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1.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VIII(1): 3-6, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694393

RESUMO

Shraddha Walkar's horrific murder has rekindled the urgent issue of domestic violence and violence against women in India [1]. With women's bodies often becoming part of a larger ideological and political narrative, Walkar's brutal murder was given a communal turn due to the interfaith nature of the relationship. The most visible manifestation of this was the attack by members of the Hindu Sena on the accused, Aaftab, while being taken from the forensic lab to Tihar jail [2], in the name of "protecting their women". The other line of attack was on live-in relationships as somehow being responsible for this violence. As feminist Urvashi Butalia [3] says, rather than acknowledging that mistakes in relationships can occur tragically, in all contexts, irrespective of who chooses the partner - the woman or her family - and across religion, class, or caste, there is a tendency to start challenging women's choices and imposing a "lesson": "Do not make your own decisions, abide by what the family says, we know better than you what you want". She also notes the UN Office on Drugs and Crimes estimate that nearly six out of every ten women (58%) who are intentionally killed, worldwide, are murdered by intimate partners or family members [3]. Marital rape is not even legally considered rape in India, and violent lynchings are often the response to women's choices.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Feminino , Humanos , Polícia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Crime
2.
Inj Prev ; 29(1): 91-100, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600522

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Costs related to criminal justice are an important component of the economic burden of injuries; such costs could include police involvement, judicial and corrections costs, among others. If the literature has sufficient information on the criminal justice costs related to injury, it could be added to existing estimates of the economic burden of injury. OBJECTIVE: To examine research on injury-related criminal justice costs, and what extent cost information is available by type of injury. DATA SOURCES: Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts ProQuest, EconLit and National Criminal Justice Reference Service were searched from 1998 to 2021. DATA EXTRACTION: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed for data reporting. RESULTS: Overall, 29 studies reported criminal justice costs and the costs of crime vary considerably. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates possible touchpoints for cost inputs and outputs in the criminal justice pathway, providing a useful conceptualisation for better estimating criminal justice costs of injury in the future. However, better understanding of all criminal justice costs for injury-related crimes may provide justification for prevention efforts and potentially for groups who are disproportionately affected. Future research may focus on criminal justice cost estimates from injuries by demographics to better understand the impact these costs have on particular populations.


Assuntos
Crime , Direito Penal , Humanos , Polícia
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278194, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656817

RESUMO

The contribution of mental illness, substance use, and appetitive aggression to recidivism has significant policy and practice implications. Offenders with untreated mental illness have a higher recidivism rate and a greater number of criminogenic risk factors than those without mental illness. Previous research has demonstrated that the likelihood of appetitive aggression increases in violent contexts where individuals perpetrate aggressive acts. Using the Ecological Systems Theory, this study investigated the association between mental health disorders and recidivism among incarcerated adult offenders in South Africa, and the intervening role of appetitive aggression and substance use. Using a cross-sectional quantitative research design, a sample of 280 incarcerated male and female adult offenders aged 18-35 with no known psychiatric disorders were sampled at a correctional facility in South Africa. The re-incarceration rate, mental health disorders, substance use, and appetitive aggression symptomology were assessed using the Hopkins symptoms checklist, the CRAFFT measure of substance use, and the appetitive aggression scale. Findings indicate a 32.4% recidivism rate (n = 82). Cluster analysis indicated that the combination of anxiety, depression, substance use, and appetitive aggression increased the likelihood of recidivism. Appetitive aggression median differences between clusters 2 and 3 played a key role in distinguishing recidivism risk among recidivist and non-recidivist participants. Chi-square analysis highlighted group differences in education levels among the established clusters [x2 (3, n = 217) = 12.832, p = .005, which is < .05] as well as group differences in the type of criminal offence [x2 (3, n = 187) = 24.362, p = .000, which is < .05] and cluster membership. Combined factors that increase the likelihood of recidivism provide a typology for classifying offenders based on particular recidivism risk determinants, which offers insights for developing tailored interventions that address a combination of factors.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Reincidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Criminosos/psicologia , Saúde Mental , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674272

RESUMO

Modern environmental philosophy is a new type of philosophy for humans re-examining the relationship between man and nature and provides the value guidance for modern environmental law. China's environmental crime legislation has gone through the exploration period, establishment period, and optimization period. The environmental philosophy behind this is worth discussing and determines the direction China will take environmental crime in the future and whether China's environmental strategy can really be implemented. At present, the disputes about the environmental philosophy of environmental crime in China are mainly reflected in the contention between anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, and eco-anthropocentrism. There are radical risks of pure human centrism or pure ecological centrism, and these two theories struggle to serve as a value basis for environmental crime legislation. Although eco-anthropocentrism seems to be comprehensive, it is actually ambiguous, and it is still difficult to deal with the conflict between people and nature. In recent years, China has continuously emphasized the construction of ecological civilization construction and written this into the constitution. Therefore, in the environmental philosophy issues of environmental crimes in China, we should consider absorbing the advantages of anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, and eco-anthropocentrism, while taking the original Chinese ecological civilization philosophy as the value foundation.


