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1.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(10): 803-807, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115564

RESUMO

In highly competitive research environments, the ability to access more complex structural spaces efficiently is a predictor of a company's ability to generate novel IP-protected small molecule candidates with adequate properties, hence filling their development pipelines. SpiroChem is consistently developing new synthetic methodologies and strategies to access complex molecular structure, thereby facilitating and accelerating small molecule drug discovery. Pushing the limits of what are perceived as complex molecular structures allows SpiroChem and its clients to unleash creativity and explore meaningful chemical spaces, which are under-exploited sources of novel active molecules. In this article, we explain how we differentiated ourselves in a globalized R&D environment and we provide several snapshots of how efficient methodologies can generate complex structures, rapidly.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Descoberta de Drogas , Desenho de Fármacos , Estrutura Molecular
2.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(5): 17-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064639

RESUMO

Before the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) started sweeping across the United States, it began on the coasts. The first known case was reported in a county just outside of Seattle, WA, with other cases quickly cropping up in California and in the greater New York City region. As the virus lingered on the periphery of the country, doctors and physicians working in inland, rural communities worried about what might happen if the virus hit their homes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Criatividade , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , População Rural , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Voluntários
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19830-19836, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747567

RESUMO

Across eight studies, we tested whether people understand the time course of their own creativity. Prior literature finds that creativity tends to improve across an ideation session. Here we compared people's beliefs against their actual creative performance. Consistent with prior research, we found that people's creativity, on aggregate, remained constant or improved across an ideation session. However, people's beliefs did not match this reality. We consistently found that people expected their creativity to decline over time. We refer to this misprediction as the creative cliff illusion. Study 1 found initial evidence of this effect across an ideation task. We found further evidence in a sample with high domain-relevant knowledge (study 2), when creativity judgments were elicited retrospectively (study 3), and across a multiday study (study 5). We theorized the effect occurs because people mistakenly associate creativity (the novelty and usefulness of an idea) with idea production (the ability to generate an idea). Study 4 found evidence consistent with this mechanism. The creative cliff illusion was attenuated among those with high levels of everyday creative experience (study 6) and after a knowledge intervention that increased awareness of the effect (study 7). Demonstrating the impact of creativity beliefs on downstream performance, study 8 found that declining creativity beliefs negatively influenced task persistence and creative performance, suggesting that people underinvest in ideation. This research contributes to work on prediction in the creative domain and demonstrates the importance of understanding creativity beliefs for predicting creative performance.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Ilusões , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 654-662, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744848

RESUMO

Diminished inhibitory control in cognitive functioning renders people vulnerable to the effects of distracting information. Older adults' decreased ability to ignore information makes them especially susceptible to the disruptive effects of distraction. We show that in the domain of creativity, distraction can have beneficial consequences. In the first study, both younger and older adults generated more creative recipes when presented with distracting information that was congruent with target information, compared to no distracting information, in a subsequent creativity task. This increase in creativity with congruent distraction was preserved, and even slightly enhanced, among older relative to younger adults. In the second study, we sought to replicate and extend our findings to a new task. We found that following exposure to distracting information, older adults generated more creative solutions than younger adults on a subsequent unusual uses for a brick task. Present findings suggest ways that distraction can boost creativity among older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Criatividade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745087

RESUMO

The relationship between mood states and state creativity has long been investigated. Exploring individual differences may provide additional important information to further our understanding of the complex mood-creativity relationship. The present study explored the state-level mood-creativity relationship from the perspective of trait creativity. We employed the experience sampling method (ESM) in a cohort of 56 college students over five consecutive days. The participants reported their state creativity on originality and usefulness dimensions at six random points between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m., along with a 10-item concurrent mood state report. Their trait creativity was measured by the Guildford Alternative Uses Test (AUT) and the Remote Associates Test (RAT). We found moderating effects of the participants' trait creativity on their state-level mood-creativity relationship. Specifically, whereas the positive correlation between positive mood state and originality of state creativity was stronger for the participants with higher AUT flexibility scores, stronger positive correlations between negative mood state and originality of state creativity were observed for individuals with higher AUT originality scores. Our findings provide evidence in support of introducing individual differences to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the mood-creativity link. The results could be of practical value, in developing individualized mood state regulation strategies for promoting state creativity.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Criatividade , Individualidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e175, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772989

