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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2707, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302569

RESUMO

With human space exploration back in the spotlight, recent studies have investigated the neuromuscular adjustments to simulated hypogravity running. They have examined the activity of individual muscles, whereas the central nervous system may rather activate groups of functionally related muscles, known as muscle synergies. To understand how locomotor control adjusts to simulated hypogravity, we examined the temporal (motor primitives) and spatial (motor modules) components of muscle synergies in participants running sequentially at 100%, 60%, and 100% body weight on a treadmill. Our results highlighted the paradoxical nature of simulated hypogravity running: The reduced mechanical constraints allowed for a more flexible locomotor control, which correlated with the degree of spatiotemporal adjustments. Yet, the increased temporal (shortened stance phase) and sensory (deteriorated proprioceptive feedback) constraints required wider motor primitives and a higher contribution of the hamstring muscles during the stance phase. These results are a first step towards improving astronaut training protocols.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiossurais , Corrida , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Corrida/fisiologia , Hipogravidade , Sistema Nervoso Central , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
2.
J Biomech Eng ; 146(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217109

RESUMO

Shoe manufacturing technology is advancing faster than new shoe designs can viably be evaluated in human subject trials. To aid in the design process, this paper presents a model for estimating how new shoe properties will affect runner performance. This model assumes runners choose their gaits to optimize an intrinsic, unknown objective function. To learn this objective function, a simple two-dimensional mechanical model of runners was used to predict their gaits under different objectives, and the resulting gaits were compared to data from real running trials. The most realistic model gaits, i.e., the ones that best matched the data, were obtained when the model runners minimized the impulse they experience from the ground as well as the mechanical work done by their leg muscles. Using this objective function, the gait and thus performance of running under different shoe conditions can be predicted. The simple model is sufficiently sensitive to predict the difference in performance of shoes with disruptive designs but cannot distinguish between existing shoes whose properties are fairly similar. This model therefore is a viable tool for coarse-grain exploration of the design space and identifying promising behaviors of truly novel shoe materials and designs.


Assuntos
Corrida , Sapatos , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Perna (Membro) , Músculo Esquelético , Corrida/fisiologia
3.
Gene ; 899: 148136, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise therapy can improve muscle mass, strengthen muscle and cardiorespiratory function, and may be an excellent adjunctive treatment option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. METHODS: This article investigates the effects of 10 weeks of treadmill training on skeletal muscle in control and mdx mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to detect the morphometry of skeletal muscle; the grip strength test, suspension test, and rotarod test were used to detect limb muscle strength of mice, and Aurora Scientific Instruments were used to detect in vivo Muscle Stimulation Measuring Maximum Force of pre-fatigue and post-fatigue. The expression levels of myogenic proteins, ubiquitination markers, autophagy pathway proteins, and the proportion of different muscle fiber types were detected. RESULTS: The experimental results show that running exercise can significantly improve the muscle mass of mdx mice, promote muscle strength, endurance, and anti-fatigue ability, reverse the pathological state of skeletal muscle destruction in mdx mice, and promote muscle regeneration. WB experiments showed that running inhibited the ubiquitination and degradation of muscle protein in mdx mice, inhibited AKT activation, decreased phosphorylated FoxO1 and FoxO3a, and restored the suppressed autophagic flux. Running enhances muscle strength and endurance by comprehensively promoting the expression of Myh1/2/4/7 fast and slow muscle fibers in mdx mice. CONCLUSIONS: Running can inhibit the degradation of muscle protein in mdx mice, and promote the reuse and accumulation of proteins, thereby slowing down muscle loss. Running improves skeletal muscle mass by activating autophagic flux and inhibiting ubiquitination degradation in mdx mice.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Corrida , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Autofagia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
4.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38276565

