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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159533, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270368

RESUMO

We developed an innovative approach to estimate the occurrence and extent of fecal pollution sources for urban river catchments. The methodology consists of 1) catchment surveys complemented by literature data where needed for probabilistic estimates of daily produced fecal indicator (FIBs, E. coli, enterococci) and zoonotic reference pathogen numbers (Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Giardia) excreted by human and animal sources in a river catchment, 2) generating a hypothesis about the dominant sources of fecal pollution and selecting a source targeted monitoring design, and 3) verifying the results by comparing measured concentrations of the informed choice of parameters (i.e. chemical tracers, C. perfringensspores, and host-associated genetic microbial source tracking (MST) markers) in the river, and by multi-parametric correlation analysis. We tested the approach at a study area in Vienna, Austria. The daily produced microbial particle numbers according to the probabilistic estimates indicated that, for the dry weather scenario, the discharge of treated wastewater (WWTP) was the primary contributor to fecal pollution. For the wet weather scenario, 80-99 % of the daily produced FIBs and pathogens resulted from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) according to the probabilistic estimates. When testing our hypothesis in the river, the measured concentrations of the human genetic fecal marker were log10 4 higher than for selected animal genetic fecal markers. Our analyses showed for the first-time statistical relationships between C. perfringens spores (used as conservative microbial tracer for communal sewage) and a human genetic fecal marker (i.e. HF183/BacR287) with the reference pathogen Giardia in river water (Spearman rank correlation: 0.78-0.83, p < 0.05. The developed approach facilitates urban water safety management and provides a robust basis for microbial fate and transport models and microbial infection risk assessment.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Humanos , Rios , Poluição da Água/análise , Microbiologia da Água , Escherichia coli , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/química , Giardia , Água/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMO

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Filogenia , China , Fezes , Genótipo
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2008, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases contribute greatly to the reported global childhood mortality and morbidity with related social, economic consequences. This study was conducted to analyze the utilization of the Health Belief Model (HBM) theory to comprehend diarrheal disease dynamics in Uganda. METHODS: Our study utilized a qualitative cross-sectional design among adult livestock farmers in selected farming communities. A total of 80 individuals were recruited and interviewed through Focus Discussion Groups (FDGs) (n = 6) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) (n = 8) to evaluate diarrheal disease dynamics. The scope of dynamics included but not limited to exposure risks, knowledge, and attitudes. Our results were presented using the five (5) constructs of the HBM. RESULTS: Perceived susceptibility; communities believed that both humans and their animals are at high risk of different kinds of diarrheal infections. The farmers believed that majority of these diarrhea infections are hard to treat especially among animals. Perceived severity; farmers believed that diarrheal diseases are characterized by loss of weight, fever, emaciation, dry eyes, severe prolonged diarrhea and sudden death. Perceived barriers; limited knowledge and misconceptions about the diarrheal infections were great inhibitors to successful disease prevention and control. Self-efficacy; farmers had fear of laxity that interventions being suggested and put in place to curb diarrheal diseases such as cryptosporidiosis would wither away with time thus endemicity of the problem in the community. Modifying factors and cues to action; most of the farmers treat animals by themselves based on; probability, traditional knowledge and previous experience. CONCLUSION: Sustained public health interventional activities should therefore be undertaken by both human and animal health sectors with maximum community involvement. Communities suggested the need to increase preventive measures and promote household hygiene efforts to always wash hands with soap and running water in order to reduce the burden of diarrhea diseases such as cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Uganda/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383892

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is a disease caused by the Cryptosporidium spp parasite. As some species of Cryptosporidium have a wide host spectrum, the characterization of the pathogen at the species or genotype level is of great importance to define the sources of infection for humans and the potential for public health. This study investigated the diversity of the genus Cryptosporidium spp. in humans from all over the American continent and observed whether the method used to search for the parasite influenced the prevalence found in the Americas. This systematic review was carried out using the Pubmed, Science direct, Lilacs, Scielo, and Scopus databases with publications from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2020. For data synthesis, the PRISMA flowchart was used and for the meta-analysis we used the MetaXL program. Of the selected publications, 57, 9 and 16 belonged to the region of South, Central and North America, respectively. The prevalence found for South, Central, and North America was 7%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, when analyzing publications that used only the microscopy method. When we analyzed the publications that used immunological and molecular methods, we found prevalences of 10%, 9%, and 21% for South, Central, and North America, respectively. The C. hominis subtype IbA10G2 was the most reported in the American continent, followed by subtype IeA11G3T3 and, for C. parvum, subtype IIaA15G2RI was the most reported. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium spp. is present throughout the American continent and its prevalence is higher when immunological and/or molecular methods are used, in addition to direct microscopic examination.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Humanos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Prevalência , Genótipo , América , Fezes/parasitologia
5.
J Water Health ; 20(2): 385-395, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366994

