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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110984, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888605

RESUMO

The use of water for drinking and agriculture requires knowledge of its toxicity. In this study, we compared the use of genetically modified bioluminescent (GMB) bacteria whose luminescence increases in the presence of toxicants and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for the characterization of the toxicity of water samples collected from a lake and streams, hydroponic and aquaponic farms, and a wastewater treatment plant. GMB bacteria were used to probe genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species-induced effects in the whole water samples. Unlike GMB bacteria, the use of CHO cells requires XAD resin-based pre-concentration of toxic material present in water samples for the subsequent cytotoxicity assay. In addition to the examination of the toxicity of the water from the different sources, the GMB bacteria were also used to test the XAD extracts diluted to the concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition of the CHO cells. The two biomonitoring tools provided different results when they were used to test the above-mentioned diluted XAD extracts. A pre-concentration procedure based on adsorption by XAD resins with subsequent elution was not sufficient to represent the material responsible for the toxicity of the whole water samples toward the GMB bacteria. Therefore, the use of XAD resin extracts may lead to major underestimates of the toxicity of water samples. Although the toxicity findings obtained using the GMB bacteria and CHO cells may not correlate with each another, the GMB bacteria assay did provide a mechanism-specific biomonitoring tool to probe the toxicity of water samples without a need for the pre-concentration step.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Lagos/análise , Rios , Águas Residuárias/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Hidroponia , Luminescência , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 942-946, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907282

RESUMO

Objective: Aanalysis the effect of booster one dose of hepatitis B vaccine after 21-32 years of primary immunization in Zhengding Country of Hebei Province. Methods: A total of 322 participants who were born between 1986 and 1996, received a full course of primary vaccination with plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), had no experience with booster vaccination, were HBsAg, anti-HBcnegative, had anti-HBs<10 mIU/ml, completed the booster and had laboratory results were enrolled between August 2017 to February 2018. A simple random method was uesd to randomly assigned 322 subjects to two groups, receiving a booster dose of HepB derived from either Saccharomyces cerevisiae ï¼»HepB (SC), (151 cases)ï¼½ or Chinese hamster ovary-derived HepB ï¼»HepB (CHO), (171 cases)ï¼½, the dose was 20 µg. Blood samples were collected 30 days after boosting and quantitatively tested for the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HBs to assess immunological effect. The related influencing factors of GMC and seroconversion rates of anti-HBs were analyzed by multiple linear regression and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The 266 subjects (82.61%) had anti-HBs≥ 10 mIU/ml, and GMC was (131.63±12.94) mIU/ml.The seroconversion rates of anti-HBs in the anti-HBs<2.5 mIU/ml group and 2.5-10 mIU/ml group were 74.54% (161 cases) and 99.06% (105 cases), respectively (P<0.001).The seroconversion rates of anti-HBs after one dose of HepB (CHO) was higher than that of one dose of HepB (SC), the seroconversion rates were 87.13% (149 cases) and 77.48% (117 cases), respectively (P=0.023). Participants boostered with HepB (CHO) was the factor influencing the effect of strengthening immunization compared with boostered with HepB (SC), and OR (95%CI) was 1.91 (1.02-3.56) (P=0.042).Compared with anti-HBs<2.5 mIU/ml, prebooster anti-HBs was between 2.5 mIU/ml and 10 mIU/ml was the related factor of seroconversion rates of anti-HBs after booster immunization, and OR (95%CI) was 36.15 (4.91-266.02) (P<0.001). Conclusion: Participants boostered withone dose of HepB had a good immune response. Pre-booster anti-HBs concentration and a variety of vaccine were related factors of immune response.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Seguimentos , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Imunização Secundária , Vacinação
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4902, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994402