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the placebo effect associated with caffeine ingestion on running performance. METHODS: Thirteen recreationally trained males in long-distance running (age: 38.5 ± 11.9 years, 11.0 ± 8.8 years of running experience) performed a 6 min time trial test in each experimental condition (caffeine-informed/placebo ingested (placebo) and non-ingested (control)) separated by 7 days. The total distance covered was measured, and partial times of each 400 m were used to analyze the pacing strategy. Heart rate and kinematic variables were recorded for each split. In addition, the rate of perceived exertion and prevalence of caffeine side effects was measured using questionnaires. RESULTS: Placebo ingestion improved running performance in the 6 min time trial test (1668 ± 139 m placebo vs. 1642 ± 158 m control, t = 2.49; p = 0.03; moderate ES = 0.69), while pacing, heart rate, RPE, and kinematic variables were similar between conditions (p > 0.05 in all cases). Minor side effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Beliefs of caffeine ingestion can improve running performance at speeds around maximal aerobic speed in recreationally trained runners without affecting pacing strategy so this "nutritional" strategy could be useful in competition scenarios. As a practical application, recreationally trained runners could improve ≈5 s in 1500 m or mile competitions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cafeína/farmacologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Ingestão de Alimentos , Método Duplo-Cego
5.
Nature ; 625(7994): 338-344, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38123682

RESUMO

The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) hosts many of the brain's circuit elements for spatial navigation and episodic memory, operations that require neural activity to be organized across long durations of experience1. Whereas location is known to be encoded by spatially tuned cell types in this brain region2,3, little is known about how the activity of entorhinal cells is tied together over time at behaviourally relevant time scales, in the second-to-minute regime. Here we show that MEC neuronal activity has the capacity to be organized into ultraslow oscillations, with periods ranging from tens of seconds to minutes. During these oscillations, the activity is further organized into periodic sequences. Oscillatory sequences manifested while mice ran at free pace on a rotating wheel in darkness, with no change in location or running direction and no scheduled rewards. The sequences involved nearly the entire cell population, and transcended epochs of immobility. Similar sequences were not observed in neighbouring parasubiculum or in visual cortex. Ultraslow oscillatory sequences in MEC may have the potential to couple neurons and circuits across extended time scales and serve as a template for new sequence formation during navigation and episodic memory formation.


Assuntos
Córtex Entorrinal , Neurônios , Periodicidade , Animais , Camundongos , Córtex Entorrinal/citologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Giro Para-Hipocampal/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Escuridão , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Vias Neurais , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Episódica
6.
Gait Posture ; 108: 189-194, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stabilisation of the centre of mass (COM) trajectory is thought to be important during running. There is emerging evidence of the importance of leg length and angle regulation during running, which could contribute to stability in the COM trajectory The present study aimed to understand if leg length and angle stabilises the vertical and anterior-posterior (AP) COM displacements, and if the stability alters with running speeds. METHODS: Data for this study came from an open-source treadmill running dataset (n = 28). Leg length (m) was calculated by taking the resultant distance of the two-dimensional sagittal plane leg vector (from pelvis segment to centre of pressure). Leg angle was defined by the angle subtended between the leg vector and the horizontal surface. Leg length and angle were scaled to a standard deviation of one. Uncontrolled manifold analysis (UCM) was used to provide an index of motor abundance (IMA) in the stabilisation of the vertical and AP COM displacement. RESULTS: IMAAP and IMAvertical were largely destabilising and always stabilising, respectively. As speed increased, the peak destabilising effect on IMAAP increased from -0.66(0.18) at 2.5 m/s to -1.12(0.18) at 4.5 m/s, and the peak stabilising effect on IMAvertical increased from 0.69 (0.19) at 2.5 m/s to 1.18 (0.18) at 4.5 m/s. CONCLUSION: Two simple parameters from a simple spring-mass model, leg length and angle, can explain the control behind running. The variability in leg length and angle helped stabilise the vertical COM, whilst maintaining constant running speed may rely more on inter-limb variation to adjust the horizontal COM accelerations.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro) , Corrida , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Corrida/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Aceleração
7.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 103(1): 79-86, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36897812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study were to (1) investigate what physical and physiological parameters are most important for Frame Running capacity, a parasport for individuals with ambulatory difficulties, and (2) determine whether Frame Running capacity can be predicted in athletes with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Athletes with cerebral palsy ( N = 62, Gross Motor Classification System I-V; 2/26/11/21/2) completed a 6-min Frame Running test. Before the 6-min Frame Running test, muscle thickness, passive range of motion (hip, knee, ankle), selective motor control, and spasticity (hip, knee, ankle) were measured in both legs. In total, 54 variables per individual were included. Data were analyzed using correlations, principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least square regression, and variable importance in projection analysis. RESULTS: The mean 6-min Frame Running test distance was 789 ± 335 m and decreased with motor function severity. The orthogonal partial least square analysis revealed a modest degree of covariance in the variables analyzed and that the variance in the 6-min Frame Running test distance could be predicted with 75% accuracy based on all the variables measured. Variable importance in projection analysis indicated hip and knee extensor spasticity (negative effect), and muscle thickness (positive effect) arose as the most important factors contributing to Frame Running capacity. CONCLUSIONS: These results are an important resource to enable optimization of training regimes to improve Frame Running capacity and contribute to evidence-based and fair classification for this parasport.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Corrida , Humanos , Joelho , Extremidade Inferior , Corrida/fisiologia , Espasticidade Muscular , Atletas
8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 38(1): 192-205, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38085629

