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2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110033, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812085

RESUMO

Three vehicles with trunks containing pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Erxleben) carcasses which had been allowed to decompose for 30 days, were set alight in controlled burns to determine whether forensically valuable insect evidence could still be recovered. Each car trunk contained the remains of a carcass, together with its associated carrion insect fauna. An insect collection was performed prior to the fires. Each car was then set alight using a small amount of gasoline as an accelerant, poured onto the driver's seat, lit by a burning stick. The fire was allowed to reach its peak before being extinguished. In all cases, the fires completely destroyed the vehicles. The vehicles were examined the following day and insect evidence was collected. In all cases, large amounts of burned, charred and undamaged insect evidence remained, including identifiable prepuparial 3rd instar larvae, live pupae inside intact puparia and empty puparial cases. As well bones and unburned clothing were also intact. One car did not burn as well as the others with the fire not involving the trunk area as much as in the other cars. Once the fire was extinguished, it was clear that the reason for this was the presence of a steel fire wall, between the passenger compartment and the trunk. This reduced the spread of the fire to the trunk and increased evidence survival. However, in all vehicles, insect evidence survived, which could still be used to estimate the period of insect colonization and thereby infer the minimum elapsed time since death. The evidence was also a clear indicator that the decedent had not died in the fire. After the fire, the carcass remains were still attractive to blow fly adults (Diptera: Calliphoridae). In car fire cases it is important to consider that entomological evidence may still be just as useful in the investigation as in non-burned cases.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Espaços Confinados , Fogo , Insetos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Queimaduras , Crime , Comportamento Alimentar , Larva , Modelos Animais , Pupa , Suínos
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110069, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830618

RESUMO

Veterinary forensics is rapidly emerging as a distinct branch of veterinary medicine, especially because of increasing mindfulness about animal cruelty, and of the link between acts of cruelty to animals and violence toward humans. Nevertheless, the application of forensic sciences in veterinary cases lags behind its application in medical cases. Although gaps persist in veterinarians' knowledge of forensics and in how to apply this field to medicolegal cases involving animals, continued research and publication in veterinary forensics are rapidly developing the evidence base in this area. Additionally, educational opportunities in veterinary forensics are also increasing at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Together, these changes will continue to improve veterinarians' abilities to investigate cases involving animals. To further strengthen these investigations, veterinarians should also collaborate with the appropriate experts in different disciplines of forensic science.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Medicina Veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Crime , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Editoração , Médicos Veterinários
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134709, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726348

RESUMO

Eco-labeling of products such as ivory contributes to conservation of wildlife species and is most effective when potential consumers of such products are made aware of the threats to wildlife and protections associated with the labels. This paper investigates factors affecting citizens' perceptions of China's eco-labeling system for elephant ivory, which was established in 2004, using unique datasets collected in 2015 and 2017. The results indicate that citizens in China have little understanding of the ivory-labeling system. <10% of the participants were aware of the three accreditation subsystems for ivory products regulating manufacturers, retailers, and the products and only about 20% were familiar with one subsystem. The results of Bayesian logit models show that citizens' demographic and other characteristics are significantly correlated with their knowledge of the labeling system for elephant ivory, and the effects varied for the 2015 and 2017 samples. The one consistent influence was income level, which had similar significant and positive impacts in all of the models. The temporal coefficients reflecting changes in awareness between 2015 and 2017 were not significant, indicating that knowledge of the ivory-labeling system did not increase overall during that period. Our results indicate that significantly greater outreach is needed for China's ivory-labeling system so citizens can consistently play a role in ridding the market of illegal ivory products and regulating noncommercial ivory trading. Special attention should be given to groups of citizens who have relatively little education, income, and awareness of wildlife conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Elefantes , Rotulagem de Produtos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Comércio , Crime , Ecologia
5.
Lancet ; 394(10214): 2119-2124, 2019 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785827

RESUMO

Corruption is embedded in health systems. Throughout my life-as a researcher, public health worker, and a Minister of Health-I have been able to see entrenched dishonesty and fraud. But despite being one of the most important barriers to implementing universal health coverage around the world, corruption is rarely openly discussed. In this Lecture, I outline the magnitude of the problem of corruption, how it started, and what is happening now. I also outline people's fears around the topic, what is needed to address corruption, and the responsibilities of the academic and research communities in all countries, irrespective of their level of economic development. Policy makers, researchers, and funders need to think about corruption as an important area of research in the same way we think about diseases. If we are really aiming to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and ensure healthy lives for all, corruption in global health must no longer be an open secret.


