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1.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20004, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016630

RESUMO

A barrier to the adoption of genomic prediction in small breeding programs is the initial cost of genotyping material. Although decreasing, marker costs are usually higher than field trial costs. In this study we demonstrate the utility of stratifying a narrow-base biparental oat population genotyped with a modest number of markers to employ genomic prediction at early and later generations. We also show that early generation genotyping data can reduce the number of lines for later phenotyping based on selections of siblings to progress. Using sets of small families selected at an early generation could enable the use of genomic prediction for adaptation to multiple target environments at an early stage in the breeding program. In addition, we demonstrate that mixed marker data can be effectively integrated to combine cheap dominant marker data (including legacy data) with more expensive but higher density codominant marker data in order to make within generation and between lineage predictions based on genotypic information. Taken together, our results indicate that small programs can test and initiate genomic predictions using sets of stratified, narrow-base populations and incorporating low density legacy genotyping data. This can then be scaled to include higher density markers and a broadened population base.


Assuntos
Avena , Genoma , Avena/genética , Cruzamento , Genômica , Genótipo
2.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20002, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016638

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) is a marker-based selection initially suggested for livestock breeding and is being encouraged for crop breeding. Several statistical models are used to implement GS; however, none have been tested for use in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) breeding. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of different GS models and prediction scenarios based on empirical data and to make recommendations for designing genomic selection strategies for lentil breeding. We evaluated nine single-trait (ST) models, two multiple-trait (MT) models, and a model that incorporates genotype × environment interaction (GEI) using populations from a lentil diversity panel and two recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The lines in all populations were phenotyped for five phenological traits and genotyped using a custom exome capture assay. Within-population, across-population, and across-environment genomic predictions were made. Prediction accuracy varied among the evaluated models, populations, prediction scenarios, and traits. Single-trait models showed similar accuracy in the absence of large effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) but BayesB outperformed all models when there were QTL with relatively large effects. Models that accounted for GEI and MT-GS models increased prediction accuracy for a low heritability trait by up to 66 and 14%, respectively. Moderate to high accuracies were obtained for within-population (range of .36-.85) and across-environment (range of .19-.89) predictions but across-population prediction accuracy was very low. Results suggest that GS can be implemented in lentil breeding to make predictions within populations and across environments, but across-population prediction should not be considered when the population size is small.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Cruzamento , Genômica , Lens (Planta)/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201140, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043866

RESUMO

An improved understanding of life-history responses to current environmental variability is required to predict species-specific responses to anthopogenic climate change. Previous research has suggested that cooperation in social groups may buffer individuals against some of the negative effects of unpredictable climates. We use a 15-year dataset on a cooperative breeding arid zone bird, the southern pied babbler Turdoides bicolor, to test (i) whether environmental conditions and group size correlate with survival of young during three development stages (egg, nestling, fledgling) and (ii) whether group size mitigates the impacts of adverse environmental conditions on survival of young. Exposure to high mean daily maximum temperatures (mean Tmax) during early development was associated with reduced survival probabilities of young in all three development stages. No young survived when mean Tmax > 38°C, across all group sizes. Low survival of young at high temperatures has broad implications for recruitment and population persistence in avian communities given the rapid pace of advancing climate change. Impacts of high temperatures on survival of young were not moderated by group size, suggesting that the availability of more helpers in a group is unlikely to buffer against compromised offspring survival as average and maximum temperatures increase with rapid anthropogenic climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Passeriformes , Animais , Aves , Cruzamento
4.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.3, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055777

RESUMO

We describe a new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus trieng sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of (1) body size medium (37.2-41.4 mm in five adult males), (2) snout rounded in dorsal and lateral views, (3) dorsal surface brown or yellowish with a darker brown interorbital crossbar and inverse-Y shape on the back, (4) throat and chest yellow or yellowish brown with pinkish mottling and belly and ventral surfaces of limbs including hands and feet pinkish, (5) tympanum and supratympanic fold distinct, (6) iris pale gold with darker gold radiating out from anterior and posterior edges of pupil, (7) majority of dorsal body and limb surfaces smooth in adults, with some individuals having sparsely distributed low, irregular tubercles, (8) nuptial pads on fingers I and II in adult males, and (9) eggs deposited as a tightly spaced array of non-pendent eggs on the wall of a phytotelmon. The species occurs in syntopy with G. lumarius. At present, Gracixalus trieng sp. nov. is known only from montane bamboo and evergreen forest (>1700 m) on Mount Ngoc Linh and adjacent peaks; and it is likely to be restricted to high-elevation forest with an estimated geographical distribution of <1000 km2.