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Brito, P, Costa, J, Figueiredo, P, and Brito, J. Simulated soccer game protocols: A systematic review on validated protocols that represent the demands of the game. J Strength Cond Res 38(1): 192-205, 2024-Several laboratory and field testing protocols have been developed attempting to simulate the activity pattern and physiological demands of soccer. In the present systematic review, we aimed to analyze and discuss the appropriateness, strengths, and limitations of soccer-specific simulated tests. A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. Studies conducted in soccer, simulated soccer match tests, and validated simulation protocols performed on-the-field or on a treadmill were considered. No sex restriction was applied, and age >18 years (i.e., adults) was considered. At least 1 outcome measure (e.g., neuromuscular performance, external load, internal load, or psychometric state) of post-simulated-match test or protocol had to be reported. Within the 14 studies included, the average methodological quality of the included articles was 0.61 ± 0.09 (mean ± SD) of 1. Overall, 9 validated protocols were identified. In the protocols, only amateur, university, or semiprofessional soccer players were analyzed. Only one study evaluated female soccer players. None of the studies evaluated the effect on performance over the 2-3 days after the protocol. Accelerations and decelerations, and changes in direction typically present in a game have not been clearly described in any protocol. Future research should address this issue and validate soccer-specific protocols in women.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aceleração , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia
9.
Gait Posture ; 107: 28-34, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of load carriage in operational police officers is not well understood despite a relatively high injury rate. Assessing load related changes in head and torso coordination may provide valuable insight into plausible injury mechanisms. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do typical police tactical vest loads alter head and torso coordination during running? METHODS: Thirty-eight UK police officers ran at a self-selected pace (>2 ms-1) on a non-motorised treadmill in four vest load conditions (unloaded, and low, high and evenly distributed loads). Peak head and torso tilt, and peak vest displacement were compared between all four conditions. Timings between vest and torso change of direction were compared between the three loaded conditions. The coupling angle between the head and torso calculated using modified vector coding were compared between unloaded and each loaded conditions using Statistical Parametric Mapping. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between conditions for peak head or torso tilt alone (p > 0.05). Loading equipment low on the vest led to significantly greater mediolateral vest displacements (38 mm) away from the torso than a high (34 mm) or evenly distributed (30 mm) conditions. The vest was found to change direction vertically before the torso in the anterior-posterior direction, and then influence torso motion. The loaded conditions changed the head-torso coupling from in-phase (with head-dominancy) to anti-phase (with torso dominancy) between 55% and 77% stance. Anti-phase with a relatively stationary head and the torso rotating forward likely places a greater concentric demand on the posterior neck muscles relative to unloaded running. SIGNIFICANCE: Current tactical vest designs allow significant extra displacement of load away from the body during running, altering coordination at the head and torso.


