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1.
Law Hum Behav ; 48(1): 33-49, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two experiments examined the potential for inconclusive forensic decisions to disadvantage the innocent. HYPOTHESES: Both experiments tested the hypothesis that inconclusive decisions produce more incriminating legal judgments than do clearly exculpatory forensic decisions. Experiment 2 also examined whether this hypothesized effect conformed to a confirmation bias, a communication error, or perceptual accuracy. METHOD: In Experiment 1 (N = 492), a forensic expert testified that physical evidence recovered from a crime scene either matched or did not match a suspect's evidence or produced an inconclusive result. In Experiment 2 (N = 1,002), a forensic expert testified that physical evidence recovered from a crime scene either matched or did not match a suspect's evidence, produced an inconclusive result, or was unsuitable for analysis. A fifth condition omitted the forensic evidence and expert testimony. RESULTS: The inconclusive decision produced less incriminating legal judgments than did the match forensic decision (|d|average = 0.96), more incriminating legal judgments than did the no-match forensic decision (|d|average = 0.62), and equivalent legal judgments to the unsuitable decision (|d|average = 0.12) and to legal judgments made in the absence of forensic evidence (|d|average = 0.07). These results suggest that participants interpreted the inconclusive decision to be forensically neutral, which is consistent with a communication error. CONCLUSION: The findings provide preliminary support for the idea that inconclusive decisions can put the innocent at risk of wrongful conviction by depriving them of a clearly exculpatory forensic decision. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunicação , Crime , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prova Pericial , Julgamento
2.
Law Hum Behav ; 48(1): 50-66, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interviewers often face the challenge of obtaining information from suspects who are willing to speak but are motivated to conceal incriminating information. The Shift-of-Strategy (SoS) approach is an interviewing technique designed to obtain new information from such suspects. This study provides a robust empirical test of the SoS approach using more complex crime events and longer interviews than previously tested as well as testing a new variation of the approach (SoS-Reinforcement) that included a strategic summary of the suspect's statement. We compared this new variation with a standard version of the approach (SoS-Standard) and an interviewing approach that involved no confrontation of discrepancies in the suspects' statements (Direct). HYPOTHESES: We predicted that the two SoS versions would outperform the Direct condition in terms of participants' disclosure of previously unknown information. We also predicted that SoS-Reinforcement would outperform SoS-Standard. Finally, we expected that participants in the SoS conditions would not assess the interview or the interviewer more poorly than participants in Direct. METHOD: A total of 300 participants completed an online mock crime procedure, and they were subsequently interviewed with one of the three interviewing techniques. Following the interview, participants provided assessments of their experiences being interviewed. RESULTS: Participants in both SoS-Standard (d = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI: 0.21, 0.78]) and SoS-Reinforcement (d = 0.59, 95% CI [0.30, 0.87]) disclosed more previously unknown information than participants in the Direct condition, but SoS-Reinforcement did not outperform SoS-Standard (d = 0.08, 95% CI [-0.20, 0.36]). Participants in SoS-Reinforcement assessed their experience more negatively than those in Direct. No such differences were observed in the remaining two-way comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides support for the effectiveness of eliciting new information through the SoS approach and illuminates possible experiential downsides with being subjected to the SoS-Reinforcement approach. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Crime , Revelação , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais
3.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 9(1): 19, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568356

