Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.641
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59160

RESUMO

El consumo de tabaco es, todavía, uno de los principales factores de riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, las acciones realizadas para el control del tabaco en las últimas décadas, en especial desde la llegada del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y su ratificación por diversas partes, han llevado a una notable reducción de la prevalencia del consumo de tabaco. Debido a estos avances, en diferentes países se ha producido un cambio del paradigma del control del tabaco al de “fin del juego”. En el pasado, el concepto de “fin del juego” no estaba definido con claridad, pero en la actualidad se suele concretar en los objetivos de reducir la prevalencia del consumo de tabaco por debajo de un umbral (p. ej., por debajo de 5%) o lograr generaciones libres de tabaco en un plazo determinado (p. ej., antes del año 2030) en un territorio específico. El objetivo final es acabar con la epidemia de consumo de tabaco, en lugar de controlarla.


Assuntos
Uso de Tabaco , Publicidade de Produtos Derivados do Tabaco , Tributação de Produtos Derivados do Tabaco , Costa Rica
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1602, 2024 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238355

RESUMO

Skin disorders affect millions of people all over the world. There are limited options to treat dermal illnesses such as vitiligo, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (eczema). Central American ferns are a potential source of bioactive metabolites against those diseases. Currently, Polypodium leucotomos Poir. is the only one being commercially utilized for this purpose. In this work, we evaluated the concentration of the skin bioactive compounds: quinic and chlorogenic acid, in the extract of 20 wild ferns from Costa Rica. We also evaluated the antimicrobial capabilities of the crude extracts of wild ferns and the sun protection factor (SPF) of the extracts. We found 19 out of 20 have either an important concentration of the compounds mentioned above or antimicrobial properties. Also, most samples result in higher SPF than P. aureum's rhizome. We also have studied the fern acclimatization, at different shading conditions, finding a significant influence of the culturing conditions on metabolite production. After acclimatization. So far, we demonstrate that various ferns included in this study are a potential source of treatments for skin conditions.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Polypodiaceae , Polypodium , Vitiligo , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Costa Rica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 54(4): 830-836, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252009

RESUMO

Parasitism is one of the most important diseases in nonhuman primates (NHP). Parasitism by Prosthenorchis elegans can be a threat to health and conservation of NHP in Costa Rica. Surgical management of intestinal acanthocephalan infection in two squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii) and one white-faced monkey (Cebus imitator) is described as an alternative to the lack of pharmacologic control options when there is a high burden of parasites present. A complete physical evaluation, including medical ultrasound techniques, allow for diagnosis of the parasite and its lesions. When animals present with a high burden of parasites, surgical management has shown to promote good health outcomes and increase the probability of survival.


Assuntos
Enteropatias , Animais , Costa Rica , Enteropatias/parasitologia , Enteropatias/veterinária , Exame Físico , Primatas/parasitologia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295258, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206918

RESUMO

Many plant species in high montane ecosystems rely on animal pollination for sexual reproduction, however, our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions in tropical montane habitats is still limited. We compared species diversity and composition of blooming plants and floral visitors, and the structure of plant-floral visitor networks between the Montane Forest and Paramo ecosystems in Costa Rica. We also studied the influence of seasonality on species composition and interaction structure. Given the severe climatic conditions experienced by organisms in habitats above treeline, we expected lower plant and insect richness, as well as less specialized and smaller pollination networks in the Paramo than in Montane Forest where climatic conditions are milder and understory plants are better protected. Accordingly, we found that blooming plants and floral visitor species richness was higher in the Montane Forest than in the Paramo, and in both ecosystems species richness of blooming plants and floral visitors was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Interaction networks in the Paramo were smaller and more nested, with lower levels of specialization and modularity than those in the Montane Forest, but there were no seasonal differences within either ecosystem. Beta diversity analyses indicate that differences between ecosystems are likely explained by species turnover, whereas within the Montane Forest differences between seasons are more likely explained by the rewiring of interactions. Results indicate that the decrease in species diversity with elevation affects network structure, increasing nestedness and reducing specialization and modularity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Flores , Animais , Estações do Ano , Costa Rica , Plantas , Polinização
5.
Avian Pathol ; 53(2): 124-133, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126360

