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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20200265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507975

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of low-intensity eccentric exercise training performed before high-intensity eccentric exercise on muscle damage markers, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Twenty-two rats were divided into 3 groups; control (CON; n = 6), high-intensity eccentric exercise (HE; n = 8) and low-intensity eccentric exercise training plus high-intensity eccentric exercise (LET + HE; n = 8). Rats in the HE group performed HE at once. Rats in the LET + HE group performed LET and then HE protocol was applied. Blood and vastus intermedius muscle samples were taken 24 hours after the last exercise session for analyses of muscle damage, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense markers. Muscle damage markers were higher in the HE group than the CON (137%-488%) and the LET + HE groups (82%-110%) (P < 0.05). Oxidative stress marker was higher in the HE group than the CON (65%) and the LET + HE (50%) groups (P < 0.05). Antioxidant defense markers were higher in the LTE + HE group than the HE group (39%-51%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, low-intensity eccentric exercise training performed before high-intensity eccentric exercise conferred a protective effect against muscle damage by reducing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant defense.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Animal , Corrida , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Ratos , Corrida/fisiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify the effect of music tempo on runners' perception of fatigue at different exercise intensities and while listening to music of different tempos through running experiments. METHODS: This study used a within-subject two-factor experimental design with music tempo (fast music, slow music, no music) and exercise intensity (high intensity, low intensity) as independent variables and the time to fatigue perception (TFP), the difference in heart rate (HR) and the difference in the median frequency (MF) of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as observation indexes. Eighteen participants completed a total of 108 sets of running experiments. RESULTS: (1) The main effect of music tempo on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001). (2) The main effect of exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001), and the main effect on the difference in HR was significant (p < 0.001). (3) The interaction effect of music tempo and exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Exercisers' subjective perception of fatigue was affected by music tempo and the interaction between music tempo and exercise intensity, and exercisers' objective fatigue perception was influenced mostly by exercise intensity. The findings of this study provide guidance for runners' choice of music at different intensities of exercise. Whether it is low-intensity exercise or high-intensity exercise, listening to fast music while exercising can help runners perform better mentally and physically during their runs.


Assuntos
Música , Corrida , Percepção Auditiva , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fadiga , Humanos , Corrida/fisiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410001

RESUMO

(1) Background: The objective of this study was to determine physical and biomechanical changes in age groups upon running. (2) Method: 75 male adults (20-80s) participated in the study. Bone mineral density and lower extremity joint strength were measured according to age-increase targeting. Based on age, correlations among running characteristics, impulse, impact force, maximum vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, lower extremity joint 3D range of motion, joint moment, and power upon running motion were calculated. (3) Result: Older runners tended to show lower bone mineral density, extremity maximum strength, stride time, and stride distance, with smaller RoM and joint power of ankle and knee joints in the sagittal plane, compared with younger subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between age and impact variables (i.e., impulse, impact force, peak GRF, and loading rate) during running. (4) Conclusion: Older runners tend to show weaker physical strength characteristics, such as bone mineral density and muscle strength and lower joint functionality of ankle and knee joints during running, compared with younger runners. Therefore, strengthening the lower extremity muscle and improving dynamic joint function, especially for ankle joints, can be helpful for injury prevention during running.


Assuntos
Corrida , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408199

RESUMO

This study quantified the strength of the relationship between the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) and two acceleration-based intensity metrics (AIMs) at three sensor-positions during three sport types (running, basketball, and badminton) under three intensity conditions (locomotion speeds). Fourteen participants (age: 24.9 ± 2.4 years) wore a chest strap HR monitor and placed three accelerometers at the left wrist (non-dominant), trunk, and right shank, respectively. The %HRR and two different AIMs (Player Load per minute [PL/min] and mean amplitude deviation [MAD]) during exercise were calculated. During running, both AIMs at the shank and PL at the wrist had strong correlations (r = 0.777-0.778) with %HRR; while other combinations were negligible to moderate (r = 0.065-0.451). For basketball, both AIMs at the shank had stronger correlations (r = 0.604-0.628) with %HRR than at wrist (r = 0.536-0.603) and trunk (r = 0.403-0.463) with %HRR. During badminton exercise, both AIMs at shank had stronger correlations (r = 0.782-0.793) with %HRR than those at wrist (r = 0.587-0.621) and MAD at trunk (r = 0.608) and trunk (r = 0.314). Wearing the sensor on the shank is an ideal position for both AIMs to monitor external intensity in running, basketball, and badminton, while the wrist and using PL-derived AIM seems to be the second ideal combination.