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence is already all around us, and its usage will only increase. Knowing its capabilities is critical. A facial recognition system (FRS) is a tool for law enforcement during suspect searches and when presenting photos to eyewitnesses for identification. However, there are no comparisons between eyewitness and FRS accuracy using video, so it is unknown whether FRS face matches are more accurate than eyewitness memory when identifying a perpetrator. Ours is the first application of artificial intelligence to an eyewitness experience, using a comparative psychology approach. As a first step to test system accuracy relative to eyewitness accuracy, participants and an open-source FRS (FaceNet) attempted perpetrator identification/match from lineup photos (target-present, target-absent) after exposure to real crime videos with varied clarity and perpetrator race. FRS used video probe images of each perpetrator to achieve similarity ratings for each corresponding lineup member. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis to measure discriminability, FRS performance was superior to eyewitness performance, regardless of video clarity or perpetrator race. Video clarity impacted participant performance, with the unclear videos yielding lower performance than the clear videos. Using confidence-accuracy characteristic analysis to measure reliability (i.e., the likelihood the identified suspect is the actual perpetrator), when the FRS identified faces with the highest similarity values, they were accurate. The results suggest FaceNet, or similarly performing systems, may supplement eyewitness memory for suspect searches and subsequent lineup construction and knowing the system's strengths and weaknesses is critical.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Crime , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Teste de Esforço
4.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 34(4): 407-412, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To analyse crime scene data, medical records, and forensic information to unveil insights into the causes and traits of suicides. STUDY DESIGN:  Descriptive study. Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Family Medicine, Kayseri City Hospital, Kayseri, Turkiye, between January 2020 to December 2021. METHODOLOGY:  A suicide investigation team (doctor, social worker, psychologist) was created to study cases and conduct on-site psychological autopsies. Triggered by emergency calls, the team interviewed suicide victims' relatives using semi-structured questionnaires, gathering data on personal details, time, method, and potential motives. Medical records revealed psychiatric history and medication use, while national judicial systems were reviewed for legal records. RESULTS:  A total of 158 fatal suicides were studied. Males accounted for 73.4%, females 26.6%. The leading cause was psychiatric illness (43%), chiefly depression (39%). Suicide peaked in the fall, especially in September, mainly at 23:00-23:59. Home was the common site (58.9%), and hanging was the primary method (44.3%). Prior hospitalisation for suicide attempts was 7.5%. Criminal records were held by 16.4% (26 individuals). CONCLUSION:  The results support the idea that suicides have seasonal patterns and that there are temporal windows of increased risk for suicide. KEY WORDS:  Suicide reasons, Suicide time, Psychological autopsy, Seasonal and temporal patterns.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Crime , Registros Médicos
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 260, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug courts are criminal justice programs to divert people with substance use disorders from incarceration into treatment. Drug courts have become increasingly popular in the US and other countries. However, their effectiveness in reducing important public health outcomes such as recidivism and substance-related health harms remains ambiguous and contested. We used nationwide register data from Sweden to evaluate the effectiveness of contract treatment sanction, the Swedish version of drug court, in reducing substance misuse, adverse somatic and mental health outcomes, and recidivism. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, two quasi-experimental designs were used: difference-in-differences and the within-individual design. In the latter, we compared the risk of outcomes during time on contract treatment to, 1) parole after imprisonment and, 2) probation. RESULTS: The cohort included 11,893 individuals (13% women) who underwent contract treatment. Contract treatment was associated with a reduction of 7 percentage points (95% CI: -.088, -.055) in substance misuse, 5 percentage points (-.064, -.034) in adverse mental health events, 9 percentage points (-.113, -.076) in adverse somatic health events, and 3 fewer charges (-3.16, -2.85) for crime in difference-in-differences analyses. Within-individual associations suggested that the same individual had longer times-to-event for all outcomes during contract treatment than on parole or on probation. CONCLUSIONS: Contract treatment is an effective intervention from both public health and criminal justice perspective. Our findings suggest that it is a superior alternative to incarceration in its target group. Further, we find that an implementation approach that is less punitive and more inclusive than what is typical in the US can be successful.


Assuntos
Reincidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
6.
Sci Justice ; 64(2): 202-209, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431377

RESUMO

The serial character of document fraud and its connection to organised crime groups who produce, sell and/or use fraudulent documents is a challenge for security and crime fighting. As a response, the added value of forensic intelligence is increasingly recognised. Using a forensic profiling method and a dedicated system deployed in Switzerland, document examiners can detect series (i.e., documents that share a common source) of fraudulent documents conveniently and efficiently. This detection can trigger or orientate investigations, supports crime intelligence efforts, and facilitates cross-jurisdictional cooperation. This study aims to assess the suitability of the forensic profiling system for international purpose and the efficiency of the method to detect cross-border series. The forensic profiling system has been deployed in France in the framework of a cross-border pilot project conducted by the School of Criminal Justice from the University of Lausanne and the French National Police (Division Nationale de Lutte contre la Fraude Documentaire et à l'Identité) over the period July 2019-May 2020. Data from the Swiss and French forensic profiling systems were compared to each other to detect cross-border series. The study sought to create operating conditions as close as possible to the real-life conditions of the profiling systems. The results are extremely positive both quantitatively and qualitatively. They demonstrate the benefit of setting up a systematic exchange of forensic data issued from profiling systems for fraudulent identity documents between France and Switzerland, let alone between any other countries. The results open up a very promising prospect for a sustained operational implementation by the police services of both countries and the extension of the exchanges internationally.