Assuntos
Anuros , Cruzamento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnã
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231125, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866172

RESUMO

Korean peninsula weather is rapidly becoming subtropical due to global warming. In summer 2018, South Korea experienced the highest temperatures since the meteorological observations recorded in 1907. Heat stress has a negative effect on Holstein cows, the most popular breed of dairy cattle in South Korea, which is susceptible to heat. To examine physiological changes in dairy cows under heat stress conditions, we analyzed the profiles circulating microRNAs isolated from whole blood samples collected under heat stress and non-heat stress conditions using small RNA sequencing. We compared the expression profiles in lactating cows under heat stress and non-heat stress conditions to understand the regulation of biological processes in heat-stressed cows. Moreover, we measured several heat stress indicators, such as rectal temperature, milk yield, and average daily gain. All these assessments showed that pregnant cows were more susceptible to heat stress than non-pregnant cows. In addition, we found the differential expression of 11 miRNAs (bta-miR-19a, bta-miR-19b, bta-miR-30a-5p, and several from the bta-miR-2284 family) in both pregnant and non-pregnant cows under heat stress conditions. In target gene prediction and gene set enrichment analysis, these miRNAs were found to be associated with the cytoskeleton, cell junction, vasculogenesis, cell proliferation, ATP synthesis, oxidative stress, and immune responses involved in heat response. These miRNAs can be used as potential biomarkers for heat stress.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Lactação/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/sangue , Temperatura Alta , MicroRNAs/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Circular/genética , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4778, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963241

RESUMO

Obtaining genetic variation information from indica rice hybrid parents and identification of loci associated with heterosis are important for hybrid rice breeding. Here, we resequence 1,143 indica accessions mostly selected from the parents of superior hybrid rice cultivars of China, identify genetic variations, and perform kinship analysis. We find different hybrid rice crossing patterns between 3- and 2-line superior hybrid lines. By calculating frequencies of parental variation differences (FPVDs), a more direct approach for studying rice heterosis, we identify loci that are linked to heterosis, which include 98 in superior 3-line hybrids and 36 in superior 2-line hybrids. As a proof of concept, we find two accessions harboring a deletion in OsNramp5, a previously reported gene functioning in cadmium absorption, which can be used to mitigate rice grain cadmium levels through hybrid breeding. Resource of indica rice genetic variation reported in this study will be valuable to geneticists and breeders.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Oryza/genética , Cruzamento , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , China , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Deleção de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Hibridização Genética , Oryza/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4408, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879311

RESUMO

Understanding extreme weather impacts on staple crops such as wheat is vital for creating adaptation strategies and increasing food security, especially in dryland cropping systems across Southern Africa. This study analyses heat impacts on wheat using daily weather information and a dryland wheat dataset for 71 cultivars across 17 locations in South Africa from 1998 to 2014. We estimate temperature impacts on yields in extensive regression models, finding that extreme heat drives wheat yield losses, with an additional 24 h of exposure to temperatures above 30 °C associated with a 12.5% yield reduction. Results from a uniform warming scenario of +1 °C show an average wheat yield reduction of 8.5%, which increases to 18.4% and 28.5% under +2 and +3 °C scenarios. We also find evidence of differences in heat effects across cultivars, which suggests warming impacts may be reduced through the sharing of gene pools amongst wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Produtos Agrícolas , Triticum , Cruzamento/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Genótipo , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , África do Sul , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866175