Assuntos
Esportes com Raquete , Corrida , Aceleração , Adulto , Benchmarking , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Esportes com Raquete/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458863

RESUMO

Intensity research in female soccer is limited. This study aimed to investigate whether female professional soccer players train with external and internal intensities similar to those recorded in real competition. The specific players' position, the game situation and training task type were analyzed in a total of 18 female players (26.25 ± 3.89 years). The empirical, descriptive and associative study was structured into two parts. Part 1: characterizing the training sessions (n = 13) and official matches (n = 3) using the Integral Analysis System of Training Tasks. The association between sports planning variables was evaluated using adjusted standardized residuals from contingency tables, Chi-Square and Fisher tests, as well as the Phi and Cramer's V coefficients. The main findings show that the coach and/or physical trainer predominantly planned training sessions using small-sided games, which integrate physical fitness and tactical-technical behaviors of the game and imply a medium-high subjective external intensity (20.63 ± 5.79 points). The subjective external intensity of the matches was very high (30.00 ± 0.00 points). Part 2: quantifying the external and internal intensity through the inertial motion devices and heart rate monitors. Differences in the intensities according to the type of session (training session and match), specific position of the players, game situation and type of the training task were assessed through different statistical tests. By specific position (Kruskal-Wallis H and one-factor ANOVA tests), defenders performed fewer accelerations/min and decelerations/min, while they recorded higher heart rates in training sessions and official matches. In contrast, the wingbacks performed higher accelerations/min and decelerations/min in training sessions and official matches. The wingers had the lowest heart rate in official matches. Regarding the game situation (Kruskal-Wallis H test) measured during training sessions, the unopposed tasks recorded higher accelerations/min and decelerations/min, while the small-sided games and full games recorded higher values in the rest of the intensities (both subjective and objective). With regard to the type of training task (Kruskal-Wallis H test), the simple application exercises recorded higher accelerations/min and decelerations/min. Distance in meters/min was greater in the complex application exercises. High-intensity activity/min and player load/min were higher in the simple specific game. In addition, modified sport and real game recorded higher subjective external intensity*min, sprints/min and heart rate. Furthermore, training sessions differed statistically (Mann-Whitney U test) from official matches in terms of subjective intensity and the objective external and internal intensity variables weighted by minutes. For all these reasons, female players do not train (training sessions) as they compete (official matches). The use of inertial motion devices has made it possible to quantify intensities during training sessions and real competition in soccer.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Aceleração , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6434, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440750

RESUMO

The effect of physical activity on serum cartilage biomarkers is largely unknown. The purpose of the study was to systematically analyze the acute effect of two frequently used exercise interventions (running and jumping) on the correlation of seven serum biomarkers that reflect cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (26 ± 4 years, 181 ± 4 cm, 77 ± 6 kg) participated in the repeated measurement study. In session 1, the participants accomplished 15 × 15 series of reactive jumps within 30 min. In session 2, they ran on a treadmill (2.2 m/s) for 30 min. Before and after both exercise protocols, four blood samples were drawn separated by 30 min intervals. Serum concentrations of seven biomarkers were determined: COMP, MMP-3, MMP-9, YKL-40, resistin, Coll2-1 and Coll2-1 NO2. All biomarkers demonstrated an acute response to mechanical loading. Both the COMP and MMP-3 responses were significantly (p = 0.040 and p = 0.007) different between running and jumping (COMP: jumping + 31%, running + 37%; MMP-3: jumping + 14%, running + 78%). Resistin increased only significantly (p < 0.001) after running, and Coll2-1 NO2 increased significantly (p = 0.001) only after jumping. Significant correlations between the biomarkers were detected. The relationships between individual serum biomarker concentrations may reflect the complex interactions between degrading enzymes and their substrates in ECM homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Corrida , Biomarcadores , Cartilagem , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Resistina , Corrida/fisiologia
7.
J Therm Biol ; 105: 103225, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393059