Assuntos
Crime , Registros , Humanos , Suíça , Projetos Piloto , França
7.
Vet Rec ; 194(7): 252, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551272

Assuntos
Comércio , Crime , Animais
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299852, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551938

RESUMO

The aggregate-level age-crime distributions in Western countries are predominantly right-skewed and adolescent-spiked. Based on Western data, Hirschi and Gottfredson (1983) asserted that this age-crime pattern is universally invariant across time and places. This study's overall goal is to rigorously examine Hirschi and Gottfredson's invariant premise within a non-Western country, focusing on the stability and change in the age-crime patterns of South Korea from 1980 to 2019. Specifically, two research questions are addressed: (1) whether the average age-arrest curves in South Korea diverge from the invariant premise after adjusting for period and cohort effects; (2) how period and cohort effects modify the age-arrest curves. To examine these questions, I applied the age-period-cohort-interaction model (APC-I) to analyze the official age-specific arrest statistics for various offense types from 1980 to 2019 in South Korea. Findings suggested that the age-crime patterns of homicide, assault, and fraud are characterized by spread-out distributions and advanced peak ages. After adjusting for period and cohort effects, most of the age-crime curves are still robustly divergent from the age-crime distributions found in Western countries. Cohort and period effects have modified the age-crime patterns, but arrests in South Korea are largely concentrated among midlife age groups older than 30. These results provide additional compelling evidence contesting Hirschi and Gottfredson's invariance thesis, underscoring the substantial impact of country-specific processes, historical context, and cultural factors on the age-crime relationship.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Crime , Adolescente , Humanos , República da Coreia , Homicídio , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos de Coortes
10.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0294020, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470894

RESUMO

Despite the common belief that police presence reduces crime, there is mixed evidence of such causal effects in major Latin America cities. In this work we identify the casual relationship between police presence and criminal events by using a large dataset of a randomized controlled police intervention in Bogotá D.C., Colombia. We use an Instrumental Variables approach to identify the causal effect of interest. Then we consistently estimate a Conditional Logit discrete choice model with aggregate data that allow us to identify agents' utilities for crime location using Two Stage Least Squares. The estimated parameters allow us to compute the police own and cross-elasticities of crime for each of the spatial locations and to evaluate different police patrolling strategies. The elasticity of crime to police presence is, on average across spatial locations, -0.26 for violent crime, -0.38 for property crime and -0.38 for total crime, all statistically significant. Estimates of cross-elasticities are close to zero; however, spillover effects are non-negligible. Counterfactual analysis of different police deployment strategies show, for an optimal allocating algorithm, an average reduction in violent crime of 7.09%, a reduction in property crimes of 8.48% and a reduction in total crimes of 5.15% at no additional cost. These results show the potential efficiency gains of using the model to deploy police resources in the city without increasing the total police time required.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Polícia , Humanos , Crime , Violência , Cidades
11.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297639, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower autonomic arousal is a well-known correlate of criminal offending and other risk-taking behaviors in men, but few studies have investigated this association in women. AIM: To test associations between autonomic arousal and criminal offending as well as unintentional injuries among female conscripts. METHODS: All women born 1958-1994 in Sweden who participated in voluntary military conscription (n = 12,499) were identified by linking Swedish population-based registers. Predictors were resting heart rate (RHR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Covariates were height, weight, and physical energy capacity. Main outcomes were criminal convictions (any, violent, and non-violent) from the National Crime Register. Secondary outcome was unintentional injuries requiring medical treatment or causing death. We used survival analyses to test for associations between predictors and outcomes. RESULTS: Low RHR, relative to high RHR, was associated with an increased risk of any criminal conviction, non-violent criminal convictions, and unintentional injuries. Low SBP, relative to high SBP, was associated with an increased risk of violent criminal convictions. CONCLUSIONS: Results support lower autonomic arousal, particularly lower RHR, as a correlate of criminal offending among women that warrants further examination, as the reported findings have potential implications for the prediction of future female crime.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Violência , Fatores de Risco , Crime , Nível de Alerta , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Curr Biol ; 34(6): R244-R246, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531317

RESUMO

During cancer progression, tumor cells need to disseminate by remodeling the extracellular tumor matrix. A recent study sheds light on the intricate cooperation between caveolae and invadosomes that facilitates the spread of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Podossomos , Humanos , Podossomos/patologia , Cavéolas , Matriz Extracelular , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Crime
14.
Herz ; 49(2): 124-133, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321170

