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2.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 103-118, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144423

RESUMO

Resumen El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis descriptivo cuantitativo sobre el desempeño del sistema a través del cual el Gobierno Colombiano implementa su política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal y penitenciario. Este estudio no se realiza desde el punto de vista del derecho, sino desde la perspectiva de la evaluación de su efectividad, entendiendo la criminalidad como un problema social. El impacto de este artículo radica en la posibilidad de entender y abordar el fenómeno de la criminalidad desde un enfoque preventivo. Esto, al identificar un desequilibrio dinámico de los componentes del sistema que refuerza el problema, evidenciando deficiencias en la finalidad de la política criminal como política pública debería propender por la prevención del crimen y por el contrario refuerza un ciclo vicioso que incrementa impunidad. Este ciclo ha desgastado operativamente al Estado y ha generado un alto costo como resultado de los altos índices de criminalidad.


Abstract This article performs a descriptive, quantitative analysis of the performance of the system through which the Colombian Government implements its criminal public policy: judicial, criminal justice and penitentiary systems. This study is not performed from the point of view of law, but from a perspective evaluating its effectiveness, considering crime a social issue. This article impacts the possibility of understanding and facing the phenomenon of crime from a preventive approach. This, upon identifying a dynamic imbalance of the system's components, which strengthens the problem, shows deficiencies in the purpose of criminal policy as a public policy that promotes prevention and emphasizes a vicious cycle that increases impunity. This cycle has operationally worn-out the Government and has generated high costs as a result of high crime indices.


Resumo Este artigo desenvolve uma análise descritiva quantitativa sobre o desempenho do sistema por meio do qual o Governo colombiano implementa sua política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal e penitenciário. Este estudo não é realizado do ponto de vista do direito, mas da perspectiva de avaliar sua eficácia, entendendo o crime como problema social. O impacto deste artigo reside na possibilidade de compreender e abordar o fenómeno do crime a partir de uma abordagem preventiva. Isto, ao identificar um desequilíbrio dinâmico dos componentes do sistema que reforça o problema, mostra deficiências na finalidade da política criminal como política pública que visa à prevenção e acentua um ciclo vicioso que aumenta a impunidade. Este ciclo desgastou operacionalmente o Estado e gerou um custo elevado em decorrência dos altos índices de criminalidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Prisões , Crime , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Direitos Humanos
3.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 49-63, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144420

RESUMO

Resumen El objetivo De este artículo es visibilizar y cuantificar la dificultad analítica que se presenta al momento de interpretar los índices de criminalidad, debido al rezago temporal del registro en el instante en que se comete el delito y la fecha de ingreso de la denuncia. Ese rezago temporal genera un sesgo benévolo en la medición del crimen y la interpretación criminal para la toma de decisiones, cuando se comparan periodos parciales (años anteriores y vigencia actual). La metodología Utilizada es exploratoria con un enfoque cuantitativo en el tratamiento de los datos registrados desde el año 2005 hasta el 2018, y consolidados en los sistemas Penal Oral Acusatorio (SPOA) de la Fiscalía General de la Nación y de Información Estadístico Delincuencial, Contravencional y Operativo (SIEDCO) de la Policía Nacional de Colombia. Para el análisis se compararon los datos de los delitos de homicidio, hurto, lesiones personales, violencia intrafamiliar y delitos sexuales durante los primeros cuatro y cinco meses de cada periodo anual con los siguientes meses del año. Como Resultado Se evidenció que el rezago temporal promedio en los homicidios fue del 2,85%; en el hurto del 11,8%; en las lesiones personales del 12,7%; en la violencia intrafamiliar del 18,9% y en los delitos sexuales del 30,5%.


