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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27041, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449488

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To quantify the impact of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) on the surgical volume of residents' medical practice in Costa Rica's General Surgery Residency Program.The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant disruption in people's lives. Health systems worldwide have been forced to adapt to the new normal, which has posed a challenge for medical residency programs, especially in the surgical field.This transversal study includes the surgical records of all residents of the General Surgery program who worked as main surgeons at the Mexico Hospital of the Costa Rican Social Security between December 23, 2019, and June 25, 2020.As main surgeons, a total of 10 residents performed 291 pre-pandemic surgeries and 241 pandemic surgeries.When comparing the distribution of procedures performed by residency levels, it is observed that the postgraduate year -2 increased the number of procedures performed during the pandemic period (pre-pandemic 19% vs pandemic 27%, P = .028). There was no statistically significant difference between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods in the remaining levels.When comparing the procedures by unit, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the Endocrine-Abdominal Wall Unit (pre-pandemic 18.3% vs pandemic 5.4%, P < .001). Conversely, a statistically significant increase was identified in Surgical Emergencies Unit procedures (40.0% vs post 51.7%, P = .007). No statistically significant differences were observed in the remaining the Units.The COVID-19 pandemic had no statistically significant effect on surgeries performed by residents of the General Surgery Residency Program as main surgeons in a national training center in Costa Rica. The Department's timely measures and pro-resident attitude were the key reasons for the above results.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Costa Rica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54742

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Costa Rica es un país de especial interés en la Región de las Américas y en la salud mundial debido a su buena salud. El Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo clasifica a los países según su nivel de desarrollo humano con base en la esperanza de vida, la educación y el ingreso nacional. Aunque Costa Rica está clasificada en el puesto 63 y dentro del grupo “alto”, en términos de salud pertenece al grupo “muy alto”. En el 2018, la esperanza de vida media de los países del grupo “muy alto” era de 79,5 años, mientras que en Costa Rica era de 80. En el 2018, la mortalidad en menores de 5 años era de 8,8/1000 nacidos vivos, inferior a la de los países clasificados en el grupo de desarrollo humano “muy alto”. Los años de escolaridad previstos en Costa Rica ascienden a 15,4; más cercanos al promedio de 16,4 años del grupo de desarrollo humano “muy alto” que el promedio del grupo “alto”. El país es mucho más saludable de lo que podría predecirse por su ingreso nacional; más bien, es probable que otras características del desarrollo de la sociedad hayan desempeñado un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de la buena salud. Entre ellas figuran: a) la decisión de dejar de invertir en la defensa nacional, que liberó dinero para invertir en la salud, la edu-cación y el bienestar de la población; b) la decisión de crear un sistema de salud universal financiado por el Estado, los empleadores y los trabajadores en el decenio de 1940; y c) el sistema educativo, que generó oportunidades para sacar de la pobreza a importantes sectores de la población, permitiéndoles disponer de condiciones sanitarias básicas que aumentan sus posibilidades de vivir más y mejor. A pesar de estos avan-ces, persisten desigualdades en términos de ingresos y condiciones sociales, lo que plantea desafíos en el ámbito de la salud, en particular para los grupos de menores ingresos y los afrodescendientes e indígenas. Estas desigualdades deben abordarse mediante decisiones basadas en pruebas científicas, un mayor uso de datos desglosados que revelen los progresos realizados para hacer frente a esas desigualdades, y una mayor articulación del sector de la salud con las políticas que actúan sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud.


[ABSTRACT]. Costa Rica has long been a country of special interest in the Americas and in global health because of its good health. The United Nations Development Programme ranks countries according to their level of human development based on life expectancy, education and national income. Although Costa Rica is ranked at 63 and classified as ‘High’, in terms of health it belongs in the ‘Very High’ group. In 2018 mean life expectancy for the ‘Very High’ countries was 79.5, while in Costa Rica it was 80. In 2018, under five mortality was 8.8/1000 live births, lower than countries ranked in the ‘Very High’ human development group. Expected years of schooling in Costa Rica is 15.4, closer to the average, 16.4 years, of the ‘Very High’ human development group than the average of the ‘High’ group. The country is much healthier than would be predicted by its national income; rather, other features of society’s development are likely to have played a key role in the development of good health. These include (i) the decision to cease investment in national defence, which freed up money to invest in health, education and the welfare of the population; (ii) the decision to create a universal health system financed by the State, employers and workers in the 1940s; and (iii) the educational system, that generated opportunities to lift important sectors of the population out of poverty, allowing them to have basic sanitary conditions that increase their possibilities to live longer and in better conditions. Despite these advances, inequalities in terms of income and social conditions persist, presenting challenges in the field of health, par-ticularly for lower-income populations and those of African and indigenous descent. These inequalities must be addressed using decisions based on scientific evidence, a greater use of disaggregated data to reveal progress in addressing these inequalities, and with a broader articulation of the health sector with policies that act on the social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Humano , Expectativa de Vida , Costa Rica , Equidade em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Humano , Expectativa de Vida
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 441, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406521