Assuntos
Fraude , Saúde Global , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Má Conduta Profissional , Pesquisa Biomédica , Crime , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Responsabilidade Social
6.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 14-17, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825326

RESUMO

The article deals with the problem of elaborating rules how to determine violent sexual assaults depending on the injury caused. The rules have been determined by means of studying criminal case files, research works in criminal law, aspects of medicine and forensic expert activities, and by comparing of possible situations and the approaches towards the determining of crimes which existed in the theory of criminal law. It is determined that the character and the degree of harm to the health resulting from criminal assault or violent sexual assaults impact the differentiation of criminal liability.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Crime , Direito Penal , Medicina Legal , Humanos
7.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 23-26, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825328

RESUMO

The objective of the article is to attract attention of legal investigators and forensic medical experts to the necessity of a closer cooperation in criminal cases related to illicit traffic in narcotic drugs with the aim of better investigation of such cases. The author shows one of the peculiar features of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs, which means that all crimes in this sphere are closely interconnected, mutually interdependent, and in principle cannot be executed independently. The author underlines the role of a forensic medical examination of material evidences not only in order to determine persons involved in illegal actions with narcotic drugs, but also to determine their functional responsibilities in the structure of a criminal organization engaged in this traffic. There is a conclusion about the necessity of further close cooperation between legal investigators and forensic medical experts on the basis of the forms of cooperation proposed by the author.


Assuntos
Crime , Medicina Legal , Papel Profissional , Criminosos , Humanos
8.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 586-591, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833294

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To discuss the related factors influencing the initiation time of forensic psychiatric assessment by analysis of the initiation time of forensic psychiatric assessment of criminal cases in Hunan Province. Methods Related data in assessment files of criminal cases accepted by 8 forensic psychiatric assessment institutions in Hunan Province from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2016 were extracted. The Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors influencing the initiation time of forensic psychiatric assessment. After using property score matching (PSM) to control the influence of confounding factors, the efficiency of public security organs to initiate assessments of suspects with (without) mental disorders and with (without) responsibilities were compared. Results A total of 4 346 cases were included. The Logistic regression analysis suggested that the factors independently related to the initiation time of assessment include: cause of assessment, nationality of the assessed, history of diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses, history of crimes, history of drug abuse, and status of alcohol consumption before the crime (all P<0.05). The initiation time of assessment of suspects diagnosed with mental disorder was shorter than those with none (P<0.05); the initiation time of assessment of suspects without criminal responsibility was shorter than those with responsibility (P<0.05). After using PSM to control confounding factors, the differences above still existed. Conclusion The cause of assessment, nationality of the assessed, history of diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses, history of crimes, history of drug abuse, and status of alcohol consumption before the crime are factors that influence the efficiency of public security organs to initiate forensic psychiatric assessments. Under the current assessment initiation mode, forensic psychiatric assessment of suspects who have mental disorders, especially those with no responsibility may be given priority to initiate.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Psiquiatria Legal , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Crime , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
9.
Global Health ; 15(1): 80, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in problematic substance use is a major problem in Canada and elsewhere, placing a heavy burden on health and justice system resources given a spike in drug-related offences. Thus, achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 3.5 to 'Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse' is important for Canada's overall realization of the SDGs, including SDG 3 (Good Health and Wellbeing). Since 2008, Vancouver's Downtown Community Court (DCC) has pioneered an innovative partnership among the justice, health and social service systems to address individuals' needs and circumstances leading to criminal behaviour. While researchers have examined the DCC's impact on reducing recidivism, with Canada's SDG health commitments in mind, we set out to examine the ways health and the social determinants of health (SDH) are engaged and framed externally with regard to DCC functioning, as well as internally by DCC actors. We employed a multi-pronged approach analyzing (1) publicly available DCC documents, (2) print media coverage, and (3) health-related discourse and references in DCC hearings. RESULTS: The documentary analysis showed that health and the SDH are framed by the DCC as instrumental for reducing drug-related offences and improving public safety. The observation data indicate that judges use health and SDH in providing context, understanding triggers for offences and offering rationale for sentencing and management plans that connect individuals to healthcare, social and cultural services. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes new insights on the effectiveness of the DCC as a means to integrate justice, health and social services for improved health and community safety. The development of such community court interventions, and their impact on health and the SDH, should be reported on by Canada and other countries as a key contribution to SDG 3 achievement, as well as the fulfillment of other targets under the SDG framework that contain the SDH. Consideration should be given by Canada as to how to capture and integrate the important data generated by the DCC and other problem-solving courts into SDG reporting metrics. Certainly, the DCC advances the SDGs' underlying Leave No One Behind principle in a high-income country context.