Assuntos
Polícia , Corrida , Humanos , Tronco/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Corrida/fisiologia , Movimento (Física)
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 38(1): 10-20, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37639674

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pérez-Ifrán, P, Magallanes, CA, de S. Castro, FA, Astorino, TA, and Benítez-Flores, S. Extremely low-volume burpee interval training equivalent to 8 minutes per session improves vertical jump compared with sprint interval training in real-world circumstances. J Strength Cond Res 38(1): 10-20, 2024-The aim of this study was to compare the cardiometabolic and physical effects of 2 time-matched high-intensity programs in a real-world environment. Forty-three active and healthy adults (sex = 31 men and 12 women; age = 27 ± 5 years; peak heart rate [HR peak ] = 190.7 ± 10.6 beat·min -1 ) were randomized to 2 very low-volume protocols (∼8 minutes): sprint interval training (SIT) ( n = 15), burpee interval training (BIT) ( n = 15), and control (CON) ( n = 13). Subjects in SIT and BIT performed 5 days of 10 × 4 second "all-out" efforts with 30 seconds of recovery. Body composition, blood pressure, countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m sprint, shuttle run test (SRT), autonomic modulation , self-efficacy, and intention were evaluated before and after training. Sprint interval training elicited a higher %HR peak , energy expenditure, rating of perceived exertion category ratio 10 scale, and feeling scale than BIT ( p < 0.05). SRT distance was significantly improved in SIT ( p = 0.03, d = 0.62), whereas CMJ height was significantly enhanced in BIT ( p = 0.0014, d = 0.72). Self-efficacy progressively worsened for SIT than for BIT as sessions increased, and significant differences were found in 5× a week frequency between protocols ( p = 0.040, d = 0.79). No differences in intention to engage were detected between the regimens ( p > 0.05). No changes were observed in body composition, blood pressure, 10-m sprint, SRTV̇O 2max , or autonomic variables with training ( p > 0.05). Results exhibit that extremely low-volume SIT improved running performance, whereas BIT increased the vertical jump.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Corrida , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Metabolismo Energético , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia
11.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 56(1): 118-127, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38098150

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined iron absorption and its regulation during two common scenarios experienced by endurance athletes. Our aims were to: (i) compare the effects of preexercise versus postexercise iron intake on iron absorption; and (ii) compare the impact of training at altitude (1800 m) on iron absorption preexercise. METHODS: Male runners (n = 18) completed three exercise trials over a 5-wk period, each preceded by 24 h of standardized low-iron diets. First, athletes completed two 60-min treadmill running trials at 65% V̇O2max at near sea-level (580 m). In a randomized order, preexercise and postexercise test meals labeled with 4 mg of 57Fe or 58Fe were consumed 30 min before or 30 min after exercise. Then, the same exercise trial was performed after living and training at altitude (~1800 m) for 7 d, with the labeled test meal consumed 30 min preexercise. We collected venous blood samples preexercise and postexercise for markers of iron status and regulation, and 14 d later to measure erythrocyte isotope incorporation. RESULTS: No differences in fractional iron absorption were evident when test meals were consumed preexercise (7.3% [4.4, 12.1]) or postexercise (6.2% [3.1, 12.5]) (n = 18; P = 0.058). Iron absorption preexercise was greater at altitude (18.4% [10.6, 32.0]) than at near sea-level (n = 17; P < 0.001) and hepcidin concentrations at altitude were lower at rest and 3 h postexercise compared with near sea level (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In an acute setting, preexercise and postexercise iron absorption is comparable if consumed within 30 min of exercise. Preexercise iron absorption increases 2.6-fold at altitude compared with near sea-level, likely due to the homeostatic response to provide iron for enhanced erythropoiesis and maintain iron stores.