RESUMO

Individuals reared in captivity are exposed to distinct selection pressures and evolutionary processes causing genetic and phenotypic divergence from wild populations. Consequently, restocking with farmed individuals may represent a considerable risk for the fitness of free-living populations. Supportive breeding on a massive scale has been established in many European countries to increase hunting opportunities for the most common duck species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). It has previously been shown that mallards from breeding facilities differ genetically from wild populations and there is some indication of morphological differences. Using a common-garden experiment, we tested for differences in growth parameters between free-living populations and individuals from breeding facilities during the first 20 days of post-hatching development, a critical phase for survival in free-living populations. In addition, we compared their immune function by assessing two haematological parameters, H/L ratio and immature erythrocyte frequency, and plasma complement activity. Our data show that farmed ducklings exhibit larger morphological parameters, a higher growth rates, and higher complement activity. In haematological parameters, we observed high dynamic changes in duckling ontogeny in relation to their morphological parameters. In conclusion, our data demonstrate pronounced phenotype divergence between farmed and wild mallard populations that can be genetically determined. We argue that this divergence can directly or indirectly affect fitness of farmed individuals introduced to the breeding population as well as fitness of farmed x wild hybrids.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/imunologia , Animais , Cruzamento , República Tcheca , Fazendas , Fenótipo
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201393, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962540

RESUMO

Frogs and toads (Amphibia: Anura) display diverse ecologies and behaviours, which are often correlated with visual capacity in other vertebrates. Additionally, anurans exhibit a broad range of relative eye sizes, which have not previously been linked to ecological factors in this group. We measured relative investment in eye size and corneal size for 220 species of anurans representing all 55 currently recognized families and tested whether they were correlated with six natural history traits hypothesized to be associated with the evolution of eye size. Anuran eye size was significantly correlated with habitat, with notable decreases in eye investment among fossorial, subfossorial and aquatic species. Relative eye size was also associated with mating habitat and activity pattern. Compared to other vertebrates, anurans have relatively large eyes for their body size, indicating that vision is probably of high importance. Our study reveals the role that ecology and behaviour may have played in the evolution of anuran visual systems and highlights the usefulness of museum specimens, and importance of broad taxonomic sampling, for interpreting macroecological patterns.


Assuntos
Anuros , Tamanho Corporal , Bufonidae , Ecossistema , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cruzamento , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reprodução , Visão Ocular
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201831, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962545

RESUMO

Urban habitats can shape interactions between hosts and parasites by altering not only exposure rates but also within-host processes. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is common in urban environments, and chronic exposure can impair host immunity in ways that may increase infection. However, studies of causal links between this stressor, immunity, and infection dynamics are rare, particularly in migratory animals. Here, we experimentally tested how ALAN affects cellular immunity and haemosporidian parasite intensity across the annual cycle of migrant and resident subspecies of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We monitored an experimental group exposed to light at night and a control group under natural light/dark cycles as they passed through short days simulating early spring to longer days simulating the breeding season, followed by autumn migration. Using generalized additive mixed models, we show that ALAN increased inflammation, and leucocyte counts were greatest in early spring and autumn. At the start of the experiment, few birds had active infections based on microscopy, but PCR revealed many birds had chronic infections. ALAN increased parasitaemia across the annual cycle, with strong peaks in spring and autumn that were largely absent in control birds. As birds were kept in indoor aviaries to prevent vector exposure, this increased parasitaemia indicates relapse of chronic infection during costly life-history stages (i.e. reproduction). Although the immunological and parasitological time series were in phase for control birds, cross-correlation analyses also revealed ALAN desynchronized leucocyte profiles and parasitaemia, which could suggest a general exaggerated inflammatory response. Our study shows how a common anthropogenic influence can shape within-host processes to affect infection dynamics.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Parasitemia , Parasitos , Recidiva , Estações do Ano
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876143

