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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 34, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are vectors of various arboviruses belonging to the genera Alphavirus and Flavivirus, and Costa Rica is endemic to several of them. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the community structure of such vectors in Costa Rica. METHODS: Sampling was performed in two different coastal locations of Costa Rica with evidence of arboviral activity during rainy and dry seasons. Encephalitis vector surveillance traps, CDC female gravid traps and ovitraps were used. Detection of several arboviruses by Pan-Alpha and Pan-Flavi PCR was attempted. Blood meals were also identified. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was estimated for each area during the rainy and dry seasons. The Chao2 values for abundance and Shannon index for species diversity were also estimated. RESULTS: A total of 1802 adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were captured, among which Culex quinquefasciatus was the most caught species. The differences in NDVI were higher between seasons and between regions, yielding lower Chao-Sørensen similarity index values. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Madariaga virus were not detected at all, and dengue virus and Zika virus were detected in two separate Cx. quinquefasciatus specimens. The primary blood-meal sources were chickens (60%) and humans (27.5%). Both sampled areas were found to have different seasonal dynamics and population turnover, as reflected in the Chao2 species richness estimation values and Shannon diversity index. CONCLUSION: Seasonal patterns in mosquito community dynamics in coastal areas of Costa Rica have strong differences despite a geographical proximity. The NDVI influences mosquito diversity at the regional scale more than at the local scale. However, year-long continuous sampling is required to better understand local dynamics.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Arbovírus , Culex , Culicidae , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Galinhas
2.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 37: 100823, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623903

RESUMO

The clinical presentation and the morphological and molecular findings of Lagochilascaris minor in a domestic cat from Veracruz, Mexico are described. In the physical examination of the cat, a fistula with purulent exudate was observed in the ventral middle and left lateral region of the neck, with the presence of nematodes inside. Thirty-two worms were recovered from the lesion, which were identified based on their morphological characteristics as Lagochilascaris spp. To determine the species of the nematode, DNA was extracted from the worms and a fragment of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 was amplified. The product obtained was 100% similar with L. minor from Costa Rica. This is the first morphological and molecular report of L. minor parasitizing a domestic cat from Veracruz, Mexico, and emphasizes the circulation of this zoonotic parasite in the country.


Assuntos
Ascaridoidea , Animais , Gatos , México , Ascaridoidea/genética , Catalase , Costa Rica
3.
PeerJ ; 11: e14445, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650840

RESUMO

The Costa Rican Paramo is a unique ecosystem with high levels of endemism that is geographically isolated from the Andean Paramos. Paramo ecosystems occur above Montane Forests, below the permanent snow level, and their vegetation differs notably from that of adjacent Montane Forests. We compared the composition and beta diversity of blooming plant species using phenological data from functional plant groups (i.e., insect-visited, bird-visited and insect + bird-visited plants) between a Paramo and a Montane Forest site in Costa Rica and analyzed seasonal changes in blooming plant diversity between the rainy and dry seasons. Species richness was higher in the Montane Forest for all plant categories, except for insect-visited plants, which was higher in the Paramo. Beta diversity and blooming plant composition differed between both ecosystems and seasons. Differences in species richness and beta diversity between Paramo and the adjacent Montane Forest are likely the result of dispersal events that occurred during the last glacial period and subsequent isolation, as climate turned to tropical conditions after the Pleistocene, and to stressful abiotic conditions in the Paramo ecosystem that limit species establishment. Differences in blooming plant composition between both ecosystems and seasons are likely attributed to differential effects of climatic cues triggering the flowering events in each ecosystem, but phylogenetic conservatism cannot be discarded. Analyses of species composition and richness based on flowering phenology data are useful to evaluate potential floral resources for floral visitors (insects and birds) and how these resources change spatially and temporarily in endangered ecosystems such as the Paramo.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Costa Rica , Filogenia , Plantas
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279914, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652424