RESUMO

Skin temperature assessment has received much attention as a possible measurement of physiological response against stress produced by exercise and research studies usually measure skin temperature 24 or 48 h after exercise. Scientific evidence about skin temperature evolution during the 24-h period immediately after exercising is, however, scarce. The aim was to assess the effect of a 10 km run at moderate intensity on baseline skin temperature and thermal response after a cold stress test during that 24 h period. Fourteen participants were measured before, immediately after, and at 2, 5, 9 and 24 h after a 10 km run at a perceived exertion rate of 11 points (max 20 points). Fourteen control participants who undertook no exercise were also measured during that day. The measurements included muscle pain and fatigue perception, reactive oxygen species, heart rate variability, skin temperature of the lower limbs, and skin temperature after cold stress test. Exercise resulted in a skin temperature increase (e.g., 0.5-1.3 °C of posterior leg 9 h after exercise) and this effect continued in some regions (0.4-0.9 °C of posterior leg) over that 24 h period. However, the thermal response to the cold stress test remained the same (p > 0.05). In conclusion, 10 km aerobic running exercise results in a skin temperature increase, peaking at between 5 and 9 h after exercise, but does not alter the thermal response to a cold stress test. This study provides a sound basis for post-exercise skin temperature response that can be used as a setting-off point for comparisons with future studies that analyze greater muscle damage.


Assuntos
Corrida , Temperatura Cutânea , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Corrida/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0249969, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358204

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to establish the optimal recovery duration following a pre-load stimulus on performance measures related to handball players. Seventeen senior male University handball players (mean ± SD: age 23.6 ± 2.3 yrs., height 1.79 ± 0.06 m and body mass 72.5 ± 10.7 kg) performed three experimental sessions. All sessions consisted of a standardised warm-up followed by a pre-load stimulus (HSR) back squats followed by a passive rest for either 4-min (PAP4), 8-min (PAP8), or 12-min (PAP12). Following the completion of the passive recovery, players then performed a countermovement jump (CMJ), a 20-m linear sprint and a modified agility t-test. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. There was a significant main effect of passive rest duration after the pre-load stimulus. The PAP12 condition improved CMJ scores (2.3-2.6%; effect size = small), 20-m linear sprint times (3.3-3.7%; effect size = small to moderate) and agility times (1.6-1.9%; effect size = trivial) compared to PAP4 and PAP8 conditions (P < 0.0005). Values of heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were also significantly lower during the PAP12 condition compared to the PAP4 and PAP8 conditions (P < 0.0005). A positive Pearson correlation was established between agility and CMJ for all conditions (P < 0.001). The findings provide novel data observing that a pre-load stimulus, followed by 12-min of recovery, results in greater maximal jump, sprint and agility measures when compared with a 4-min or 8-min recovery in male handball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329236

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the physiological parameters indicative of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained during the 30-15 intermittent fitness (30-15IFT) test and the multistage laboratory treadmill endurance (TR) test differ. Nineteen elite handball players were recruited for the current study and assigned in a cross-over manner to one of two tests to be performed 48 h apart at each visit to the testing facility. The results showed that VO2max (percentage difference [PC] = 6.1%; p = 0.004) and maximal running velocity (V) (PC = 19.4%; p < 0.001) were significantly higher for the 30-15IFT test than that obtained during the TR test. Furthermore, the onset of blood lactate accumulation was shown to be significantly higher for all measures considered to predict it during 30-15IFT compared to TR as follows: VO2max (PC = 12.6%; p = 0.001), running speed (PC = 33.9%; p < 0.001), and maximal heart rate (PC = 7.5%; p < 0.001). The current study highlights the importance of sport-specific testing, particularly for measuring individual cardiorespiratory fitness in elite handball players, as TR may underestimate crucial variables used for both diagnostics and training prescription.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Corrida , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
10.
Neurochem Int ; 155: 105309, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276288