RESUMO

Mortality of chicken embryos and first-week chickens was reported in a commercial incubator company in Costa Rica. Six 1-day-old Cobb chickens and twenty-four embryonated chicken eggs were examined in the Laboratory of Avian Pathology and the Laboratory of Bacteriology of the National University of Costa Rica. Twelve dead-in-shell embryos showed maceration and were immersed in a putrid, turbid, slightly thick brown liquid. Additionally, the other 12 embryonated eggs had milky yellow-orange content. The livers of those embryos had congestion, haemorrhages and multifocal cream foci of necrosis. Granulocytic infiltration was observed in the bursa of Fabricius, myocardium, liver, lung and kidney. Livers and egg yolks from six embryonated chickens and all 1-day-old chickens were aseptically collected and cultured. In addition, tissues from six better conserved embryos and all 1-day-old chickens were fixed in buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Biochemical and molecular tests identified Comamonas testosteroni as the cause of the early, middle and late embryo mortality. As all the eggshells from the sampled embryonated eggs were dirty with soiled a fecal matter, contamination after manipulating the eggs was considered the source of infection. C. testosteroni is an environmental microorganism that has rarely been reported to cause human disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. testosteroni causing mortality in a hatchery. Cleaning and disinfection using ozone were implemented in the hatchery to eliminate the embryo mortality associated with C. testosteroni.


Assuntos
Comamonas testosteroni , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Humanos , Embrião de Galinha , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas , Costa Rica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia
6.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 132: 104985, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38096926

RESUMO

The Costa Rican Paso Horse (CPC) is a breed developed in Costa Rica. The objectives were to estimate the genetic structure and evaluate the levels of genetic variability of the population. The genotypes of 14 microsatellites in 3654 records (2052 females and 1602 males) were analyzed. Expected (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (CIP), fixation index (FIS), Shannon index, as well as Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (DHW) were evaluated. Kinship relationships (Rij) were estimated throughout the entire population. The effective population size (Ne) was calculated, alternating allele frequencies less than 0.05, 0.02 and 0.01. The Bayesian clustering study was carried out to infer how many lines are appropriate from the analysis of genotypes using multiple loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 17, with an average value of 9.6; nine loci presented DHW (P < 0.05); two loci presented negative FIS values, the same as Ho > He; the average of CIP, Ho and He was 0.254, 0.756 and 0.785, respectively. At the 12 loci where He > Ho, the differences ranged from 0.002 to 0.341 (0.036 on average). For Ne, the estimates were 201.9, 230.1, and 241.5. In the Rij, 54.86% of the estimates were in the interval of 0.01 to 77.7%. The number of lines that define the population corresponds to three, with an approximate composition of 33.1%, 32.4% and 34.5%, respectively. The CPC, as a subdivided population with DHW and a reduction in heterozygotes may be associated with possible Wahlund effects. Keywords: Wahlund effect, equines, genetic markers, synthetic breed, Hardy Weinberg.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Masculino , Feminino , Cavalos/genética , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Costa Rica , Teorema de Bayes , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(1): 155-158, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147057

RESUMO

After reports in 2017 of Brucella neotomae infections among humans in Costa Rica, we sequenced 12 strains isolated from rodents during 1955-1964 from Utah, USA. We observed an exact strain match between the human isolates and 1 Utah isolate. Independent confirmation is required to clarify B. neotomae zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Humanos , Genômica , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Costa Rica/epidemiologia
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514959