RESUMO

Living cells and tissues experience various complex modes of forces that are important in physiology and disease. However, how different force modes impact gene expression is elusive. Here we apply local forces of different modes via a magnetic bead bound to the integrins on a cell and quantified cell stiffness, chromatin deformation, and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) gene transcription. In-plane stresses result in lower cell stiffness than out-of-plane stresses that lead to bead rolling along the cell long axis (i.e., alignment of actin stress fibers) or at different angles (90° or 45°). However, chromatin stretching and ensuing DHFR gene upregulation by the in-plane mode are similar to those induced by the 45° stress mode. Disrupting stress fibers abolishes differences in cell stiffness, chromatin stretching, and DHFR gene upregulation under different force modes and inhibiting myosin II decreases cell stiffness, chromatin deformation, and gene upregulation. Theoretical modeling using discrete anisotropic stress fibers recapitulates experimental results and reveals underlying mechanisms of force-mode dependence. Our findings suggest that forces impact biological responses of living cells such as gene transcription via previously underappreciated means.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Fibras de Estresse/química , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , Animais , Anisotropia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/genética , Células CHO , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Microscopia Intravital , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Miosina Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo , Fibras de Estresse/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras de Estresse/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(16): 6655-6663, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787225

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an urgent global health emergency, and the presence of Furin site in the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein alters virulence and warrants further molecular, structural, and biophysical studies. Here we report the structure of Furin in complex with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, demonstrating how Furin binds to the S1/S2 region of spike glycoprotein and eventually cleaves the viral protein using experimental functional studies, molecular dynamics, and docking. The structural studies underline the mechanism and mode of action of Furin, which is a key process in host cell entry and a hallmark of enhanced virulence. Our whole-exome sequencing analysis shows the genetic variants/alleles in Furin were found to alter the binding affinity for viral spike glycoprotein and could vary in infectivity in humans. Unravelling the mechanisms of Furin action, binding dynamics, and the genetic variants opens the growing arena of bona fide antibodies and development of potential therapeutics targeting the blockage of Furin cleavage.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Furina/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Virulência/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Células CHO , Domínio Catalítico , Cricetulus , Furina/química , Furina/genética , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hexosaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(20): 127472, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781216

RESUMO

New therapies for treating coronaviruses are urgently needed. A series of 4-anilino-6-aminoquinazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated to show high anti-MERS-CoV activities. N4-(3-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-N6-(3-methoxybenzyl)quinazoline-4,6-diamine (1) has been identified in a random screen as a hit compound for inhibiting MERS-CoV infection. Throughout optimization process, compound 20 was found to exhibit high inhibitory effect (IC50 = 0.157 µM, SI = 25) with no cytotoxicity and moderate in vivo PK properties.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/síntese química , Compostos de Anilina/farmacocinética , Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Animais , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Quinazolinas/síntese química , Quinazolinas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461378, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823092

RESUMO

Downstream processing (DSP) of large bionanoparticles is still a challenge. The present study aims to systematically compare some of the most commonly used DSP strategies for capture and purification of enveloped viruses and virus-like particles (eVLPs) by using the same staring material and analytical tools. As a model, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) gag VLPs produced in CHO cells were used. Four different DSP strategies were tested. An anion-exchange monolith and a membrane adsorber, for direct capture and purification of eVLPs, and a polymer-grafted anion-exchange resin and a heparin-affinity resin for eVLP purification after a first flow-through step to remove small impurities. All tested strategies were suitable for capture and purification of eVLPs. The performance of the different strategies was evaluated regarding its binding capacity, ability to separate different particle populations and product purity. The highest binding capacity regarding total particles was obtained using the anion exchange membrane adsorber (5.3 × 1012 part/mL membrane), however this method did not allow the separation of different particle populations. Despite having a lower binding capacity (1.5 × 1011 part/mL column) and requiring a pre-processing step with flow-through chromatography, Heparin-affinity chromatography showed the best performance regarding separation of different particle populations, allowing not only the separation of HIV-1 gag VLPs from host cell derived bionanoparticles but also from chromatin. This work additionally shows the importance of thorough sample characterization combining several biochemical and biophysical methods in eVLP DSP.


Assuntos
Convecção , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Animais , Ânions , Células CHO , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , HIV-1/ultraestrutura , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Microesferas , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polímeros/química , Porosidade , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Vírion/ultraestrutura
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841274

