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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0257530, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972104

RESUMO

To what extent can the strength of a local urban community impact neighborhood safety? We construct measures of community vibrancy based on a unique dataset of block party permit approvals from the City of Philadelphia. Our first measure captures the overall volume of block party events in a neighborhood whereas our second measure captures differences in the type (regular versus spontaneous) of block party activities. We use both regression modeling and propensity score matching to control for the economic, demographic and land use characteristics of the surrounding neighborhood when examining the relationship between crime and our two measures of community vibrancy. We conduct our analysis on aggregate levels of crime and community vibrancy from 2006 to 2015 as well as the trends in community vibrancy and crime over this time period. We find that neighborhoods with a higher number of block parties have a significantly higher crime rate, while those holding a greater proportion of spontaneous block party events have a significantly lower crime rate. We also find that neighborhoods which have an increase in the proportion of spontaneous block parties over time are significantly more likely to have a decreasing trend in total crime incidence over that same time period.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Intervalos de Confiança , Crime , Características da Família , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Lineares , Philadelphia , Pobreza , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 555-560, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726011

RESUMO

Abstract: Cartridge cases are crucial physical evidence in gun-related crimes. The successful identification of the touch DNA on cartridge cases can help to screen the suspects and reconstruct the gun-related crime scene. With the improvement of DNA extraction methods and the sensitivity of amplification kit, forensic examiners are expected to obtain more valuable information by testing the touch DNA on cartridge cases. In practical cases, the touch DNA detection on cartridge cases often encounters with low DNA content degradation, mixing and the gunshot residual interference, which brings more challenges to DNA examination and identification. This article reviews forensic research of touch DNA on the cartridge cases from the aspects of factors affecting touch DNA on cartridge cases, advances in the extraction and amplification methods, and the practical applications in order to provide reference for forensic identification of touch DNA on the cartridge cases in real cases.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA , Tato , Crime , DNA/genética , Genética Forense
5.
Psychol Sci Public Interest ; 22(1_suppl): 1S-18S, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730037

RESUMO

Eyewitness misidentifications are almost always made with high confidence in the courtroom. The courtroom is where eyewitnesses make their last identification of defendants suspected of (and charged with) committing a crime. But what did those same eyewitnesses do on the first identification test, conducted early in a police investigation? Despite testifying with high confidence in court, many eyewitnesses also testified that they had initially identified the suspect with low confidence or failed to identify the suspect at all. Presenting a lineup leaves the eyewitness with a memory trace of the faces in the lineup, including that of the suspect. As a result, the memory signal generated by the face of that suspect will be stronger on a later test involving the same witness, even if the suspect is innocent. In that sense, testing memory contaminates memory. These considerations underscore the importance of a newly proposed recommendation for conducting eyewitness identifications: Avoid repeated identification procedures with the same witness and suspect. This recommendation applies not only to additional tests conducted by police investigators but also to the final test conducted in the courtroom, in front of the judge and jury.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Crime , Humanos , Polícia , Pesquisadores
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4603-4612, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730647

RESUMO

This study analyzes the reports of police officers on violence prevention initiatives in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. The theoretical-methodological framework of the social sciences, based on interpretative anthropology, was used to analyze the data. The results reveal the demand for intervention at an increasingly early stage, aiming at young people from outlying urban neighborhoods in both countries. Dysfunctional family environment, social vulnerability and involvement with crime are cited as risk factors. Reports such as these, promote the prospect of negativity and of labeling youth as a "social problem", reuniting formulations that are structured on the basis of the symbiosis between the role of agent of the state and the moral ethos that supports the individual decisions of police officers. The study highlights the complexity of the interventions, and the dispute around the forms of control and the maintenance of order in the two contexts analyzed. It is suggested that future studies investigate how the rationale present in the field of public health has been incorporated into public safety policies and programs. The risks of narratives reinforcing the stigmatization of underprivileged youths in violence prevention initiatives are emphasized.