RESUMO

We studied the physicochemical characteristics and mycobiota associated to five key historic documents from Costa Rica, including the Independence Act of Costa Rica from 1821. We used nondestructive techniques (i.e., ATR-FTIR and XRF) to determine paper and ink composition. Results show that some documents are composed of cotton-based paper, whereas others were made of wood cellulose with an increased lignin content. We also determined that the ink employed in some of the documents is ferrogallic. Cultivation and molecular techniques were used to characterize the fungi inhabiting the documents. In total, 22 fungal isolates were obtained: 15 from the wood-cellulose-based documents and seven from the other three cotton-based. We also tested the cellulolytic activity of the recovered fungi; 95% of the fungi presented cellulolytic activity correlated to their ability to cause deterioration of the paper. Results suggest that cotton-based paper is the most resistant to fungal colonization and that most of the isolates have cellulolytic activity. This work increases the knowledge of the fungal diversity that inhabits historic documents and its relationship with paper composition and provides valuable information to develop strategies to conserve and restore these invaluable documents.


Assuntos
Celulose , Fungos , Costa Rica , Lignina , Madeira
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673879

RESUMO

Supervised by three or four medical doctors and one nurse in rotating shifts, the medical clinic in Costa Rica's Moín Container Terminal is open 24/7 for visits from port workers. In our study, we aimed to identify the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of a consecutive series of patients who attended the medical clinic for outpatient services during an 8-month period. Our descriptive study involved collecting patient records from the medical clinic during the first 8 months of 2021 (i.e., 1 January-31 August 2021), during which 3050 visits from 1301 port workers were registered. Terminal tractor drivers, crane operators, and stevedores were the most frequent job categories among the patients. Doping (i.e., ICD-10 Z03.6) was observed in 64% of the visits. The top ICD-10 codes among all other patients not observed to have engaged in doping (n = 469) were diseases of the musculoskeletal system (7.2%) and abnormal clinical and laboratory symptoms (6.2%). Problems with the musculoskeletal system were primarily back pain (36.0%), muscle contracture (30.1%), and secondary headache (25.2%). Two-thirds of the visits were due to screening for alcohol and drugs or doping; however, inconsistency in the coding system complicates the analysis of data, and a dropdown menu in the registration is therefore needed to prevent errors. Relative risk calculations are impossible due to a lack of data about the at-risk population but should be pursued under different circumstances in future studies. In the support chain of goods, the medical clinic in the port plays a key role in saving time in shipping, which means that the injured or sick employees in most cases can continue working. For the shipping industry, quick un- and offloading is very important to stay competitive in the market for transport.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas , Humanos , Costa Rica , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia
6.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220162, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Costa Rica has a history of neglecting prevention, control and research of leishmaniasis, including limited understanding on Leishmania species causing human disease across the country and a complete lack of knowledge on the Leishmania RNA virus, described as a factor linked to the worsening and metastasis of leishmanial lesions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, bearing infection with Leishmaniavirus 1 (LRV1) in Costa Rica, raising the suspicion of imported parasites in the region. METHODS: The Leishmania strain was previously identified by routine hsp70 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Costa Rica and subsequently characterised by isoenzyme electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing in Brazil. Screening for LRV1 was conducted with a dual RT-PCR approach and sequencing of the fragment obtained. FINDINGS: Since 2016 Costa Rica performs Leishmania isolation and typing as part of its epidemiological surveillance activities. Amongst 113 strains typed until 2019, only one was characterised as a L. (V.) guyanensis, corresponding to the first confirmed report of this species in the country. Interestingly, the same strain tested positive for LRV1. Sequencing of the viral orf1 and 2, clustered this sample with other LRV1 genotypes of South American origin, from the Northeast of Brazil and French Guiana. MAIN CONCLUSION: The unique characteristics of this finding raised the suspicion that it was not an autochthonous strain. Notwithstanding its presumed origin, this report points to the occurrence of said endosymbiont in Central American Leishmania strains. The possibility of its local dispersion represents one more challenge faced by regional health authorities in preventing and controlling leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania guyanensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniavirus , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Costa Rica , Guiana Francesa , Genótipo , Leishmania guyanensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniavirus/genética
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0011047, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638136