RESUMO

There are no guava cultivars resistant to the Meloidogyne enterolobii; for this reason, genetic breeding has been performed by introgressing genes into the current cultivars through interspecific hybridization. We used 33 microsatellite markers for the genetic-molecular characterization of segregating populations of Psidium resistant to M. enterolobii, aiming at selection within and between populations for generation advancement in the guava breeding program. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.60 to 2.09. Populations 1 (P. guineense × P. cattleyanum) and 5 (P. guajava × P. cattleyanum) obtained the greatest genetic diversity, which can be confirmed by the higher observed-heterozygosity values (0.422 and 0.312, respectively). Bayesian analysis showed that the populations were subdivided into three groups, agreeing with the number of groups observed by Nei's genetic distance. The population obtained from the P. guineense × P. cattleyanum cross differed from the others with a clear structuring, whereas the P. guajava × P. cattleyanum and P. cattleyanum × P. guineense populations were the most similar between each other. The SSR markers were efficient in discriminating the populations, and individual 80 may be employed in future crosses with guava, allowing generation advancement in the guava breeding program aimed at resistance to M. enterolobii.


Assuntos
Psidium , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201023, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900314

RESUMO

Within cooperatively breeding societies, individuals adjust cooperative contributions to maximize indirect fitness and minimize direct fitness costs. Yet, little is known about the physiological costs of cooperation, which may be detrimental to direct fitness. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (by-products of energy production) and antioxidant protection, may represent such a cost when cooperative behaviours are energetically demanding. Oxidative stress can lead to the accumulation of cellular damage, compromising survival and reproduction, thus mediating the trade-off between these competing life-history traits. Here, we experimentally increased energetically demanding cooperative contributions in captive Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis). We quantified oxidative stress-related effects of increased cooperation on somatic and germline tissues, and the trade-off between them. Increased cooperative contributions induced oxidative stress in females and males, without increasing somatic damage. Males accumulated oxidative damage in their germline despite an increase in antioxidant defences. Finally, oxidative damage accumulation became biased towards the germline, while antioxidant protection remained biased towards the soma, suggesting that males favour the maintenance of somatic tissues (i.e. survival over reproduction). Our results show that heightened cooperative contributions can ultimately affect direct fitness through oxidative stress costs, which may represent a key selective pressure for the evolution of cooperation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Ratos-Toupeira/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4739, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958756

RESUMO

More people globally depend on the water buffalo than any other domesticated species, and as the most closely related domesticated species to cattle they can provide important insights into the shared evolutionary basis of domestication. Here, we sequence the genomes of 79 water buffalo across seven breeds and compare patterns of between breed selective sweeps with those seen for 294 cattle genomes representing 13 global breeds. The genomic regions under selection between cattle breeds significantly overlap regions linked to stature in human genetic studies, with a disproportionate number of these loci also shown to be under selection between water buffalo breeds. Investigation of potential functional variants in the water buffalo genome identifies a rare example of convergent domestication down to the same mutation having independently occurred and been selected for across domesticated species. Cross-species comparisons of recent selective sweeps can consequently help identify and refine important loci linked to domestication.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Domesticação , Genoma/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Búfalos/classificação , Bovinos/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Filogeografia , Seleção Genética
14.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779259

RESUMO

Obesity stimulates the macrophage infiltration and senescence state in adipose tissues of humans and rodents. The adipogenesis capacity of Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) is higher than that of Holsteins. We hypothesized that breed differences between Wagyu and Holsteins may affect the level of macrophage infiltration and senescence state in adipose tissues. The macrophage infiltration, senescence marker gene expression and activity of senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ßgal) in visceral and intramuscular adipose tissue of Wagyu were higher than those of Holsteins. In contrast, there were no differences in macrophage infiltration, senescence marker gene expression and activity of SA-ßgal in subcutaneous adipose tissue between the breeds. Expression of p53 gene, the master regulator of macrophage infiltration and senescence state, in visceral and intramuscular adipose tissue of Wagyu was higher than that of Holsteins. In contrast, there was no difference in the expression of p53 gene in subcutaneous adipose tissue between the breeds. These results suggest that breed differences in macrophage infiltration and senescence state in adipose tissues of Wagyu and Holsteins are affected by p53 expression.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Cruzamento , Bovinos/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Animais
15.
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785214

