We grouped the information into 5 main categories: ethics, humanism, teamwork, leadership and environmental responsibility. Doing so lead us to an interpretation of such information. Results: Ethics and humanism are mostly perceived in extramural activities; teamwork is visualized in all subjects but requires adjustments in methodology and finally, both environmental responsibility and leadership are not perceived as intentional in any subject and/or other issues of the new curriculum. Conclusion: This research has allowed us to know in-depth information and assess the degree of implementation of transversal competencies, given the strong statements of the reporting subjects on the categories investigated. The way to insert transversal competences in the new curriculum should be reconsidered


Assuntos
Estudos Transversais , Corrida , Estudantes , Medicina
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 85-102, Dec. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352914

RESUMO

Introducción: Considerando la Ley de la Nación Paraguaya 4995/2013 "De Educación Superior", en su artículo 82°, establece que "la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación de la Educación Superior (ANEAES) es el organismo técnico encargado de evaluar y acreditar la calidad académica de los Institutos de Educación Superior". Por Resolución N°08/07 del Consejo Directivo de la ANEAES de fecha 17 de diciembre de 2007 aprueba los criterios de calidad para la carrera de medicina, donde en la dimensión 5, componente "egresados" establece: La carrera debe velar por el cumplimiento de las metas establecidas en cuanto a duración real de la carrera, logro del perfil de egreso e inserción de sus egresados en el mercado laboral. A los efectos se deberá establecer y aplicar mecanismos de consulta a los egresados para determinar su grado de satisfacción y retroalimentar el proceso formativo y los planes de mejora. Objetivos: contribuir a obtener información de la situación laboral y formación académica que permitan evaluar la calidad de la educación superior brindada y proponer mecanismos que contribuyan a la mejora del desempeño profesional de los egresados. Materiales y métodos: Los datos fueron procesados utilizando estadística descriptiva para todas las variables. El Instrumento utilizado es un Cuestionario conformado por 63 preguntas divididas en 5 secciones. Se contactó con los egresados por llamadas telefónicas y mensajería instantánea. Resultados: Durante los años 2010-2017, egresaron 984 profesionales. Total, de Encuestados: 133 egresados, siendo 73 mujeres (55%) y 60 hombres (45%). El 25 % de los egresados que han respondido la encuesta consideran que la formación académica recibida es excelente, el 44% considera que es muy buena, el 23% que es buena, el 6% regular y el 2% considera que es mala. Conclusión: El nivel de inserción laboral es alto al momento del egreso. La Satisfacción con la formación académica recibida es muy buena, con recomendaciones viables para el plan de mejoras en el programa de estudio


Introduction: Considering the Law of the Paraguayan Nation 4995/2013 "On Higher Education", in its article 82°, establishes that "the National Agency for the Evaluation and Accreditation of Higher Education (ANEAES) is the technical body in charge of evaluating and accrediting the academic quality of the Institutes of Higher Education". By Resolution N ° 08/07 of the Board of Directors of the ANEAES dated December 17, 2007, it approves the quality criteria for the medical career, where in dimension 5, the "graduates" component, it establishes: The career must ensure compliance of the goals established in terms of real duration of the career, achievement of the graduation profile and insertion of its graduates in the labor market. For this purpose, consultation mechanisms must be established and applied to graduates to determine their degree of satisfaction and provide feedback on the training process and improvement plans. Objectives: The objective of this follow-up report was to obtain useful information on the employment situation and academic training that allow evaluating the quality and relevance of the higher education provided and proposing mechanisms that contribute to the improvement of the professional performance of graduates. Materials and methods: The data were processed using descriptive statistics for all variables. The Instrument used is a Questionnaire made up of 63 questions divided into 5 sections. Graduates were contacted by phone calls and instant messaging. Results: During the years 2010-2017, 984 professionals graduated. Total of Respondents: 133 graduates, being 73 women (55%) and 60 men (45%). 25% of the graduates who responded to the survey consider that the academic training received is excellent, 44% consider it very good, 23% that it is good, 6% fair and 2% consider that it is bad. Conclusion: The level of labor insertion is high at the time of graduation. Satisfaction with the academic training received is very good, with viable recommendations for the improvement plan in the study program