Assuntos
Polícia , Violência , Adolescente , Brasil , Crime , Humanos , Escócia , Violência/prevenção & controle
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4703-4714, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730656

RESUMO

This paper analyzes crime reports and police activity in Rio de Janeiro during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate there was an overall drop in crime rates starting in April, especially in property crimes, which plummet to extremely unusual levels when compared with previous patterns. This pattern is most likely associated with an unprecedented decline in public mobility in some areas of the state. We show that the most significant reductions in street robberies occurred in neighborhoods where there was a greater decline in presence on the streets. Measures of police activity, in particular drug seizures and different types of arrests, displayed a reduction comparable with the drop in criminal indicators. In contrast, the number of police killings followed a unique pattern: in April, immediately after the adoption of social distance measures, this indicator increased above the average from the previous four years; as of May, however, it assumed a downward trend, which turned into extraordinarily low levels in June. The extreme variation in the use of force by the police during the pandemic reinforces the documented dissonance between police lethality and criminal dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, shedding light on the mechanisms that regulate police violence in the state.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Crime , Humanos , Polícia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 285: 259-264, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734883

RESUMO

Due to the specific circumstances related to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have enforced emergency measures such as self-isolation and restriction of movement and assembly, which are also directly affecting the functioning of their respective public health and judicial systems. The goal of this study is to identify the efficiency of the criminal sanctions in Russia that were introduced in the beginning of COVID-19 outbreak using machine learning methods. We have developed a regression model for the fine handed out, using random forest regression and XGBoost regression, and calculated the features importance parameters. We have developed classification models for the remission of the penalty and for setting a sentence using a gradient boosting classifier.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias , Crime , Humanos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767671, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820353

RESUMO

The telemedicine system, which has been gradually introduced, has changed dramatically with the outbreak of COVID-19. Now, with the development of related laws and technologies, the introduction of telemedicine will be further accelerated, and like the advent of smartphones, this will become an unstoppable trend of the times. However, just as there are various crimes and corruption problems in the current health system, the introduction of telemedicine may bring other problems. Therefore, it is important to anticipate the types of corruption or crimes that will occur with the introduction of telemedicine. And based on these expectations, we will have an opportunity to properly prepare for the various problems associated with telemedicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Crime , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(21-22): NP12225-NP12251, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755561

RESUMO

Experiencing victimization in childhood increases risk of adulthood revictimization, and it is important to understand what may contribute to such risk. One factor that may help to explain the increased risk of future victimization is disclosure. However, the literature is mixed as to whether disclosure of prior victimization is helpful for protecting against adverse outcomes, and much of the research on disclosure focuses solely on sexual victimization. The current study examines the relationship between various forms of childhood and adulthood victimization and whether disclosure moderates this relationship. In addition, this study investigates whether characteristics of disclosure are associated with revictimization risk. The sample included 275 undergraduates (M age = 19.52 years; 75.6% female, 77.5% non-Hispanic White or Caucasian). Participants reported on previous history of various forms of childhood and adulthood victimization. They also reported whether or not they had disclosed childhood victimization, and, if so, characteristics related to disclosure. Results revealed that number of childhood victimization experiences significantly predicted number of adulthood victimization experiences, and nearly every type of childhood victimization significantly increased risk of experiencing each type of adulthood victimization. Disclosure did not moderate the relationship between childhood and adulthood victimization. Participants who disclosed were more likely to disclose crime and peer/sibling victimization and disclose to parents or friends. Positive reactions to disclosure were more common than negative reactions; however, 75% of disclosers received at least one negative reaction. Finally, revictimized individuals received more overall negative reactions than nonrevictimized individuals. They also received more reactions characterized by the person they disclosed to trying to take control of their decisions or treating them differently. Results highlight the importance of examining relationships between various forms of victimization, considering how characteristics of disclosure relate to risk of revictimization, and the importance of educating potential support networks about appropriate responses to disclosure.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adulto , Crime , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 751103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778185