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Little is known regarding the epidemiology of this infection in tropical countries. To address this problem in Costa Rica, a seroepidemiological study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, a pilot study was conducted in nine farms with the clinical diagnosis of PRRSV. In total, 265 pig serum samples were collected from animals ranging in age from 1 to 15 weeks of age. This study aimed to establish the duration of maternal immunity in piglets, to identify the period of viremia, and to determine when seroconversion occurs. In the second phase, a cross-sectional serology study was performed on a representative sample of the Costa Rican national herds in the second phase. The twenty-five selected farms represent all provinces and were classified according to herd size (100 to 2000 sows). In each farm, pigs aged 8, 10, and 12 weeks were sampled, as well as gilts based on the pilot study. In total 1281 pigs were sampled across all 25 farms. The aim of the cross-sectional study was to quantify the seroprevalence of PRRSV in Costa Rican pig farms and to describe its geographical distribution in this tropical country. The prevalence of positive farms was 44% (11/25), and these farms were located in six of the seven provinces of Costa Rica. Overall, 58% (344/596) of the pigs were seropositive to PRRSV. The age of the pigs and the ecozone where farms were located were significantly related with PRRSV seroprevalence in animals and herds, respectively.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Feminino , Projetos Piloto , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos
4.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(1): 61-74, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378885

RESUMO

The Artavia Murillo v. Costa Rica judgement wants to make the Convention say the opposite of what it clearly states: that one is a person from the moment of conception. Contrary to what the Inter-American Court maintains, conduct cannot be ethical if it is not based on criteria of justice, and the concept of justice is based on reality.In order to know how to treat something, it is first necessary to know what the thing – in reality – is. Then it is necessary to treat it as it is in reality: to treat each thing as it should be treated, according to its being.Human life cannot be treated like animal or vegetable life. Human life is superior. The capacity to will and to understand give it an exclusive nobility characterized by freedom. It must therefore be treated in accordance with its dignity.For treatment to be dignified, it must first prevent the destruction of its object (abortion). The principle of preservation applies. Once its reality, its being, has been preserved, its integrity must be respected. The violation of integrity is the removal of part of the being. Then we must respect its nature, which presupposes the idea of an end according to the operations that are proper to it. If we maintain that human life is an end in itself, it cannot be instrumentalized. This rule is universally accepted in the Western world from the ethical point of view, and it is the application of the golden rule of Kantian ethics: “treat the human being as an end in itself”; “treat others as I would like to be treated myself”.The concept of personhood is not fundamental to assigning special dignity to human life. It is its consequence. Personhood is an essential attribute of human life. It is the attribute that best corresponds to it. However, recent legal systems have not granted personal status to unborn life because they are old norms. They come from times when science was not able to prove its existence. Their evolution is hindered by scientific hesitations created by the dispute between different criteria. But this discussion does not make sense, it should not exist. If there is any doubt, whatever it may be, one must pronounce oneself in favour of life. This must be an essential principle of today’s bioethics – derived from the primum non nocere – and therefore, of the law based on it, and in particular that provided for in the Inter-American Convention.


Assuntos
Bioética , Pessoalidade , Costa Rica , Feminino , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-08-19. (OPS/CRI/21-0001).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54691

RESUMO

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde , Cobertura de Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Mental , Administração Financeira , América do Sul , Costa Rica
6.
Zootaxa ; 4966(1): 8490, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186631

RESUMO

Tanytarsus is a highly diverse genus of Chironomidae (Diptera), distributed worldwide. In the Neotropics, 84 species are known, but only five have been recorded from Central America to date. In the present article, two new species of the Tanytarsus ortoni species group are described and illustrated based on male specimens collected from Costa Rica, T. braini sp. nov. and T. costarica sp. nov.