RESUMO

High and variable pre-weaning mortality is a persistent problem in laboratory mouse breeding. Assuming a modest 15% mortality rate across mouse strains, means that approximately 1 million more pups are produced yearly in the EU to compensate for those which die. This paper presents the first large study under practical husbandry conditions to determine the risk factors associated with mouse pre-weaning mortality. We analysed historical records from 219,975 pups from two breeding facilities, collected as part of their management routine and including information on number of pups born and weaned per litter, parents' age and identification, and dates of birth and death of all animals. Pups were counted once in their first week of life and at weaning, and once every one or two weeks, depending on the need for cage cleaning. Dead pups were recorded as soon as these were found during the daily cage screening (without opening the cage). It was hypothesized that litter overlap (i.e. the presence of older siblings in the cage when new pups are born), a recurrent social configuration in trio-housed mice, is associated with increased newborn mortality, along with advanced dam age, large litter size, and a high number and age of older siblings in the cage. The estimated probability of pup death was two to seven percentage points higher in cages with litter overlap compared to those without. Litter overlap was associated with an increase in death of the entire litter of five and six percentage points, which represent an increase of 19% and 103% compared to non-overlapped litters in the two breeding facilities, respectively. Increased number and age of older siblings, advanced dam age, small litter size (less than four pups born) and large litter size (over 11 pups born) were associated with increased probability of pup death.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Cruzamento/métodos , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório/métodos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Idade Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Desmame
17.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008995, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833967

RESUMO

Pan-genomic open reading frames (ORFs) potentially carry protein-coding gene or coding variant information in a population. In this study, we suggest that pan-genomic ORFs are promising to be utilized in estimation of heritability and genomic prediction. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae dataset with whole-genome SNPs, pan-genomic ORFs, and the copy numbers of those ORFs is used to test the effectiveness of ORF data as a predictor in three prediction models for 35 traits. Our results show that the ORF-based heritability can capture more genetic effects than SNP-based heritability for all traits. Compared to SNP-based genomic prediction (GBLUP), pan-genomic ORF-based genomic prediction (OBLUP) is distinctly more accurate for all traits, and the predictive abilities on average are more than doubled across all traits. For four traits, the copy number of ORF-based prediction(CBLUP) is more accurate than OBLUP. When using different numbers of isolates in training sets in ORF-based prediction, the predictive abilities for all traits increased as more isolates are added in the training sets, suggesting that with very large training sets the prediction accuracy will be in the range of the square root of the heritability. We conclude that pan-genomic ORFs have the potential to be a supplement of single nucleotide polymorphisms in estimation of heritability and genomic prediction.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Genômica , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750051

RESUMO

In an era of big data, the availability of satellite-derived global climate, terrain, and land cover imagery presents an opportunity for modeling the suitability of malaria disease vectors at fine spatial resolutions, across temporal scales, and over vast geographic extents. Leveraging cloud-based geospatial analytical tools, we present an environmental suitability model that considers water resources, flow accumulation areas, precipitation, temperature, vegetation, and land cover. In contrast to predictive models generated using spatially and temporally discontinuous mosquito presence information, this model provides continuous fine-spatial resolution information on the biophysical drivers of suitability. For the purposes of this study the model is parameterized for Anopheles gambiae s.s. in Malawi for the rainy (December-March) and dry seasons (April-November) in 2017; however, the model may be repurposed to accommodate different mosquito species, temporal periods, or geographical boundaries. Final products elucidate the drivers and potential habitat of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Rainy season results are presented by quartile of precipitation; Quartile four (Q4) identifies areas most likely to become inundated and shows 7.25% of Malawi exhibits suitable water conditions (water only) for Anopheles gambiae s.s., approximately 16% for water plus another factor, and 8.60% is maximally suitable, meeting suitability thresholds for water presence, terrain characteristics, and climatic conditions. Nearly 21% of Malawi is suitable for breeding based on land characteristics alone and 28.24% is suitable according to climate and land characteristics. Only 6.14% of the total land area is suboptimal. Dry season results show 25.07% of the total land area is suboptimal or unsuitable. Approximately 42% of Malawi is suitable based on land characteristics alone during the dry season, and 13.11% is suitable based on land plus another factor. Less than 2% meets suitability criteria for climate, water, and land criteria. Findings illustrate environmental drivers of suitability for malaria vectors, providing an opportunity for a more comprehensive approach to malaria control that includes not only modeled species distributions, but also the underlying drivers of suitability for a more effective approach to environmental management.