Abstract The purpose Of this article is to visualize and quantify the analytic difficulty that arises in interpreting crime indicators due to the time lag between the time when the crime took place and the date on which the crime report was filed2. This time lag creates a lenient bias in crime measurement and interpretation for decision-making effects when time periods are compared (previous periods against the current period). The methodology Used is exploratory with a quantitative approach in the treatment of data recorded from 2005 to 2018, and consolidated in the Oral Criminal Prosecution System (SPOA, for the Spanish original) of the National Prosecutor's Office (Fiscalía) and in the Crime, Infraction and Operations Statistical System (SIEDCO, for the Spanish original) of the National Police of Colombia. Data on the crimes of homicide, theft, personal injuries, intra-family violence and sexual crimes during the first four and five months of each annual period were compared to the data from the subsequent months of the year. As a result It was found that the average time lag was 2.85% for homicides; 11.8% for theft; 12.7% for personal injuries; 18.9% for intra-family violence and 30.5% for sexual crimes.


Resumo O objetivo Deste artigo é tornar visível e quantificar a dificuldade analítica que surge na interpretação dos índices de criminalidade, devido à defasagem temporal do registro no momento em que o crime é cometido e na data de apresentação da denúncia3. Esse lapso temporal gera um viés benevolente na medição e interpretação do crime para a tomada de decisões, quando são comparados períodos parciais (anos anteriores e validade atual). A metodologia Utilizada é exploratória com abordagem quantitativa no tratamento dos dados registados de 2005 a 2018, e consolidados no sistema Penal Oral Acusatório (SPOA) da Procuradoria Geral da Nação e no sistema de Informação Estatístico Delinquencial, Contravencional e Operativo (SIEDCO) da Polícia Nacional da Colômbia. Para a análise foram comparados os dados dos crimes de homicídio, furto, lesões pessoais, violência doméstica e crimes sexuais durante os primeiros quatro e cinco meses de cada período anual com os meses seguintes do ano. Como resultado Constatou-se que a média do lapso temporal nos homicídios foi de 2,85%; no furto de 11,8%; nas lesões pessoais de 12,7%; na violência doméstica de 18,9% e nos crimes sexuais foi de 30,5%.


Assuntos
Humanos , Crime , Política , Roubo , Criminosos
5.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(6): 290-302, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People returning to the community after prison face many challenges, including finding suitable accommodation and employment, and accessing good social support. The prospects are particularly poor for high-risk offenders with up to a third of those released in New Zealand returning to prison within 100 days. AIMS/HYPOTHESES: We developed the Parole Experiences Measure (PEM) to quantify the quality of men's life experiences during the first weeks of re-entry from prison. We aimed to answer the question, can the quality of life experiences differentiate men who survive in the community without reconviction from those who do not? METHODS: Using a longitudinal design, we examined whether PEM scores for 178 men with extensive histories of crime and violence predicted three recidivism indices (breach of parole, reconviction and reimprisonment) over a 12-month follow-up period. RESULTS: We found that PEM scores predicted all three indices of recidivism. Of the two PEM subscales, external circumstances (finances, support, accommodation) were more predictive of recidivism than subjective wellbeing (mental and physical health). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The results suggest that meeting basic practical needs in the early months of parole may be more important to avoiding reconviction than attending only to mental and physical health.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reincidência , Apoio Social , Adulto , Emprego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Violência
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2024577, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156348