RESUMO

Despite the large amounts of freshwater available in Brazil, the deterioration of surface water can represent a risk of waterborne disease for national and international tourists. The main goal of this study was to assess the quality of drinking water in the triple border region of Brazil before and after being treated in water treatment plants (WTPs) and in Municipal Early Childhood Education Centers (MECECs), in terms of parasitological, microbiological, and physical-chemical aspects. Different water samples were monitored: raw water (RW), treated water (TW), and tap water from the MECECs, giving 60 samples in total, to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, microbiological indicators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and antimicrobial resistance profiles using conventional microbiological assays and parasitological, immunological, and molecular techniques. The results obtained were compared with the reference values recommended by the legislation of drinking water in Brazil. For the first time, contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia was demonstrated in RW used to supply WTPs, in TW of Foz do Iguaçu, and in water destined for consumption by children. A total of 52 bacterial isolates were obtained, with high percentages of multidrug resistance to antibiotics, including a carbapenem-resistant profile, highlighting the need to improve quality control standards.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Giardíase , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Abastecimento de Água , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Giardia , Brasil
6.
Parasite ; 29: 50, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350192

RESUMO

A total of 617 fecal specimens were collected on 18 Hotan Black chicken farms in Southern Xinjiang, China, and tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The overall infection rate by Cryptosporidium spp. was 11.5% (71/617), and ten of the 18 farms were positive. The infection rate by Cryptosporidium spp. was 14.5% (48/331) in the 30-60 d group, higher than chickens in the <30 d (12.0%, 15/125), 60-90 d (6.9%, 5/72), and >90 d (3.4%, 3/89) groups. Cryptosporidium meleagridis (n = 38) and C. baileyi (n = 33) were confirmed by sequencing analysis. A total of 25 of the 38 C. meleagridis-positive specimens were subtyped successfully at the gp60 gene, including one known subtype (IIIbA23G1R1, n = 1) and two novel subtypes, named IIIbA25G1R1 (n = 20) and IIIbA31G1R1 (n = 4). The results showed that infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in Hotan Black Chickens was common in this area and the distribution of C. meleagridis subtypes had regional characteristics.