RESUMO

Physical exercise plays a role on the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the exercise mode and the mechanism for these positive effects is still ambiguous. Here, we investigated the effect of an aerobic interval exercise, running in combination with swimming, on behavioral dysfunction and associated adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of AD. We demonstrate that 4 weeks of the exercise could ameliorate Aß42 oligomer-induced cognitive impairment in mice utilizing Morris water maze tests. Additionally, the exercised Aß42 oligomer-induced mice exhibited a significant reduction of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors compared to the sedentary Aß42 oligomer-induced mice utilizing an Elevated zero maze and a Tail suspension test. Moreover, by utilizing 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as an exogenous cell tracer, we found that the exercised Aß42 oligomer-induced mice displayed a significant increase in newborn cells (BrdU+ cells), which differentiated into a majority of neurons (BrdU+ DCX+ cells or BrdU+NeuN+ cells) and a few of astrocytes (BrdU+GFAP+ cells). Likewise, the exercised Aß42 oligomer-induced mice also displayed the higher levels of NeuN, PSD95, synaptophysin, Bcl-2 and lower level of GFAP protein. Furthermore, alteration of serum metabolites in transgenic AD mice between the exercised and sedentary group were significantly associated with lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and neurotransmitters. These findings suggest that combined aerobic interval exercise-mediated metabolites and proteins contributed to improving adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance after AD pathology, which might provide a promising therapeutic strategy for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Corrida , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Natação
11.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 122(5): 1281-1291, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare cardio-metabolic, perceptual and neuromuscular responses to an aerobic interval training (AIT) running session, with active (AR) vs. passive recovery (PR). METHODS: Eleven well-trained male distance runners (36.63 ± 6.93 years, 59.26 ± 5.27 mL·kg-1·min-1, ⁓ 35 min in 10 km) completed the University of Montréal Track Test (UMTT) and 2 AIT sessions on track in random order, which consisted of 4 × 2 min at 100% of the maximum aerobic speed (MAS), with 2 min of AR at 80% of the velocity associated to the second ventilatory threshold (vVT2), or no exercise (i.e., PR). During sessions, oxygen consumption (V̇O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate [La], rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and countermovement jump (CMJ) were continuously monitored. RESULTS: There were no differences in time spent in the "red zone" (i.e. > 90% V̇O2max) between sessions (222 ± 73 s AR vs. 230 ± 104 s PR, p = 0.588), although the PR exhibited a greater time spent at peak V̇O2 close to significance (117 ± 114 vs. 158 ± 109 s, p = 0.056). However, the AR elicited a higher mean V̇O2 (49.62 ± 5.91 vs. 47.46 ± 4.20 mL·kg-1·min-1, p = 0.021). The AR favored a lower [La] after sessions (6.93 ± 2.22 vs. 6.24 ± 1.93 mmol·L-1, p = 0.016) and a higher RPE during sessions (15 ± 0.45 vs. 14 ± 0.47, p = 0.045). Meanwhile, the CMJ was significantly potentiated during both sessions. CONCLUSION: Considering that PR elicited lower perceptual loading for a similar cardiorespiratory response, its use would be preferable, at least, for this type of AIT running sessions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Oxigênio , Corrida , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(6)2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336519

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue on impact shock wave attenuation and assess how human biomechanics relate to shock attenuation during running. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for the analysis of shock events occurring during the proposed experimental procedure. Our approach is based on the Shock Response Spectrum (SRS), which is a frequency-based function that is used to indicate the magnitude of vibration due to a shock or a transient event. Five high level CrossFit athletes who ran at least three times per week and who were free from musculoskeletal injury volunteered to take part in this study. Two Micromachined Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers (RunScribe®, San Francisco, CA, USA) were used for this experiment. The two RunScribe pods were mounted on top of the foot in the shoelaces. All five athletes performed three maximum intensity runs: the 1st run was performed after a brief warmup with no prior exercise, then the 2nd and the 3rd run were performed in a fatigued state. Prior to the 2nd and the 3rd run, the athletes were asked to perform at maximum intensity for two minutes on an Assault AirBike to tire them. For all five athletes, there was a direct correlation between fatigue and an increase in the aggressiveness of the SRS. We noticed that for all five athletes for the 3rd run the average SRS peaks were significantly higher than for the 1st run and 2nd run (p < 0.01) at the same natural frequency of the athlete. This confirms our hypothesis that fatigue causes a decrease in the shock attenuation capacity of the musculoskeletal system thus potentially involving a higher risk of overuse injury.


Assuntos
Corrida , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fadiga , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Análise Espectral
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271137

RESUMO

Fatigue can be classified as peripheral or central depending on the extent of its effects. Muscle strength reduction, associated with the appearance of fatigue during running, produces kinetics and kinematics modifications which could lead to an increased risk of injury. This study aimed to analyze the effect of peripheral and central fatigue protocols in running kinematics and to investigate the relationship between isokinetic strength and dynamic stability in fatigue related changes. Eighteen male recreational runners participated in the study. The dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) and quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic strength were assessed before the fatigue test. Then, angular kinematics during treadmill running were evaluated in pre- and post-fatigue states (central and peripheral). The results showed that runners with higher hamstring isokinetic strength and better DPSI had lower modifications after central fatigue of stance time, knee flexion, vertical and leg stiffness, and ankle dorsiflexion during the absorption and propulsion phases (r > 0.400, p < 0.05). Moreover, small changes in ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact after peripheral fatigue are related to a better DPSI and higher hamstring isokinetic strength (r > 0.400, p < 0.05). In summary, high values of hamstring isokinetic concentric strength and dynamic stability are related to lower increases of range of movements during running after central and peripheral fatigue. So, fatigue may affect to a lesser extent the running technique of those runners with higher hamstring strength and stability values.