Assuntos
Ensino , Corrida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Educação Superior , Relatório de Pesquisa , Acreditação , Satisfação no Emprego , Medicina
8.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 103-112, Dec. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352962

RESUMO

Las estrategias didácticas cumplen un papel relevante en la innovación de la malla curricular, esta investigación tiene por finalidad comprender el proceso de cambio instaurado en la facultad desde la percepción de los actores principales, desde varias aristas relacionadas como la infraestructura, materiales de apoyo e información sobre la malla innovada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar e interpretar la percepción que tienen los docentes y estudiantes del ciclo básico de la carrera de medicina de Asunción, en relación a la innovación curricular y permitirnos reflexionar y contribuir a este proceso dinámico que está llegando al ciclo clínico, a través de una investigación cualitativa con enfoque hermenéutico


Didactic strategies play a relevant role in the innovation of the curricular mesh, this research aims to understand the process of change established in the faculty from the perception of the main actors, from several related aspects such as infrastructure, support materials and information on the innovated curriculum. Our objective was to analyze and interpret the perception that teachers and students of the basic cycle of the medical career have, in relation to curricular innovation and allow us to reflect and contribute to this dynamic process that is reaching the clinical cycle, through a qualitative research with a hermeneutical approach


Assuntos
Ensino , Estratégias de Saúde , Percepção , Corrida , Estudantes , Docentes , Aprendizagem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960028

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine whether repeated exposures to low (2%) and moderate (4%) exercise-induced hypohydration may reverse the potentially deleterious effect of hypohydration on endurance performance. Using a randomized crossover protocol, ten volunteers (23 years, V˙O2max: 54 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed two 4-week training blocks interspersed by a 5-week washout period. During one block, participants replaced all fluid losses (EUH) while in the other they were fluid restricted (DEH). Participants completed three exercise sessions per week (walking/running, 55% V˙O2max, 40 °C): (1) 1 h while fluid restricted or drinking ad libitum, (2) until 2 and (3) 4% of body mass has been lost or replaced. During the first and the fourth week of each training block, participants completed a 12 min time-trial immediately after 2% and 4% body mass loss has been reached. Exercise duration and distance completed (14.1 ± 2.7 vs. 6.9 ± 1.5 km) during the fixed-intensity exercise bouts were greater in the 4 compared to the 2% condition (p < 0.01) with no difference between DEH and EUH. During the first week, heart rate, rectal temperature and perceived exertion were higher (p < 0.05) with DEH than EUH, and training did not change these outcomes. Exercise-induced hypohydration of 2% and 4% body mass impaired time-trial performance in a practical manner both at the start and end of the training block. In conclusion, exercise-induced hypohydration of 2% and 4% body mass impairs 12 min walking/running time-trial, and repeated exposures to these hypohydration levels cannot reverse the impairment in performance.


Assuntos
Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/efeitos adversos , Resistência Física , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948583

RESUMO

The present research aimed to study the effect of three different training periodization (traditional, reverse, and free training) on the aerobic performance, motivation, and adherence of physically active athletes. We analysed the adherence to three different periodization training programs: traditional, reverse, and free training periodization on the adherence of amateur triathletes. For this aim, the individual adherence, motivation, and aerobic performance time and heart rate (in a 1000 m running test) were evaluated before and after the completion of the three different 8-week periodization programs. The level of adherence to the reverse periodization was significantly higher than in traditional and free training. The number of dropouts in reverse and traditional periodization was similar but lower than in the free training. Finally, neither of the periodization programs improved aerobic performance and reverse training periodization decreased heart rate of participants in a 1000 m running test.


Assuntos
Corrida , Atletas , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948600