Title: La caractérisation génétique de Cryptosporidium spp. chez les poulets noirs du Hotan en Chine révèle deux nouveaux sous-types de Cryptosporidium meleagridis. Abstract: Un total de 617 échantillons fécaux ont été prélevés dans 18 élevages de poulets noirs du Hotan dans le sud du Xinjiang, en Chine, et testés pour la présence de Cryptosporidium spp. par PCR du gène de la petite sous-unité de l'ARN ribosomique (ARNr SSU). Le taux d'infection global par Cryptosporidium spp. était de 11,5 % (71/617) et dix des 18 élevages étaient positifs. Le taux d'infection de Cryptosporidium spp. était de 14,5 % (48/331) dans le groupe 30­60 jours, supérieur à celui des poulets dans les groupes <30 jours (12,0 %, 15/125), 60­90 jours (6,9 %, 5/72) et >90 jours (3,4 %, 3/89). Cryptosporidium meleagridis (n = 38) et C. baileyi (n = 33) ont été confirmés par analyse de séquençage. Vingt-cinq des 38 spécimens positifs pour C. meleagridis ont été sous-typés avec succès au niveau du gène gp60, dont un sous-type connu (IIIbA23G1R1, n = 1) et deux nouveaux sous-types, nommés IIIbA25G1R1 (n = 20) et IIIbA31G1R1 (n = 4). Les résultats ont montré que l'infection par Cryptosporidium spp. chez les poulets noirs du Hotan était commune dans cette zone et que la distribution des sous-types de C. meleagridis avait des caractéristiques régionales.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , Galinhas/genética , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Fezes , Genótipo
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 402, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, several studies have reported the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in young calves, lambs, and HIV positive patients. However, research on cattle and sheep of all ages, as well as humans, has been limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle, sheep, humans, and manure samples. Dairy cattle and sheep were stratified according to their age groups and randomly sampled. Stool samples from volunteered dairy farm workers and rural household members were collected purposefully. A semi-structured questionnaire was also used to collect information about manure handling practices and socio-demographic variables. All collected samples were processed with the sugar floatation technique and the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of risk factors with the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in study subjects (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle, sheep, humans, and manure samples was 20.5%, 14%, 16%, and 13.20%, respectively. Cryptosporidium infection was significantly higher in dairy cattle aged 1-12 months and 13-36 months with odds of 3.48 and 3.07 times higher, respectively, compared to others. Similarly, its occurrence was 2.69 times higher in sheep aged 1-6 months than those above 6 months. And also, a higher average oocyst count (above 10 oocysts) per-field was observed in cattle aged 1-12 months, followed by sheep aged 1-6 months. Furthermore, the likelihood of infection was 13 times greater in farm workers compared to household members of smallholder farmers. In addition, the occurrence of oocysts was 22.8 times higher in manures from dairy cattle than that of sheep. About 16.8% of the study respondents had manure disposal pit, 98.1% of them used manure as fertilizer for crop and vegetable production without any treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in all age groups of dairy cattle and sheep, humans engaged in animal production. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium in manure suggests it potential contamination of environment and water sources.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Esterco , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fezes , Oocistos , Prevalência
8.
Clin Lab ; 68(11)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a category of diseases that cause an individual's immune system to become suppressed. In a case-control study, the current study aims to detect the frequency of intestinal parasites and related risk factors in children with cancer. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 178 children with cancers (cases) and 150 cancer-free children (controls) who sought treatment for diarrheal episodes at nearby hospitals. Samples were processed by direct smear examination, concentration technique, permanent staining by Lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl-Neelsen, modified trichrome, and chromotrope 2R stains. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 7.3% (24/328), with non-statistically significant differences between cases (7.8%; 14/178) and controls (6.6%; 10/150). Children with leukemia had a higher infection rate (9%; 9/100) than children with lymphoma (6.9%; 3/43) or solid tumors (5.7%; 2/35). Blastocystis sp. (3.3%) was the most common intestinal parasite found in cases, followed by Cryptosporidium sp. (2.2%), Giardia lamblia (1.6%), and Microsporidia sp. (0.5%). For all parasites, no statistical difference was found between the two groups. (p > 0.05). Male gender, young age, non-bottled water use, travel to parasite-endemic areas, living in an urban area, and infrequent hand washing were all associated with intestinal parasitosis, with non-statistical significance observed between the two groups. In children with cancer, intestinal parasites were found to be significantly associated with chronic (p = 0.04) and severe (p = 0.03) diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: Children with cancer, particularly those with hematological cancers, should be screened for intestinal parasites on a regular basis and treated for their overall health.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Neoplasias , Infecções por Protozoários , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fezes , Infecções por Protozoários/diagnóstico , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
9.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1096-1099, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415524

RESUMO

Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, and Blastocystis are some parasites primarily responsible for human infections. Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis, is a common pathogenic protozoan found in the human duodenum and jejunum that causes giardiasis. This study collected stool and blood samples from patients with diarrhea aged less than 1 month to 15 years, from September 2020 to December 2020, in Thi-Qar province. Our study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia using direct microscopy examination and detect some immunological parameters such as IL-17 and IL-35 in patients infected with giardiasis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Humanos , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/parasitologia , Interleucina-17 , Iraque/epidemiologia
10.
Iran Biomed J ; 26(5): 374-9, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369769