RESUMO

Introducción: El pargo mancha es un pez marino de alto consumo e interés comercial en Costa Rica que está sometido a una fuerte presión pesquera, la cual puede afectar la diversidad genética y generar problemas por depresión endogámica. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado genético de la población de Lutjanus guttatus mediante el uso microsatélites. Métodos: Se recolectaron muestras entre el 2018 y 2019 y se estudiaron 44 individuos de cada una de las localidades del Golfo de Nicoya y Golfo Dulce. Se realizó la extracción de ADN y la amplificación de diez loci con microsatélites mediante PCR, para la determinación del genotipo, análisis de diversidad genética y estructura poblacional. Resultados: Los parámetros de diversidad indican un elevado polimorfismo asociado con un alto número de alelos obtenidos por locus, pero con bajos niveles de heterocigosidad observada en comparación con la esperada (Ho= 0.774 y 0.800 y He= 0.948 y 0.954 para Golfo de Nicoya y Golfo Dulce, respectivamente). No hay evidencia suficiente para decir que las dos poblaciones son distintas (FST= 0.00264, P > 0.05). La desviación del Equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg indica la posible mezcla de organismos de origen distinto a los del medio silvestre. Conclusiones: L. guttatus tiene niveles altos de diversidad genética, no hay evidencia de diferenciación en subpoblaciones genéticas, lo que en manejo pesquerías se considera una sola población panmíctica. La posible mezcla de individuos de origen distinto al silvestre sugiere la presencia de organismos de un programa de repoblación o de cultivos comerciales en la región. El uso de marcadores genéticos se recomienda para el monitoreo, además, en programas de repoblación y evaluar su efecto.


Introduction: The spotted snapper is a high-consumption and commercially important marine fish in Costa Rica, subjected to heavy fishing pressures, which can affect genetic diversity and generate problems due to inbreeding depression. Objective: To evaluate the genetic status of the population of Lutjanus guttatus using microsatellites. Methods: Samples were collected between 2018 and 2019, and 44 individuals from each of the localities of the Gulf of Nicoya and the Gulf of Dulce were studied. DNA extraction and amplification of ten loci with microsatellites using PCR were performed, followed by genotyping, analysis of genetic diversity, and population structure. Results: Diversity parameters indicate a high polymorphism associated with a high number of alleles obtained per locus, but with low levels of observed heterozygosity compared to expected (Ho= 0.774 and 0.800, and He= 0.948 and 0.954 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulf of Dulce, respectively). There is not enough evidence to say that the two populations are distinct (FST= 0.00264, P > 0.05). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was recorded, indicating possible mixing of organisms of different origin from the wild environment. Conclusions: L. guttatus presents high levels of genetic diversity, without evidence of differentiation in genetic subpopulations. For fisheries management purposes, they would be considered a single panmictic population. The possible mixing with wild individuals suggests the presence of organisms derived from a restocking or commercial cultivation program carried out in the region. The use of genetic markers is recommended to maintain monitoring, follow up on restocking programs and evaluate their effect.


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Endogâmicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Costa Rica , Aptidão Genética
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514957

RESUMO

Introduction: Until today, the fishing effort by foreign fleets in the Costa Rican Pacific has not been analyzed. Objective: To determine the spatial distribution of the fishing effort of those fleets, variables that shape that distribution, and if they interact with management figures and highly fragile ecosystems. Methods: Using fishing effort data from 2012 to 2020, obtained from Global Fishing Watch, an Index of Fishing Effort (IEP) was calculated to apply geospatial and multivariate statistics, as well as multiple regression models. A grid with 55 905 cells of 0.10 degrees was used to apply Hot Spot Analysis, and another grid with 24 176 cell-year-month analysis units of 0.25 degrees was used to apply a Linear Regression Model. Results: The data reveals the fishing activity of international fleets associated with four types of fishing gear, and a wide coverage of a high IEP by two fleets throughout the nine years analyzed. The IEP is primarily associated with location and varies by month and year. There is also relative evidence that its influenced by the concentration of oxygen and nitrates. Conclusions: International fleets come into direct conflict with officially defined zones for national fleets and disrespect protected oceanic areas and a declared non-fishing zone to protect marine resources in the Costa Rican Pacific. Their activities in the Dome may affect a national yellowfin tuna fishery.