RESUMO

Chinese hamster ovary cells have been the workhorse for the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Since biochemical, cellular and omics studies are usually affected by the lack of suitable fractionation procedures to isolate compartments from these cells, differential and isopycnic centrifugation based techniques were characterized and developed specially for them. Enriched fractions in intact nuclei, mitochondria, peroxisomes, cis-Golgi, trans-Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were obtained in differential centrifugation steps and subsequently separated in discontinuous sucrose gradients. Nuclei, mitochondria, cis-Golgi, peroxisomes and smooth ER fractions were obtained as defined bands in 30-60% gradients. Despite the low percentage represented by the microsomes of the total cell homogenate (1.7%), their separation in a novel sucrose gradient (10-60%) showed enough resolution and efficiency to quantitatively separate their components into enriched fractions in trans-Golgi, cis-Golgi and ER. The identity of these organelles belonging to the classical secretion pathway that came from 10-60% gradients was confirmed by proteomics. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD019778. Components from ER and plasma membrane were the most frequent contaminants in almost all obtained fractions. The improved sucrose gradient for microsomal samples proved being successful in obtaining enriched fractions of low abundance organelles, such as Golgi apparatus and ER components, for biochemical and molecular studies, and suitable for proteomic research, which makes it a useful tool for future studies of this and other mammalian cell lines.


Assuntos
Microssomos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Animais , Células CHO , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Centrifugação , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Citosol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Ontologia Genética , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/ultraestrutura , Microssomos/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Proteoma/metabolismo , Software , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4160, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814772

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone with important physiological functions. The unique feature of ghrelin is its Serine 3 acyl-modification, which is essential for ghrelin's activity. However, it remains to be elucidated why the acyl-modification of ghrelin is necessary for activity. To address these questions, we solved the crystal structure of the ghrelin receptor bound to antagonist. The ligand-binding pocket of the ghrelin receptor is bifurcated by a salt bridge between E124 and R283. A striking feature of the ligand-binding pocket of the ghrelin receptor is a wide gap (crevasse) between the TM6 and TM7 bundles that is rich in hydrophobic amino acids, including a cluster of phenylalanine residues. Mutagenesis analyses suggest that the interaction between the gap structure and the acyl acid moiety of ghrelin may participate in transforming the ghrelin receptor into an active conformation.


Assuntos
Grelina/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Grelina/química , Grelina/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fenilalanina/química , Fenilalanina/genética , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Receptores de Grelina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
9.
Vaccine ; 38(35): 5653-5658, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651113

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has become a global pandemic responsible for over 2,000,000 confirmed cases and over 126,000 deaths worldwide. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of CHO-expressed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc fusion protein in mice, rabbits, and monkeys as a potential candidate for a COVID-19 vaccine. We demonstrate that the S1-Fc fusion protein is extremely immunogenic, as evidenced by strong antibody titers observed by day 7. Strong virus neutralizing activity was observed on day 14 in rabbits immunized with the S1-Fc fusion protein using a pseudovirus neutralization assay. Most importantly, in <20 days and three injections of the S1-Fc fusion protein, two monkeys developed higher virus neutralizing titers than a recovered COVID-19 patient in a live SARS-CoV-2 infection assay. Our data strongly suggests that the CHO-expressed SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc recombinant protein could be a strong candidate for vaccine development against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/química , Macaca/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Células CHO , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cricetulus , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pandemias , Coelhos
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 202-212, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659469

RESUMO

A variety of methods have been developed for accurate and systematic evaluation of chemical genotoxicity. Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) and 1,3-propane sultone (1,3-PS) have been extensively applied in industrial fields. Although 1,3-PS, but not CAN, has been reported as a potent carcinogen, systematic assessment of the genotoxic properties of these chemicals has not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to establish a decision tree for evaluating genotoxicity based on the good laboratory practices (GLP) system using 1,3-PS and CAN as test chemicals. In vitro studies were performed including the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, and micronucleus assay. We conducted in vivo studies using a combined micronucleus and alkaline comet (MN-CMT) assay and the Pig-a gene mutation assay, which is a promising method for detecting gene mutations in vivo. CAN showed negative responses in all in vitro genotoxicity assays and the in vivo combined MN-CMT assay. Meanwhile, 1,3-PS had positive results in all in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. In this study, we confirmed the genotoxicity of 1,3-PS and CAN using both in vitro and in vivo assays. We propose a decision tree for evaluating chemical-induced genotoxicity.