RESUMO

Background: Cryptosporidium parvum is an important coccidian parasite infecting many mammals, including human. This parasite can manifest as chronic severe diarrhea in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with AIDS. The present study reports the recombinant production of rP2 and rP23 antigens of C. parvum as antigens for detecting human cryptosporidiosis using indirect ELISA tests. Methods: The coding sequences of rP2 and rP23 proteins were codon-optimized, commercially synthesized and sub-cloned in the pET28a expression vector. The expressed proteins were purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and confirmed by Western blotting. The efficacy of rP2/rP23 proteins for serodiagnosis was evaluated by positive (n = 20) and negative (n = 20) human sera, confirmed by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining as the gold standard test. Results: In ELISA test, the sera from C. parvum-infected patients reacted strongly to rP2/rP23. The sensitivity and specificity related to the diagnostic potential of rP2/rP23 in the ELISA assay were 100%. Conclusion: Our results showed that combination of rP23 and rP2 antigens in ELISA significantly increases the performance of C. parvum serodiagnosis in human cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Humanos , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Testes Sorológicos , Mamíferos
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 985178, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36237424

RESUMO

Before the discovery of the proteasome complex, the lysosomes with acidic proteases and caspases in apoptotic pathways were thought to be the only pathways for the degradation of damaged, unfolded, and aged proteins. However, the discovery of 26S and 20S proteasome complexes in eukaryotes and microbes, respectively, established that the degradation of most proteins is a highly regulated ATP-dependent pathway that is significantly conserved across each domain of life. The proteasome is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), where the covalent tagging of a small molecule called ubiquitin (Ub) on the proteins marks its proteasomal degradation. The type and chain length of ubiquitination further determine whether a protein is designated for further roles in multi-cellular processes like DNA repair, trafficking, signal transduction, etc., or whether it will be degraded by the proteasome to recycle the peptides and amino acids. Deubiquitination, on the contrary, is the removal of ubiquitin from its substrate molecule or the conversion of polyubiquitin chains into monoubiquitin as a precursor to ubiquitin. Therefore, deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) can maintain the dynamic state of cellular ubiquitination by releasing conjugated ubiquitin from proteins and controlling many cellular pathways that are essential for their survival. Many DUBs are well characterized in the human system with potential drug targets in different cancers. Although, proteasome complex and UPS of parasites, like plasmodium and leishmania, were recently coined as multi-stage drug targets the role of DUBs is completely unexplored even though structural domains and functions of many of these parasite DUBs are conserved having high similarity even with its eukaryotic counterpart. This review summarizes the identification & characterization of different parasite DUBs based on in silico and a few functional studies among different phylogenetic classes of parasites including Metazoan (Schistosoma, Trichinella), Apicomplexan protozoans (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium), Kinetoplastidie (Leishmania, Trypanosoma) and Microsporidia (Nosema). The identification of different homologs of parasite DUBs with structurally similar domains with eukaryotes, and the role of these DUBs alone or in combination with the 20S proteosome complex in regulating the parasite survival/death is further elaborated. We propose that small molecules/inhibitors of human DUBs can be potential antiparasitic agents due to their significant structural conservation.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Parasitos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Antiparasitários , Caspases/metabolismo , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/genética , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Parasitos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poliubiquitina/genética , Poliubiquitina/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 963723, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211380

RESUMO

The physical barrier of the intestine and associated mucosal immunity maintains a delicate homeostatic balance between the host and the external environment by regulating immune responses to commensals, as well as functioning as the first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Understanding the orchestration and characteristics of the intestinal mucosal immune response during commensal or pathological conditions may provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying microbe-induced immunological tolerance, protection, and/or pathogenesis. Over the last decade, our knowledge about the interface between the host intestinal mucosa and the gut microbiome has been dominated by studies focused on bacterial communities, helminth parasites, and intestinal viruses. In contrast, specifically how commensal and pathogenic protozoa regulate intestinal immunity is less well studied. In this review, we provide an overview of mucosal immune responses induced by intestinal protozoa, with a major focus on the role of different cell types and immune mediators triggered by commensal (Blastocystis spp. and Tritrichomonas spp.) and pathogenic (Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum) protozoa. We will discuss how these various protozoa modulate innate and adaptive immune responses induced in experimental models of infection that benefit or harm the host.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criptosporidiose/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(3): 515-527, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214236