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has ravaged the world, has led to a rethinking of the relationship between humans and nature and the clichés of the economic-centered model. Thus, the ecological economy has been reviewed, especially from an ethical worldview. This paper uses statistical methods to retrieve and categorize 3,646 wildlife crime cases for analysis and quantitative research. It adopts legal and ethical perspectives to analyze the subject and the subjective, incidence, and sentencing factors of wildlife crimes and uses the ecological economic ethical model to measure wildlife crimes. We argue that the existing judicial system fails to answer the difficulties of the economic ethics of wildlife crimes. It is recommended that ecological and economic ethical awareness be internalized. We suggest calling for comprehensive legislation on wildlife crimes from the perspective of ecological economic ethics to effectively prevent and reduce wildlife crime and eventually promote public health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , COVID-19 , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Crime , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(6): 56-60, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814647

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine the place of formal logic methods for determination of causality in 'medical cases'. The study was carried out using the dialectical method, as well as analysis, generalization, induction, deduction, comparison, and the statistical method. Using the principle of causality, the authors stipulate that causality is not only a tool of categorical comprehension of the world, but also a form of thinking activity that allows us to directly discover cause-and-effect patterns. The principle of conditio sine qua non is used in conjunction with other methods of formal logic to identify causality. Further dialectical methods of cognition are applied, which involve appealing to the categories of possibility and reality, necessity and randomness, essence and phenomenon, etc. A mistake made at the stage of applying the methods of formal logic leads to an erroneous conclusion on the whole situation of establishing causality. The article demonstrates this with the example of 'medical cases'. The correct application of logical methods of detecting causality does not yet predetermine the correctness of the final decision on the causality. The authors conclude that the forensic expert examines only individual aspects of legally significant causality in the permissible use of the construct of direct causality, and in general the legal assessment of the presence or absence of causality is made in the process of qualification of the criminal situation, involving the establishment of socially dangerous act as an independent component of legally significant causal relationship, the guilt of the person and other elements of the crime.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Lógica , Causalidade , Crime , Medicina Legal , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770189

RESUMO

Wildlife crime has huge consequences regarding global environmental changes to animals, plants and the entire ecosystem. Combatting wildlife crime effectively requires a deep understanding of human-wildlife interactions and an analysis of the influencing factors. Conservation and green criminology are important in reducing wildlife crime, protecting wildlife and the ecosystem and informing policy-makers about best practices and strategies. However, the past years have shown that wildlife crime is not easy to combat and it is argued in this article that there are underlying existential "givens" and culture-specific aspects that need to be investigated to understand why wildlife crime is still on the rise. This theoretical article explores (eco-)existential perspectives, Greening's four givens and selected African philosophical concepts, aiming to understand the complexities behind the prevalence of wildlife crime within global and African contexts.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Ecossistema , Animais , Crime , Existencialismo , Humanos
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20654, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675321

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, gun violence (GV) in the United States (U.S.) was postulated to increase strain on already taxed healthcare resources, such as blood products, intensive care beds, personal protective equipment, and even hospital staff. This report aims to estimate the relative risk of GV in the U.S. during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Daily police reports corresponding to gun-related injuries and deaths in the 50 states and the District of Columbia from February 1st, 2019, to March 31st, 2021 were obtained from the GV Archive. Generalized linear mixed-effects models in the form of Poisson regression analysis were utilized to estimate the state-specific rates of GV. Nationally, GV rates were 30% higher between March 01, 2020, and March 31, 2021 (during the pandemic), compared to the same period in 2019 (before the pandemic) [intensity ratio (IR) = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29, 1.32; p < 0.0001]. The risk of GV was significantly higher in 28 states and significantly lower in only one state. National and state-specific rates of GV were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same timeframe 1 year prior. State-specific steps to mitigate violence, or at a minimum adequately prepare for its toll during the COVID-19 pandemic, should be taken.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Crime , Bases de Dados Factuais , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Distribuição Normal , Pandemias , Distribuição de Poisson , Estados Unidos
17.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 183-192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604987