RESUMO

Air pollution and traffic noise are two important environmental risk factors that endanger health in urban societies and often act together as "partners in crime". Although air pollution and noise often co-occur in urban environments, they have typically been studied separately, with numerous studies documenting consistent effects of individual exposure on blood pressure. In the following review article, we examine the epidemiology of air pollution and noise, especially regarding the cardiovascular risk factor arterial hypertension and the underlying pathophysiology. Both environmental stressors have been shown to lead to endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, pronounced vascular inflammation, disruption of circadian rhythms and activation of the autonomic nervous system, all of which promote the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. From a societal and political perspective, there is an urgent need to point out the potential dangers of air pollution and traffic noise in the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) prevention guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines on prevention. Therefore, an essential goal for the future is to raise awareness of environmental risk factors as important and, in particular, preventable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Crime
15.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297145, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416727

RESUMO

We use bootstrap data envelopment analysis, adjusting for endogeneity, to examine police efficiency in detecting crime in Hong Kong. We address the following: (i) is there a correlation between the detection of crime and triad influence? (ii) does the level of triad influence affect the efficiency in translating inputs (police strength) into outputs (crime detection)? and (iii) how can the allocation of policing resources be adjusted to improve crime detection? We find that nighty-eight percent of Hong Kong police districts in our sample were found to be inefficient in the detection of crime. Variation was found across districts regarding the detection of violent, property and other crimes. Most inefficiencies and potential improvements in the detection of crime were found in the categories violent and other crimes. We demonstrate how less efficient police districts can modify police resourcing decisions to better detect certain crime types while maintaining current levels of resourcing. Finally, we highlight how the method we outline improves efficiency estimation by adjusting for endogeneity and measuring the conditional efficiency of each district (i.e. the efficiency of crime detection taking the instrumental variables (e.g. influence of triads) into consideration). The use of frontier models to assist in evaluating policing performance can lead to improved efficiency, transparency, and accountability in law enforcement, ultimately resulting in better public safety outcomes and publicly funded resource allocation.


Assuntos
Crime , Aplicação da Lei , Humanos , Hong Kong , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Polícia , Agressão
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397611

RESUMO

There is mounting concern over the potential harms associated with ultra-processed foods, including poor mental health and antisocial behavior. Cutting-edge research provides an enhanced understanding of biophysiological mechanisms, including microbiome pathways, and invites a historical reexamination of earlier work that investigated the relationship between nutrition and criminal behavior. Here, in this perspective article, we explore how this emergent research casts new light and greater significance on previous key observations. Despite expanding interest in the field dubbed 'nutritional psychiatry', there has been relatively little attention paid to its relevancy within criminology and the criminal justice system. Since public health practitioners, allied mental health professionals, and policymakers play key roles throughout criminal justice systems, a holistic perspective on both historical and emergent research is critical. While there are many questions to be resolved, the available evidence suggests that nutrition might be an underappreciated factor in prevention and treatment along the criminal justice spectrum. The intersection of nutrition and biopsychosocial health requires transdisciplinary discussions of power structures, industry influence, and marketing issues associated with widespread food and social inequalities. Some of these discussions are already occurring under the banner of 'food crime'. Given the vast societal implications, it is our contention that the subject of nutrition in the multidisciplinary field of criminology-referred to here as nutritional criminology-deserves increased scrutiny. Through combining historical findings and cutting-edge research, we aim to increase awareness of this topic among the broad readership of the journal, with the hopes of generating new hypotheses and collaborations.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Alimento Processado , Crime/psicologia , Direito Penal
17.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297448, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the relationship between recidivism and mental illness. This retrospective study aimed to use rigorous machine learning methods to understand the unique predictive utility of mental illness for recidivism in a general population (i.e.; not only those with mental illness) prison sample in the United States. METHOD: Participants were adult men (n = 322) and women (n = 72) who were recruited from three prisons in the Midwest region of the United States. Three model comparisons using Bayesian correlated t-tests were conducted to understand the incremental predictive utility of mental illness, substance use, and crime and demographic variables for recidivism prediction. Three classification statistical algorithms were considered while evaluating model configurations for the t-tests: elastic net logistic regression (GLMnet), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), and random forests (RF). RESULTS: Rates of substance use disorders were particularly high in our sample (86.29%). Mental illness variables and substance use variables did not add predictive utility for recidivism prediction over and above crime and demographic variables. Exploratory analyses comparing the crime and demographic, substance use, and mental illness feature sets to null models found that only the crime and demographics model had an increased likelihood of improving recidivism prediction accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite not finding a direct relationship between mental illness and recidivism, treatment of mental illness in incarcerated populations is still essential due to the high rates of mental illnesses, the legal imperative, the possibility of decreasing institutional disciplinary burden, the opportunity to increase the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs in prison, and the potential to improve meaningful outcomes beyond recidivism following release.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Reincidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Teorema de Bayes , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Crime , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 334: 115809, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401487