RESUMO

This study assesses parasitism and pathologic manifestations in free-ranging Crotalus durissus terrificus. A total of 96 rattlesnakes from the State of Minas Gerais (southeast Brazil) were necropsied between September 2019 and February 2020. Granulomatous gastritis affected 48% (46 of 96) of the snakes evaluated, which were associated with the ascaridid nematodes Ophidascaris sp. and Hexametra sp. Other nematodes found included Kalicephalus costatus costatus and Kalicephalus inermis inermis (Diaphanocephalidae; 7%, 7 of 96) in the intestines, Serpentirhabdias sp. (Rhabdiasidae; 18%, 17 of 96) in the lungs, and Hastospiculum sp. (Diplotriaenidae; 2%, 2 of 96) encapsulated in the serosa of the mesentery. Larval cestodes, probably spargana of Spirometra sp. (Diphyllobothriidae; 2%, 2 of 96), were found in the skeletal muscle and unidentified acanthocephalan cystacanths (Oligacanthorhynchidae; 5%, 5 of 96) in the subcutis and coelomic cavity. The pentastome Porocephalus crotali (Porocephalidae; 2%, 2 of 96) was also found in the lungs. Microscopically, intestinal disease was caused by Sarcocystis sp. (7%, 7 of 96), Cryptosporidium sp. (1%, 1 of 96), and Entamoeba sp. (1%, 1 of 96) and fungi (7%, 7 of 96). In addition, hemoparasites such as Hepatozoon spp. (23%, 22 of 96) and Trypanosoma sp. (1%, 1 of 96) were observed in blood smears. This study expands the knowledge of diseases, parasites, and other infectious agents affecting free-ranging C. durissus terrificus in Brazil.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Crotalus
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231975

RESUMO

Despite the fact that Cryptosporidium spp. is a parasite which commonly causes diarrhea, it still receives little attention. In our experiment, we focused on comparing the biological (N. davidi shrimp) and physical (zeolite with different thicknesses) possibility of filtering cryptosporidia from a small volume of water, which could contribute to increasing the catchability of this parasite. We monitored the ability to capture oocysts of the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, genotype IIaA11G2R1, found in water samples. We infected drinking water with feces with a known number of cryptosporidial oocysts. One gram of sample contained ±28 oocysts. We filtered eight water samples with different concentrations of oocysts (0.1-2 g of infected stool per 15 L of water) using zeolite with a particle thickness of 0.2-0.6 mm and 0-0.3 mm. This was followed by purification, centrifugation and isolation utilizing the isolation kit AmpliSens®&nbsp;DNA-sorb-B, which is intended for stool. In total, 120 shrimp were divided into four aquariums (A, B, C, n = 30) including the control (K), while drinking water with the same parameters was infected with different concentrations of oocysts (A: 2.5 g, B: 2 g, C: 1 g of infected stool per 15 L of water). We took 10 individual shrimp and processed them in three time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). We processed them whole, and we isolated the DNA utilizing the isolation kit AmpliSens®&nbsp;DNA-sorb-AM, which is intended for tissues. Detection was carried out by molecular methods, namely the Nested PCR targeting of the region of the GP60 gene (60 kD glycoprotein). Gel electrophoresis showed the presence of C. parvum in seven zeolite-filtered water samples, and the parasite was not found in the water sample with the lowest number of oocysts filtered through the smaller-particle zeolite. There were 67 C. parvum-positive shrimp. Whereas the most positive shrimp were identified at 12 h of sampling, the least were identified at the 24 h mark. No shrimp positive for C. parvum was found in the control group. By sequencing, we confirmed the presence of C. parvum, genotype IIaA11G2R1, in all positive samples. We thus proved that the filtration capabilities of zeolite and N. davidi can be used for the rapid diagnosis of the presence of protozoa in a small amount of studied water.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Zeolitas , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Glicoproteínas , Oocistos
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e185, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305017

RESUMO

We describe the investigations and management of a Cryptosporidium parvum outbreak of linked to consumption of pasteurised milk from a vending machine. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis was newly used, confirming that C. parvum detected in human cases was indistinguishable from that in a calf on the farm. This strengthened the evidence for milk from an on-farm vending machine as the source of the outbreak because of post-pasteurisation contamination. Bacteriological indicators of post-pasteurisation contamination persisted after the initial hygiene improvement notice. We propose that on-farm milk vending machines may represent an emerging public health risk.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Humanos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Leite , Surtos de Doenças , Inglaterra/epidemiologia
16.
Parasite ; 29: 46, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219067

