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1.
Zootaxa ; 4767(4): zootaxa.4767.4.4, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056545

RESUMO

The genus Haplaxius is a large taxon of cixiid planthoppers that is of economic importance due to the ability of Haplaxius crudus to transmit lethal yellowing in coconut palms. Haplaxius dougwalshi sp. n. is established as a new taxon of Cixiidae in the tribe Oecleini collected from native palms in lowland tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Placement in the genus Haplaxius is supported both by molecular evidence based on the COI and 18S genes as well as by morphological characters. This novel taxon was discovered during survey work in Costa Rica to look for phytoplasmas and document planthopper diversity on palms. Furthermore, Haplaxius skarphion was also collected from coconut palms during survey work and is reported for the first time in Costa Rica.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Hemípteros , Animais , Cocos , Costa Rica
2.
Zootaxa ; 4766(2): zootaxa.4766.2.5, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056600

RESUMO

Two new cestodes of the family Hymenolepididae are described from two species of rodents of the family Geomyidae collected in Mexico and Costa Rica. One new species of Hymenolepis is described from Cratogeomys planiceps Merriam 1895 from near Toluca, Mexico and another that we allocate to a new genus is described from Heterogeomys heterodus (Peters, 1865) from near Irazú Volcano, Costa Rica. Hymenolepis s. str. includes those Hymenolepididae with an apical organ, with no hooks on suckers or apical organ, and three testes. Hobergia irazuensis n. gen., n. sp. includes a hymenolepidid with an apical organ, unarmed scolex, small pockets termed foveolae, in which the suckers completely retract, and extremely bi-lobed ovary. Multivariate morphometric analysis showed good separation of these species from all other hymenolepidids possessing an apical organ and lacking a well developed rostellum and rostellar hooks in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Costa Rica , Feminino , México , Roedores
3.
Zootaxa ; 4810(1): zootaxa.4810.1.2, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055909

RESUMO

We described four new gelechioid species from Costa Rica: Philtronoma cbdora Metz, new species; Tinaegeria carlosalvaradoi Metz, new species; Tinaegeria romanmacayai Metz, new species (Depressariidae: Tinaegeriinae revised status); and Percnarcha claudiadoblesae Metz, new species (Gelechiidae: Gelechiinae). We provide these honorifics to recognize commitment and devotion to conservation of biodiversity. The new species are all highly diagnostic among other species of Gelechioidea, and species of Tinaegeria and Percnarcha demonstrate striking mimesis for presumed wasp and beetle models. The family-group name Tinaegeriidae Hampson, 1893 is clarified, including the previously overlooked priority of the family-group name synonyms, and is placed as a valid subfamily in Depressariidae comprised of the genera Filinota Busck, 1911, Nematochares Meyrick, 1931, Philtronoma Meyrick, 1914, Profilinota Clarke, 1973, and Tinaegeria Walker, 1856.


Assuntos
Besouros , Mariposas , Vespas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Costa Rica
4.
Zootaxa ; 4763(1): zootaxa.4763.1.4, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056878

RESUMO

An ongoing survey for planthoppers associated with palms in the Caribbean basin is being conducted with current efforts on the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. In an expedition in June of 2019, a derbid was found on coconut palms in Alajuela province and was determined to be a new species belonging to the genus Anotia. The novel taxon is described and named Anotia firebugia Bahder Bartlett sp. n. Additionally, molecular barcode data (COI) is provided for the newly described taxon.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Cocos , Costa Rica
5.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.8, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055782

RESUMO

An ongoing survey to document planthopper diversity on palms (Arecaceae) is being conducted in Costa Rica. During these efforts a new species of derbid planthopper belonging to the genus Agoo was found on Astrocaryum alatum Loomis in the Heredia province at La Selva Biological Station and is described here as Agoo luzdenia Bahder Bartlett sp. n., bringing the genus to four described taxa-A. dahliana, A. luzdenia Bahder Bartlett sp. n., A rubrimarginata, and A. xavieri. Sequence data for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S genes was generated for the novel taxon and strongly supports its placement in the genus Agoo.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Hemípteros , Animais , Costa Rica , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52325