Assuntos
Civilização , Filosofia , Humanos , Crime , China
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20222270, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629103

RESUMO

Ivory poaching continues to threaten African elephants. We (1) used criminology theory and literature evidence to generate hypotheses about factors that may drive, facilitate or motivate poaching, (2) identified datasets representing these factors, and (3) tested those factors with strong hypotheses and sufficient data quality for empirical associations with poaching. We advance on previous analyses of correlates of elephant poaching by using additional poaching data and leveraging new datasets for previously untested explanatory variables. Using data on 10 286 illegally killed elephants detected at 64 sites in 30 African countries (2002-2020), we found strong evidence to support the hypotheses that the illegal killing of elephants is associated with poor national governance, low law enforcement capacity, low household wealth and health, and global elephant ivory prices. Forest elephant populations suffered higher rates of illegal killing than savannah elephants. We found only weak evidence that armed conflicts may increase the illegal killing of elephants, and no evidence for effects of site accessibility, vegetation density, elephant population density, precipitation or site area. Results suggest that addressing wider systemic challenges of human development, corruption and consumer demand would help reduce poaching, corroborating broader work highlighting these more ultimate drivers of the global illegal wildlife trade.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Animais , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , África , Crime , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(2): 421-435, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651397

RESUMO

This study compares temporal trends in violent deaths of children and adolescents and analyzes differences in incidents of violence classified and not classified as a crime. We analyzed data from the Mortality Information System and State of Maranhão Public Security Department for the period 2014 to 2020. Child and adolescent were defined as aged 0-11 and 12-17 years old, respectively. Types of violence were organized according to the groups, subgroups, and types of crimes set out in Brazil's penal code. A total of 1,326 deaths and 8,187 incidents of violence were reported, both of which were more frequent in adolescents. The most frequent types of violence in children and adolescentes, respectively, were: abduction of incapable persons (p < 0.001), abandonment of incapable persons (p = 0.045), rape of vulnerable persons (p = 0.003); homicides (p < 0.001), crimes against individual freedom (p = 0.004), crimes against sexual freedom (p < 0.001), psychological violence (p = 0.034). Domestic violence with bodily harm was more frequent in girls (p < 0.001), while severe bodily harm (p=0.002), homicide (p < 0.001), and harassment (p < 0.001) were more frequent in boys. The findings reveal differences over time in deaths and incidents of violence classified and not classified as crime among both children and adolescents.


O presente estudo compara tendências temporais de óbitos por violências contra crianças e adolescentes e analisa diferenças em ocorrências tipificadas ou não como crimes. Foram analisados dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e da Secretaria de Segurança Pública do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, de 2014-2020. Crianças e adolescentes foram definidos respectivamente como pessoas com 0-11 e 12-17 anos. Tipos de violências foram organizados segundo grupos, subgrupos e tipos penais do Código Penal Brasileiro. Foram contabilizados 1.326 óbitos e 8.187 ocorrências, mais frequentes na adolescência. Subtração de incapazes (p < 0,001), abandono de incapaz (p = 0,045) e estupro de vulnerável (p = 0,003) predominaram na infância. Homicídios (p < 0,001), crimes contra a liberdade individual (p = 0,004), crimes contra a liberdade sexual (p < 0,001) e violência psicológica (p = 0,034) foram mais frequentes na adolescência. Violência doméstica com lesão corporal predominou no sexo feminino (p < 0,001). Lesões corporais graves (p = 0,002), homicídios (p < 0,001) e constrangimento ilegal (p < 0,001) vitimizaram mais adolescentes do sexo masculino. Houve diferenças temporais em óbitos e ocorrências de violências contra crianças e adolescentes, assim como em características de violências tipificadas ou não como crimes.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Suicídio , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Vigilância da População , Homicídio , Crime
8.
Sci Justice ; 63(1): 109-115, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631175