Assuntos
Fadiga , Músculos Isquiossurais , Força Muscular , Corrida , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Teste de Esforço , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
14.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276823

RESUMO

The period of Ramadan induces changes in the usual eating patterns of individuals. During this period, Muslims must abstain from drinking and eating from dawn to dusk. Therefore, some research conducted on professional soccer players has observed that during and/or after Ramadan, performance, running speed, agility, dribbling speed, and endurance and/or skill performance in athletic events may be negatively affected by Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF). The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of a dietary plan during RIF on performance and body composition in a professional soccer player. A 20-year-old elite player (86.0 kg, 188.5 cm) followed a dietary-nutritional plan with an isocaloric diet and was supplemented with glycerol. The athlete's strength and power in the lower limbs was assessed by performing a countermovement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov vertical jump (ABK) before and after Ramadan. After nutritional planning, the patient's body composition improved in terms of fat loss (6.61 to 5.70%) and muscle mass gain (50.26 to 51.50%). In addition, this translated into improvements in performance tests, both in the CMJ (36.72 to 40.00 cm) and ABK (39.16 to 49.34 cm). In conclusion, during a period of fasting, personalised nutritional planning and an appropriate supplementation and rest protocol can improve the body composition and performance of soccer players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Islamismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276867

RESUMO

Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) supplementation has been shown to have an antifatigue effect across different modes of exercise. However, its effect on repeated sprint performance is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-exercise HRW consumption on repeated sprint performance, lactate, and perceptual responses using a repeated sprint protocol. This randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study included 16 professional, male soccer players aged 18.8 ± 1.2 years. Athletes performed two indoor tests, particularly 15 × 30 m track sprints interspersed by 20 s of recovery, separated by a 1-week washout period. Sprint time was measured at 15 m and 30 m. Ratings of perceived exertion were assessed immediately after each sprint, and post-exercise blood lactate concentration was measured after the last sprint. There were significantly faster sprint times after HRW consumption compared with placebo at 15 m for the 14th and 15th sprints, representing improvements in time of 3.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Sprint time at 30 m also significantly improved by 1.9% in the HRW group in the last sprint. However, neither lactate concentrations nor ratings of perceived exertion were significantly different between HRW and placebo. Pre-exercise HRW supplementation is associated with an increased ability to reduce fatigue, especially during the later stages of repeated sprint exercise.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 17(4): 594-604, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate how the effects of increased low- versus high-intensity endurance training in an 8-week intervention influenced the subsequent development of performance and physiological indices in cross-country skiers. METHODS: Forty-four (32 men and 12 women) junior cross-country skiers were randomly assigned into a low-intensity training group (LITG, n = 20) or high-intensity training group (HITG, n = 24) for an 8-week intervention followed by 5 weeks of standardized training with similar intensity distribution, and thereafter 14 weeks of self-chosen training. Performance and physiological indices in running and in roller-ski skating were determined preintervention, after the intervention, and after the standardized training period. Roller-ski skating was also tested after the period of self-chosen training. RESULTS: No between-groups changes from preintervention to after the standardized training period were found in peak speed when incremental running and roller-ski skating (P = .83 and .51), although performance in both modes was improved in the LITG (2.4% [4.6%] and 3.3% [3.3%], P < .05) and in roller-ski skating for HITG (2.6% [3.1%], P < .01). While improvements in maximal oxygen consumption running and peak oxygen uptake roller-ski skating were greater in HITG than in LITG from preintervention to after the intervention, no between-groups differences were found from preintervention to after the standardized training period (P = .50 and .46), although peak oxygen uptake in roller-ski skating significantly improved in HITG (5.7% [7.0%], P < .01). No changes either within or between groups were found after the period of self-chosen training. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in adaptations elicited by a short-term intervention focusing on low- versus high-intensity endurance training had little or no effect on the subsequent development of performance or physiological indices following a period of standardized training in cross-country skiers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Esqui , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Esqui/fisiologia
17.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 17(4): 634-639, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between external and internal load during official women's rugby seven matches. METHODS: Six backs (age = 24.2 [3.2] y; height = 161.5 [7.3] cm; body mass = 59.5 [5.0] kg; playing experience = 5.3 [1.5] y) and 8 forwards (age = 22.4 [2.7] y; height = 167.0 [4.8] cm; body mass = 70.6 [5.6] kg; playing experience = 5.0 [1.5] y) belonging to the women's rugby seven Brazilian national team were monitored across 3 international tournaments during the 2019-20 season, with 2 players excluded from the analysis since they did not participate in any investigated match. Total distance (TD), distance during high-intensity running 18.1 to 20.0 km·h-1 and >20 km·h-1 (sprinting), number of accelerations >1.8 m·s-2 (ACC), and of decelerations <1.8 m·s-2 were used as match load volume measures, while their relative values (TD per minute, high-intensity running per minute, sprinting per minute, ACC per minute, and decelerations per minute) were used as external load match intensity measures. Internal load intensity and volume were assessed using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and its value multiplied by match duration (sRPE-ML), respectively. Spearman correlations and linear mixed models were used to assess the relationships between internal and external load measures. RESULTS: A very large relationship (ρ = .830, P < .001) was found between sRPE-ML and TD, with linear mixed models showing that TD statistically affected sRPE-ML (P < .001). Linear mixed models analysis showed that ACC per minute was also affecting the sRPE-ML (P = .017), while sprinting (P = .007) and ACC per minute (P = .005) were the only 2 measures statistically affecting sRPE. However, weak relationships (trivial to large) were found for these and all other measures. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight that TD is the main external load measure able to anticipate the internal load responses measured via sRPE-ML in elite women's rugby sevens.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Corrida , Aceleração , Adulto , Feminino , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 47(5): 547-554, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138972