RESUMO

Importance: Racial disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality are in large part driven by poor control of chronic diseases. The association between adverse neighborhood exposures and HIV virologic control has not been well described for women with HIV during pregnancy. Objective: To evaluate the association between adverse neighborhood exposures and HIV viral load at delivery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study assessed HIV surveillance data for pregnant women with HIV who had live deliveries in Philadelphia from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. Data analyses were completed in August 2020. Exposures: Neighborhood exposures included extreme poverty, educational attainment, crime rates (using separate and composite measures), and social capital categorized above or below the median. Each neighborhood exposure was modeled separately to estimate its association with elevated HIV viral load. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was elevated HIV viral load of ≥200 copies/mL at delivery. We hypothesized that adverse neighborhood exposures would be associated with higher odds of having an elevated viral load at delivery. Confounders included birth year, age, race/ethnicity, previous birth while living with HIV, and prenatal HIV diagnosis. Prenatal care and substance use were considered potential mediators. We used logistic mixed effects models to estimate the association between neighborhood exposures and elevated viral load, adjusting for confounders in Model 1 and confounders and mediators in Model 2. Results: There were 905 births among 684 women with HIV, most of whom were aged 25 to 34 years (n = 463 [51.2%]) and were Black non-Hispanic (n = 743 [82.1%]). The proportion of women with elevated viral load decreased from 58.2% between 2005 and 2009 to 23.1% between 2010 and 2015. After adjusting for confounders in Model 1, higher neighborhood education was associated with lower odds of having an elevated viral load (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50-0.96). More violent crime (AOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10-2.07), prostitution crime (AOR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.06-2.00), and a composite measure of crime (AOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05-1.98) were positively associated with having a higher HIV viral load. These associations remained after adjusting for mediators in Model 2. In addition, the AOR for intermediate prenatal care varied between 1.93 (95% CI, 1.28-2.91) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.31-2.96), whereas the AOR for inadequate prenatal care varied between 3.01 (95% CI, 2.05-4.43) and 3.06 (95% CI, 2.08-4.49) across regression models. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, adverse neighborhood exposures during pregnancy and poor engagement in prenatal care were associated with poor virologic control at delivery. These findings suggest that interventions targeted at improving maternal health need to take the social environment into consideration.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Gestantes/etnologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna/etnologia , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/tendências
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242374, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211732

RESUMO

The present study aimed to adapt the Attitudes Toward Accompanied Driving Scale (ATADS) to a Chinese drivers sample and to examine its reliability and validity. Five hundred and seventy-two drivers aged 18 to 25 years old were asked to complete the ATADS and a validated Chinese version of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory. The factorial structure of the ATADS was examined using exploratory factor analysis (N = 259) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 313). The validity of the scale was evaluated by examining the associations between the ATADS factors, demographic variables and driving styles. The results showed that both the findings of the EFA and CFA showed a five-factor structure of the ATADS, including tension, relatedness, avoidance, disapproval and anxiety. Second, significant gender differences were found in tension, relatedness, avoidance and anxiety. Third, tension, avoidance, disapproval and anxiety were moderately or weakly correlated with risky, anxious, angry and careful driving styles. Moreover, the number of traffic accidents after the accompanying phase was positively correlated with disapproval and avoidance. The findings supported the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the ATADS and highlighted the adverse effects of young drivers' negative attitudes toward accompanied driving on their driving styles.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Atitude , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Amigos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Crime/psicologia , Escolaridade , Análise Fatorial , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pais , Infuência dos Pares , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180809

RESUMO

Emerging research on how suspects perceive the physical environment during investigative interviews yields contrasting findings. While previous studies have suggested that a room made to be physically comfortable may be optimal for interviewing suspects, another study found it can instead lead to higher suspicion of the investigator's intentions. The current study examined current detainees' and general population participants' beliefs about a room that resembled a "typical" interview room, and one decorated to be warm, inviting, and comfortable. Participants also provided descriptive information about their perceptions of police interview environments (e.g., preferences, expectations). We hypothesized that the decorated room would elicit higher ratings of suspicion and wariness compared to the "typical" room. Our findings showed that, overall, participants expected to be interviewed in the "typical" room but preferred the decorated one. Contrary to our expectations, they rated the "typical" room higher on feelings of suspicion than the decorated room. The decorated room also corresponded with what participants reported to be an environment that promotes disclosure. These results bode well for conducting investigative interviews in comfortable environments.