Assuntos
Ferro , Corrida , Humanos , Masculino , Ferro/metabolismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Atletas
12.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 42(1): 28, 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38037173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age and reduction in performed physical activity cause physiological changes that include an increase in body fat (BF) and visceral fat (VF) during aging. These parameters, together with increased body mass (BM), are some of the risk factors of several noninfectious diseases. However, changes in body composition can be influenced by regular physical activity. Running is a suitable, accessible, and the most effective physical activity cultivating people. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of long-term, regular PA, specifically recreational running, on changes in body composition among recreational adult runners covering a weekly distance of at least 10 km, compared with inactive adult individuals within the same age bracket. METHODS: The study included 1296 runners and inactive individuals (691 male and 605 female), divided into 5 age groups: 18-25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55, and 56-65 years. Runners are as follows: ran ≥ 10 km/week, and inactive is as follows: did not follow the WHO 2020 physical activity recommendations. The measured parameters included BM, BF, and VF. To check statistical significance, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Practical significance was assessed using the effect of size. RESULTS: All age groups of runners were selected to include individuals who run at least 10 km per week. In fact, they ran, on average, from 21.6 to 31.4 km per week in relation to age and showed significantly lower values of BM, BMI, BF, and VF (p < 0.05) than inactive individuals. Exceptions included insignificant differences (p > 0.05) in BM and BMI in males in the age category of 18-25 and in females in the age category of 18-25 and 26-35. CONCLUSION: The selected runners had to run at least 10 km per week. Their actual average volume was significantly higher (from 21.6 to 31.4 km/week), and the results showed that it could lead to significantly better body composition values. It may lead to significant changes in body mass, body fat, and visceral fat. It may meet the contemporary societal expectations for physical activities that are both achievable and effective at the lowest possible volume.


Assuntos
Corrida , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Corrida/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo , Exercício Físico , Composição Corporal
13.
J Sports Sci Med ; 22(4): 760-768, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38045737

RESUMO

Accurately prescribing supramaximal interval training facilitates targeting desired physiological adaptations. This study compared the homogeneity of adaptations in cardiorespiratory parameters to supramaximal [i.e., intensities beyond maximal aerobic speed (MAS)] interval interventions prescribed using anaerobic speed reserve (ASR), the speed attained at the end of 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT), and MAS. Using repeated-measures factorial design, and during the off-season phase of the athletes' yearly training cycle, thirty national-level soccer players (age = 19 ± 1.6 years; body mass = 78.9 ± 1.6 kg; height = 179 ± 4.7 cm; Body fat = 11 ± 0.9%) were randomized to interventions consisting of 2 sets of 6, 7, 8, 7, 8, and 9-min intervals (from 1st to 6th week), including 15 s running at Δ%20ASR (MAS + 0.2 × ASR), 120%MAS, or 95%VIFT followed by 15 s passive recovery. All ASR, VIFT, and MAS programs sufficiently stimulated adaptive mechanisms, improving relative maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max (p < 0.05; ES = 1.6, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively)], absolute V̇O2max (p < 0.05; ES = 1.5, 1.1, and 0.7), ventilation [V̇E (p < 0.05; ES = 1.6, 1.1, and 1.1)], O2 pulse [V̇O2/HR (p < 0.05; ES = 1.4, 1.1, and 0.6)], first and second ventilatory threshold [VT1 (p < 0.05; ES = 0.7, 0.8, and 0.7) and VT2 (p < 0.05; ES = 1.1, 1.1, and 0.8)], cardiac output [Q̇max (p = 1.5, 1.0, and 0.7)], and stroke volume [SVmax (p < 0.05; ES = 0.9, 0.7, and 0.5)]. Although there was no between-group difference for the change in the abovementioned variables over time, supramaximal interval training prescribed using ASR and VIFT resulted in a lower coefficient of variation [CV (inter-individual variability)] in physiological adaptations compared to exercise intensity determined as a proportion of MAS. Expressing the intensity of supramaximal interval programs according to the athlete's ASR and VIFT would assist in accurately prescribing interventions and facilitate imposing mechanical and related physiological stimulus according to the athletes' physiological ceiling. Such an approach leads to identical stimulation across athletes with differing profiles and potentially facilitates more homogenized adaptations.