RESUMO

This narrative review examines current academic literature on the mental health of Filipino seafarers working internationally, including the mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Framed within a rights-based approach, it aims to identify and analyse emerging themes on Filipino seafarers' mental health literature to understand what these studies potentially mean for the improvement of seafarers' education on mental health. Based on a broad selection criteria, 28 eligible papers demonstrate collectively three key findings: firstly, there is paucity in published research on seafarers' mental health; secondly, the majority of published studies are associated with a recent piracy crisis, where a significant number of mariners were attacked, taken as hostages, or killed; thirdly, three key areas emerged under which research on Filipino seafarers' mental health can be organized: the medical repatriation of seafarers, system of care for the mental health of seafarers including the diagnostic standards used, and seafarers' experiences and conceptions of mental health including the mental health effects of COVID-19. Though the bulk of the current understanding of the mental health problems is associated with piracy, several risk factors for which the quality of quantitative and qualitative evidence are patchy. The few sources of primary data to date lack focus on mental health needs which makes it difficult to grasp the extent of the problem. Developing policies and programmes for the promotion of mental health through mental health education among seafarers is important for a couple of reasons. Seafaring remains a dangerous and socially isolating occupation where work-related accidents are likely and will be potentially traumatic to mariners. Research on occupational stressors is increasingly providing evidence of their contributions to poor mental health outcomes among seafarers. Thus, mental health education of seafarers in the context of their work is important for proactive training and development.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental/educação , Medicina Naval/métodos , Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Filipinas/etnologia , Navios
18.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 438-441, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625776

RESUMO

Introduction: Over the last years, many research groups have been working on evaluating the most appropriate rehabilitation approaches in offenders with mental disorders, taking into account the need to prevent crime reiteration. The HKT-R (Historisch Klinisch Toekomst- Revised), recently validated in Italy, is a comprehensive tool that offers useful indications to healthcare operators on relapse hazard and major risk areas on which intensify rehabilitation treatments. The present study aims to assess the risk of violent crime recidivism in psychiatric patients during different rehabilitative pats. Materials&Methods: the risk of violent crime recidivism was assessed by using the HKT-R in 34 patients with mental disorders treated in ordinary psychiatric therapeutic rehabilitative units (CRAP - Comunità Terapeutiche Riabilitative Assistenziali Psichiatriche) and in CRAP-D (Comunità Terapeutiche Riabilitative Assistenziali Psichiatriche Dedicate) specialized in crime offenders. Results and Conclusions: Results have demonstrated a higher risk of violent behavior in CRAP-D, and a negative correlation between the risk of violent recidivism, global functioning of patients, and length of care program. These data suggest that residential rehabilita-tion programs, by improving personal and social functioning, could negatively impact the risk of violent crime recidivism, especially in patients with severe mental illness.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Crime , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Violência/prevenção & controle
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637471

RESUMO

Illegal wildlife trade is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Understanding its economic value is a first step to establishing the magnitude of the problem. We develop a dataset of illegal wildlife trade prices and combine it with seizure data to estimate the economic value of illegal wildlife trade entering the USA. Using 2013 as a reference year, the results reveal that the economic value of illegal wildlife trade entering the USA was, using a conservative scenario where potential outliers were excluded, US$3.2 billion/year (uncertainty range (UR) 5th and 95th percentile of US$0.6-8.2 billion/year) and, without excluding potential outliers, US$4.3 billion/year (UR of US$1.3-9.6 billion/year). Our results for the USA alone are of a comparable magnitude to the lower bound of commonly used global estimates of the economic value of IWT of uncertain origin, suggesting that the global economic value of IWT is currently underestimated and requires an urgent revision.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estados Unidos
20.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 53: 101970, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601451

RESUMO

When a capital crime is committed the post-mortem interval (PMI) is of particular importance in investigating a suspect's alibi in court. A forensic expert can use different methods to estimate the PMI. This research focuses on who is considered an expert in court and whether the methods used to estimate the PMI are reliable. In this study, the methods used to estimate the PMI and the experts consulted, available in Dutch jurisprudence, in the period 2010-2019 were investigated. Ninety-four judicial cases were included and multiple experts and methods of estimating the PMI were found. As part of this study, the methods that were used to estimate the PMI in court were subjected to the Daubert criteria. Of these methods, only the Henssge nomogram and entomological methods met the Daubert criteria. However, the methods are only useful when applied by the right forensic expert and in the right manner. Unfortunately, this was not always the case.


Assuntos
Entomologia , Medicina Legal , Autopsia , Crime , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte
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