Assuntos
Cério/toxicidade , Árvores de Decisões , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Tiofenos/toxicidade , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7818-7833, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609828

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor BRCA2 plays a key role in initiating homologous recombination by facilitating RAD51 filament formation on single-stranded DNA. The small acidic protein DSS1 is a crucial partner to BRCA2 in this process. In vitro and in cells (1,2), BRCA2 associates into oligomeric complexes besides also existing as monomers. A dimeric structure was further characterized by electron microscopic analysis (3), but the functional significance of the different BRCA2 assemblies remains to be determined. Here, we used biochemistry and electron microscopic imaging to demonstrate that the multimerization of BRCA2 is counteracted by DSS1 and ssDNA. When validating the findings, we identified three self-interacting regions and two types of self-association, the N-to-C terminal and the N-to-N terminal interactions. The N-to-C terminal self-interaction of BRCA2 is sensitive to DSS1 and ssDNA. The N-to-N terminal self-interaction is modulated by ssDNA. Our results define a novel role of DSS1 to regulate BRCA2 in an RPA-independent fashion. Since DSS1 is required for BRCA2 function in recombination, we speculate that the monomeric and oligomeric forms of BRCA2 might be active for different cellular events in recombinational DNA repair and replication fork stabilization.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína BRCA2/química , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular , Cricetulus , Humanos , Multimerização Proteica
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461237, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709313

RESUMO

The quest for ligands alternative to Protein A for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been pursued for almost three decades. Yet, the IgG-binding peptides known to date still fall short of the host cell protein (HCP) logarithmic removal value (LRV) set by Protein A media (2.5-3.1). In this study, we present an integrated computational-experimental approach leading to the discovery of peptide ligands that provide HCP LRVs on par with Protein A. First, the screening of 60,000 peptide variants was performed using a high-throughput search algorithm to identify sequences that ensure IgG affinity binding. Select sequences WQRHGI, MWRGWQ, RHLGWF, and GWLHQR were then negatively screened in silico against a panel of model HCPs to ensure the selection of peptides with high binding selectivity. Candidate ligands WQRHGI and MWRGWQ were conjugated to chromatographic resins and characterized by isothermal binding and breakthrough assays to quantify static and dynamic binding capacity (Qmax and DBC10%), respectively. The resulting Qmax were 52.6 mg of IgG per mL of adsorbent for WQRHGI and 57.48 mg/mL for MWRGWQ, while the DBC10% (2 minutes residence time) were 30.1 mg/mL for WQRHGI and 36.4 mg/mL for MWRGWQ. Evaluation of the peptides by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) confirmed the binding energy predicted in silico, and an amino acid scanning study corroborated the affinity-like binding activity of the peptides. WQRHGI-WorkBeads resin was finally characterized by purification of a monoclonal antibody from a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture harvest, affording a remarkable HCP LRV of 2.7, and consistent product yield and purity over 100 chromatographic cycles. These results demonstrate the potential of WQRHGI as an effective alternative to Protein A for antibody purification.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Ligantes , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Estafilocócica A/química , Proteína Estafilocócica A/metabolismo
13.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(2): 143-155, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616523

RESUMO

The two-pore domain potassium channel (K2P-channel) THIK-1 has several predicted protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites. In trying to elucidate whether THIK-1 is regulated via PKA, we expressed THIK-1 channels in a mammalian cell line (CHO cells) and used the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) as a pharmacological tool to induce activation of PKA. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we found that THIK-1 currents were inhibited by application of IBMX with an IC50 of 120 µM. Surprisingly, intracellular application of IBMX or of the second messenger cAMP via the patch pipette had no effect on THIK-1 currents. In contrast, extracellular application of IBMX produced a rapid and reversible inhibition of THIK-1. In patch-clamp experiments with outside-out patches, THIK-1 currents were also inhibited by extracellular application of IBMX. Expression of THIK-1 channels in Xenopus oocytes was used to compare wild-type channels with mutated channels. Mutation of the putative PKA phosphorylation sites did not change the inhibitory effect of IBMX on THIK-1 currents. Mutational analysis of all residues of the (extracellular) helical cap of THIK-1 showed that mutation of the arginine residue at position 92, which is in the linker between cap helix 2 and pore helix 1, markedly reduced the inhibitory effect of IBMX. This flexible linker region, which is unique for each K2P-channel subtype, may be a possible target of channel-specific blockers. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The potassium channel THIK-1 is strongly expressed in the central nervous system. We studied the effect of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) on THIK-1 currents. IBMX inhibits breakdown of cAMP and thus activates protein kinase A (PKA). Surprisingly, THIK-1 current was inhibited when IBMX was applied from the extracellular side of the membrane, but not from the intracellular side. Our results suggest that IBMX binds directly to the channel and that the inhibition of THIK-1 current was not related to activation of PKA.