RESUMO

Innovation is fundamental to cumulative culture, allowing progressive modification of existing technology. The authors define innovation as an asocial process, uninfluenced by social information. We argue that innovation is inherently social - innovation is frequently the product of modifying others' outputs, and successful innovations are acquired by others. Research should target examination of the cognitive underpinnings of socially-mediated innovations.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Resolução de Problemas , China
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842458

RESUMO

Extant research on work-related identity discrepancy mostly has probed its effects on employees' attitudes and emotions but has paid little attention to its impact on employee behaviors. Drawing on self-discrepancy theory, we examined the influencing mechanism and conditions of work-related identity discrepancy on employee innovation behavior. With data collected from 563 employees who personally experienced leadership transition in the workplace, we found that work-related identity discrepancy predicts employee innovation behavior through workplace anxiety. We also discovered that employees' personality traits-promotion regulatory focus and prevention regulatory focus in particular-can intensify or buffer the negative relationship between work-related identity discrepancy and employee innovation behavior. We further discuss the conceptual and practical implications of these findings.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Criatividade , Relações Interpessoais , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Cultura Organizacional , Inovação Organizacional , Apoio Social
11.
Exp Psychol ; 67(2): 150-159, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729407

RESUMO

Cognition is affected by psychophysiological states. While the influence of stress on cognition has been investigated intensively, less studies have addressed how the opposite of stress, a state of relaxation, affects cognition. We investigated whether the extent of parasympathetic activation is positively related to divergent thinking. Sixty healthy female participants were randomly allocated to a standardized vagus nerve massage (n = 19), a standardized soft shoulder massage (n = 22), or a resting control group (n = 19). Subsequently, participants completed the Alternative Uses Test (AUT), a measure of divergent thinking. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a vagally mediated heart rate variability component, was monitored throughout the experiment. The area under the curve with respect to the increase was calculated for RSA trajectories as an indicator of vagal tone during the relaxing intervention. Regressions tested the effect of vagal tone on AUT outcomes. We found an association between vagal tone and subsequent AUT outcomes. Yet, this association was no longer significant when controlling for the effect of the creative potential of an individual, which was strongly related to AUT outcomes. Being exploratory, we found a positive association between creative potential and vagal tone. These results imply that creative potential might be related to the capacity to relax.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Criatividade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730273

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of risk-taking, exploitation, and exploration on creativity by taking a model-based computational approach to both divergent and convergent thinking as primary ingredients of creativity. We adopted a reinforcement learning framework of Q learning to provide a simple, rigorous account of behavior in the decision-making process and examined the determinants of divergent and convergent thinking. Our findings revealed that risk-taking has positive effects on divergent thinking, but not related to convergent thinking. In particular, divergent thinkers with a high learning capacity were more likely to engage in risk-taking when facing losses than when facing gains. This risk-taking behavior not only contributes to the rapid achievement of learning convergence, but is also associated with high performance in divergent thinking tasks. Conversely, both exploitation and exploration had no significant effects on creativity once these risk attitudes were considered. Moreover, while convergent thinking relied on personality characteristics, it was not associated with risk-taking, exploitation, or exploration.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Q-Sort , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730311

RESUMO

Bodily movements representing abstract concepts (e.g., fluidity) can affect divergent creative thinking. A recent study showed that participants who performed fluid arm movements by tracing curved line-drawings (the fluid condition) subsequently generated a larger number of more original alternative uses for newspapers than did those who traced angular line-drawings (the non-fluid condition). This suggests that fluid movements enhance fluency and originality in divergent creative thinking. To replicate these findings, we employed the same task with a larger Japanese sample. Participants in the fluid condition generated more uses for newspapers than in the non-fluid condition, regardless of confounding variables: mood, subjective difficulty of the tracing, and daily use of newspapers. In contrast to previous findings, there were no effects on originality. Our results suggest that fluidity enacted by arm movements robustly enhances creative fluency, although other factors (e.g., culture) could interfere with its effect on originality.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Criatividade , Movimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726352