Assuntos
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Canadá , Humanos
10.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 17(2): 318-338, jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043054

RESUMO

Resumo (analítico) O objetivo deste estudo é investigar significados atribuídos ao mund do crime por adolescentes em medida socioeducativa de internação. Os participantes do estudo foram 25 adolescentes (15 a 19 anos) do sexo masculino internados em quatro unidades socioeducativas nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Espírito Santo, Brasil. Foram realizados dois grupos focais em cada Estado, interpretados por Análise Temática. Os significados expressos pelos participantes revelaram que a vinculação ao mundo do crime atende a necessidades de segurança econômica, fortalecimento da identidade pessoal, reconhecimento social, senso de pertencimento e proteção física, consistindo em um processo de resiliência oculta. A compreensão das perspectivas dos adolescentes sobre o mundo do crime pode informar práticas de atendimento capazes de atender necessidades materiais e simbólicas e prevenir riscos.


Abstract (analytical) This study aims to comprehend meanings of the world of crime among adolescents at treatment facilities. The participants of this study were 25 male adolescents (15 to 19 years) at four treatment facilities in the states of Espírito Santo and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Two focal groups in each state were held, interpreted using the Thematic Analysis technique. The meanings expressed by participants revealed that their affiliation with the world of crime meets their needs of economic security, strengthening of personal identity, social recognition, sense of belonging, and physical protection. Their involvement in the world of crime consists of a hidden resilience process. The comprehension of adolescents' perspectives of the world of crime can inform services so that they are able to meet their material and symbolic needs and prevent risks.


Resumen (analítico) El objetivo de este estudio es comprender significados del mundo del crimen para adolescentes internados en unidades socioeducativas. Los participantes del estudio fueron 25 adolescentes (15 a 19 años) del sexo masculino internados en cuatro unidades en los Estados del Rio Grande do Sul y Espírito Santo, Brasil. Fueron realizados dos grupos focales en cada Estado, interpretados por Análisis Temático. Los significados expresados por los participantes han revelado que la afiliación al mundo del crimen atiende a necesidades de seguridad económica, fortalecimiento de la identidad personal, reconocimiento social, sentido de pertenencia y protección física, lo que consiste un proceso de resiliencia oculta. La comprensión de las perspectivas de los adolescentes sobre el mundo del crimen puede generar prácticas de tratamiento capaces de satisfacer necesidades materiales y simbólicas y prevenir riesgos.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adolescente , Crime , Tráfico de Drogas
11.
Clin Ter ; 170(6): e435-e447, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696907

RESUMO

The Kanun is an important manifestation of Albanian consuetudinary law in force at a given historical moment. It is characterized by the absence of institutions or bodies set up to design and impose rules, norms or precepts that could maintain order and ensure that within the community, the associates can live and carry out their activities in observance of and compliance with the rules and precepts imposed by the State authorities. Active operation according to the Kanun rules is not only common among the populations settled in the mountains of Albania but also, and above all, in the context of Albanian criminality which, as is well known, has also spread to Italy, creating partnerships and cross-contaminations with Italian crime. The research was carried out mainly in Albania at the bodies and institutions responsible for dealing with and controlling crime in the nation, but also focuses on the issue of connections with, and influences on, Italian crime.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos , Albânia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 110006, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706054

RESUMO

Virtual reality is recently finding its way in forensic work. The required 3D data is nowadays a standard dataset available in many cases, from homicide to traffic collisions, including not only data from the scene but also of weaponry and involved persons. Current investigations use these 3D data to replicated the incident and as discussion base for forensic personal. However, modifying the scene on a 2D viewport is often cumbersome due to the loss of the third dimension. Also to perform the modifications on the scene a 3D operator is often required. Virtual reality might improve this step by its easy use and by visualising the third dimension. This publication presents a variety of tools which can be used in forensic investigations. Additionally to the tools, examples of forensic use of these tools will be presented, showing that already a small number of tools support a variety of forensic applications.