Assuntos
Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto , /normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia Aplicada/métodos
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 183-195, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age-crime curve (2012) is the focal point. AIMS: Follow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper. METHODS: Recent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed. The data were gathered for two generations of juvenile court males; five birth cohorts born around 1960 and followed from age 8 to 61, and five birth cohorts born around 1980, males and females traced from age 12 to 45. The age-crime curves are presented for the total prevalence. Epidemiological data are displayed for career descriptors: number of years active in offending, frequency, variety, onset, offset and duration. RESULTS: The age-crime curves of the two generations display the habitual shape reported in the literature. The epidemiological data shows that the population sample has a much lower curve in comparison to the court sample; this sort of difference is also observed between females and males. CONCLUSION: The difference between the two generations in the age-crime curves are interpreted in light of three evolutions in Québec from 1960 to 2000: (a) a radical change in the delinquency law, social and criminal justice policies, and treatment for juvenile delinquents; (b) a reduction of the juvenile and adult crime rates; (c) a significant increase in the wellbeing of the population on education, health and welfare services.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Direito Penal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
10.
Nature ; 588(7836): 48-56, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177707

RESUMO

The threat of criminal activity in the fisheries sector has concerned the international community for a number of years. In more recent times, the presence of organized crime in fisheries has come to the fore. In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly asked all states to contribute to increasing our understanding the connection between illegal fishing and transnational organized crime at sea. Policy-makers, researchers and members of civil society are increasing their knowledge of the dynamics and destructiveness of the blue shadow economy and the role of organized crime within this economy. Anecdotal, scientific and example-based evidence of the various manifestations of organized crime in fisheries, its widespread adverse impacts on economies, societies and the environment globally and its potential security consequences is now publicly available. Here we present the current state of knowledge on organized crime in the fisheries sector. We show how the many facets of organized crime in this sector, including fraud, drug trafficking and forced labour, hinder progress towards the development of a sustainable ocean economy. With reference to worldwide promising practices, we highlight practical opportunities for action to address the problem. We emphasize the need for a shared understanding of the challenge and for the implementation of intelligence-led, skills-based cooperative law enforcement action at a global level and a community-based approach for targeting organized crime in the supply chain of organized criminal networks at a local level, facilitated by legislative frameworks and increased transparency.


Assuntos
Crime/economia , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesqueiros/economia , Oceanos e Mares , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Tráfico de Drogas/economia , Fraude/economia , Tráfico de Pessoas/economia , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Impostos/economia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104748

RESUMO

In the United States, the public has a constitutional right to access criminal trial proceedings. In practice, it can be difficult or impossible for the public to exercise this right. We present JUSTFAIR: Judicial System Transparency through Federal Archive Inferred Records, a database of criminal sentencing decisions made in federal district courts. We have compiled this data set from public sources including the United States Sentencing Commission, the Federal Judicial Center, the Public Access to Court Electronic Records system, and Wikipedia. With nearly 600,000 records from the years 2001-2018, JUSTFAIR is the first large scale, free, public database that links information about defendants and their demographic characteristics with information about their federal crimes, their sentences, and, crucially, the identity of the sentencing judge.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Bases de Dados Factuais , Registros , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27262-27267, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077607

RESUMO

The US government maintains that local sanctuary policies prevent deportations of violent criminals and increase crime. This report tests those claims by combining Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) deportation data and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) crime data with data on the implementation dates of sanctuary policies between 2010 and 2015. Sanctuary policies reduced deportations of people who were fingerprinted by states or counties by about one-third. Those policies also changed the composition of deportations, reducing deportations of people with no criminal convictions by half-without affecting deportations of people with violent convictions. Sanctuary policies also had no detectable effect on crime rates. These findings suggest that sanctuary policies, although effective at reducing deportations, do not threaten public safety.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Governamentais/tendências , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Agressão , Crime , Criminosos , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Feminino , Programas Governamentais/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Políticas , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Violência
13.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 48(4): 468-472, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055285