RESUMO

Dengue fever is a vector-borne disease affecting millions yearly, mostly in tropical and subtropical countries. Driven mainly by social and environmental factors, dengue incidence and geographical expansion have increased in recent decades. Therefore, understanding how climate variables drive dengue outbreaks is challenging and a problem of interest for decision-makers that could aid in improving surveillance and resource allocation. Here, we explore the effect of climate variables on relative dengue risk in 32 cantons of interest for public health authorities in Costa Rica. Relative dengue risk is forecast using a Generalized Additive Model for location, scale, and shape and a Random Forest approach. Models use a training period from 2000 to 2020 and predicted climatic variables obtained with a vector auto-regressive model. Results show reliable projections, and climate variables predictions allow for a prospective instead of a retrospective study.


Assuntos
Dengue , Animais , Humanos , Dengue/epidemiologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mosquitos Vetores , Surtos de Doenças , Aprendizado de Máquina , Incidência
8.
Math Biosci Eng ; 20(1): 534-551, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650777

RESUMO

We present a numerical implementation for a multilayer network to model the transmission of Covid-19 or other diseases with a similar transmission mechanism. The model incorporates different contact types between individuals (household, social and sporadic networks) and includes an SEIR type model for the transmission of the virus. The algorithm described in this paper includes the main ideas of the model used to give public health authorities an additional tool for the decision-making process in Costa Rica by simulating extensive possible scenarios and projections. We include two simulations: a study of the effect of restrictions on the transmission of the virus and a Costa Rica case study that was shared with the Costa Rican health authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1407249

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Wildlife hematological patterns are fundamental for health monitoring, and allows elucidating variations both within and between populations. Among these, hematological parameters are particularly valuable to evaluate the health status of neotropical primate species in the wild. Objective: To define hematological reference values for two species of monkeys in Costa Rica. Methods: During 2014, we collected blood samples from free-ranging mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata (17 females, 18 males) and white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus imitator (5 females, 7 males) in seven localities of the Costa Rican Pacific coast. Results: For both species, the hematological values were higher in males, and howler monkey populations differed significantly except for platelets. Conclusions: These hematological values, which differ by sex and locality, will help evaluate the health status of these neotropical primate populations.


Resumen Introducción: Los patrones hematológicos de la vida silvestre son fundamentales para el monitoreo de la salud y permiten dilucidar las variaciones tanto dentro como entre poblaciones. Entre estos, los parámetros hematológicos son particularmente valiosos para evaluar el estado de salud de las especies de primates neotropicales en la naturaleza. Objetivo: Definir valores de referencia hematológicos para dos especies de monos en Costa Rica. Métodos: Durante el 2014 recolectamos muestras de sangre de monos aulladores de manto, Alouatta palliata (17 hembras, 18 machos) y monos capuchinos cariblancos, Cebus imitador (5 hembras, 7 machos) en siete localidades de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. Resultados: Para ambas especies, los valores hematológicos fueron mayores en los machos, y las poblaciones de monos aulladores difirieron significativamente con excepción de las plaquetas. Conclusiones: Estos valores hematológicos, que difieren según el sexo y la localidad, ayudarán a evaluar el estado de salud de estas poblaciones de primates neotropicales.


Assuntos
Animais , Haplorrinos/microbiologia , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Costa Rica
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1407245

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: El Pacífico Norte de Costa Rica es una región diversa y productiva; sin embargo, tenemos un escaso conocimiento sobre el estado de los recursos marinos y la dinámica pesquera, particularmente de la pesca artesanal en el Golfo de Santa Elena, uno de los principales caladeros de la zona. Objetivo: Caracterizar la dinámica de esta pesquería. Métodos: Se analizaron los datos recopilados por el Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuicultura y las facturas pesqueras de los sitios de desembarque para el período 2010-2019. Resultados: Hubo una alta variación en la biomasa desembarcada, sin embargo, la captura total por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE; kg/día) y de las principales especies objetivo no disminuyó significativamente. En general, hubo una CPUE más baja en los meses de surgencia (diciembre-abril). De las 42 especies comerciales reportadas, la mayor biomasa provino del pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus; 22 % de la biomasa), el pargo seda (L. peru; 18 %), las cabrillas (Epinephelus spp.; 15 %) y el pulpo (Octopus spp., 13 %). Conclusiones: La CPUE en Santa Elena no ha disminuido significativamente de 2010 a 2019, pero disminuye en la época de surgencia.