Assuntos
Chironomidae/classificação , Animais , Costa Rica , Masculino
7.
Zootaxa ; 4975(2): 357368, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186561

RESUMO

Recent survey work on palms in Costa Rica has resulted in the discovery of several new species of Derbidae, especially in the Cenchreini. During a recent expedition, specimens collected by light trapping at the Hotel Villa Blanca (cloud forest) were determined to be a novel species of Omolicna Fennah. Sequence data was generated for the novel taxon for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S loci. Pairwise analyses and phylogenetic analyses support placement of the novel taxon in Omolicna.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/classificação , Animais , Costa Rica , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Floresta Úmida
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068066

RESUMO

Only a few studies primarily examined the associations between starchy vegetables (other than potatoes) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to evaluate the association between starchy vegetables consumption and MetS in a population-based sample of Costa Rican adults. We hypothesized that a higher overall intake of starchy vegetables would not be associated with higher MetS prevalence. In this cross-sectional study, log-binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) of MetS across quintiles of total, unhealthy, healthy starchy vegetables, and individual starchy vegetables (potatoes, purple sweet potatoes, etc.), among 1881 Costa Rican adults. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from linear regression models were estimated for each MetS component by categories of starchy vegetable variables. Higher intakes of starchy vegetables were associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in crude models, but no significant trends were observed after adjusting for confounders. A significant inverse association was observed between total starchy and healthy starchy vegetables consumption and fasting blood glucose. In this population, starchy vegetables might be part of a healthy dietary pattern.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Amido/efeitos adversos , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos adversos
9.
Am J Med Sci ; 362(2): 182-187, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Costa Rica is ranked as one of the countries with highest incidence of gastric cancer worldwide. Previous studies in Costa Rican populations have revealed associations between gastric cancer risk and several cytokine polymorphisms that seem to play a role in the regulation of the expression of these proteins. In this study, we assessed associations of the polymorphisms IL-6-174 G/C, IFNGR1-56 C/T, IL-8-251 T/A and TNF-A (-857 C/T, -308 A/G) with gastric pathologies in a high-risk population of Latin America. METHODS: DNA samples of 47 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, 53 with chronic gastritis, 56 with duodenal ulcer and 94 healthy controls, were genotyped for the five mentioned SNPs. All participants were ≥50-years-old. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and 5'-nuclease PCR assay. H. pylori infection, CagA status, pepsinogen (PG) I and II blood levels were determined by ELISA. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine possible associations of the polymorphisms with cancer, gastritis and duodenal ulcer, and linear regression analysis to determine associations with blood PG levels. RESULTS: A total of 86.6% of the population was positive for H. pylori; of them, 51.6% was CagA+. Patients with the TNF-A-857*T allele had an increased risk for gastritis (OR: 3.67, p = 0.015) and gastric adenocarcinoma (OR:6.15, p = 0.001). Associations between other polymorphisms and gastric diseases, or PG levels, were not found. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the TNF-A-857*T SNP is among the risk factors associated with the risk of gastric cancer in Costa Rica.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Idoso , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 147952, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058576