Introducción: Hasta hoy, no ha sido analizado el esfuerzo pesquero por parte de flotas extranjeras en el Pacífico de Costa Rica. Objetivo: Determinar la distribución espacial del esfuerzo pesquero de esas flotas, variables que moldean esa distribución, y si las mismas interactúan con figuras de manejo y ecosistemas altamente frágiles. Métodos: A partir de datos de esfuerzo pesquero de 2012 a 2020, obtenidos de Global Fishing Watch, fue calculado un Índice de Esfuerzo Pesquero (IEP) sobre el cual fue aplicada estadística geoespacial y multivariada, así como modelos de regresión múltiple. Fue utilizada una cuadrícula con 55 905 celdas de 0.10 grados, para aplicar Análisis de Puntos Calientes, y otra cuadrícula con 24 176 unidades de análisis celdas-año-mes de 0.25 grados, para aplicar un Modelo de Regresión Lineal. Resultados: Los datos revelan la actividad pesquera de las flotas internacionales asociadas a cuatro tipos de artes de pesca, así como una amplia cobertura de alto IEP por parte de dos flotas a lo largo de los nueve años analizados. El IEP se asocia principalmente con la ubicación y varía según el mes y el año. También hay evidencia relativa de que está influenciado por la concentración de oxígeno y nitratos. Conclusiones: Las flotas internacionales entran en conflicto directo con zonas oficialmente delimitadas para las flotas nacionales e irrespetan las áreas oceánicas protegidas y una zona no pesquera declarada para proteger los recursos marinos en el Pacífico costarricense. Sus actividades en el Domo pueden afectar la pesquería de atún aleta amarilla.


Assuntos
Animais , Áreas Marinhas Protegidas , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Pesqueira , Costa Rica
10.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1514478

RESUMO

La historia de los servicios médicos penitenciarios se remonta hace aproximadamente medio siglo, en la extinta Penitenciaria Nacional, donde al igual que, durante mucho tiempo estuvo a cargo de personeros de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS). No es, hasta que al finalizar la década de los 80's, con el cierre del centro penal ubicado en la Isla San Lucas, se logra concretar la creación de plazas de salud propias del Ministerio de Justicia y Paz (MJP). En 1993 se logra el primer convenio interinstitucional entre la CCSS y el MJP, actualizado en 1998, el cual aún se encuentra refrendado por la Procuraduría General de la República. Actualmente, el MJP cuenta con 87 plazas asignas a puestos relacionados con servicios de salud a lo largo y ancho del territorio costarricense.


The history of prison medical services goes back approximately half a century, in the now extinct National Penitentiary, where, for a long time, it was in charge of representatives of CCSS. It is not, until at the end of the 80's, with the closure of the penal center located on San Lucas Island, the creation of health centers belonging to the Ministerio de Justicia y Paz (MJP) is achieved. In 1993, the first inter-institutional agreement between the CCSS and the MJP was reached, updated in 1998, which is still endorsed by the Attorney General's Office. Currently, the MJP has 87 positions assigned to positions related to health services throughout the Costa Rican territory.


Assuntos
Prisões/história , Previdência Social , Atenção à Saúde , Prisioneiros/história , Costa Rica
11.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514477

RESUMO

Mediante un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y de corte transversal se realiza una comparación entre la población penal de la Unidad de Atención Integral (UAI) 20 de diciembre y la población penal total costarricense. Hasta no hace mucho tiempo, en el ámbito penitenciario se ha experimentado un cambio importante en la morbimortalidad de las personas privadas de la libertad, pasando de un modelo casi unicausal de origen infeccioso, a procesos de etiología múltiple, con desarrollo poco predecible y alto porcentaje del gasto público sanitario. En el siguiente estudio se determina la similitud existente en prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles tanto a nivel país, sistema penitenciario nacional y UAI 20 de diciembre.