Assuntos
Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Futebol/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Atletas
14.
J Sports Sci Med ; 22(4): 605-613, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38045752

RESUMO

The present study compared the effects of incorporating traditional sprint interval training (SIT) or basketball-specific SIT (SSIT) into typical off-season training of male basketball players. Adaptations to and effect size (EF) of interventions on aerobic fitness [evaluated using Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1)], change of direction [T-test (TT) and Illinois agility test (IAT)], vertical jump (VJ), standing long jump (SLJ), linear speed, maximal strength [one repetition maximum test in leg press (1RMLP)], and hormonal status were examined. Male athletes (age = 25.7 ± 2.0 years; height = 188.1 ± 7.9 cm; body mass = 85.9 ± 8.0 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of SIT (n = 10): three sets of 10 × 15 sec all-out intervals with 1:1 recovery between bouts and a 3-min recovery between sets; SSIT (n = 10): the same intervals as SIT + basketball-specific ball drills while running; and CON (n = 10): two sessions per week of regular basketball technical and tactical drills. SIT and SSIT resulted in significant changes compared with baseline in maximal oxygen uptake (4.9%, ES = 2.22 vs. 6%, ES = 2.57), TT (-1.8%, ES =-0.46 vs. -2.7%, ES = -1.14), IAT (-4.5%, ES = -2.01 vs. -5.4%, ES = -1.93), VJ (7.5%, ES = 0.58 vs. 12%, ES = 0.95), linear sprint time (-2.9%, ES = -0.32 vs. -4.3%, ES = -0.69), Yo-Yo IR1 (18.5%, ES = 2.19 vs. 23.7%, ES = 2.56), serum testosterone (28%, ES = 1.52 vs. 29.7%, ES = 1.59), and cortisol (-6.53%, ES = -0.37 vs. -12.06%, ES = -0.64). Incorporating SIT and SSIT into typical off-season basketball training triggers adaptive mechanisms that enhance aerobic and anaerobic performance in male basketball players. The effect size values indicate more significant effects of SSIT than SIT in most physiological and sport-specific adaptations. Such a superior effect could be attributed to the more basketball-specific movement pattern of the SSIT. Such interventions can be used by the coaches and athletes for designing the training load and for better training adaptations throughout the training seasons and competition periods.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Corrida , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Atletas , Corrida/fisiologia
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(24)2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38139541