RESUMO

Field research within latent print comparison has remained sparse in the context of an otherwise growing body of literature examining the discipline. Studies examining how ACE-V procedures are implemented within active crime laboratories are especially lacking in light of research suggesting significant variability in examiner practices despite standardized ACE-V procedures. To date, no studies have examined a potentially important aspect of the Analysis phase: digital image editing. We provide information on the prevalence and types of latent print image editing within one laboratory (i.e., Houston Forensic Science Center), examine the potential effect of image editing on objective print quality and clarity (i.e., LQMetrics scores), and explore potential examiner differences in editing effectiveness. Results indicate that most latent prints are edited in some manner, and that image editing improves the quality and clarity of print images as defined by an objective quality metric, although examiners varied in their ability to improve the clarity of print images. Findings suggest that formal guidance or documentation of standard editing procedures would likely improve the reliability of examiner conclusions early in the latent print comparison process.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Laboratórios , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Crime , Ciências Forenses/métodos
9.
Sci Justice ; 63(1): 127-134, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631177

RESUMO

Forensic light sources, such as a Crime-lite, are used in forensic laboratories and by police staff in the examination for, and detection of, biological material. Whilst the benefits of using forensic light sources are relatively well understood, their limitations are less-so. This report details the outcome of studies, validation and review by three forensic laboratories, as well as three case examples, to highlight both the strengths and weaknesses of the tested forensic light sources and to demonstrate that, whilst a useful preliminary screening tool, they should not be used in isolation without subsequent presumptive chemical testing. False positives and negatives are common, and the background substrate and specific biological material present can have a significant effect on the outcome of examination when using a forensic light source.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Sêmen , Humanos , Crime , Polícia
11.
Biol Psychol ; 176: 108476, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496191

RESUMO

Previous studies have posited that the significance of a crime-relevant item in a question produces differential physiological responses in the Concealed Information Test (CIT). However, this term is equivocal and needs to be clarified in order to strengthen the theoretical underpinnings of the CIT. The present study examined the hypothesis that differential responding depends on the examinee's understanding of which item in a question is relevant to a given context. Participants performed a mock theft task, in which they were instructed to steal one item from each of two different locations. An identical CIT question asking about each stolen item was presented under different location contexts while skin conductance response, heart rate, and respiratory activity were recorded. Results indicated that only the relevant item specified by the context of the instruction elicited reliable differential physiological responses. This finding implies that differential responding in the CIT is flexible and context-dependent, and that specifying the subject of a given question is important for detecting crime-relevant memories in practical criminal investigations.


Assuntos
Detecção de Mentiras , Humanos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Crime , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Decepção
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 243: 109734, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma and mental disorders increase the risk of opioid dependence. We aimed to examine whether childhood trauma and mental disorders are associated with opioid agonist treatment (OAT) engagement, contact with the criminal justice system, and mortality among people with opioid dependence. METHODS: This observational study linked survey data from 1482 people receiving OAT in Sydney, Australia (2004-2008) to administrative data on OAT, crime, and mortality through 2017. We used survey data to assess childhood trauma, depression, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder, anti-social personality disorder (ASPD), and comorbid substance dependence. We used discrete-time analysis to examine time from opioid dependence onset to OAT entry and mortality. Poisson regressions were used to analyze time receiving OAT and number of charges. RESULTS: Participants with extensive childhood trauma histories and ASPD were less likely to enter OAT and those with depression were more likely to enter OAT in any given year after opioid dependence onset. Panic disorder, PTSD, and borderline personality disorder were associated with less time in OAT. Extensive histories of childhood trauma, PTSD, ASPD, and comorbid substance dependence increased risk of charges for any offence. There were no significant associations between the exposure variables and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that childhood trauma and mental disorders increase the risk of adverse treatment and social outcomes among people with opioid dependence. Interventions that aim to reduce harm among people with opioid dependence may consider the effect of childhood trauma and mental disorders on OAT engagement and crime.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Direito Penal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Crime
13.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 86: 101855, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521279