Through a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study, a comparison is made between the prison population of the Unidad de Atención Integral (UAI) 20 de diciembre and the total Costa Rican prison population. Until recently, there has been an important change in the morbimortality of persons deprived of liberty in the penitentiary environment, going from an almost unicausal model of infectious origin, to processes of multiple etiology, with little predictable development and a high percentage of public health expenditure. The following study determines the existing similarity in the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases at the country level, the national prison system and the UAI December 20.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Costa Rica , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia
12.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514474

RESUMO

El análisis de los orificios de entrada por proyectil de arma de fuego en una autopsia médico legal representa un importante papel en la determinación de la forma y causa de muerte en casos relacionados con armas de fuego. Su valoración puede proporcionar información valiosa sobre las características del arma utilizada, la distancia entre el arma de fuego y la víctima, entre otros factores que contribuyen a la investigación. El fenómeno de ''cola de cometa" observado en ciertos orificios de entrada es poco frecuente y conocido. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este artículo es investigar las características y mecanismos de producción de los orificios de entrada con este fenómeno, proporcionando información sobre su formación, las posibles implicaciones y consideraciones médico legales a tomar en cuenta para su diagnóstico de esta causa de muerte. Se presenta un reporte de caso que destaca la descripción del fenómeno de ''cola de cometa" en una investigación forense de la vida real, proporcionando información valiosa sobre su utilidad y potencial para mejorar la precisión del análisis de heridas de bala. Se realizó revisión de artículos científicos, sobre orificios de entrada en heridas por proyectil de arma de fuego con el fenómeno de ''cola de cometa".


The analysis of firearm projectile entry holes in a medicolegal autopsy plays an important role in determining the manner and cause of death in cases involving firearms. The assessment can provide valuable information about the characteristics of the weapon used, the distance between the firearm and the victim, among other factors that contribute to the investigation. The ''comet tail" phenomenon observed in certain entry holes is rare and well known. Therefore, the objective of this article is to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of production of the entrance orifices with this phenomenon, providing information about their formation, the possible implications, and medical-legal considerations to be taken into account for the diagnosis of this cause of death. A case report is presented highlighting the description of the ''comet tail" phenomenon in a real-life forensic investigation, providing valuable insight into its utility and potential to improve the accuracy of gunshot wound analysis. A review of scientific articles was carried out on entry holes in gunshot wounds with the "comet tail" phenomenon.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico por imagem , Balística Forense , Costa Rica
13.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514473

RESUMO

El crimen organizado se ha convertido en un flagelo a nivel internacional conformado por grupos al margen de la ley que realizan todo tipo de actividades que involucran desde tráfico de personas, secuestros, extorsiones, narcotráfico y muchos otros delitos. Producto de este fenómeno, la desaparición y ejecución de personas es cada día más frecuente, en muchos casos los cuerpos son quemados o desmembrados para impedir o hacer más difícil la identificación. La odontología forense se ha convertido en una disciplina transcendental en la identificación de cadáveres y restos óseos, además de contar con múltiples métodos para estimar la edad aproximada de una persona. Se presenta el caso de un descuartizamiento múltiple de tres individuos masculinos donde era indispensable identificar si alguno correspondía a una persona menor de 18 años.


Organized crime has become an international scourge made up of outlaw groups that carry out all kinds of activities ranging from human trafficking, kidnapping, extortion, drug trafficking and many more. As a result of this phenomenon, the disappearance and execution of people is becoming more frequent every day, in many cases the bodies are burned or dismembered to prevent or make identification more difficult. Forensic odontology has become a transcendental discipline in the identification of corpses and skeletal remains, in addition to having multiple methods to estimate the approximate age of a person. The case of a multiple dismemberment of three male individuals is presented, where it was essential to identify a person under 18 years of age.


Assuntos
Humanos , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos , Vítimas de Crime , Dentição , Odontologia Legal/instrumentação , Calcificação Fisiológica , Costa Rica , Dente Serotino/patologia
14.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514471

RESUMO

Las armas de aire comprimido son utilizadas desde hace muchos años con distintos usos que van desde el tiro recreativo hasta el control de plagas. Las más comunes son aquellas que disparan ''balines" o esferas metálicas que pueden llegar a tener capacidad de penetrar tejidos dependiendo del tipo de carga y de la longitud del cañón. Se presenta un caso clínico de un masculino que fue agredido con un arma tipo pistola con carga de CO2 que recibió un impacto a nivel facial y sufrió laceración en piel de labio y fractura dental complicada.