RESUMO

In their article, Swanson and colleagues examine the long-term risk of firearm-related and other violent crime in a large population of adults with serious mental illnesses following a gun-disqualifying involuntary civil commitment, compared with similar individuals who were evaluated for commitment but released or voluntarily admitted and with a third group with no holds or commitments. They build on prior research from a sample of individuals from public behavioral health systems of two large counties in Florida. This commentary provides further context for their research by highlighting additional factors related to mental health in the state of Florida. Understanding recent legislation regarding the medical privacy of firearm owners, mental health spending, trends in involuntary examinations, and related firearm laws in Florida will contribute to describing the backdrop of the current study. While Swanson's research proposes greater policy implications, this commentary will examine the direct impact on the practice of clinical psychiatrists.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Internação Involuntária , Adulto , Crime , Florida , Humanos , Violência
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052950

RESUMO

This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those patterns. The validity of the proposed resilience assessment tool is demonstrated using commercial theft data from the COVID-19 pandemic period. A 64 per cent reduction in crime was found in the studied city (China) during an 83-day period, before daily crime levels bounced back to higher than expected values. The proposed resilience indicators are recommended as benchmarking instruments for evaluating and comparing the global impact of COVID-19 policies on crime and public safety.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26703-26709, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033225

RESUMO

Despite research on the causes of populism and on the narratives of populist leaders, there is little empirical work on the relationship between populist attitudes and behavior, notably including criminal behavior. Our overarching concern is the recurrent social volatility of metaphorical populist themes that are central to impactful political messaging. Drawing on a national United States survey conducted around the 2016 election, we use multilevel models to show that the politically charged exclusionary boundaries of "America First" populism are behaviorally connected to increased odds of having been arrested. We argue that the rapid redrawing of social boundaries that make up populist attitudes is closely connected with the effects of economic and political frustrations during times of rapid social change. In the process, we develop a behavioral analysis of the social volatility of the recurrent populist movement in America.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Mudança Social , Xenofobia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Res ; 191: 110181, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Violent behavior is influenced by individual and societal characteristics, but the role of environmental factors is less understood. Our aims were to use national-level data to identify the association between criminal behavior and short-term temperature conditions, including the departure of daily temperatures from normal conditions. METHODS: We conducted a multi-stage hierarchical time-series model across 436 U.S. counties and 14-years representing 100.4 million people to investigate the association between daily mean temperature and daily mean temperatures departing from normal conditions with violent and non-violent crime counts. First-stage comparisons were made within counties to control for population and geographic heterogeneities, while a second stage combined estimates. We evaluated differences in risk based on county sociodemographic characteristics and estimated non-linear exposure-response relationships. RESULTS: We observed a total of 9.0 million violent crimes and 20.9 million non-violent property crimes between 2000 through 2013. We estimated that each 10 °C increase in daily temperature or daily departure from long-term normal temperatures were associated with 11.92% (95% PI: 11.57, 12.27) and 10.37% (95% PI: 10.05, 10.69) increase in the risk of violent crime, respectively. Similar, but lower in magnitude trends, were observed for property crime risks. We found that crime risk plateaus and decreases at high daily temperatures, but for temperatures departing from normal, the association with crime increased linearly. Seasonal variations showed that anomalously warm temperatures days during cool months had the greatest risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed an association between higher temperatures and high departure from normal temperatures with both violent and non-violent crime risk, regardless of community-type. However, our findings on seasonal and daily trends suggest that daily mean temperature may impact crime by affecting routine activities and behavior, as opposed to a temperature-aggression relationship. These results may advance public response and planning to prevent violent behavior.