Abstract Introduction: The North Pacific of Costa Rica is a diverse and productive region; however, we have a poor understanding of the status of marine resources and fisheries dynamics, particularly for the artisanal fishery in the Gulf of Santa Elena, one of the main fishing grounds of the area. Objective: To characterize the dynamics of this fishery. Methods: We analyzed data collected by the Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuicultura, and sales invoices from landing sites for the period 2010-2019. Results: There was high variation in the landed biomass, however, total catch per unit effort (CPUE; kg/day) and of the main targeted species did not decrease significantly. Overall, there was a lower CPUE in upwelling months (December-April). For the 42 commercial species reported, most biomass was from the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus; 22 % of biomass), the Pacific red snapper (L. peru; 18 %), groupers (Epinephelus spp.; 15 %) and octopuses (Octopus spp., 13 %). Conclusions: CPUE at Santa Elena has not declined significantly from 2010 to 2019, but it falls in the upwelling season.


Assuntos
Animais , Indústria Pesqueira , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Costa Rica
11.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558486

RESUMO

Parenting styles are a risk factor for adolescents overweight/obesity worldwide, but this association is not well understood in the context of Latin America. This study examines the association between the parenting styles of mothers and fathers and the risk of overweight/obesity among Costa Rican adolescents. Data are cross-sectional from a sample of adolescents (13-18 years old) enrolled in ten urban and eight rural schools (n = 18) in the province of San José, Costa Rica, in 2017. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the likelihood of adolescents being overweight according to the mothers' and fathers' parenting styles. A significant association was found between the risk of adolescent overweight/obesity and the paternal authoritarian style only in rural areas (B = 0.622, SE = 0.317, Wald = 3.864, ExpB = 1.863, p = 0.04), and between said risk and the paternal permissive style only in male adolescents (B = 0.901, SE = 0.435, Wald = 4.286, ExpB = 2.461, p = 0.038). For maternal parenting styles, no associations reached significant levels once logistic regression models were adjusted for the fathers' parenting styles. These findings underscore the importance of further studying the role of fathers' paternal parenting styles on Latin American adolescent weight outcomes. Expanding our understanding of the parenting styles of fathers has important implications for the design and implementation of culturally- and gender-appropriate family interventions.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Poder Familiar , Estudos Transversais , Mães , Pai , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia
12.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(3)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1406164

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the gingival state and presence of red complex bacteria in saliva samples of 12-year-old schoolchildren. A calibrated periodontist evaluated biofilm index (BI) (Silness and Löe, 1964), presence of calculus, and gingival index (GI) (Silness and Löe, 1967) in sixty two 12-year-old students of Carmen Lyra School. Saliva samples were collected from each student. The DNA of each sample was extracted and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, using specific primers. The BI was 1.18. Calculus was present in 40.40% of the schoolchildren examined; 19.4% was supragingival calculus and 21% both supragingival and subgingival calculus. The GI was 0.97, which according to Silness and Löe is mild gingivitis. Gingivitis was present in 96.8% of the children examined. Regarding the PCR tests: 18 of the samples (31.58%) did not present any of the bacteria analyzed and the remaining 39 samples (68.42%) were positive for at least the presence of red complex bacteria. Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus is high in the sample examined, and the gingival state observed in the study population, may be related to the presence of red complex bacteria.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio era determinar el estado gingival y la presencia de bacterias del complejo rojo en muestras de saliva de niños de 12 años de la Escuela Carmen Lyra. Una periodoncista calibrada evaluó en 62 estudiantes de 12 años de la Escuela Carmen Lyra, el índice de biofilme (IB) (Silness y Löe, 1964), la presencia de cálculo y el índice gingival (IG) (Silness y Löe, 1967). Se recolectaron muestras de saliva de cada estudiante. El ADN de cada muestra fue extraído y amplificado por medio de la prueba PCR, empleando primers específicos, para determinar la presencia de bacterias del complejo rojo. El IB fue de 1.18. El cálculo estuvo presente en el 40.40% de la muestra, se encontró 19.4% de cálculo en supragingival y 21% tanto en supragingival como en subgingival. El IG fue de 0.97, que de acuerdo con Silness y Löe es una gingivitis leve. La gingivitis estuvo presente en el 96.8 % de los niños examinados. Con respecto a las pruebas PCR: 18 de las muestras (31.58 %) no presentaron ninguna de las bacterias analizadas y las 39 muestras restantes (68.42%) fueron positivas por lo menos a la presencia de las bacterias del complejo rojo. Dentro de las limitaciones de este estudio, se concluye que la prevalencia de gingivitis y cálculo es alta en la muestra examinada y el estado gingival observado puede estar relacionado con la presencia de bacterias del complejo rojo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Doenças da Gengiva , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Costa Rica
13.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(3)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1406158