Air guns have been used for many years for a variety of purposes ranging from recreational shooting to pest control. The most common are those that shoot "pellets" or metallic spheres that can penetrate tissues depending on the type of load and the length of the barrel. A clinical case is presented of a male who was assaulted with a CO2-loaded pistol-type weapon, hit at facial level, and suffered laceration of the lip's skin and complicated dental fracture.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ar Comprimido , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Traumatismos Dentários/diagnóstico , Costa Rica
15.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514470

RESUMO

El Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA), es trastorno del neurodesarrollo que se caracteriza por algún grado de dificultad en la interacción social y la comunicación, que comienza en el periodo de desarrollo temprano, y se clasifica según el grado de severidad en grado 1, 2 y 3, según lo establecido en el DSM-5. Dicho Trastorno se encuentra abarcado por la Ley 7125 de Pensión Vitalicia para Personas con Parálisis Profunda, y su reforma 8769. Con el objetivo de analizar los criterios establecidos para la valoración de estos procesos, se presenta el caso de una persona masculina de 6 años con diagnóstico de TEA, de quien se interpuso demanda para ser tomado en cuenta dentro de dicha Ley. En el mismo y tras el análisis respectivo, de acuerdo con los datos de la literatura científica actualizada, y de los criterios establecidos, se pudo constatar que si calificaba según lo indicado en la Ley 7125.


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by some degree of difficulty in social interaction and communication, which begins in the early development period, and is classified according to the degree of severity in grade 1, 2 and 3, as established in the DSM-5. Said Disorder is covered by Law 7125 of Life Pension for people with deep cerebral palsy, and its reform 8769. In order to analyze the criteria established for the assessment of these processes, the case of a 6-year-old male person with diagnosis of ASD, of whom a lawsuit was filed to be taken into account within said Law. In it and after the respective analysis, according to the data of the updated scientific literature, and the established criteria, it was possible to verify that if qualified as indicated in Law 7125.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Pensões , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Costa Rica
16.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514469

RESUMO

El monóxido de carbono (CO) es un gas que se produce durante la combustión incompleta de diferentes materiales orgánicos. Una vez que se inhala, se absorbe hacia la sangre, ejerciendo su efecto a nivel sistémico. Se une fuertemente a la hemoglobina, y forma la carboxihemoglobina lo que provoca una disminución del transporte de oxígeno a los tejidos y dependiendo de su concentración puede ser mortal. Los hallazgos comúnmente encontrados en la autopsia son color rojo cereza en la piel y órganos, así como edema pulmonar, entre otros. El diagnóstico de intoxicación por CO se basa en la medición post mortem de carboxihemoglobina en sangre, por lo que se deben tomar muestras para cuantificar estos niveles. Con respecto al manejo en estos casos, se presenta dos casos correspondientes a la autopsia médica legal en las que se estableció como causa de muerte la intoxicación por monóxido de carbono.


Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas that is produced during the incomplete combustion of different organic materials. Once inhaled, it is absorbed into the blood, exerting its effect at the systemic level. It strongly binds to hemoglobin, and forms carboxyhemoglobin, which causes a decrease in oxygen transport to the tissues and, depending on its concentration, can be fatal. The findings commonly found in the autopsy are cherry red color in the skin and organs, as well as pulmonary edema, among others. The diagnosis of CO poisoning is based on the postmortem measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood, so samples must be taken to quantify these levels. Regarding the handling of these cases, two cases corresponding to the legal medical autopsy are presented in which carbon monoxide poisoning was established as the cause of death.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Autopsia/métodos , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Medicina Legal , Costa Rica
17.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514468