RESUMO

Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a common postural deviation of musculoskeletal origin, which causes compensatory reactions and often leads to injury. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of artificially induced LLD on gait symmetry by means of the spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction forces (GRFs) using a treadmill equipped with capacitive sensors (instrumented) as well as the EMG activity of trunk and hip muscles during walking and running. Twenty-six healthy male and female college students were required to perform two sets of four 2.5-min walking and running trials on an instrumented treadmill at 5.6 and 8.1 km·h-1, respectively, without (0) and with 1, 2, and 3 cm LLD implemented by wearing a special rubber shoe. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way repeated measures or a mixed-design ANOVA. Most spatiotemporal gait parameters and GRFs demonstrated an increase or decrease as LLD increased either on the short-limb or the long-limb side, with changes becoming more apparent at ≥1 cm LLD during walking and ≥2 cm LLD during running. The EMG activity of trunk and hip muscles was not affected by LLD. Our findings showed that gait symmetry in terms of treadmill-based spatiotemporal parameters of gait and GRFs is affected by LLD, the magnitude of which depends on the speed of locomotion.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro) , Corrida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Desigualdade de Membros Inferiores/etiologia , Estudantes
16.
Nutrients ; 15(22)2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38004233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle-distance running events have special physiological requirements from a training and competition point of view. Therefore, many athletes choose to take sport supplements (SS) for different reasons. To date, few studies have been carried out that review supplementation patterns in middle-distance running. The aim of the present study is to analyze the consumption of SS in these runners with respect to their level of competition, sex and level of scientific evidence. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, data was collected from 106 middle-distance runners using a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 85.85% responded that they consumed SS; no statistical difference was found regarding the level of competition or sex of the athletes. With respect to the level of competition, differences were observed in the total consumption of SS (p = 0.012), as well as in that of medical supplements (p = 0.005). Differences were observed between sexes in the consumption of medical supplements (p = 0.002) and group C supplements (p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Higher-level athletes consume SS that have greater scientific evidence. On the other hand, although the most commonly consumed SS have evidence for the performance or health of middle-distance runners, runners should improve both their sources of information and their places of purchase.


Assuntos
Corrida , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Corrida/fisiologia , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PeerJ ; 11: e16433, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38034865

RESUMO

Background: Elite track and field sprint performances have reached a point of stability as we near the limits of human physiology, and further significant improvements may require technological intervention. Following the widely reported performance benefits of new advanced footwear technology (AFT) in road-running events, similar innovations have since been applied to sprint spikes in hope of providing similar performance enhancing benefits. However, it is not yet clear based on current evidence whether there have been subsequent improvements in sprint performance. Therefore, the aims of this study were to establish if there have been recent year-to-year improvements in the times of the annual top 100 and top 20 athletes in the men's and women's sprint events, and to establish if there is an association between the extensive use of AFT and potential recent improvements in sprint performances. Methods: For the years 2016-19 and 2021-2022, the season best performances of the top 100 athletes in each sprint event were extracted from the World Athletics Top lists. Independent t-tests with Holm corrections were performed using the season's best performance of the top 100 and top 20 athletes in each year to identify significant differences between years for each sprint discipline. Following the classification of shoes worn by the top 20 athletes in each event during their annual best race (AFT or non-AFT), separate linear mixed-model regressions were performed to determine the influence of AFT on performance times. Results: For the top 100 and top 20 athletes, there were no significant differences year-to-year in any sprint event prior to the release of AFT (2016-2019). There were significant differences between AFT years (2021 or 2022) and pre-AFT years (2016-2019) in eight out of 10 events. These differences ranged from a 0.40% improvement (men's 100 m) to a 1.52% improvement (women's 400 m hurdles). In the second analysis, multiple linear mixed model regressions revealed that the use of AFT was associated with improved performance in six out of ten events, including the men's and women's 100 m, women's 200 m, men's 110 m hurdles, women's 100 m hurdles and women's 400 m hurdles (estimate range: -0.037 - 0.521, p = <0.001 - 0.021). Across both analyses, improvements were more pronounced in women's sprint events than men's sprint events. Conclusion: Following a period of stability, there were significant improvements in most sprint events which may be partly explained by advances in footwear technology. These improvements appear to be mediated by event, sex and potentially level of athlete.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Atletismo , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Atletas , Homens
18.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0293631, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37967046

RESUMO

Exercise is effective toward delaying or preventing chronic disease, with a large body of evidence supporting its effectiveness. However, less is known about the specific healthspan-promoting effects of exercise on blood biomarkers in the disease-free population. In this work, we examine 23,237 generally healthy individuals who self-report varying weekly running volumes and compare them to 4,428 generally healthy sedentary individuals, as well as 82 professional endurance runners. We estimate the significance of differences among blood biomarkers for groups of increasing running levels using analysis of variance (ANOVA), adjusting for age, gender, and BMI. We attempt and add insight to our observational dataset analysis via two-sample Mendelian randomization (2S-MR) using large independent datasets. We find that self-reported running volume associates with biomarker signatures of improved wellness, with some serum markers apparently being principally modified by BMI, whereas others show a dose-effect with respect to running volume. We further detect hints of sexually dimorphic serum responses in oxygen transport and hormonal traits, and we also observe a tendency toward pronounced modifications in magnesium status in professional endurance athletes. Thus, our results further characterize blood biomarkers of exercise and metabolic health, particularly regarding dose-effect relationships, and better inform personalized advice for training and performance.