RESUMO

The present industrial food-production system is not suitably ecological for the environment. Mindful nutrition in sport is a relevant emergent sub-discipline that could help reduce environmental degradation. This case study describes a sustainable support diet during an ultra-endurance running (UR) event called the "Indoor Everest Challenge". This UR challenge involved attaining the altitude of Mount Everest (8849 m) in a simulated way, in less than 24 h, without using ultra-processed food and without wasting plastics. During this challenge, a male athlete (34 years, weight: 78 kg, and height: 173 cm) wore a SenseWear Armband® (BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburg, PA, USA) accelerometer on his right arm to estimate energy expenditure. To supply his nutritional requirements, the athlete consumed only specially prepared homemade and organic food. All consumption was weighed and recorded in real-time; we determined nutrients using two databases: a food composition software, Dial Alce Ingenieria® (Madrid, Spain), to measure energy and macro- and micro-nutrients, and Phenol Explorer Database® (INRA Institut National de Recherche pour l'Alimentation, Paris, France) precisely to determine polyphenolic content. Most energy intake (up to 96%) came from plant foods. We found that subject consumed 15.8 g/kg-1/d-1 or 1242 g of carbohydrates (CHO), (2.4 g/kg-1/d-1) or 190 g of proteins (P), and 10,692 mL of fluid. The total energy intake (7580 kcal) showed a distribution of 65% CHO, 10% P, and 25% lipids (L). Furthermore, this sustainable diet lead to a high antioxidant intake, specifically vitamin C (1079 mg), vitamin E (57 mg), and total polyphenols (1910 mg). This sustainable approach was suitable for meeting energy, CHO, and P recommendations for UR. Physical and mental training (mindfulness) were integrated from the specific preliminary phase to the day of the challenge. The athlete completed this challenge in 18 h with a low environmental impact. This sports event had an educational component, as it awakened curiosity towards food sustainability.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Corrida , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física , Espanha
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932607

RESUMO

Current methods of small animal exercise involve either voluntary (wheel running) or forced (treadmill running) protocols. Although commonly used, each have several drawbacks which cause hesitancy to adopt these methods. While mice will instinctively run on a wheel, the distance and time spent running can vary widely. Forced exercise, while controllable, puts animals in stressful environments in which they are confined and often shocked for "encouragement." Additionally, both methods require expensive equipment and software, which limit these experiments to well-funded laboratories. To counter these issues, we developed a non-invasive mouse running device aimed to reduce handler-induced stress, provide time- and distance-based stopping conditions, and enable investigators with limited resources to easily produce and use the device. The Lockable Open-Source Training-Wheel (LOST-Wheel) was designed to be 3D printed on any standard entry-level printer and assembled using a few common tools for around 20 USD. It features an on-board screen and is capable of tracking distances, running time, and velocities of mice. The LOST-Wheel overcomes the largest drawback to voluntary exercise, which is the inability to control when and how long mice run, using a servo driven mechanism that locks and unlocks the running surface according to the protocol of the investigator. While the LOST-Wheel can be used without a computer connection, we designed an accompanying application to provide scientists with additional analyses. The LOST-Wheel Logger, an R-based application, displays milestones and plots on a user-friendly dashboard. Using the LOST-Wheel, we implemented a timed running experiment that showed distance-dependent decreases in serum myostatin as well as IL-6 gene upregulation in muscle. To make this device accessible, we are releasing the designs, application, and manual in an open-source format. The implementation of the LOST-Wheel and future iterations will improve upon existing murine exercise equipment and research.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Animal/instrumentação , Animais , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , RNA/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941923

RESUMO

Laboratory animals frequently undergo routine experimental procedures such as handling, restraining and injections. However, as a known source of stress, these procedures potentially impact study outcome and data quality. In the present study, we, therefore, performed an evidence-based severity assessment of experimental procedures used in a pancreatic cancer model including surgical tumour induction and subsequent chemotherapeutic treatment via repeated intraperitoneal injections. Cancer cell injection into the pancreas was performed during a laparotomy under general anaesthesia. After a four-day recovery phase, mice received either drug treatment (galloflavin and metformin) or the respective vehicle substances via daily intraperitoneal injections. In addition to clinical scoring, an automated home-cage monitoring system was used to assess voluntary wheel running (VWR) behaviour as an indicator of impaired well-being. After surgery, slightly elevated clinical scores and minimal body weight reductions, but significantly decreased VWR behaviour were observed. During therapy, body weight declined in response to chemotherapy, but not after vehicle substance injection, while VWR activity was decreased in both cases. VWR behaviour differed between treatment groups and revealed altered nightly activity patterns. In summary, by monitoring VWR a high impact of repeated injections on the well-being of mice was revealed and substance effects on well-being were distinguishable. However, no differences in tumour growth between treatment groups were observed. This might be due to the severity of the procedures uncovered in this study, as exaggerated stress responses are potentially confounding factors in preclinical studies. Finally, VWR was a more sensitive indicator of impairment than clinical scoring in this model.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Corrida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833557