RESUMO

Resumen En la cavidad oral se pueden presentar lesiones en gíngiva que no están asociadas a placa bacteriana, las cuales requieren de un adecuado diagnóstico y tratamiento. La gingivitis descamativa está usualmente relacionada con desórdenes mucocutáneos, como el pénfigo vulgar (PV), donde las lesiones orales incluyendo las lesiones gingivales, pueden preceder las lesiones cutáneas. El manejo es multidisciplinario y el tratamiento incluye terapia farmacológica tópica y sistémica, se requiere un adecuado control de la placa bacteriana por parte del paciente y una estricta supervisión en el tiempo por parte del profesional para el mantenimiento y estabilidad de los tejidos gingivales. Se presentan dos casos clínicos de pacientes con diagnóstico de PV los cuales fueron manejados de manera oportuna e integral para controlar y estabilizar el factor sistémico y local.


Abstract In the oral cavity, gingiva lesions may occur that are not associated with bacterial plaque, which require adequate diagnosis and treatment. Desquamative gingivitis is usually related to mucocutaneous disorders, such as pemphigus vulgaris (PV), where oral lesions, including gingival lesions, may precede skin lesions. Management is multidisciplinary and treatment includes topical and systemic pharmacological therapy, require adequate control of dental plaque by the patient and strict supervision over time by the professional for the maintenance and stability of the gingival tissues. Two clinical cases of patients with a diagnosis of PV are presented, which were managed in a timely and integral way to control and stabilize the systemic and local factor.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Higiene Bucal , Costa Rica
14.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405588

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: En Costa Rica la elaboración del expediente odontológico o ficha clínica no se realiza de manera habitual en todos los pacientes como ocurre en muchos países donde es exigido por ley. La realización del expediente únicamente está normada en el Código de Ética del Colegio de Cirujanos Dentistas de Costa Rica, es decir que no realizarlo se considera una falta ético-disciplinaria con pocas repercusiones para la persona profesional; sin embargo, tiene consecuencias graves en los esfuerzos para identificar a un ser humano. Este estudio tiene como propósito describir el impacto de la ausencia o la mala calidad de datos odontológicos antemortem en los casos de identificación realizados por la Unidad de Odontología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal en un período de casi ocho años (2015-2022). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión detallada en la base de datos del Sistema de Medicina Legal (SIMEL) del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial de la totalidad de solicitudes de interconsulta de la Sección de Patología Forense desde enero de 2015 hasta agosto de 2022. La información recopilada fue tabulada en Excel e incluyó tanto los resultados del análisis pericial como las características de la información antemortem disponible. Resultados: El análisis de los datos permitió determinar que en un período de casi 8 años se realizaron 165 valoraciones con fines de identificación, de las cuales se identificaron positivamente 51 individuos, 9 casos presentaron información insuficiente y 105 no contaban con expediente odontológico. Conclusiones: el expediente odontológico completo es indispensable para lograr una identificación positiva, un expediente incompleto o inexistente anula la posibilidad de identificar a un ser humano. La necesidad de contar con legislación que convierta la realización y preservación de los expedientes odontológicos de forma obligatoria con fines de identificación es necesaria en Costa Rica.