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate alternative approaches to a cumulative risk score in the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and crime. Using data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort (n = 3236), we measured 12 ACEs up to 15 years, and past-year violent and non-violent crime at 22 years. We used four analytical approaches: single adversities, cumulative risk, latent class analysis, and network analysis. When examined individually, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and domestic violence were associated with both crime outcomes, whereas maternal mental illness and discrimination were associated with violent crime only, and parental divorce and poverty with non-violent crime only. There was a cumulative effect of ACEs on crime. The class with child maltreatment and household challenges was associated with both crime outcomes; exposure to household challenges and social risks was associated with violent crime only. In network models, crime showed conditional associations with physical abuse, maternal mental illness, and parental divorce. Although cumulative ACEs did associate with crime, some individual and combinations of ACEs showed particularly strong and robust effects, which were not captured by the cumulative score. Many ACEs are closely connected and/or cluster together, and the usefulness of the ACE score needs to be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Criança , Humanos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coorte de Nascimento , Crime , Violência
19.
Psychol Sci ; 35(3): 277-287, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376954

RESUMO

After an eyewitness completes a lineup, officers are advised to ask witnesses how confident they are in their identification. Although researchers in the lab typically study eyewitness confidence numerically, confidence in the field is primarily gathered verbally. In the current study, we used a natural language-processing approach to develop an automated model to classify verbal eyewitness confidence statements. Across a variety of stimulus materials and witnessing conditions, our model correctly classified adult witnesses' (N = 4,541) level of confidence (i.e., high, medium, or low) 71% of the time. Confidence-accuracy calibration curves demonstrate that the model's confidence classification performs similarly in predicting eyewitness accuracy compared to witnesses' self-reported numeric confidence. Our model also furnishes a new metric, confidence entropy, that measures the vagueness of witnesses' confidence statements and provides independent information about eyewitness accuracy. These results have implications for how empirical scientists collect confidence data and how police interpret eyewitness confidence statements.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Humanos , Adulto , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Polícia , Crime
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3210, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331944

RESUMO

Psychological theories on heat-aggression relationship have existed for decades and recent models suggest climate change will increase violence through varying pathways. Although observational studies have examined the impact of temperature on violent crime, the evidence for associations is primarily limited to coarse temporal resolution of weather and crime (e.g., yearly/monthly) and results from a few Western communities, warranting studies based on higher temporal resolution data of modern systemic crime statistics for various regions. This observational study examined short-term temperature impacts on violent crime using national crime data for the warm months (Jun.-Sep.) across South Korea (2016-2020). Distributed lag non-linear models assessed relative risks (RRs) of daily violent crime counts at the 70th, 90th, and 99th summer temperature percentiles compared to the reference temperature (10th percentile), with adjustments for long-term trends, seasonality, weather, and air pollution. Results indicate potentially non-linear relationships between daily summer temperature (lag0-lag10) and violent crime counts. Violent crimes consistently increased from the lowest temperature and showed the highest risk at the 70th temperature (~ 28.0 °C). The RR at the 70th and 90th percentiles of daily mean temperature (lag0-lag10), compared to the reference, was 1.11 (95% CI 1.09, 1.15) and 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.07), indicating significant associations. Stratified analysis showed significant increases in assault and domestic violence for increases in temperature. The lagged effects, the influences of heat on subsequent crime incidence, did not persist 21 days after the exposure, possibly due to the displacement phenomenon. We found curvilinear exposure-response relationships, which provide empirical evidence to support the psychological theories for heat and violence. Lower public safety through increased violent crime may be an additional public health harm of climate change.


Assuntos
Crime , Violência , Temperatura Alta , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Humanos
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