RESUMO

This study's aim was to analyze muscle activation and kinematics of sled-pushing and resisted-parachute sprinting with three load conditions on an instrumentalized SKILLRUN® treadmill. Nine male amateur rugby union players (21.3 ± 4.3 years, 75.8 ± 10.2 kg, 176.6 ± 8.8 cm) performed a sled-push session consisting of three 15-m repetitions at 20%, 55% and 90% body mas and another resisted-parachute session using three different parachute sizes (XS, XL and 3XL). Sprinting kinematics and muscle activity of three lower-limb muscles (biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM)) were measured. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) showed that higher loads during the sled-push increased (VL) (p ≤ 0.001) and (GM) (p ≤ 0.001) but not (BF) (p = 0.278) activity. Furthermore, it caused significant changes in sprinting kinematics, stiffness and joint angles. Resisted-parachute sprinting did not change kinematics or muscle activation, despite producing a significant overload (i.e., speed loss). In conclusion, increased sled-push loading caused disruptions in sprinting technique and altered lower-limb muscle activation patterns as opposed to the resisted-parachute. These findings might help practitioners determine the more adequate resisted sprint exercise and load according to the training objective (e.g., power production or speed performance).


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Corrida , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833596

RESUMO

The SHFT device is a novel running wearable consisting of two pods connected to your smartphone issuing several running metrics based on accelerometer and gyroscope technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the power output (PO) metric produced by the SHFT device. To assess reliability, 12 men ran on an outdoor track at 10.5 km·h-1 and 12 km·h-1 on two consecutive days. To assess validity, oxygen uptake (VO2) and SHFT data from eight men and seven women were collected during incremental submaximal running tests on an indoor treadmill on one to four separate days (34 tests in total). SHFT reliability on the outdoor track was strong with coefficients of variance (CV) of 1.8% and 2.4% for 10.5 and 12 km·h-1, respectively. We observed a very strong linear relationship between PO and VO2 (r2 = 0.54) within subjects, and a very strong linear relationship within each subject within each treadmill test (r2 = 0.80). We conclude that SHFT provides a reliable running power estimate and that a very strong relationship between SHFT-Power and metabolic rate exists, which places SHFT as one of the leading commercially available running power meters.


Assuntos
Corrida , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle soreness after a competition or a training session has been a concern of runners due to its harmful effect on performance. It is not known if stronger individuals present a lower level of muscle soreness after a strenuous physical effort. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pre-race muscle strength or the V˙O2max level can predict muscle soreness 24, 48 and 72 h after a full marathon in men. METHODS: Thirty-one marathon runners participated in this study (age, 40.8 ± 8.8 years old; weight, 74.3 ± 10.4 kg; height, 174.2 ± 7.6 cm; maximum oxygen uptake, V˙O2max, 57.7 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min). The isokinetic strength test for thigh muscles and the V˙O2max level was performed 15-30 days before the marathon and the participants were evaluated for the subjective feeling of soreness before, 24, 48 and 72 h after the marathon. RESULTS: The participants presented more pain 24 h after the race (median = 3, IQR = 1) than before it (median = 0, IQR = 0) (p < 0.001), and the strength values for the knee extensor muscles were significantly associated with muscle soreness assessed 24 h after the race (p = 0.028), but not 48 (p = 0.990) or 72 h (p = 0.416) after the race. The V˙O2max level was not associated with the muscle pain level at any moment after the marathon. CONCLUSIONS: Marathon runners who presented higher muscular strength for the knee extensor muscles presented lower muscle soreness 24 h after the race, but not after 48 h or 72 h after the race. Therefore, the muscle soreness level 3 days after a marathon race does not depend on muscle strength.