Abstract Introduction: In Costa Rica the elaboration of dental records or clinical files is not performed routinely in all patients as it is required by law in many countries. The completion of the dental record is only regulated by the Code of Ethics of the Colegio de Cirujanos Dentistas de Costa Rica (Board of Dental Surgeons of Costa Rica), which means that failure to do so is considered an ethical-disciplinary offense with few consequences for the professional; however, it has serious consequences in the efforts to identify a person. This study aims to describe the impact of the absence or poor quality of antemortem data in identification cases performed by the Forensic Odontology Unit of the Department of Legal Medicine over a period of almost eight years (2015-2022). Materials and Methods: A detailed review was performed in the database of the Forensic Medicine System (SIMEL) of the Legal Medicine Department of the Judicial Investigation Organism of the totality of interconsultation requests of the Forensic Pathology Section from January 2015 to August 2022. The information collected was tabulated in Excel and included both the results of the expert analysis and the characteristics of the available antemortem information. Results: The analysis of the data made it possible to determine that in a period of almost 8 years 165 assessments were carried out for identification purposes, of which 51 individuals were identified, 9 cases presented insufficient information and 105 had no dental files. Conclusions: A complete dental record is indispensable for a positive identification; an incomplete or non-existent record nullifies the possibility of identifying a human being.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropologia Forense , Odontologia Legal , Controle de Formulários e Registros , Costa Rica , Diagnóstico
15.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405584

RESUMO

Resumen El síndrome de niño(a) agredido(a) comprende múltiples aspectos desde la definición propia del abuso infantil, en donde se incluye tanto cualquier acto como la omisión que arremeta contra la salud o el desarrollo del menor. Siendo necesario la valoración integral de cada uno de los casos sospechosos abarcando tanto aspectos relacionados con posibles maltratos físicos como los correlacionables por omisión de cuido de menor. Se presenta el caso de una evaluada con denuncia por Abuso de Patria Potestad para ser valorada por sospecha de maltrato infantil.


Abstract The battered child syndrome encompasses multiple aspects from the very definition of child abuse, which covers any act or omission that affects the health or development of the minor. The comprehensive assessment of each of the suspected cases is necessary, covering both aspects related to possible physical abuse and those correlatable by omission of childcare. The case of female with a complaint for Abuse of Parental Authority to be assessed for suspicion of child abuse is presented.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Síndrome da Criança Espancada/diagnóstico por imagem , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Costa Rica
16.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405583

RESUMO

Resumen Las heridas por proyectil de arma de fuego se definen como los efectos que producen sobre el organismo los disparos realizados con armas cargadas de proyectiles o diversos tipos de pólvora u otros explosivos. La valoración médico legal en estos casos, en personas vivas, se realiza en la Sección Clínica Médico Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, esta incluye la historia médico legal, el examen físico, el análisis de documentos médicos aportados, pericias conexas efectuadas y revisión de bibliografía, esto para tener todos los elementos de juicio que permitan realizar un análisis objetivo y basado en la evidencia científica, y así poder responder a las interrogantes de la Autoridad Judicial. El presente artículo abarca algunos de los aspectos principales a tomar en cuenta ante hallazgos atípicos de los orificios de entrada y salida de los proyectiles, mediante la presentación y abordaje de un caso clínico.


Abstract Firearm projectile injuries are defined as the effects produced on the body by shots fired with weapons loaded with projectiles or various types of gunpowder or other explosives. The legal medical assessment in these cases, in living persons, is carried out in the Forensic Medical Clinical Section of the Department of Legal Medicine of the Organismo de Investigación Judicial, this includes the legal medical history, physical examination, analysis of medical documents provided, expert carried out and bibliography review, this to have all the elements of judgment that allow an objective analysis based on scientific evidence, and thus be able to answer the questions of the Judicial Authority. This article covers some of the main aspects to be considered when faced with atypical findings of the entry and exit holes of the projectiles, through the presentation and approach of a clinical case. Ver bases de datos


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico , Costa Rica
17.
MHSalud ; 19(2)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405528