Assuntos
Agressão , Violência , Crime , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
17.
Orv Hetil ; 161(36): 1498-1505, 2020 09.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886624

RESUMO

In recent years, due to the value of health data and the specificities of health processes, data breaches have become increasingly important. In addition to the general data protection rules of the European Union, aspects of general information security, including technology and human behaviour, have been reassessed. In this article, we present the importance of blackmail (ransomware) virus attacks in the health sector. According to international data, especially in the US, one of the most important methods of institutional attacks will be the extortion attack in the coming years, and this is expected to increase in importance, especially in health care where sensitive and valuable data are truly life-giving. Because of the encryption of data and the blocking of core processes, blackmail viruses can also have a significant impact on the effectiveness of therapy and healthcare. In addition to presenting the current international situation, the article also outlines the most important steps that can be taken by those involved in daily patient's care to ensure continuity of patient care. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(36): 1498-1505.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Crime , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates in India are among the highest in the world, equating to over 200,000 suicide deaths annually. Crime reports of suicide incidents routinely feature in the Indian mass media, with minimal coverage of suicide as a broader public health issue. To supplement our recently published content analysis study, we undertook qualitative interviews to examine media professionals' perspectives and experiences in relation to media reporting of suicide-related news in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2017-18, semi-structured qualitative interviews with twenty-eight print media and television media professionals with experience reporting on suicide-related news were undertaken across north (New Delhi and Chandigarh) and south (Chennai) India. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to initiate discussions around; 1) perspectives on why suicide incidents are regularly reported on by mass media in India, 2) a description of experiences and processes of covering suicide incidents on the crime beat; and 3) perspectives on the emergence of health reporter coverage of suicide. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed. A deductive and inductive thematic analytic approach was used, supported by the use of NVivo. RESULTS: Suicides were typically seen as being highly newsworthy and of interest to the audience, particularly the suicides of high-status people and those who somewhat matched the middle-class profile of the core audience. Socio-cultural factors played a major role in determining the newsworthiness of a particular incident. The capacity to link a suicide incident to compelling social narratives, potentially detrimental social/policy issues, and placing the suicide as a form of protest/martyrdom increased newsworthiness. Reporters on the crime beat worked in close partnership with police to produce routine and simplified incident report-style coverage of suicide incidents, with the process influenced by: informal police contacts supporting the crime beat, the speed of breaking news, extremely tight word limits and a deeply fraught engagement with bereaved family members. It was articulated that a public health and/or mental health framing of suicide was an emerging perspective, which sought to focus more on broader trends and suicide prevention programs rather than individual incidents. Important challenges were identified around the complexity of adopting a mental health framing of suicide, given the perceived pervasive influence of socioeconomic and cultural issues (rather than individual psychopathology) on suicide in India. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings delve into the complexity of reporting on suicide in India and can be used to support constructive partnerships between media professionals and suicide prevention experts in India. Policymakers need to acknowledge the socio-cultural context of suicide reporting in India when adapting international guidelines for the Indian media.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Suicídio , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/psicologia , Vigilância da População , Distribuição por Sexo , Violência/psicologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970775

RESUMO

The association between alcohol outlets and violence has long been recognised, and is commonly used to inform policing and licensing policies (such as staggered closing times and zoning). Less investigated, however, is the association between violent crime and other urban points of interest, which while associated with the city centre alcohol consumption economy, are not explicitly alcohol outlets. Here, machine learning (specifically, LASSO regression) is used to model the distribution of violent crime for the central 9 km2 of ten large UK cities. Densities of 620 different Point of Interest types (sourced from Ordnance Survey) are used as predictors, with the 10 most explanatory variables being automatically selected for each city. Cross validation is used to test generalisability of each model. Results show that the inclusion of additional point of interest types produces a more accurate model, with significant increases in performance over a baseline univariate alcohol-outlet only model. Analysis of chosen variables for city-specific models shows potential candidates for new strategies on a per-city basis, with combined-model variables showing the general trend in POI/violence association across the UK. Although alcohol outlets remain the best individual predictor of violence, other points of interest should also be considered when modelling the distribution of violence in city centres. The presented method could be used to develop targeted, city-specific initiatives that go beyond alcohol outlets and also consider other locations.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/classificação , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Reino Unido
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