Assuntos
Mialgia , Corrida , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida de Maratona , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Mialgia/etiologia , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769831

RESUMO

High-intensity interval running (HIIT-R) and high-intensity functional training (HIFT) are two forms of HIIT exercise that are commonly used. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of HIFT on aerobic capacity and body composition when compared to HIIT-R in females. Twenty healthy, untrained female university students (age 20.5 ± 0.7 year) were randomly assigned to a 12-week HIIT-R or HIFT intervention. The HIIT-R group involved a 30 s maximal shuttle run with a 30 s recovery period, whereas the HIFT involved multiple functional exercises with a 2:1 work-active recovery ratio. Body composition, VO2max, and muscle performance were measured before and post intervention. As a result, HIIT-R and HIIT-F stimulated similar improvements in VO2max (17.1% ± 5.6% and 12.7% ± 6.7%, respectively, p > 0.05). Only the HIIT-F group revealed significant improvements in muscle performance (sit-ups, 16.5% ± 3.1%, standing broad jump 5.1% ± 2.2%, p < 0.05). Body fat percentage decreased (17.1% ± 7.4% and 12.6% ± 5.1%, respectively, p < 0.05) in both HIIT-R and HIIT-F with no between-group differences. We concluded that HIFT was equally effective in promoting body composition and aerobic fitness compared to HIIT-R. HIFT resulted in improved muscle performance, whereas the HIIT-R protocol demonstrated no gains.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Corrida , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769840

RESUMO

A case study involving a healthy trained male athlete who completed a 786 km multi-stage ultra-trail race. Several markers were analyzed in blood and urine samples: creatinine (SCR) for kidney damage, sodium ([Na+]) for hyponatremia, creatine kinase (CK) for exertional rhabdomyolysis, as well as other hematological values. Samples were taken before and after the race and during the recovery period (days 2 and 9 after the race). Results showed: SCR = 1.13 mg/dl, [Na+] =139 mmol/l and CK = 1.099 UI/l. Criteria for the determination of acute kidney damage were not met, and [Na+] concentration was above 135 mEq/L, indicating the absence of hyponatremia. Exertional rhabdomyolysis was suffered by the athlete (baseline CK increased fivefold), though this situation was reverted after 9 days of recovery. Ultra-trail races cause biochemical changes in athletes, which should be known about by healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Hiponatremia , Corrida , Creatina Quinase , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Masculino , Resistência Física , Sódio
19.
Phys Ther Sport ; 52: 312-321, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine whether football players with hip and/or groin (hip/groin) pain have impaired running biomechanics when compared to pain-free players, analysing men and women independently. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight (62 men, 16 women) football players with >6months of hip/groin pain and a positive flexion-adduction-internal rotation test and 38 (25 men, 13 women) asymptomatic players. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pelvis angles and hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and moments were analysed during the stance phase of overground running at 3-3.5 m⋅s-1. Continuous joint angle and moment data were compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic football players of the same sex using statistical parametric mapping. Joint moment impulses (area under the curve) were compared between groups using linear regression models. RESULTS: Symptomatic football players did not display significant differences in pelvis angles or lower-limb joint angles, moments, or moment impulses during the stance phase of running, when compared to asymptomatic players of the same sex. CONCLUSION: Our large sample of football players with hip/groin pain who were still participating in competitive sport displayed similar running biomechanics to asymptomatic players. Impaired running biomechanics might exist in people with worse hip/groin pain, warranting future investigation.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Corrida , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Virilha , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pélvica
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769545

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of a non-caffeinated energy drink (ED) that contained calamansi juice, glucose, and taurine on 3-km running performance and recovery. Eleven NCAA Division I middle-distance runners (20.8 ± 1.5 years old) were randomly assigned to consume either the ED or a placebo drink 60 min before 3-km running on a 400-m official track. Performance time and speed were recorded every 500-m interval. Recovery blood lactate concentration (BLC), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline, 60-min after ingesting the drinks, and post-running measurements were performed at 1-min, 5-min, and 10-min. Repeated analysis of variance and paired t-test were applied to examine the effects of time, trials, and their interaction on performance and recovery. Statistical significance was set a priori at p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in performance time and speed between trials (p < 0.05). No interaction effect was found on performance time, speed, recovery BLC, DBP, and HR (p < 0.05). However, an interaction effect for trial by time was observed on SBP (p = 0.01). Recovery SBP continues to decrease from 5-min to 10-min in the ED trial (∆ = -13.9 mmHg) and slightly increased in the placebo trial (∆ = 1.1 mmHg). This study suggests that acute consumption of a calamansi-containing ED can positively impact the SBP recovery but not running performance. Further studies are needed to examine the acute and chronic effects of this ED on exercise performance and recovery among different populations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Bebidas Energéticas , Corrida , Cafeína , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Frequência Cardíaca
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