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To measure the impact generated by the implementation of the pharmacy-driven antimicrobial stewardship program of the Clínica Bíblica Hospital. Methods. This is a retrospective observational study that evaluates the consumption of antibiotics for the periods before and during implementation of the Clínica Bíblica Hospital antimicrobial stewardship program, calculated by means of defined daily dose per 1 000 patient-days and days of therapy per 1 000 patient-days. In addition, bacterial resistance patterns for the periods 2014–2015 and 2016–2017 were compared. Results. Consumption of most-used antibiotics was calculated, looking for trends that might be associated with the activities implemented by the Clínica Bíblica Hospital antimicrobial stewardship program. Comparing some of the antibiotics with the highest consumption in periods I and II, use of levofloxacin and ceftriaxone showed a decrease of 54.0% (p < 0.001) and 14.6% (p = 0.003), respectively, whereas there was an increase in the use of cefazolin of 4 539.3% (p < 0.001). Regarding percentage of bacterial resistance, in most bacterial isolates no statistically significant changes were observed between the two periods. Conclusions. A reduction in the overall consumption of antibiotics has been achieved over time, most likely attributable to the antimicrobial stewardship program. However, this trend was not observed for all the antibiotics studied. The pattern of resistance among the commonly isolated microorganisms did not vary greatly between the periods studied, which suggests that either the antimicrobial stewardship program may have prevented an increase in bacterial resistance since its implementation, or that it is too soon to see impact on bacterial resistance.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Medir el impacto de la ejecución de un programa de optimización del uso de antimicrobianos conducido por la farmacia del Hospital Clínica Bíblica. Métodos. En este estudio retrospectivo y de observación se evaluó el consumo de antibióticos antes y después de la ejecución del programa de optimización del uso de antimicrobianos en el Hospital Clínica Bíblica. El consumo se calculó tomando como base la dosis diaria por 1.000 días-paciente y los días de tratamiento por 1.000 días-paciente. Además, se compararon los perfiles de resistencia bacteriana en los períodos 2014-2015 y 2016-2017. Resultados. Se calculó el consumo de los antibióticos más usados para establecer las tendencias que podrían estar relacionados con las actividades ejecutadas por el programa de optimización del uso de antimicrobianos del Hospital Clínica Bíblica. Se compararon algunos de los antibióticos de mayor consumo en los períodos I y II, el uso de la levofloxacina y la ceftriaxona mostró una disminución de 54,0% (p < 0,001) y 14,6% (p = 0,003), respectivamente, mientras que se evidenció un aumento en el uso de la cefazolina de 4.539,3% (p < 0,001). Con respecto al porcentaje de resistencia bacteriana, no se encontró ningún cambio estadísticamente significativo entre los dos períodos para la mayoría de las cepas bacterianas aisladas. Conclusiones. Con el transcurso del tiempo se ha logrado una disminución en el consumo de antibióticos en general, probablemente relacionada con el programa de optimización del uso de antimicrobianos. Sin embargo, esta tendencia no se observó en todos los antimicrobianos analizados. No se evidenció una variación significativa en los patrones de resistencia entre los microorganismos aislados comúnmente entre los períodos comparados, lo que puede significar dos cosas: que el programa de optimización del uso de antimicrobianos podría haber evitado un aumento de resistencia bacteriana desde que se puso en marcha o que es demasiado pronto para que se evidencie un impacto en la resistencia bacteriana.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Mensurar o impacto da implantação de um programa de gerenciamento do uso de antimicrobianos por profissionais farmacêuticos em um hospital particular. Métodos. Trata-se de um estudo observacional retrospectivo para avaliar o uso de antibióticos no período anterior e posterior à implantação do programa de gerenciamento do uso de antimicrobianos no Hospital Bíblica Clínica, em San José, Costa Rica. O consumo dos medicamentos foi calculado com base na dose diária definida por 1.000 pacientes-dia e dias de tratamento por 1.000 pacientes-dia. Foi realizada uma comparação dos padrões de resistência bacteriana entre os períodos 2014–2015 e 2016–2017. Resultados. O consumo dos antibióticos mais utilizados foi calculado visando identificar possíveis tendências associadas às ações do programa de gerenciamento do uso de antimicrobianos implantado no hospital. A comparação do consumo de alguns dos antibióticos mais utilizados no primeiro e no segundo períodos considerados apontou uma redução de 54,0% no uso de levofloxacina (p < 0,001) e 14,6% no uso de ceftriaxona (p = 0,003), com um aumento de 4.539,3% no uso de cefazolina (p < 0,001). Com relação à resistência bacteriana, não se observou variação estatisticamente significativa na maioria dos isolados bacterianos entre os dois períodos. Conclusões. Houve redução no consumo de antibióticos em geral, provavelmente atribuível ao programa de gerenciamento do uso de antimicrobianos. Porém, esta mesma tendência não foi observada para todos os antibióticos estudados. Não houve variação importante no padrão da resistência dos microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados entre os períodos estudados. Isso indica que o programa de gerenciamento do uso de antimicrobianos implantado possivelmente evitou o aumento da resistência bacteriana ou que é ainda muito cedo para se observar o impacto na resistência bacteriana.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Uso de Medicamentos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Costa Rica , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Uso de Medicamentos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141200, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771760