RESUMO

Mathematics is often promoted as endowing those who study it with transferable skills such as an ability to think logically and critically or to have improved investigative skills, resourcefulness and creativity in problem solving. However, there is scant evidence to back up such claims. This project tested participants with increasing levels of mathematics training on 11 well-studied rational and logical reasoning tasks aggregated from various psychological studies. These tasks, that included the Cognitive Reflection Test and the Wason Selection Task, are of particular interest as they have typically and reliably eluded participants in all studies, and results have been uncorrelated with general intelligence, education levels and other demographic information. The results in this study revealed that in general the greater the mathematics training of the participant, the more tasks were completed correctly, and that performance on some tasks was also associated with performance on others not traditionally associated. A ceiling effect also emerged. The work is deconstructed from the viewpoint of adding to the platform from which to approach the greater, and more scientifically elusive, question: are any skills associated with mathematics training innate or do they arise from skills transfer?


Assuntos
Criatividade , Inteligência , Lógica , Matemática/educação , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to explore the potentialities of the Photovoice methodology to stimulate critical thinking on Social Determinants of Health. METHOD: an exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative approach, using different steps of the Photovoice methodology. Nursing students obtained photographs in their community, showing Social Determinants of Health, analyzed and classified the photographs, and exposed the results in the Nursing school. The students answered a questionnaire writing their perceptions. The data collected from the questionnaires were qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: 91 students participated in the study. Two main categories emerged from the data: Photovoice is a good methodology to stimulate critical thinking on Social Determinants of Health, and Photovoice is a good methodology to stimulate other skills (expressing beliefs and perceptions, stimulating creativity, developing research skills, strengthening ties with colleagues, and attracting attention). CONCLUSION: we explore the potentialities of the Photovoice methodology. It can be an original, simple and economical tool to stimulate critical thinking on Social Determinants of Health, and to stimulate other skills. Photovoice can be considered in teaching about aspects related to health/care in Nursing students, in order to promote critical thinking of future agents for a change in health.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criatividade , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pensamento
17.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(327): 24-26, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718457

RESUMO

Percussion instruments, creativity and the helping relationship are at the heart of the evolution of a rhythmic expression workshop towards a structure designed for the practice of active music therapy. Thanks to instruments within everyone's reach, the therapy based on sound production, improvisation and creativity enables patients to express themselves, communicate and create links, while constructing an identity.


Assuntos
Musicoterapia/métodos , Percussão/instrumentação , Criatividade , Humanos
18.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(327): 27-30, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718458

RESUMO

Nature and humans are inseparable creators. Since time immemorial, humans have created in nature to express themselves, unburden themselves, heal themselves and transform themselves. By providing the conditions for rediscovering this form of authentic creative expression, land art therapy enables anyone whatever their problem (psychosomatic disorders, psychological pathologies, addictive behaviour, etc.) to liberate their stifled body, to rediscover their vital force, to reconstruct a real link between the body and the mind and to become a subject again.


Assuntos
Terapia pela Arte/métodos , Terapia de Relaxamento , Criatividade , Humanos , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/terapia
19.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 725-726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673016

RESUMO

Gray et al. (2019) proposed a new construct to predict creativity, which they called forward flow, measured as the originality of chained word associations. Chained word associations, however, do not meet the requirements of a test of originality. The items ask for only 1 response when multiple responses are needed to assess originality, and the sequential responding means that the items are not independent as required for a test. Also, the originality of the associations is questionably calculated from the starting word instead of in relation to the preceding cue word. Probably because of these problems, scores on the new construct measured in this way show only weak correlations with scores on standard measures of creativity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criatividade
20.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 727-728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673017

RESUMO

Forward flow is a new measure that quantifies free thought and predicts creativity (Gray et al., 2019). In his comment, Rossiter (2020) raises some conceptual and measurement concerns about this measure. We believe these concerns are specious, resting on fundamental misunderstandings about our aim and approach. This reply clarifies the nature of forward flow and dispels these concerns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criatividade
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