RESUMO

Much epidemiological evidence converges in identifying distinct types of individuals suffering from schizophrenia who exhibit aggressive behavior: those with and those without a history of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood or adolescence. In this study a sample of Greek forensic patients suffering from psychotic disorders was examined regarding demographic, clinical, legal and psychometric characteristics. All patients had committed a crime and were found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRIs) in a court of law. This study aims to clarify whether history of conduct disorder leads to greater violence or shapes the index offense in some way. It also aims to examine new parameters, such as psychopathology, personality traits, substance abuse and risk assessment, not included in the relevant literature so far, and whether they are relevant and why in this specific group of patients. The sample was divided in two groups depending on the history of CD or not, and subsequently statistically significant differences were explored between the groups. The research aimed to highlight specific characteristics of both groups with the ultimate goal of making more accurate prognosis regarding risk assessment, as well as determining different needs for treatment in each group (e.g. drug abuse). Overall, 78 forensic psychiatric records of NGRI offenders were identified throughout a five-year period in the Psychiatric Hospital of Thessaloniki (January 2015 to January 2020), who were divided into two groups depending on the history of conduct disorder in childhood or adolescence (N = 30) or not (N = 48). The two groups were compared regarding hostility and aggression (with the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire-HDHQ and the Aggression Questionnaire), personality traits (with the Zuckerman- Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-ZKPQ), dangerousness (with the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management 20- HCR-20 scale), addiction (with the Addiction Severity Index-ASI), previous violent behavior or convictions (with a semi-structured tool), and psychopathology current and at the time of the index (with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale-PANSS). Comparing the two groups (with CD history vs. without CD history) we found that patients with a history of conduct disorder had significantly higher compulsory hospitalization rates up to the time of the perpetration of the offense and a significantly higher rate of illicit drug use. While they were more likely to exhibit violent behavior before the index offense, it was noted that they committed fewer crimes against life. They were younger at the index offense and they presented with more severe positive symptomatology at the time of the research and a steadily high risk assessment score. Our findings underline the importance of diagnosing CD in early life and subsequently raising awareness when this individual develops schizophrenic disorder, thus emphasizing the need for appropriately targeted interventions in each case. Our research also illustrates that forensic patients with both schizophrenia and a history of conduct disorder before the age of 15 exhibit more severe psychopathology after the index crime even after long hospitalization and treatment. Our findings illustrate that the diagnosis of CD in psychotic offenders found not guilty by reason of insanity affects their dangerousness in general, but not the severity of the crimes committed.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade , Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
14.
Prev Med ; 166: 107379, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495926

RESUMO

Violence against women is rampant in China. Even though meaningful strides have been made in the country, it remains disturbingly common for men to assault women-verbally or physically, who may or may not be their partners-in broad daylight in China. To make the situation worse, COVID-19, along with its restrictions, has both undermined women's ability to escape from abuse or violence and society's ability to provide timely help to victims. In light of the rising violence against women post-COVID, in this paper, we discuss the policy imperatives for countries like China to establish effective guardrails and support systems to protect women from the dehumanizing and destabilizing crime that is violence against women-a social malaise that not only harms and undermines the safety of society's daughters, mothers, and grandmothers, but also the integrity of local communities and social contract, let along shared humanity and global solidarity at large.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência Doméstica , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Violência , Crime , Políticas , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle
15.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 52(9): 3909-3918, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553292

RESUMO

Video modeling was used to teach children with autism spectrum disorder how to respond to taped stranger lure scenarios and in-situ stranger lures. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess treatment effects. Measures consisted of reported verbal and motor responses to three abduction scenarios and actual responses to stranger lures planted near the children's therapy program and within the children's communities. Each child displayed increases in appropriate responses to taped abduction scenarios and in-situ stranger lures post-treatment. One year following the intervention 90% of the participants maintained and generalized the skills. This study indicated that children with ASD could learn to respond to taped stranger lure scenarios and correspondingly demonstrate these skills in situ and maintain these skills for at least one year following treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Crime/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Aprendizagem
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2244922, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36469319