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the association between gastrointestinal (GI) injury, complaints, and food intake in 60-km ultramarathon runners. Thirty-three ultramarathon runners provided pre- and post-race blood samples for assessment of GI injury by intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP), and inflammatory response by interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). GI complaints and nutritional intake were reported by a post-race questionnaire. GI complaints were reported by 73% of the runners, of which 20% reported 1 or 2 severe complaints. IL-6, IL8, TNF-α, and CRP increased significantly from pre- to post-race (P < 0.001 for all biomarkers), while I-FABP did not (1375 [IQR: 1264-2073] to 1726 [IQR: 985-3287] pg/mL; P = 0.330). The 'GI complaints score', as the integral of the number and severity of GI complaints, did not correlate with ΔI-FABP (rs: -0.050, P = 0.790) or energy intake (rs: 0.211, P = 0.260). However, there was a significant negative correlation between energy intake and ΔI-FABP (rs: -0.388, P = 0.031). In conclusion, GI complaints were neither associated with food intake nor GI injury as assessed by plasma I-FABP response. Energy intake, however, was inversely related to the I-FABP response to exercise. This finding suggests that substantial energy intakes during exercise may prevent exercise-induced GI injury as assessed by the I-FABP response. Novelty: No association between gastrointestinal complaints and gastrointestinal injury (I-FABP response) or food intake was present. There was an inverse correlation between energy intake and plasma I-FABP response, suggesting that higher energy intakes may prevent gastrointestinal injury as assessed by the I-FABP response.


Assuntos
Corrida , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 234(4): e13797, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35146919
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162329

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to examine the differences in the external and internal load in amateur match officials between the 1st and 2nd half and among different 15 min periods. Twenty-three field referees (FRs) and 46 assistant referees (ARs) from the Spanish División de Honor participated in this study. Match external and internal loads were monitored showing that FRs recorded a lower Powermean, Speedmean, Cadencemean and Stiffnessmean (p < 0.05; d = 0.52 to 0.57) during the 2nd half and they also recorded a lower HRmean, and HRpeak, and spent less time in zone 5 (p < 0.05; d = 0.50 to 0.62). The FRs' match load decreased during the match but they performed higher Powermean and covered more distance in the last 15 min of the match (p < 0.01; d = 0.87 to 4.28). The ARs external load did not show significant variations between halves, but ARs recorded a lower HRmean and spent less time in zone 5 (p < 0.01; d = 0.41 to 0.63), and the highest values of Powermean, Speedmean, Cadencemean and Vertical oscillationmean during the first 15 min of the match (p < 0.05; d = 0.45 to 0.75). The highest values of HRmean and distance covered were in the 0-15 min period. Results suggest that match load decreases as the match progresses because of the neuromuscular fatigue but increases in the last 15 min.


Assuntos
Corrida , Futebol , Atletas , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia
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