RESUMO

The continuous release of pharmaceuticals from WWTP effluents to freshwater is a matter of concern, due to their potential effects on non-target organisms. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in WWTPs and their associated hazard have been scarcely studied in Latin American countries. This study aimed at monitoring for the first time the occurrence of 70 pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) in WWTPs across Costa Rica; the application of the hazard quotient (HQ) approach coupled to ecotoxicological determinations permitted to identify the hazard posed by specific pharmaceuticals and toxicity of the effluents, respectively. Thirty-three PhACs were found, with 1,7-dimethylxanthine, caffeine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen and gemfibrozil being the most frequently detected (influents/effluents). HQ for specific pharmaceuticals revealed 24 compounds with high/medium hazard in influents, while the amount only decreased to 21 in effluents. The top HQ values were obtained for risperidone, lovastatin, diphenhydramine and fluoxetine (influent/effluent samples), plus caffeine (influent) and trimethoprim (effluent). Likewise, the estimation of overall hazard in WWTP samples (sum of individual HQ, ∑HQ) demonstrated that every influent and 96% of the effluents presented high hazard towards aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicological analysis (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Microtox test) revealed that 16.7% of the effluents presented toxicity towards all benchmark organisms; the phytotoxicity was particularly frequent, as inhibition values ≥20% in the germination index for L. sativa were obtained for all the effluents. The ∑HQ approach estimated the highest hazard in urban wastewater, while the ecotoxicological results showed the highest toxicity in hospital and landfill wastewater. Likewise, ecotoxicological results and ∑HQ values showed a rather poor correlation; instead, better correlations were obtained between ecotoxicological parameters and HQ values for some individual pharmaceuticals such as cephalexin and diphenhydramine. Findings from this study provide novel information on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and the performance of WWTPs in the tropical region of Central America.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , América Central , Costa Rica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise
8.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago. 5, 2020. 4 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116507