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: El propósito de esta investigación fue examinar el efecto de la intervención escuelas activas móviles sobre la autoeficacia, el disfrute y la percepción del nivel de actividad física, en la niñez costarricense y panameña en tiempos de pandemia por COVID-19. Metodología: La población estudiada en esta investigación fueron 55 niñas y niños de primer ciclo de dos escuelas públicas de Panamá y Costa Rica, de edades entre 7 y 9 años. Resultados: Los principales hallazgos de este estudio fueron que la intervención afectó positivamente (mejoras pre-post) a las tres variables dependientes, pero solo en la autoeficacia el efecto fue estadísticamente significativo (con magnitud moderada). En el disfrute y en el nivel de actividad física el efecto fue pequeño. No se presentaron diferencias entre países, pero sí se encontró una tendencia de un deterioro de los sujetos participantes de los grupos control, en las tres variables, especialmente en los participantes panameños. Conclusiones: Se concluye con este estudio que esta intervención mostró que utilizando un modelo multinivel en tiempos de pandemia se logró mejorar la percepción de autoeficacia, y mantener los niveles de disfrute y actividad física en la población participante; al contrario del grupo control, que mostró un deterioro de las tres variables en los infantes.


Abstract Objective: This research aimed to examine the effect of the Active Mobile Schools intervention on self-efficacy, enjoyment, and the perception of the level of physical activity in Costa Rican and Panamanian children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: The research sample comprised 55 girls and boys, aged between 7 and 9 years, from two public schools in Panama and Costa Rica. Results: The study mainly found that the intervention positively affected (pre-post improvements) the three dependent variables, but only in self-efficacy was the effect statistically significant (with moderate magnitude). In enjoyment and level of physical activity, the effect was small. There were no differences between countries, but a trend of deterioration was found in the participants of the control groups, in the three variables, especially in the Panamanian participants. Conclusions: The study leads to the conclusion that this intervention showed that using a multilevel model in times of pandemic, it was possible to improve the perception of self-efficacy and maintain levels of enjoyment and physical activity in the participating population, unlike the control group that showed a deterioration of the three variables in the infants.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo dessa pesquisa é examinar o efeito da intervenção das Escolas Ativas Móveis sobre a autoeficácia, o prazer e o nível percebido de atividade física nas crianças costarriquenhas e panamenhas em épocas da pandemia da COVID-19. Metodologia: A população estudada nessa pesquisa foi de 55 crianças do ensino fundamental de duas escolas públicas no Panamá e na Costa Rica, com idades compreendidas entre 7 e 9 anos. Resultados: As principais conclusões desse estudo indicam que a intervenção afetou positivamente (melhorias pré-pós) nas três variáveis dependentes, mas somente em autoeficácia o efeito foi estatisticamente significativo (com magnitude moderada). Para o prazer e o nível de atividade física, o efeito foi pequeno. Não houve diferenças entre os países, mas houve uma tendência de deterioração dos participantes dos grupos de controle em todas as três variáveis, especialmente nos participantes panamenhos. Conclusões: Conclui-se com esse estudo que essa intervenção mostrou que o uso de um modelo multinível em tempos de pandemia foi capaz de melhorar a percepção de autoeficácia, e manter os níveis de prazer e atividade física na população participante; ao contrário do grupo de controle, que mostrou uma deterioração das três variáveis nas crianças.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Exercício Físico , Autoeficácia , Prazer , Panamá , Costa Rica , Educação à Distância
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387710

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La naturaleza tropical está experimentando una amenaza sin precedentes que incluye comunidades de peces costeros que requieren un constante seguimiento de la presencia de especies. El uso simultáneo de varios métodos de monitoreo debería reducir el sesgo causado por la selectividad de cada método. Objetivo: Este estudio uso cuatro diferentes métodos de muestreo a lo largo de dos años para evaluar y comparar los ensamblajes de peces en el Área Marina de Manejo Bahía Santa Elena, Pacífico de Costa Rica. Métodos: Examinamos los cambios en la riqueza y composición de especies entre épocas de afloramiento y no afloramiento entre julio de 2019 y febrero de 2020. Aplicamos censos visuales, cámaras remotas submarinas; líneas de fondo; y pesca deportiva. Resultados: Identificamos 140 especies de peces (54 familias); las cámaras submarinas remotas detectaron el 83 %, seguido por los censos visuales submarinos (65 %), la pesca deportiva (16 %) y las líneas de fondo (14 %). Solo el método de pesca deportiva detectó diferencias en la riqueza y composición de especies entre temporadas. Conclusión: Las cámaras remotas parecen ser el mejor método para el conteo de especies y la pesca deportiva para detectar diferencias estacionales en las costas tropicales similares a la aquí estudiada.