Assuntos
Ciências Forenses/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Computadores , Crime , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
13.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(17)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746157

Assuntos
Crime , Punição
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(5): 26-32, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626191

RESUMO

The purpose of the work is to propose categories for the absolute and proportional sizes of all classes of teeth based on their odontometric features. These categories can be used in expert and anthropological practice. The technique is free from subjectivity and allows accurate determination of the sizes and proportions of teeth, regardless of the experience, skills and professional qualifications of the specialist.


Assuntos
Odontologia Legal , Odontometria , Crime , Humanos
15.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1814-1821, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: All social life spheres in Ukraine are influenced by corruption. Ukrainian citizens were inquired in order to determine corruption rate in various social spheres. It was conditioned by reforming criminal justice and administrative management, which is directed, particularly, for liquidation of corruption in the state. Special emphasize is stressed on corruption rate in the medical sphere. The aim of the article is to determine: 1) population's attitude towards to corruption, in particular, in the medical sphere; 2) the most corruptive social spheres; 3) efficiency of anti-corruption measures; 4) readiness of population to participate into struggle with corruption. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study is grounded on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic, sociological (special-purpose inquiry form, interview), statistic and comprehensive research methods. The study group consisted of 1 120 citizens and 513 medical and pharmaceutical professionals of Ukraine. Questions were related to: 1) citizens' contact with corruption; 2) corruption expansion rate in state authorities, self-governing authorities, in various infrastructure spheres, particularly, in healthcare; 3) awareness about struggle with corruption in the state and in the region and determination of citizens' readiness to cope with corruption. RESULTS: Results: Corruption contact level of citizens remains steadily high. Corruption in the medical sphere is the most widespread: during the previous year before the inquire 63% respondents were involved into corruptive schemes. Corruption in the medical sphere can be subdivided in the following levels: from patient to doctor; inside the hospital - from a healthcare institution employee to the executive hospital staff; on state level concerning state procurements of medications. A bribe to health care professionals was given for: receipt of a sick leave certificate and various references (for example, about unfitness for military service, fitness for driving a car or fulfillment of particular works); high-quality conduct of an operation, medical servicing rendering; writing out a "necessary" prescription; approval or hiding of any bodily injuries; falsification of a true cause of death. All health care professionals have come across different corruptive practices, among which the following payments are widespread: for employment in a hospital, license for private medical practice or establishment of private clinics, "avoidance" of checks of healthcare institutions' activity. The largest bribes are given state officials for participation in tenders for medical drugs supply by pharmaceutical companies. All health care professionals have come across different corruptive practices, among which the following payments are widespread: for employment in a hospital, license for private medical practice or establishment of private clinics, "avoidance" of checks of healthcare institutions' activity. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: Corruption on the sphere of medical practice is complex phenomenon. The conducted poll made it possible to structure the corruption problem, to see its various levels and levels. In respondents' opinion, a scrupulous information campaign is a positive tendency: 45% consider this is a guarantee of anticorruption. Nevertheless, only 5% respondents assume personal notification of anticorruption bodies about receipt of a bribe by medical staff.


Assuntos
Crime , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Humanos , Ucrânia
16.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(8): 536-543, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various measures aim to stimulate prosecution of violence and aggression against mental-health workers. Considering a possible increase of inpatient incidents through article 2.3 of the Bill Forensic Care, this is a desirable development. Mental health care and the judiciary seem to have opposing opinions whether the emphasis should lie on care or punishment in handling intramural offense.
AIM: To investigate which arguments judges apply in their trial of intramural incidents, to gain insight into the obstacles which impede awarding punishment during treatment, and to give recommendations for balancing the need for care and the need for punishment.
METHOD: A qualitatively thematic analysis based on semi-structured interviews with eight judges. Themes were based on relevant literature and case reports.
RESULTS: The majority of the judges considered judging intramural incidents complicated because of: 1. insufficient information on possible exclusion of guilt, 2. the fear that punishment will lead to recidivism, and 3. ambiguity on the impact of the crime on the victim. They emphasized that they needed more up-to-date information from the institution. Judges wanted to avert punishment as this may lead to discontinuity of care or worsening of the mental health of the suspect.
CONCLUSION: A verdict can also support a (clinical) mental health treatment. With the arrival of the 'bopz-brigades' (Law bopz: Law on Compulsory Admission to Psychiatric Hospitals) at the Public Prosecution Service, all relevant information from mental health care, police and Public Prosecution can be combined into a claim, leading to a verdict in which care and punishment serve each other optimally.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime , Psiquiatria Legal , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros/psicologia
17.
Nature ; 573(7773): 203-204, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501578
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 189-195, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483552