Assuntos
Corrida , Humanos , Corrida/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atletas , Biomarcadores , Resistência Física
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37998313

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered an effective method to improve fitness and health indicators, but its high-intensity exercises and the mechanical and metabolic stress generated during the session can lead to the occurrence of exercise-induced muscle damage. Therefore, this study aimed to describe, by means of a systematic review, the effects of a single HIIT session on exercise-induced muscle damage. A total of 43 studies were found in the Medline/PubMed Science Direct/Embase/Scielo/CINAHL/LILACS databases; however, after applying the exclusion criteria, only 15 articles were considered eligible for this review. The total sample was 315 participants. Among them, 77.2% were men, 13.3% were women and 9.5 uninformed. Their age ranged from 20.1 ± 2 to 47.8 ± 7.5 years. HIIT protocols included running with ergometers (n = 6), CrossFit-specific exercises (n = 2), running without ergometers (n = 3), swimming (n = 1), the Wingate test on stationary bicycles (n = 2), and cycling (n = 1). The most applied intensity controls were %vVO2max, "all out", MV, MAV, Vmax, and HRreserve%. The most used markers to evaluate muscle damage were creatine kinase, myoglobin, and lactate dehydrogenase. The time for muscle damage assessment ranged from immediately post exercise to seven days. HIIT protocols were able to promote changes in markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, evidenced by increases in CK, Mb, LDH, AST, ALT, pain, and muscle circumference observed mainly immediately and 24 h after the HIIT session.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Corrida , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Músculos
20.
J Strength Cond Res ; 37(12): 2504-2515, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38015738

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Doma, K, Matoso, B, Protzen, G, Singh, U, and Boullosa, D. The repeated bout effect of multiarticular exercises on muscle damage markers and physical performances: a systematic review and meta-analyses. J Strength Cond Res 37(12): 2504-2515, 2023-This systematic review and meta-analysis compared muscle damage markers and physical performance measures between 2 bouts of multiarticular exercises and determined whether intensity and volume of muscle-damaging exercises affected the outcomes. The eligibility criteria consisted of (a) healthy male and female adults; (b) multiarticular exercises to cause muscle damage across 2 bouts; (c) outcome measures were compared at 24-48 hours after the first and second bouts of muscle-damaging exercise; (d) at least one of the following outcome measures: creatine kinase (CK), delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle strength, and running economy. Study appraisal was conducted using the Kmet tool, whereas forest plots were derived to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and statistical significance and alpha set a 0.05. After screening, 20 studies were included. The levels of DOMS and CK were significantly greater during the first bout when compared with the second bout at T24 and T48 (p < 0.001; SMD = 0.51-1.23). Muscular strength and vertical jump performance were significantly lower during the first bout compared with the second bout at T24 and T48 (p ≤ 0.05; SMD = -0.27 to -0.40), whereas oxygen consumption and rating of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the first bout at T24 and T48 (p < 0.05; SMD = 0.28-0.65) during running economy protocols. The meta-analyses were unaffected by changes in intensity and volume of muscle-damaging exercises between bouts. Multiarticular exercises exhibited a repeated bout effect, suggesting that a single bout of commonly performed exercises involving eccentric contractions may provide protection against exercise-induced muscle damage for subsequent bouts.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Corrida , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Creatina Quinase , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Contração Muscular
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