Abstract Introduction: Tropical nature is experiencing an unprecedented threat that includes coastal fish communities that requires a close monitoring of species presence. The simultaneous use of several monitoring methods should reduce the bias caused by the selectivity of each method. Objective: This study used four different sampling methods over two years to assess and compare fish assemblages in the Santa Elena Bay Marine Management Area (AMM-BSE), North Pacific of Costa Rica. Methods: We examined changes in species richness and composition between upwelling and non-upwelling seasons from July 2019 and February 2020. We applied visual censuses, underwater remote cameras; bottom lines; and sport fishing. Results: We identified 140 species of fish (54 families); remote underwater cameras detected 83 %, followed by underwater visual censuses (65 %), sport-fishing (16 %) and bottom lines (14 %). Only the sport-fishing method detected differences in species richness and composition between seasons. Conclusion: Remote cameras appear to be the best method for species counts, and sport-fishing to detect seasonal differences in tropical coasts similar to the one studied here.


Assuntos
Animais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Peixes , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Baías , Costa Rica
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277439, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395193

RESUMO

The term circa situm has been used to describe different conservation strategies within agricultural landscapes. Circa situm conserves planted or remnant species in farmlands, where natural vegetation has been modified through anthropogenic intervention. It has been proposed that trees planted or retained under circa situm conditions may contribute to maintaining genetic diversity, however information on the role of this strategy in preserving genetic diversity is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of genetic diversity and structure, and mating patterns in planted and unmanaged stands of the tropical fruit tree Spondias purpurea L. in north western Costa Rica. In three localities, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci and genotyped 201 adults and 648 seeds from planted and wild stands. We found no differences in genetic diversity among planted and wild stands. Genetic structure analysis revealed that gene flow occurs among planted and wild stands within localities. Clones were present and their diversity and evenness were both high and similar between planted and wild stands. The number of pollen donors per progeny array was low (Nep = 1.01) which resulted in high levels of correlated paternity (rp = 0.9). Asexual seeds were found in 4.6% of the progeny arrays, which had multilocus genotypes that were identical to the maternal trees. Our results show that although planted stands under circa situm conditions can maintain similar levels of genetic diversity than wild stands, the low number of sires and asexual seed formation could threaten the long term persistence of populations.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Árvores , Árvores/genética , Anacardiaceae/genética , Costa Rica , Frutas/genética , Variação Genética , Florestas , Reprodução Assexuada
20.
J Water Health ; 20(2): 344-355, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366991

RESUMO

This study describes the quality of drinking water sampled over 2 years (2018 and 2019) from 20 ASADAS (Spanish acronym for Administrative Associations for Water and Sewer Systems) in Costa Rica. The analysis included Rotavirus (RV), somatic coliphages, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The ASADAS were categorized into three regions as temperate rainy (region 1), tropical rainy (region 2), and tropical rainy and dry (region 3) according to biogeographic classification. The concentrations of fecal coliforms and E. coli were higher in samples from surface water sources from the ASADAS in region 3 compared to regions 1 and 2. RV-positive samples (24/296) were detected in drinking-water samples from regions 2 and 3 during dry and transition seasons, with higher concentrations more frequently in the dry season. In addition, somatic coliphages were detected in samples from the three regions, with higher concentrations in region 2. Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship was found between somatic coliphages and diarrheal cases, classified as outbreaks or alerts in the region. Thus, the results confirmed that somatic coliphages are a good indicator of the presence of diarrhea cases in a specific region.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Microbiologia da Água , Escherichia coli , Costa Rica , Colífagos
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