RESUMO

Con la intención de abordar la emergencia a nivel de los Territorios Indígenas, el Gobierno de la República convocó a un equipo de trabajo en asuntos indígenas y salud. El equipo está conformado por funcionarias y funcionarios del Ministerio de Salud, la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, la Comisión Nacional de Emergencia, la Comisión Nacional de Asuntos Indígenas, el Ministerio de Justicia y Paz y el Viceministerio de la Presidencia en Asuntos Políticos y Diálogo Ciudadano. Asimismo, cuenta con el apoyo de Sistema de Naciones Unidas en Costa Rica. A partir del trabajo de este equipo, se elabora el "Plan de acción para el abordaje del Covid19 en territorios indígenas", el cual considera como objetivo general implementar acciones estratégicas para la contención, prevención y atención de la emergencia del Covid-19, en los 24 territorios indígenas de Costa Rica, de acuerdo con los lineamientos técnicos para la prevención del Covid-19 en territorios indígenas. Para apoyar integralmente la implementación de este plan, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS), agencia técnica en las temáticas de salud del Sistema de Naciones Unidas, ha iniciado un proceso de contratación de profesionales comunitarios de salud que apoyen el abordaje de la Covid-19 en los territorios indígenas del país.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Costa Rica/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0231187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730267

RESUMO

Little is known of how hurricane-induced deposition of canopy material onto tropical forest floors influences the soil microbial communities involved in decomposition of these materials. In this study, to identify how soil bacterial and fungal communities might change after a hurricane, and their possible roles in the C and N cycles, soils were collected from five 2000 m2 permanent plots in Lowland, Upland and Riparian primary forests in Costa Rica 3 months before and 7 months after Hurricane Otto damaged the forests. The soil Water, inorganic N and Biomass C increased and total organic C decreased Post-Hurricane, all of which best predicted the changes in the Post-Hurricane soil microbial communities. Post-Hurricane soils from all forest types showed significant changes in community composition of total bacteria, total fungi, and five functional groups of microbes (i.e., degrading/lignin degrading, NH4+-producing, and ammonium oxidizing bacteria, and the complex C degrading/wood rot/lignin degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi), along with a decrease in richness in genera of all groups. As well, the mean proportion of DNA sequences (MPS) of all five functional groups increased. There were also significant changes in the MPS values of 7 different fungal and 7 different bacterial genera that were part of these functional groups. This is the first evidence that hurricane-induced deposition of canopy material is stimulating changes in the soil microbial communities after the hurricane, involving changes in specific taxonomic and functional group genera, and reduction in the community richness while selecting for dominant genera possibly better suited to process the canopy material. These changes may represent examples of taxonomic switching of functionally redundant microbial genera in response to dramatic changes in resource input. It is possible that differences in these microbial communities and genera may serve as indicators of disturbed and recovering regional soil ecosystems, and should be evaluated in the future.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Costa Rica , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4263-4270, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Enzymatic variants involved in fluoropyrimidine metabolism have been associated with adverse events (AEs). We assessed the association between C677T (rs1801133) and A1298 (rs1801131) methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and AEs in patients with first-line fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were prospectively followed-up during the first 4 cycles of fluoropyrimidine-based treatment to assess AEs. Germline DNA was analyzed to determine the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms. The associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and toxicity were examined. RESULTS: Individuals carrying at least one mutant allele of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism had increased risk to experience anemia (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.13-2.53, p=0.005), neutropenia (OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.47-3.42, p<0.001) thrombocytopenia (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.30-2.70, p<0.001), neuropathy (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.16-2.70, p=0.02), diarrhea (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.13-2.53, p=0.005), and hand-foot syndrome (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.08-2.27, p=0.013), compared to patients carrying the wild type alleles. The presence of the mutant allele C of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was associated with increased risk of anemia (OR=2.75, 95% CI=1.01-7.48, p=0.02) and thrombocytopenia (OR=3.14, 95% CI=1.01-9.78, p=0.03); however, the prevalence of this allele in the sample was quite low (20%). CONCLUSION: MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms predicted toxicity in a subset of Mestizo patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Costa Rica , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e022019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609245

RESUMO

Trichuris guanacastei n sp., a parasite isolated from the Salvin' spiny mouse Heteromys salvini, collected from the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica, during February 1996 is described. The new species was compared morphologically with the 29 known species that parasitize rodents distributed in 12 families in North and South America; T. guanacastei n. sp. it is characterized by the following set of traits: presence of a spicular tube (measuring 0.72-0.99); thick proximal cloacal tube and a short distal cloacal tube with a total length of 0.72-1.36; eggs 0.03-0.05 long and a semi-protrusible vulva. The new species represents the first one described in the genus in Costa Rica and the fifth one described in the Americas that parasite Heteromyidae.