RESUMO

Looking in from the outside, what would the ordinary person expect of forensic mental health services? I suggest that there are three questions he or she would ask: (a) Are there public health measures that can be introduced to prevent those with mental disorder going on to commit crimes? (b) Can we identify in advance the individual who is likely to go on and commit a violent act because of his or her mental health difficulties, and prevent that or limit damage? (c) If a seriously harmful act has already been committed, what interventions might prevent a repetition? All of these questions are about prevention of an untoward event in the future and anticipate knowledge. How secure can we be that current forensic mental health practitioners can make adequately evidenced responses? I fear that examination of current literature would indicate that they and their academic colleagues would fall short of these expectations. Reasons for this are undoubtedly numerous. The issues are complex, with the interplay of many variables from the vagaries of human nature through varying presentations of disorders, still often classified rather than diagnosed, to widely differing environments which, further, may suddenly change in a critical way. The impact of a serious offence can be so catastrophic that officialdom often decides that "something must be done." Yet, without a good evidence base, such decision-making is often ineffective and wasteful of resources. The limited evidence base has not been helped by the virtual extinction of an academic forensic psychiatry infrastructure and funding within British universities and the National Health Service. This does not bode well for the future.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental
19.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 68: 101858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476525

RESUMO

Forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) technology represents a set of techniques that aim to predict physical features of criminal suspects, such as eye, skin and hair colour, and also ethnicity through the inference of biogeographic ancestry from their biological samples. In contrast to other forensic technologies, FDP is not used for identification purposes but valued for its potential intelligence value. Since features predicted by FDP relate to common traits shared by different population groups, critical voices highlight that this technology may (re)create dynamics of collectivisation of suspect populations. Looking at the criminal justice system, this paper aims to explore the diverse understandings of FDP by professionals working in forensic laboratories and by the members of police forces, alongside the automatic exchange of genetic profiles to fight cross-border crime. Their perceptions are explored according to the perceived potential investigative value and potential threats of FDP. Furthermore, we discuss how racial issues are implicitly and explicitly present in these narratives. Results show that FDP may be ushering in a new assemblage of racial issues along three entangled dimensions: the differentiating power of externally visible characteristics, the comparison between genetic and eyewitness testimonies, and the collectivisation of suspicion.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Genética Forense/ética , Genética Forense/legislação & jurisprudência , Marcadores Genéticos , Fenótipo , Crime , DNA/genética , Humanos
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109907, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401415

RESUMO

In sexual assault cases, the detection and identification of semen is extremely important as this type of evidence can be used as a source for investigative leads and contributes to case evidence. However, the detection of semen stains is often difficult, even indoors, because of different (environmental) factors, such as substrate type, coloured items and large search areas. In 2015, a project was initiated by the Dutch police to evaluate the feasibility of the use of detection dogs to locate semen stains in forensic practise. Since promising results were obtained, here, a double-blind study was designed to investigate how these detection dogs can optimally be implemented in the current work flow of crime scene investigators and to compare the dog's sensitivity and specificity with current detection methods. The performance of the detection dogs was compared to three commonly used detection methods for semen, (i) forensic light sources (FLS), (ii) the RSID semen field kit and (iii) the enzymatic Acid Phosphatase (AP)-test on semen deposited at different types of fabrics. A 100% sensitivity and specificity for the detection of semen stains using the detection dogs was obtained, compared to an overall sensitivity and specificity of 76.3% and 100% for FLS, 81.6% and 100% for RSID-test, and 92.1% and 100% for AP-test, respectively. Especially, on fabrics with a pattern or interfering fluorescent properties, detection dogs demonstrated to be of additional value to locate the semen stains. We recommend to use the following order of testing, FLS, detection dog, AP-test and RSID test in a forensic workflow.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Medicina Legal/métodos , Odorantes , Sêmen , Olfato/fisiologia , Têxteis , Fosfatase Ácida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Crime , Fluorescência , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Luz , Masculino , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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