Assuntos
1-Metil-3-Isobutilxantina/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/química , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina/genética , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Ratos , Xenopus
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 18079-18090, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647060

RESUMO

Ion channels in excitable cells function in macromolecular complexes in which auxiliary proteins modulate the biophysical properties of the pore-forming subunits. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive HCN4 channels are critical determinants of membrane excitability in cells throughout the body, including thalamocortical neurons and cardiac pacemaker cells. We previously showed that the properties of HCN4 channels differ dramatically in different cell types, possibly due to the endogenous expression of auxiliary proteins. Here, we report the discovery of a family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane proteins that associate with and modulate HCN4. Lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (LRMP, Jaw1) and inositol trisphosphate receptor-associated guanylate kinase substrate (IRAG, Mrvi1, and Jaw1L) are homologous proteins with small ER luminal domains and large cytoplasmic domains. Despite their homology, LRMP and IRAG have distinct effects on HCN4. LRMP is a loss-of-function modulator that inhibits the canonical depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of HCN4 in response to the binding of cAMP. In contrast, IRAG causes a gain of HCN4 function by depolarizing the basal voltage dependence in the absence of cAMP. The mechanisms of action of LRMP and IRAG are independent of trafficking and cAMP binding, and they are specific to the HCN4 isoform. We also found that IRAG is highly expressed in the mouse sinoatrial node where computer modeling predicts that its presence increases HCN4 current. Our results suggest important roles for LRMP and IRAG in the regulation of cellular excitability, as tools for advancing mechanistic understanding of HCN4 channel function, and as possible scaffolds for coordination of signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Cricetulus , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/química , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Família Multigênica , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiologia , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiopatologia
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 88-96, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629073

RESUMO

The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes a tetrameric potassium channel called Kv11.1. This channel can be blocked by certain drugs, which leads to long QT syndrome, causing cardiotoxicity. This is a significant problem during drug development. Using computer models to predict compound cardiotoxicity during the early stages of drug design will help to solve this problem. In this study, we used a dataset of 1865 compounds exhibiting known hERG inhibitory activities as a training set. Thirty cardiotoxicity classification models were established using three machine learning algorithms based on molecular fingerprints and molecular descriptors. Through using these models as the base classifier, a new cardiotoxicity classification model with better predictive performance was developed using ensemble learning method. The accuracy of the best base classifier, which was generated using the XGBoost method with molecular descriptors, was 84.8 %, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.876 in the five fold cross-validation. However, all of the ensemble models that we developed had higher predictive performance than the base classifiers in the five fold cross-validation. The best predictive performance was achieved by the Ensemble-Top7 model, with accuracy of 84.9 % and AUC of 0.887. We also tested the ensemble model using external validation data and achieved accuracy of 85.0 % and AUC of 0.786. Furthermore, we identified several hERG-related substructures, which provide valuable information for designing drug candidates.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio ERG1/antagonistas & inibidores , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mapeamento de Peptídeos/métodos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Células CHO , Cardiotoxicidade , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
16.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102890, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) shares approximately 80% whole genome sequence identity and 66% spike (S) protein identity with that of SARS-CoV. The cross-neutralization between these viruses is currently not well-defined. METHODS: Here, by using the live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection assay as well as HIV-1 based pseudotyped-virus carrying the spike (S) gene of the SARS-CoV-2 (ppSARS-2) and SARS-CoV (ppSARS), we examined whether infections with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 can induce cross-neutralizing antibodies. FINDINGS: We confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 infects cells via angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor for SARS-CoV, and we also found that the recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein of SARS-CoV effectively inhibits ppSARS-2 entry in Huh7.5 cells. However, convalescent sera from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 patients showed high neutralizing activity only against the homologous virus, with no or limited cross-neutralization activity against the other pseudotyped virus. Similar results were also observed in vaccination studies in mice. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates that although both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use ACE2 as a cellular receptor, the neutralization epitopes are not shared by these two closely-related viruses, highlighting challenges towards developing a universal vaccine against SARS-CoV related viruses. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China, the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, and the One Belt and One Road Major Project for infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vírus da SARS/genética , Homologia de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140964, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717603