Assuntos
Roedores , Trichuris , Animais , Costa Rica , Feminino , Roedores/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trichuris/anatomia & histologia , Trichuris/classificação
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 534-542, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193861

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad que afecta en gran medida a la región de las Américas. Esta condición implica un aumento de la morbimortalidad y el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes tipo 2 y algunos tipos de cáncer. La prevalencia de exceso de peso en Costa Rica fue del 59,7 % y del 77,3 % en mujeres de 20 a 44 años y de 45 a 65 años, respectivamente, y del 62,4 % en hombres de 20-65 años en el periodo 2008-2009; sin embargo, se desconoce cómo ha evolucionado esta condición en la última década. OBJETIVO: describir el perfil antropométrico y la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en la población urbana costarricense según características sociodemográficas y nivel de actividad física. MÉTODOS: entre noviembre de 2014 y mayo de 2015 se seleccionó una muestra representativa de la población urbana, conformada por 677 personas entre 20 y 65 años de edad. Se realizaron mediciones de talla, peso, circunferencia de cintura y cuello y se determinó la prevalencia de obesidad y la obesidad abdominal y cervical, según los puntos de corte establecidos para los respectivos indicadores. RESULTADOS: se encontró una prevalencia de exceso de peso (sobrepeso y obesidad) del 68,5 % en la población urbana costarricense, mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres (73,8 %), y en las personas mayores de 35 años (82,2 %). Además, el 70,3 % de la población presentó obesidad abdominal y el 46,8 % presentó una circunferencia de cuello aumentada. CONCLUSIONES: en Costa Rica, la prevalencia de obesidad encontrada es notablemente superior respecto a otras regiones del mundo y se ha incrementado en relación a la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 2008-2009, por lo que su abordaje se hace prioritario con el fin de prevenir la incidencia y prevalencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares y metabólicas y así disminuir su impacto, tanto para la salud del individuo como en los costes implicados en su atención


INTRODUCTION: obesity is a disease that greatly affects the region of the Americas. This condition implies an increase risk of developing serious health outcomes such as cardiometabolic disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. The prevalence of excess weight in Costa Rica was 59.7 % and 77.3 % in women aged 20 to 44 years old and 45 to 65 years old respectively, and 62,4 % in men aged 20-65 years old, in the period of 2008-2009, however, it is unknown how this condition was evolved. OBJECTIVE: to describe the anthropometric profile and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Costa Rican urban population according to sociodemographic characteristics and level of physical activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a representative sample of the urban population was selected between November 2014 and May 2015, comprising 677 people between 20 and 65 years old. Measures of height, weight, and waist and neck circumference were measured and the prevalence of obesity, abdominal and cervical obesity was determined, according to the cut-off points established for each indicator. RESULTS: the prevalence of excess weight (overweight and obesity) was 68.5 % among urban Costa Rican population, being higher for women (73.8 %), and for those participants over 35 years old (82.2 %). A 70.3 % of the population presented abdominal obesity and 46,8 % cervical obesity. CONCLUSIONS: in Costa Rica, the prevalence of obesity found is high compared to other regions of the world and has increased in relation to the National Nutrition Survey 2008-2009. The approach to obesity must be prioritized in order to prevent the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and thus reduce the impact of these diseases on the health of the individual and the economic costs of health care


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Antropometria/métodos , População Urbana , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Costa Rica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 385-390, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549569