RESUMO

Forest cover improves surface water quality by minimizing soil erosion, reducing sediment in water and trapping or filtering water pollutants in forest litter. Because the amount of chemicals needed to produce potable water depends on the quality of intake water, upstream forest cover protection may help reduce the extent and cost of water treatment downstream. However, many other drivers exist for the cost of water treatment, so the magnitude and relevance of the influence of forest cover on water treatment cost is an empirical question. We analyze the impact of forest cover on the quality of raw water and the extent of water treatment required at the water treatment plants in Costa Rica, using monthly panel data in 2008-2014 from the drinking water treatment plants managed by the national public utility. We find that forest cover change during the study period statistically significantly affected the chemical use by water treatment plants. In economic terms, the estimated value of water purification service provided by forests is USD 9.5 per hectare per year. Depending on the discount rate, this results in a net present value of water purification service ranging between USD 315.4 and USD 113.9 per hectare. The results indicate that the economic value of the water purification service of forest is 1.7% of the value for recreational services; between 3.2% and 1.1% relative to the value of forest carbon sequestration typical in Costa Rica, depending on the discount rate; and around 13% of the payments for watershed protection program by the National Forest Financing Fund. The results also show that the marginal contribution of forest, on a per hectare basis, on water quality becomes larger as the size of catchment decreases.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Purificação da Água , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Costa Rica , Florestas , Qualidade da Água
11.
Malar J ; 20(1): 208, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, available metrics for malaria surveillance have been insufficient to measure the performance of passive case detection adequately. An indicator for malaria suspected cases with malaria test (MSCT) is proposed to measure the rate of testing on persons presenting to health facilities who satisfy the definition of a suspected malaria case. This metric does not rely on prior knowledge of fever prevalence, seasonality, or external denominators, and can be used to compare detection rates in suspected cases within and between countries, including across settings with different levels of transmission. METHODS: To compute the MSCT, an operational definition for suspected malaria cases was established, including clinical and epidemiological criteria. In general, suspected cases included: (1) persons with fever detected in areas with active malaria transmission; (2) persons with fever identified in areas with no active transmission and travel history to, or residence in areas with active transmission (either national or international); and (3) persons presenting with fever, chills and sweating from any area. Data was collected from 9 countries: Belize, Colombia (in areas with active transmission), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama (September-March 2020). A sample of eligible medical records for 2018 was selected from a sample of health facilities in each country. An algorithm was constructed to assess if a malaria test was ordered or performed for cases that met the suspected case definition. RESULTS: A sample of 5873 suspected malaria cases was obtained from 239 health facilities. Except for Nicaragua and Colombia, malaria tests were requested in less than 10% of all cases. More cases were tested in areas with active transmission than areas without cases. Travel history was not systematically recorded in any country. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically comparable, replicable, and standardized metric was proposed to measure suspected malaria cases with a test (microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) that enables assessing the performance of passive case detection. Cross-country findings have important implications for malaria and infectious disease surveillance, which should be promptly addressed as countries progress towards malaria elimination. Local and easy-to-implement tools could be implemented to assess and improve passive case detection.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Vigilância da População/métodos , Belize/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , El Salvador/epidemiologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Honduras/epidemiologia , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Panamá/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 840, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesoamerica is severely affected by an epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of non-traditional origin (CKDnt), an epidemic with a marked variation within countries. We sought to describe the spatial distribution of CKDnt in Mesoamerica and examine area-level crop and climate risk factors. METHODS: CKD mortality or hospital admissions data was available for five countries: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and linked to demographic, crop and climate data. Maps were developed using Bayesian spatial regression models. Regression models were used to analyze the association between area-level CKD burden and heat and cultivation of four crops: sugarcane, banana, rice and coffee. RESULTS: There are regions within each of the five countries with elevated CKD burden. Municipalities in hot areas and much sugarcane cultivation had higher CKD burden, both compared to equally hot municipalities with lower intensity of sugarcane cultivation and to less hot areas with equally intense sugarcane cultivation, but associations with other crops at different intensity and heat levels were not consistent across countries. CONCLUSION: Mapping routinely collected, already available data could be a first step to identify areas with high CKD burden. The finding of higher CKD burden in hot regions with intense sugarcane cultivation which was repeated in all five countries agree with individual-level studies identifying heavy physical labor in heat as a key CKDnt risk factor. In contrast, no associations between CKD burden and other crops were observed.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Teorema de Bayes , Costa Rica , El Salvador/epidemiologia , Guatemala , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
13.
Food Chem ; 361: 130082, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029910

RESUMO

Ingestion of high amounts of nitrite due processed meat consumption could produce negative effects in human health. Here, we investigate long-term residual sodium nitrite content in processed meat products in Costa Rica to provide the first estimations of nitrite daily intake. An extensively validated analytical procedure was applied for the long-term analysis of 1350 samples from 2014 to 2018. Mean residual sodium nitrite concentration was 76.5 mg kg-1, ranging from < 11 to 278.0 mg kg-1. Significant differences among product and meat types were found, but no temporal differences were observed. Nitrite daily intake was estimated in 0.0122 ± 0.0039 mg kg-1 bw-1 d-1, which accounts for 17.4% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). This information underlies the importance of studying residual nitrite kinetics in processed meat products as well as establishing long-term programs for the accurate estimation of nitrite daily intake rates.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , Costa Rica , Dieta , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Health Policy Plan ; 36(5): 740-753, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848340