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis are significant zoonotic intestinal pathogens that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and induce a host immune response. A total of 1237 fecal samples were collected from laboratory rodents (rats, mice and guinea pigs) from four different locations in China to investigate the infection rates and molecular characterization of these pathogens on experimental animals. Genomic DNA was extracted from each sample, and PCR amplifications were done. Overall, the Cryptosporidium spp. infection rate was 3.8% (47/1237). Four known Cryptosporidium species were identified, namely C. parvum, C. muris, C. tyzzeri and C. homai, the three former being zoonotic species. The overall E. bieneusi infection rate was 3.0% (37/1237). Seven known E. bieneusi genotypes, namely S7, BEB6, J, Henan-IV, CHG10, D and WL6, were detected by sequence analysis. Among these, genotypes D, Henan-IV and CHG10 have a high zoonotic risk. Giardia duodenalis was not detected at any of the three loci (SSU rRNA, bg and gdh) after PCR amplification. This study provides basic data for these pathogens in laboratory rodents in China and lays the foundation for their prevention and control in laboratory animals.


Title: Caractérisation moléculaire de Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi et Giardia duodenalis chez des rongeurs de laboratoire en Chine. Abstract: Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi et Giardia duodenalis sont des agents pathogènes intestinaux zoonotiques importants, qui peuvent provoquer des symptômes gastro-intestinaux tels que la diarrhée et induire une réponse immunitaire de l'hôte. Au total, 1237 échantillons fécaux ont été prélevés sur des rongeurs de laboratoire (rats, souris et cobayes) de quatre endroits différents en Chine pour étudier les taux d'infection et la caractérisation moléculaire de ces agents pathogènes sur des animaux de laboratoire. L'ADN génomique a été extrait de chaque échantillon et des amplifications par PCR ont été effectuées. Dans l'ensemble, le taux d'infection par Cryptosporidium spp. était de 3,8 % (47/1237). Quatre espèces connues de Cryptosporidium ont été identifiées, à savoir C. parvum, C. muris, C. tyzzeri et C. homai, les trois premières étant des espèces zoonotiques. Le taux global d'infection par E. bieneusi était de 3,0 % (37/1 237). Sept génotypes connus d'E. bieneusi, à savoir S7, BEB6, J, Henan-IV, CHG10, D et WL6, ont été détectés par analyse de séquence. Parmi ceux-ci, les génotypes D, Henan-IV et CHG10 ont un risque zoonotique élevé. Giardia duodenalis n'a été détecté à aucun des trois loci (SSU ARNr, bg et gdh) après amplification par PCR. Cette étude fournit des données de base sur ces agents pathogènes chez les rongeurs de laboratoire en Chine et pose les bases de leur prévention et de leur contrôle chez les animaux de laboratoire.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Cobaias , Camundongos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Ratos , Roedores
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 394, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi can cause important intestinal diseases in ruminants. However, data on the distribution of these three protozoan pathogens in Tibetan sheep are limited. METHODS: We collected 761 fecal samples from Tibetan sheep across four seasons in Qinghai Province, China, and screened the samples for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi using PCR-based sequence analysis of the genes encoding 18S ribosomal RNA, triosephosphate isomerase and the internal transcribed spacer, respectively. RESULTS: The positivity rates of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi in Tibetan sheep were 3.68% (28/761 samples), 1.58% (12/761) and 6.44% (49/761), respectively. Four species of Cryptosporidium were identified: C. xiaoi (n = 13 samples), C. ubiquitum (n = 8), C. bovis (n = 6) and C. ryanae (n = 1). Two G. duodenalis assemblages, namely the A (n = 2 samples) and E (n = 10) assemblages, were detected. Five zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes were found: BEB6 (n = 21 samples), COS-I (n = 14), CHS3 (n = 11) and CGS1 (n = 2) from group 2, and PIGEBITS5 (n = 1) from group 1. Geographic differences in the distribution of E. bieneusi, and seasonal differences for all the three protozoan pathogens were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Our results elucidate the prevalence and genetic diversity of these three pathogens in Tibetan sheep across different regions and seasons, including zoonotic pathogens such as C. ubiquitum, C. ryanae, G. duodenalis assemblage A and five genotypes of E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Animais , Ovinos , Enterocytozoon/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Cryptosporidium/genética , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Tibet/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Fezes
18.
Parasitol Res ; 121(12): 3589-3595, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205770