RESUMO

Costa Rica undertakes continuous efforts to recover the native population of macaw species through rehabilitation programs for breeding and releasing birds in protected areas. In the summer of 2018, a total of 107 scarlet (Ara macao) and 93 great green (Ara ambigua) macaws were sampled in four wildlife rehabilitation centers in Costa Rica. Fecal samples representing 200 individuals were analyzed for intestinal parasites, and 23 individuals were sampled for hemoparasites. Ascaridia and Capillaria were found in fecal samples. No hemoparasites were found. The distribution of percentage of infection was analyzed by location, species, and housing type. As part of a health screening prior to release, parasitological examination is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Papagaios , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/parasitologia , Incidência , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Mycorrhiza ; 30(4): 513-527, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500441

RESUMO

The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities should reflect not only responses to host and soil environments, but also differences in functional roles and costs vs. benefits among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The coffee agroecosystem allows exploration of the effects of both light and soil fertility on AMF communities, because of the variation in shade and soil nutrients farmers generate through field management. We used high-throughput ITS2 sequencing to characterize the AMF communities of coffee roots in 25 fields in Costa Rica that ranged from organic management with high shade and no chemical fertilizers to conventionally managed fields with minimal shade and high N fertilization, and examined relationships between AMF communities and soil and shade parameters with partial correlations, NMDS, PERMANOVA, and partial least squares analysis. Gigasporaceae and Acaulosporaceae dominated coffee AMF communities in terms of relative abundance and richness, respectively. Gigasporaceae richness was greatest in conventionally managed fields, while Glomeraceae richness was greatest in organic fields. While total AMF richness and root colonization did not differ between organic and conventionally managed fields, AMF community composition did; these differences were correlated with soil nitrate and shade. OTUs differing in relative abundance between conventionally managed and organic fields segregated into four groups: Gigasporaceae associated with high light and nitrate availability, Acaulosporaceae with high light and low nitrate availability, Acaulosporaceae and a single relative of Rhizophagus fasciculatus with shade and low nitrate availability, and Claroideoglomus/Glomus with conventionally managed fields but uncorrelated with shade and soil variables. The association of closely related taxa with similar shade and light availabilities is consistent with phylogenetic trait conservatism in AM fungi.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Café , Costa Rica , Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
MHSalud ; 17(1): 34-48, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091029

RESUMO

Resumen: El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de una intervención motriz basada en el método de descubrimiento guiado sobre los patrones básicos de movimiento de un niño típico. Se contó con la participación de un infante de 9 años que se percibe físicamente activo, practica deportes con regularidad, asiste a la escuela y posee un estado de salud y cognitivo normal. La intervención se aplicó durante 6 semanas, 2 sesiones de evaluación pretest y postest, por medio del instrumento para la evaluación de los patrones básicos de movimiento, y 4 sesiones prácticas de 60 minutos, un día a la semana, durante 4 semanas. Para el análisis de resultados, se utilizó el porcentaje de cambio. Los resultados, luego de la intervención, mostraron mejorías en el porcentaje de cambio, en 4 de los de los patrones locomotores entre el 33.33 % y 300 %; en los patrones manipulativos, entre el 37.5 % y 900 %; así como un mejoramiento del 50 %, en el total de las destrezas locomotoras, y de 85,18%, la totalidad de las destrezas manipulativas. A su vez, tuvo una mejoría global en PBM del 65.08 %. Se concluye que, luego de este estudio de caso, un modelo de intervención motriz basado en el método empleado puede ser una herramienta útil para mejorar las destrezas motoras básicas en la población infantil.


Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of a motor intervention based on the guided discovery method on the basic movement patterns of a typical child. The study involved a 9-year-old child who is physically active, plays sports regularly, attends school, and has normal cognitive and health status. The intervention was applied during six weeks, two pre-test and post-test evaluation sessions through the Instrument for the Evaluation of Basic Movement Patterns, and four practical sessions of 60 minutes, one day a week, for four weeks. For the analysis of results, the percentage change was used. The results after the intervention showed improvements in the percentage of change in four of the locomotive patterns between 33.33% and 300%; in the manipulative patterns between 37.5% and 900%; as well as an improvement of 50% in the total of locomotive skills and 85.18% in the total of manipulative skills. In turn, it had an overall improvement in PBM of 65.08%. It is concluded that after this case study, a model of motor intervention based on the method used can be a useful tool to improve basic motor skills in children.