RESUMO

Importance: Recreational cannabis legalization (RCL) has been advocated as a way to reduce the number of individuals interacting with the US criminal justice system; in theory, however, cannabis decriminalization can achieve this objective without generating the negative public health consequences associated with RCL. It is still unclear whether RCL can bring additional benefits in terms of reducing cannabis possession arrests in states that have already decriminalized cannabis. Objective: To examine whether RCL was associated with changes in cannabis possession arrests in US states that had already decriminalized cannabis during the study period and whether these changes differed across age and racial subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated cross-sectional study used cannabis possession arrest data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCRP) for US states from 2010 through 2019. Statistical analysis was conducted from October 6, 2021, to October 12, 2022. Exposures: Implementation of statewide RCL. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cannabis possession arrest rates per 1000 population per year were assessed with a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design and were used to estimate the association of RCL with arrest rates in RCL states that had or had not decriminalized cannabis before RCL. This association was also examined in subgroups for age (adults vs youths) and race (Black vs White). Results: This study included UCRP data for 31 US states, including 9 states that implemented RCL during the study period (4 without and 5 with decriminalization) and 22 non-RCL states. In the 4 states that had not decriminalized cannabis before legalization, RCL was associated with a 76.3% decrease (95% CI, -81.2% to -69.9%) in arrest rates among adults. In the 5 states that had already decriminalized cannabis, RCL was still associated with a substantial decrease in adult arrest rates (-40.0%; 95% CI, -55.1% to -19.8%). There was no association of RCL with changes in arrest rates among youths. In addition, changes in arrest rates associated with RCL did not differ among Black and White individuals. Conclusions and Relevance: In this repeated cross-sectional study, RCL was associated with a sizable reduction in cannabis possession arrests among adults in states that had already decriminalized cannabis during the study period (2010-2019), albeit the magnitude was smaller compared with states that had not decriminalized cannabis before RCL. In addition, RCL did not seem to be associated with changes in arrest rates among youths or disparities in arrest rates among Black and White individuals.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Legislação de Medicamentos , Aplicação da Lei , Crime
17.
Forensic Toxicol ; 40(2): 215-233, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since the 1980s, the detection sensitivity of mass spectrometers has increased by improving the analysis of drugs in hair. Accordingly, the number of hair strands required for the analysis has decreased. The length of the hair segment used in the analysis has also shortened. In 2016, micro-segmental hair analysis (MSA), which cuts a single hair strand at a 0.4-mm interval corresponding to a hair growth length of approximately one day, was developed. The advantage of MSA is that the analytical results provide powerful evidence of drug use in the investigation of drug-related crimes and detailed information about the mechanism of drug uptake into hair. This review article focuses on the MSA technique and its applications in forensic toxicology. METHODS: Multiple databases, such as SciFinder, PubMed, and Google, were utilized to collect relevant reports referring to MSA and drug analysis in hair. The experiences of our research group on the MSA were also included in this review. RESULTS: The analytical results provide a detailed drug distribution profile in a hair strand, which is useful for examining the mechanism of drug uptake into hair in detail. Additionally, the analytical method has been used for various scenarios in forensic toxicology, such as the estimation of days of drug consumption and death. CONCLUSIONS: The detailed procedures are summarized so that beginners can use the analytical method in their laboratories. Moreover, some application examples are presented, and the limitations of the current analytical method and future perspectives are described.


Assuntos
Análise do Cabelo , Cabelo , Toxicologia Forense , Crime , Transporte Biológico
18.
Science ; 378(6623): 934-935, 2022 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454837

RESUMO

Alleged Cambodian smuggling ring poses dangers to wild macaques and the drug studies they're used in.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Crime , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Macaca fascicularis , Animais , Camboja
19.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278463, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454964

RESUMO

Street-level crime maps are publicly available online in England and Wales. However, there was initial resistance to the publication of such fine-grained crime statistics, which can lower house prices and increase insurance premiums in high crime neighbourhoods. Identifying the causal effect of public crime statistics is difficult since crime statistics generally mirror actual crime. To address this question empirically, we would ideally experiment and introduce a source of random variation in the crime statistics. For instance, we could randomly increase or decrease the number of offences displayed in crime statistics and measure their effects on local house prices. For obvious reasons, we cannot pursue this research design. However, street-level crime maps contain intentional errors, which are the product of a geomasking algorithm designed to mask the location of crimes and protect the identity of victims. This project leverages features associated with the geomasking algorithm to estimate the effect of public crime statistics on house prices.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Crime , Algoritmos , Inglaterra , País de Gales
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(24)2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36560385

RESUMO

(1) Background: The research area of video surveillance anomaly detection aims to automatically detect the moment when a video surveillance camera captures something that does not fit the normal pattern. This is a difficult task, but it is important to automate, improve, and lower the cost of the detection of crimes and other accidents. The UCF-Crime dataset is currently the most realistic crime dataset, and it contains hundreds of videos distributed in several categories; it includes a robbery category, which contains videos of people stealing material goods using violence, but this category only includes a few videos. (2) Methods: This work focuses only on the robbery category, presenting a new weakly labelled dataset that contains 486 new real-world robbery surveillance videos acquired from public sources. (3) Results: We have modified and applied three state-of-the-art video surveillance anomaly detection methods to create a benchmark for future studies. We showed that in the best scenario, taking into account only the anomaly videos in our dataset, the best method achieved an AUC of 66.35%. When all anomaly and normal videos were taken into account, the best method achieved an AUC of 88.75%. (4) Conclusion: This result shows that there is a huge research opportunity to create new methods and approaches that can improve robbery detection in video surveillance.


Assuntos
Crime , Roubo , Humanos , Benchmarking , Gravação de Videoteipe
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