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. are common enteric parasites in humans and animals. Herein, 175 faecal specimens were collected from a broiler farm in Xinjiang, China, including seven repeated samplings at 10-day intervals of broilers aged 10 to 70 days. Cryptosporidium was detected and identified by PCR-RFLP analysis. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium in broilers was 23.4% (41/175), with the highest infection rate of 48.0% (12/25) at 40 days of age, and no infection was detected at 10 days of age. Two Cryptosporidium species were confirmed, namely, C. baileyi (3.4%, 6/175) and C. meleagridis (20%, 35/175). In total, 21 of 35 C. meleagridis isolates were successfully subtyped based on the gp60 gene, and one known subtype, IIIgA22G3R1 (n = 1), and three novel subtypes, IIIbA25G1R1 (n = 10), IIIgA24G3R1 (n = 9) and IIIgA25G2R1 (n = 1), were identified. Our findings highlight the genetic diversity of C. meleagridis in Xinjiang and the potential endemic characteristics of the subtypes.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Humanos , Galinhas/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo
19.
J Environ Manage ; 324: 116320, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183529

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. are parasites that cause diseases in the population. Most of parasite diseases regarding the consumption of drinking water polluted with sewage are caused by Cryptosporidium sp. or Giardia sp. it is because of the incomplete disinfection of the wastewater treatment. Therefore, in this work the removal or inactivation efficiency of different treatment technologies presented by around 40 scientific studies was evaluated, with a view to water circularity. For Cryptosporidium sp., we conclude that the most efficient secondary technologies are aerobic technologies, which remove between 0.00 and 2.17 log units (Ulog), with activated sludge presenting the greatest efficiency, and that the tertiary technologies with the greatest removal are those that use ultrasound, which reach removal values of 3.17 Ulog. In the case of Giardia sp., the secondary technologies with the greatest removal are anaerobic technologies, with values between 0.00 and 3.80 Ulog, and the tertiary technologies with the greatest removal are those that combine filtration with UV or a chemical disinfection agent. Despite the removal values obtained, the greatest concern remains detecting and quantifying the infectious forms of both parasites in effluents; therefore, although the technologies perform adequately, discharge effluents must be monitored with more sensitive techniques, above all aiming for circularity of the treated water in a context of the water scarcity that affects some parts of the world.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardíase , Purificação da Água , Animais , Giardia , Esgotos/parasitologia , Água , Oocistos , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(10): 512-519, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201229

RESUMO

Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades nearly all nucleated cells of a broad spectrum of vertebrate hosts, and which may cause serious disease in immunocompromised patients, as well as in the immunologically incompetent fetus. This study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique to rapidly detect T. gondii in the blood infection by targeting the 529 bp repeat element of T. gondii. Materials and Methods: A turbidity monitoring system, together with visual reagent, was used to test the amplification result of the LAMP assay. In addition, the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay were measured. Results: The results suggest that the successfully established LAMP assay profile can detect the DNA of T. gondii at 67°C within 40 min. The limit of detection of the LAMP assay was 101 copies/µL. No cross reaction occurred with Plasmodium vivax, Toxocara cati, Clonorchis sinensi, Spirometra mansoni or Cryptosporidium parvum. We validated the developed LAMP assay by detecting T. gondii in DNA extracted from 353 blood samples collected from domestic cats and dogs. The percentages of positive results in detecting these blood samples by LAMP and conventional PCR were 5.38% and 2.83%, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings show that the developed LAMP assay offers higher analytical sensitivity than conventional PCR and good analytical specificity, minimizes aerosol contamination, and can be applied to on-site rapid detection of T. gondii.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão , Toxoplasma , Gatos , Cães , Animais , Toxoplasma/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Cryptosporidium/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
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