Resumo: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o efeito de uma intervenção motora baseada no método de descoberta guiada sobre os padrões básicos de movimento de uma criança típica. O estudo envolveu uma criança de 9 anos de idade que é fisicamente ativa, pratica esportes regularmente, frequenta a escola e tem estado cognitivo e de saúde normal. A intervenção foi aplicada durante seis semanas, duas sessões de avaliação pré-teste e pós-teste através do Instrumento de Avaliação de Padrões Básicos de Movimento e quatro sessões práticas de 60 minutos, um dia por semana, durante quatro semanas. Para a análise dos resultados, foi utilizada a mudança percentual. Os resultados após a intervenção mostraram melhora no percentual de mudança em quatro dos padrões locomotivos entre 33,33% e 300%; nos padrões manipulativos entre 37,5% e 900%; bem como melhora de 50% no total de habilidades locomotivas e 85,18% no total de habilidades manipulativas. Por sua vez, teve uma melhora global na PBM de 65,08%. Conclui-se que, após este estudo de caso, um modelo de intervenção motora baseado no método utilizado pode ser uma ferramenta útil para melhorar as habilidades motoras básicas em crianças.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Exercício Físico , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Costa Rica , Aprendizagem , Atividade Motora
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392221

RESUMO

Morphological variation between individuals can increase niche segregation and decrease intraspecific competition when heterogeneous individuals explore their environment in different ways. Among bat species, wing shape correlates with flight maneuverability and habitat use, with species that possess broader wings typically foraging in more cluttered habitats. However, few studies have investigated the role of morphological variation in bats for niche partitioning at the individual level. To determine the relationship between wing shape and diet, we studied a population of the insectivorous bat species Pteronotus mesoamericanus in the dry forest of Costa Rica. Individual diet was resolved using DNA metabarcoding, and bat wing shape was assessed using geometric morphometric analysis. Inter-individual variation in wing shape showed a significant relationship with both dietary dissimilarity based on Bray-Curtis estimates, and nestedness derived from an ecological network. Individual bats with broader and more rounded wings were found to feed on a greater diversity of arthropods (less nested) in comparison to individuals with triangular and pointed wings (more nested). We conclude that individual variation in bat wing morphology can impact foraging efficiency leading to the observed overall patterns of diet specialization and differentiation within the population.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Costa Rica , Ecossistema , Feminino , Voo Animal , Florestas , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Especificidade da Espécie , Asas de Animais/fisiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008235, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287327

RESUMO

Brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus, is a major disease of cattle and humans worldwide distributed. Eradication and control of the disease has been difficult in Central and South America, Central Asia, the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Epidemiological strategies combined with phylogenetic methods provide the high-resolution power needed to study relationships between surveillance data and pathogen population dynamics, using genetic diversity and spatiotemporal distributions. This information is crucial for prevention and control of disease spreading at a local and worldwide level. In Costa Rica (CR), the disease was first reported at the beginning of the 20th century and has not been controlled despite many efforts. We characterized 188 B. abortus isolates from CR recovered from cattle, humans and water buffalo, from 2003 to 2018, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in 95 of them. They were also assessed based on geographic origin, date of introduction, and phylogenetic associations in a worldwide and national context. Our results show circulation of five B. abortus lineages (I to V) in CR, phylogenetically related to isolates from the United States, United Kingdom, and South America. Lineage I was dominant and probably introduced at the end of the 19th century. Lineage II, represented by a single isolate from a water buffalo, clustered with a Colombian sample, and was likely introduced after 1845. Lineages III and IV were likely introduced during the early 2000s. Fourteen isolates from humans were found within the same lineage (lineage I) regardless of their geographic origin within the country. The main CR lineages, introduced more than 100 years ago, are widely spread throughout the country, in contrast to new introductions that seemed to be more geographically restricted. Following the brucellosis prevalence and the farming practices of several middle- and low-income countries, similar scenarios could be found in other regions worldwide.