RESUMO

Urban road stormwater reuse is one of the most important ways to mitigate water resource shortage. Generally, stormwater is stored prior to reuse or further treatment. This study explored the stormwater toxicity variability during two types of storages, closed and open storages using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), which are mammalian cells. The toxicity test by CHO cells can indirectly represent the risk related to human health. Both rainfall (without reaching ground surfaces) and urban road stormwater were collected to undertake laboratory-scaled storage experiments and basic water quality parameters (pH and dissolved oxygen), microorganisms (E.coli and total bacteria), total organic carbon and heavy metals (copper, Cu, zinc, Zn, nickel, Ni, chromium, Cr, cadmium, Cd and lead, Pb) were also investigated during storage processes. The outcomes showed that rainfall has a better water quality with lower toxicity than urban road stormwater (EC50 values of rainfall were generally twice higher than road stormwater). Additionally, it is found that storing road stormwater for a certain period would reduce the toxicity and hence improve their reuse safety (EC50 values in Day 1 were 10.30 mL and 8.46 mL for closed and open storage respectively while they were 14.3 mL and 13.0 mL in Day 7). Organic matters and Cu are important contributors of toxicity during both closed and open storages while bacteria is also essential in toxicity contribution in open storage. The research results implied that storing stormwater for a certain period has a benefit for reuse safety. This is related to cost-effectiveness in terms of treatment system design to avoid over engineering. Additionally, it is suggested that for reducing toxicity, the stormwater treatment designed before/after storage devices should focus on removal of organic matters and heavy metals (specially Cu) as well as restraining bacteria growth.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água , Animais , Células CHO , China , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chuva , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2864, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513920

RESUMO

Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial pathogen that utilises a Type IV secretion (T4S) system to inject effector proteins into human macrophages. Essential to the recruitment and delivery of effectors to the T4S machinery is the membrane-embedded T4 coupling complex (T4CC). Here, we purify an intact T4CC from the Legionella membrane. It contains the DotL ATPase, the DotM and DotN proteins, the chaperone module IcmSW, and two previously uncharacterised proteins, DotY and DotZ. The atomic resolution structure reveals a DotLMNYZ hetero-pentameric core from which the flexible IcmSW module protrudes. Six of these hetero-pentameric complexes may assemble into a 1.6-MDa hexameric nanomachine, forming an inner membrane channel for effectors to pass through. Analysis of multiple cryo EM maps, further modelling and mutagenesis provide working models for the mechanism for binding and delivery of two essential classes of Legionella effectors, depending on IcmSW or DotM, respectively.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Legionella pneumophila/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Especificidade por Substrato , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/química , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/isolamento & purificação
19.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1041-1050, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597055

RESUMO

In recent years, the demand of biologics has increased rapidly. Cell culture process with perfusion mode has become more and more popular due to its high productivity, good quality and high efficiency. In this paper, the unique operation and the details of process optimization for perfusion culture mode are discussed by comparing with traditional batch culture process. Meanwhile, the progress and strategies in the development and optimization of perfusion culture process in recent years are summarized to provide reference for the future development of mammalian cell perfusion culture technology.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Reatores Biológicos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/tendências , Reatores Biológicos/normas , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Mamíferos , Perfusão
20.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1209-1215, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597070

RESUMO

Bioreactors have been central in monoclonal antibodies and vaccines manufacturing by mammalian cells in suspension culture. Numerical simulation of five impeller combinations in a stirred bioreactor was conducted, and characteristics of velocity vectors, distributions of gas hold-up, distributions of shear rate in the bioreactor using 5 impeller combinations were numerically elucidated. In addition, genetically engineered CHO cells were cultivated in bioreactor installed with 5 different impeller combinations in fed-batch culture mode. The cell growth and antibody level were directly related to the maximum shear rate in the bioreactor, and the highest viable cell density and the peak antibody level were achieved in FBMI3 impeller combination, indicating that CHO cells are sensitive to shear force produced by impeller movement when cells were cultivated in bioreactor at large scale, and the maximum shear rate would play key roles in scaling-up of bioreactor at industrial scale.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Reatores Biológicos , Simulação por Computador , Microbiologia Industrial , Animais , Reatores Biológicos/normas , Células CHO , Contagem de Células , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Microbiologia Industrial/instrumentação , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos
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