RESUMO

Costa Rica is a bright spot of primary healthcare (PHC) performance, providing first-contact accessibility and continuous, comprehensive, coordinated, and patient-centered care to its citizens. Previous research hypothesized that strong data collection and use for quality improvement are central to Costa Rica's success. Using qualitative data from 40 interviews with stakeholders across the Costa Rican healthcare system, this paper maps the various data streams at the PHC level and delineates how these data are used to make decisions around insuring and improving the quality of PHC delivery. We describe four main types of PHC data: individual patient data, population health data, national healthcare delivery data, and local supplementary healthcare delivery data. In particular, we find that the Healthcare Delivery Performance Index-a ranking of the nation's 106 Health Areas using 15 quality indicators-is utilized by Health Area Directors to create quality improvement initiatives, ranging from education and coaching to optimization of care delivery and coordination. By ranking Health Areas, the Index harnesses providers' intrinsic motivation to stimulate improvement without financial incentives. We detail how a strong culture of valuing data as a tool for improving population health and robust training for personnel have enabled effective data collection and use. However, we also find that the country's complex data systems create unnecessary duplication and can inhibit efficient data use. Costa Rica's experience with data collection, analysis, and use for quality improvement hold important lessons for PHC in other public sector systems.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Costa Rica , Coleta de Dados , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
15.
Ecology ; 102(7): e03362, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834498

RESUMO

Tropical forest regeneration after abandonment of former agricultural land depends critically on the input of tree seeds, yet seed dispersal is increasingly disrupted in contemporary human-modified landscapes. Here, we introduce the concept of seed-rain-successional feedbacks as a deterministic process in which seed rain is shaped by successional dynamics internal to a forest site and that acts to reinforce priority effects. We used a combination of time series and chronosequence approaches to investigate how the quantity and taxonomic and functional composition of seed rain change during succession and to evaluate the strength of seed-rain-successional feedbacks, relative to other deterministic and stochastic mechanisms, in secondary wet forests of Costa Rica. We found that both successional niches and seed-rain-successional feedbacks shaped successional trajectories in the seed rain. Determinism due to successional niche assembly was supported by the increasing convergence of community structure to that of a mature forest, in terms of both functional and taxonomic composition. With successional age, the proportions of large-seeded, shade-tolerant species in the seed rain increased, whereas the proportion of animal-dispersed species did not change significantly. Seed-rain-successional feedbacks increased in strength with successional age, as the proportion of immigrant seeds (species not locally represented in the site) decreased with successional age, and the composition of the seed rain became more similar to that of the adult trees at the forest site. The deterministic assembly generated by seed-rain-successional feedback likely contributed to the increasing divergence of secondary forest sites from each other during succession. To the extent that human modification of tropical forest landscapes reduces connectivity via factors such as forest cover loss, our results suggest that seed-rain-successional feedbacks are likely to increasingly shape regeneration trajectories in and amplify floristic heterogeneity among tropical secondary forests.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , Animais , Costa Rica , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Sementes , Árvores
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104872, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905892

RESUMO

Genome sequencing is a key strategy in the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Latin America is the hardest-hit region of the world, accumulating almost 20% of COVID-19 cases worldwide. In Costa Rica, from the first detected case on March 6th to December 31st almost 170,000 cases have been reported. We analyzed the genomic variability during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Costa Rica using 185 sequences, 52 from the first months of the pandemic, and 133 from the current wave. Three GISAID clades (G, GH, and GR) and three PANGOLIN lineages (B.1, B.1.1, and B.1.291) were predominant, suggesting multiple re-introductions from other regions. The whole-genome variant calling analysis identified a total of 283 distinct nucleotide variants, following a power-law distribution with 190 single nucleotide mutations in a single sequence, and only 16 mutations were found in >5% sequences. These mutations were distributed through the whole genome. The prevalence of worldwide-found variant D614G in the Spike (98.9% in Costa Rica), ORF8 L84S (1.1%) is similar to what is found elsewhere. Interestingly, the frequency of mutation T1117I in the Spike has increased during the current pandemic wave beginning in May 2020 in Costa Rica, reaching 29.2% detection in the full genome analyses in November 2020. This variant has been observed in less than 1% of the GISAID reported sequences worldwide in 2020. Structural modeling of the Spike protein with the T1117I mutation suggests a potential effect on the viral oligomerization needed for cell infection, but no differences with other genomes on transmissibility, severity nor vaccine effectiveness are predicted. In conclusion, genome analyses of the SARS-CoV-2 sequences over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Costa Rica suggest the introduction of lineages from other countries and the detection of mutations in line with other studies, but pointing out the local increase in the detection of Spike-T1117I variant. The genomic features of this virus need to be monitored and studied in further analyses as part of the surveillance program during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Variação Genética , Genômica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Conformação Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
17.
Zootaxa ; 4958(1): zootaxa.4958.1.43, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903490