Assuntos
Brucella abortus/classificação , Brucella abortus/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/microbiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Genótipo , Animais , Brucella abortus/genética , Búfalos , Bovinos , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(19): 24312-24319, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306256

RESUMO

This study investigated the performance of aerobic windrow systems by using coffee by-products and green waste to reduce gaseous emissions. Thereafter, a comparison with the current treatment and gaseous emissions at a Coffee Mill in Costa Rica was made. Two different studies where performed in Germany (pile I and II) and one study in a Coffee Mill in Costa Rica (pile III). Temperature, water content, and pH were the key parameters controlled over 35 days in all the systems. Moreover, CH4 emission rates were quantified by a FTIR and by a portable gas detector device where the emissions reached values 100 times higher when coffee by-products as a unique material for the composting process was used. Results show that highest emission rates during the composting process for pile I was 0.007 g(m2)-1 h-1, for pile II 0.006 g(m2)-1 h-1, and for pile III 3.1 g(m2)-1 h-1. It was found that CH4 emissions could be avoided if the mixture and the formation of the windrow piles were performed following the key parameter for composting, and the usage of additional material is used. With this, the reduction of CH4 emissions at the Mill in Costa Rica could be achieved in the future.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Café , Costa Rica , Alemanha , Metano/análise , Solo
19.
Zootaxa ; 4718(4): zootaxa.4718.4.6, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230007

RESUMO

An ongoing survey for novel phytoplasmas and viruses that affect palms (Arecaceae) and their potential vectors is being conducted in Costa Rica. During that survey, a new species of derbid planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) from the palm Astrocaryum alatum H.F. Loomis was found in Heredia State and is here described as Agoo dahliana sp. n. Omolicna dubia Caldwell and O. latens Fennah were also found on coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) and represent new country records. Sequence data for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) were generated for 9 ingroup (Omolicna Fennah) and 1 outgroup (Neocenchrea Metcalf) taxa; and for 18S ribosomal RNA gene were generated for 8 ingroup plus 2 outgroup taxa (Neocenchrea, Cenchrea Westwood). These data were compiled with available data from GenBank and BOLD for maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction for Omolicna. These results, plus morphological evidence, support changing the status of the genus-group name Agoo Bahder Bartlett from subgenus within Omolicna to full genus, resulting in the new combination of Agoo xavieri Bahder Bartlett. Based on the original description and illustration of the genitalia of Omolicna rubrimarginata Fennah (from Trinidad), we transfer this species to Agoo, creating the combination Agoo rubrimarginata (Fennah), and bringing the total number of species in this genus to three, with A. dahliana sp. n. and A. xavieri currently only known from Costa Rica. Based on both molecular and morphological evidence, O dubia is transferred to Anchimothon Fennah. A key to differentiate the species of Agoo is presented.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Cocos , Costa Rica , Filogenia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4755(1): zootaxa.4755.1.5, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230196

RESUMO

Telebasis rojinegra sp. nov. was recorded from ponds at La Selva Biological Station and three other sites in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. The new species appears closely related to T. boomsmae Garrison, 1994 recorded from Mexico, Belize and Costa Rica, T. collopistes Calvert, 1902 ranging from Mexico to Honduras, and T. garrisoni Bick Bick, 1995 from South America, but differs in having straighter and more elongate paraprocts and a half black pattern on the rear of the head. The female mesostigmal plates are also distinct from the above species. Telebasis rojinegra was active on the water primarily during afternoon hours.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Costa Rica , Feminino
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