RESUMO

La determinación del porcentaje de pérdida en pacientes lesionados con múltiples secuelas por riesgos de trabajo resulta un verdadero reto para el perito, esto adquiere mayor relevancia cuando en el fuero judicial se pueden presentar discrepancias en los criterios para el uso o no de fórmulas matemáticas para el cálculo. La fórmula de suma combinada, creada por el Médico Forense Víctor Balthazard, no es más que un ordenamiento de una regla de tres que ordena los porcentajes otorgados a cada secuela de mayor a menor para evitar que el porcentaje final sobrepase el 100%, o bien que resulte en un porcentaje mayor que una secuela única puntuada en el baremo y que por gravedad en la intensidad de la misma resulte con un porcentaje menor al calculado por la secuela múltiple y que se ha utilizado en fueros laborales y de seguridad social alrededor del mundo. El Baremo contenido en el Código de Trabajo no establece explícitamente la forma en que se calcula el porcentaje de pérdida por secuelas múltiples, lo cual brinda libertad al perito para utilizar fórmulas, como lo es la fórmula de suma combinada, que permite calcular de forma congruente las pérdidas sucesivas sin sobrepasar a la persona más allá de su capacidad general total del 100% o de otorgar porcentajes mayores a secuelas de mayor gravedad que la suma de las pérdidas por el evento que se está valorando.


The determination of the percentage of loss in injured patients with multiple sequelae due to occupational hazards is a real challenge for the expert, this becomes even more relevant when in the judicial system there may be discrepancies in the criteria for the use or not of mathematical formulas for the calculation. The combined sum formula, created by the Forensic Physician Victor Balthazard, is nothing more than an arrangement of a rule of three that orders the percentages given to each sequel from highest to lowest to avoid that the final percentage exceeds 100%, or that it results in a higher percentage than a single sequel scored in the scale and that due to the severity in the intensity of the same results in a lower percentage than that calculated for the multiple sequel and that has been used in labor and social security courts around the world. The Schedule contained in the Labor Code does not explicitly establish the way in which the percentage of loss for multiple sequelae is calculated, which gives the expert the freedom to use formulas, such as the combined sum formula, which allows a congruent calculation of the successive losses without exceeding the person's total general capacity of 100% or to grant higher percentages to sequelae of greater severity than the sum of the losses for the event being valued.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco/métodos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Costa Rica , Medicina Legal
18.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 25(3): 130-161, Sep.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1529074

RESUMO

Abstract Determine the terminal efficiency, lag and dropout in the cohorts of students who entered the dentistry career at the Faculty of Dentistry at University of Costa Rica in the lapse 2007 to 2014. Data from 736 files were collected. The variables considered were sex, admission age, nationality, marital status, children, admission note, domicile and high school. The data was collected from the Student Application System, the physical files, and the data base from the Supreme Court of Elections of Costa Rica. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis were made, which were implemented from two logistic regression models. 98% of the students were Costa Rican, 68% women, 79% entered according to the admission note, 43% entered with an age of 18 years or less, 50% came from a public school, 77% resided in the Greater Metropolitan Area and 95% were single and remained without children. The average terminal efficiency was 6%; 46% of students have graduated with lag, 16% are still enrolled and 32% dropped out. Sex, age, admission note, and motherhood are sociodemographic variables that are associated with terminal efficiency and dropout. The average terminal efficiency in the cohorts from 2007 to 2014 in the courses at the Faculty of Dentistry University of Costa Rica was very low, almost half of the students graduated with lag and about a third dropped out the studies. The grade from the admission note seems to be a predictor of students'academic behavior, higher grade had more chances of graduating and less likely to dropout.