RESUMO

Only three species assigned to two genera of the flat bug subfamily Carventinae Usinger, 1950 are recorded to date from Costa Rica and one genus and species from Grenada. Following apterous carventine taxa are described and illustrated in the present paper: Joceliaptera graziae gen. et sp. nov.; Peggicoris cahuitanus sp. nov.; Peggicoris grenadensis sp. nov. Joceliaptera gen. nov. is compared with most similar Neotropical genera. A key to species of Peggicoris is presented.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Costa Rica , Granada , Hemípteros , Heterópteros/classificação
18.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 89-98, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830072

RESUMO

Amphibians are globally threatened by emerging infectious diseases, and ranaviruses are among the most concerning pathogens to threaten species in the wild. We sampled for ranaviruses in wild amphibians at 8 sites in Costa Rica, spanning broad climatic zones and taxonomic associations. Seven of these sites are inhabited by highly threatened amphibian species that persist at low global population sizes after population declines due to amphibian chytridiomycosis. One of the surveyed sites is occupied by an introduced amphibian species, which is relatively rare in Central America but may be an important pathway for long-distance transport of ranaviruses. We detected ranavirus using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 16.3% of the 243 individuals and among 5 of our 8 sites, but not at the site with the introduced species. Infection prevalence varied among species and sites, but not with mean annual temperature or mean annual precipitation. Infection intensity did not vary with species, site, temperature, or precipitation. Our results show that ranavirus infection is spatially widespread in Costa Rica, affecting a broad range of host species, and occurs across climatic zones-though we encountered no mortality or morbidity in our sampled species. Ranaviruses are known to cause intermittent mass mortality in amphibian populations, and the threatened species sampled here are likely vulnerable to population impacts from emerging ranaviruses. Therefore, we believe the potential impacts of ranaviruses on amphibian populations in tropical regions have likely been underestimated, and that they should be viewed as a potential major stressor to threatened amphibians in tropical regions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Ranavirus , Anfíbios , Animais , América Central , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113933, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873009

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of coronavirus awareness, psychological stress responses, and sociodemographic variables on mental health indicators (somatization, depression, and anxiety) in residents of Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. METHODS: The study used a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. Data was collected online using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18); the Coronavirus Awareness Scale-6 (CAS-6) and a questionnaire that included psychological and sociodemographic questions. The total sample size consisted of 1559 respondents from Honduras (34%), Chile (29%), Costa Rica (17%), Mexico (11%), and Spain (9%). RESULTS: The most common stress domains correspond to family (22.97%), financial (22.53%), academic (16.47%), leisure time constraints (14.23%), health (12.48%), peer group (7.63%), and religious concerns (3.69%). These domains are significantly associated with the respondent's country, sex, employment status, and being or not a health worker. Respondents who reported confinement stress also reported higher scores in anxiety, depression, and somatization. The Global Severity Index was significantly predicted by confinement stress, health, academic, and leisure time-related stress, sex, age, being a health worker, COVID-19 Personal Concern, and Perceived Seriousness. Non-significant predictors were employment status, the number of people at home, presence of older adults and children at home, financial, peer group, family, and religious concerns; the regression model had an R2 of 0.26. Similar analyses were conducted for somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has adverse effects on the mental health of the general population, particularly regarding anxiety, depression, and somatization. Specific populations, such as women and healthcare workers, are at particular risk of suffering a deterioration in mental wellbeing. The implications of the study for public policy are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Chile , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Zootaxa ; 4964(2): zootaxa.4964.2.7, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903521

RESUMO

In the present work was carried out in the intertidal zone of Las Baulas de Guanacaste National Marine Park (PNMB) located on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.                The main objective was to contribute to knowledge about the invertebrate diversity of the park, one of the richest bioregions on the planet, about which little is known. This study assesses the Order Polycladida Lang, 1884, a cornerstone of this ecosystem and one of the most cosmopolitan and plastic invertebrate taxa in the animal kingdom.                In total, 57 individuals were collected in the rocky intertidal zone of Carbón and Langosta beaches. Nine different species were identified, of which four are new for Costa Rica: Semonia bauliensis n. sp.; Cryptostylochus sesei n. sp.; Paraplanocera angeli n. sp., Prostheceraeus fitae n. sp.; and five new records: Paraplanocera oligoglena (Schmarda, 1859); Marcusia ernesti Hyman, 1953; Enchiridium magec Cuadrado, Moro Noreña, 2017; Pseudobiceros bajae (Hyman, 1953); and the genus Boninia spp.


Assuntos
Platelmintos , Animais , Costa Rica , Ecossistema , Oceano Pacífico , Parques Recreativos , Platelmintos/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
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