Assuntos
Big Data , Malária/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Clima , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Malaui/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Ferramenta de Busca , Estações do Ano
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756600

RESUMO

In Sub-Saharan Africa cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food crops where more than 40% of the population relies on it as their staple carbohydrate source. Biotic constraints such as viral diseases, mainly Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD), and arthropod pests, particularly Cassava Green Mite (CGM), are major constraints to the realization of cassava's full production potential in Africa. To address these problems, we aimed to map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to CBSD foliar and root necrosis symptoms, foliar CMD and CGM symptoms in a full-sib mapping population derived from the genotypes AR40-6 and Albert. A high-density linkage map was constructed with 2,125 SNP markers using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. For phenotyping, clonal evaluation trials were conducted with 120 F1 individuals for two consecutive field seasons using an alpha-lattice design at Chambezi and Naliendele, Tanzania. Previously identified QTL for resistance to CBSD foliar symptoms were corroborated, and a new putative QTL for CBSD root necrosis identified (qCBSDRNc14AR) from AR40-6. Two QTL were identified within the region of the previously recognized CMD2 locus from this population in which both parents are thought to possess the CMD2 locus. Interestingly, a minor but consistent QTL, qCGM18AR, for CGM resistance at 3 months after planting stage was also detected and co-localized with a previously identified SSR marker, NS346, linked with CGM resistance. Markers underlying these QTL may be used to increase efficiencies in cassava breeding programs.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Manihot/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Cruzamento , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Manihot/fisiologia , Manihot/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potyviridae/genética , Potyviridae/patogenicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tanzânia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785293

RESUMO

Hybrid performance during wheat breeding can be improved by analyzing genetic distance (GD) among wheat genotypes and determining its correlation with heterosis. This study evaluated the GD between 16 wheat genotypes by using 60 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to classify them according to their relationships and select those with greater genetic diversity, evaluate the correlation of the SSR marker distance with heterotic performance and specific combining ability (SCA) for heat stress tolerance, and identify traits that most influence grain yield (GY). Eight parental genotypes with greater genetic diversity and their 28 F1 hybrids generated using diallel crossing were evaluated for 12 measured traits in two seasons. The GD varied from 0.235 to 0.911 across the 16 genotypes. Cluster analysis based on the GD estimated using SSRs classified the genotypes into three major groups and six sub-groups, almost consistent with the results of principal coordinate analysis. The combined data indicated that five hybrids showed 20% greater yield than mid-parent or better-parent. Two hybrids (P2 × P4) and (P2 × P5), which showed the highest performance of days to heading (DH), grain filling duration (GFD), and GY, and had large genetic diversity among themselves (0.883 and 0.911, respectively), were deemed as promising heat-tolerant hybrids. They showed the best mid-parent heterosis and better-parent heterosis (BPH) for DH (-11.57 and -7.65%; -13.39 and -8.36%, respectively), GFD (12.74 and 12.17%; 12.09 and 10.59%, respectively), and GY (36.04 and 20.04%; 44.06 and 37.73%, respectively). Correlation between GD and each of BPH and SCA effects based on SSR markers was significantly positive for GFD, hundred kernel weight, number of kernels per spike, harvest index, GY, and grain filling rate and was significantly negative for DH. These correlations indicate that the performance of wheat hybrids with high GY and earliness could be predicted by determining the GD of the parents by using SSR markers. Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression and path coefficient) suggested that GFD, hundred kernel weight, days to maturity, and number of kernels per spike had the highest influence on GY.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Triticum/genética , Pão , Cruzamento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização Genética/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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