Resumen Determinar la eficiencia terminal, el rezago y el abandono en las cohortes de los estudiantes que ingresaron a la carrera de Odontología de la Facultad de Odontología UCR en el período 2007 al 2014. Se recopilaron los datos de 736 expedientes. Las variables consideradas fueron: sexo, edad de ingreso, nacionalidad, estado civil, hijos, lugar y colegio de procedencia, y nota de examen de admisión. Los datos se recopilaron del Sistema de Aplicaciones Estudiantiles, los expedientes físicos y del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones de Costa Rica. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, análisis bivariado y multivariado que se implementó a partir de dos modelos de regresión logística. El 98% de los estudiantes fueron costarricenses, el 68% mujeres, el 79% ingresó según la nota de admisión, el 43% ingresó con una edad de 18 años o menos, el 50% provenía de un colegio público, el 77% residía en la gran área Metropolitana y el 95% eran solteros y permanecieron sin hijos. La eficiencia terminal en promedio fue de 6%; el 46% de los estudiantes se han graduado con rezago, el 16% continúan matriculados y el 32% hizo abandono de los estudios. El sexo, la edad, la nota del examen de admisión y la maternidad son variables sociodemográficas que se asocian con la eficiencia terminal y el abandono. El promedio de la eficiencia terminal en las cohortes del 2007 al 2014 en la carrera de Odontología de la Facultad de Odontología UCR fue muy bajo, casi la mitad de los estudiantes se han graduado con rezago y cerca de un tercio hizo abandono de los estudios. La nota del examen de admisión parece ser un predictor en el comportamiento académico de los estudiantes: a mayor nota más posibilidades de graduarse y menos de abandonar la carrera.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Costa Rica , Odontologia
19.
Open Vet J ; 13(11): 1409-1415, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107223

RESUMO

Background: The Central American bushmaster (Lachesis stenophrys) is one of the largest pitvipers in the Americas, with relatively low abundance, suspected population declines, and continuing loss, fragmentation, and habitat degradation. Aim: Conservation actions, both in the wild and in captivity, bear the need for health parameters that allow managers and veterinarians to have a better understanding of health, especially when there are relatively few individuals in captivity to obtain robust information since there is no published information on the genus. To have hematological and biochemical reference ranges on the genus Lachesis. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 32 individuals (18 females and 14 males) under human care from 7 zoological institutions from August 2022 to January 2023 and performed hematological and biochemical analyses. Results: Reference intervals of hematological analytes included packed cell volume (17.51%-37.27%), total red blood cell count (0.36-0.92 × 1012/l), hemoglobin (61.73-145.23 g/l), white blood cell count (3.18-13.79 × 109/l), lymphocytes (2.16%-11.23%), azurophils (0.50%-4.20%), monocytes (0.00%-0.21%), heterophils (0.05%-1.12%), eosinophils (0.00%-0.19%), basophils (0.00%-2.00%), and total thrombocyte count (0.68-6.68 × 109/l), and biochemistry reference intervals included total protein (41.76-111.31 g/l), albumin (11.46-28.69 g/l), globulins (29.25-85.14 g/l), aspartate aminotransferase (1.44-68.75 U/l), creatinine kinase (52.72-625.00 U/l), uric acid (20.02-438.53 µmol/l), glucose (0.68-3.29 mml/l), cholesterol (41.74-13.25 mmol/l), calcium (1.78-6.06 mmol/l), and phosphorus (0.72-2.26 mmol/l). Conclusion: This is the first report on the genus Lachesis reporting hematological and biochemical reference ranges.


Assuntos
Crotalinae , Hematologia , Humanos , Animais , Costa Rica
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2503, 2023 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In countries where sugar fortification with vitamin A is mandatory, strategies to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in adolescents that involve lowering added sugar intake could lead to vitamin A inadequate intakes, since vitamin A-fortified sugar for home consumption contributes to a high proportion of this vitamin intake in the adolescent diet. METHODS: The study employed a hierarchical linear model to perform a mediation analysis on a cross-sectional sample of adolescents (13-18 years old) in the province of San José, Costa Rica. RESULTS: Lowering the total energy intake derived from added sugars to less than 10% significantly increases the prevalence of vitamin A inadequate intake in adolescents by 12.1% (from 29.6% to 41.7%). This is explained by the mediation model in which, the reduced adequacy of vitamin A intake is mediated by a reduction in total energy intake derived from added sugars fortified with vitamin A. CONCLUSIONS: The vitamin A fortification of sugar for household consumption should be reassessed according to the current epidemiological profile in Costa Rica to promote strategies that reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in adolescents by lowering the consumption of added sugars without affecting vitamin A intake.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Vitamina A , Humanos , Adolescente , Açúcares , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Ingestão de Alimentos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...