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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 1-10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471792

RESUMO

The previous edition of this book mainly provided a snapshot of the state of the art in terms of species-specific reproductive biology and emerging technologies. The influence of environmental changes on reproductive fitness was introduced but not fully explored. The objectives of this second edition were to (1) emphasize the need for holistic and global efforts to understand and sustain reproduction in a constantly changing environment and (2) provide more knowledge in the reproductive physiology of different taxa. The first section of the book is dedicated to survival and adaptation of species in a changing environment (including chapters on environmental impacts in different taxa, as well as the role of microbiomes). The second section focuses on progress in understanding, assisting or even suppressing reproduction in wild species, keeping in mind the influence of environmental factors as well. It contains chapters from the previous edition that were updated (reproduction in elephants, koalas, marsupials, amphibians, and corals), new chapters on species such as sharks and rays, and contributions about the increasing role of reproductive manipulations, such as assisted reproduction and contraception. While the present book emphasizes the overarching issue of environmental impacts on reproduction (resulting in infertility, subfecundity, or fitness), it also highlights the challenges of maintaining wild species in captivity, including those associated with ensuring good welfare. Captive environments can influence reproduction in a multitude of ways, some unexpected, such as the selection of unwanted genetic traits, an essential dimension to be considered to ensure the success of conservation breeding programs. Lastly, new approaches, such as the use of allostatic load indexes and reproductive microbiome analyses also will be closely examined for the first time in rare and endangered species to address conservation issues.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Reprodução , Animais , Cruzamento
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 187-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471798

RESUMO

The teleost fishes are the largest and most diverse vertebrate group, accounting for nearly half of all known vertebrate species. Teleost fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates and this is reflected in the unique variety of different reproductive strategies displayed by fish. Fish have always been an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food. While wild capture fisheries have historically been the main source of fish, the farming of fish (aquaculture) is increasingly becoming the more dominant source of food fish, and is predicted to account for 60% of total global fish production by 2030.Fishes are increasingly threatened by a wide range of anthropogenic impacts, including loss of habitat, pollution, invasive species and over-exploitation. In addition, climate change, especially the consequences of global warming, can impact fish at all levels of biological organization from the individual to the population level, influencing both physiological and ecological processes in a variety of direct and indirect ways. As such, there is an urgent need to protect and conserve the huge genetic diversity offered by this diverse vertebrate group, not just as a source of genes for contemporary breeding and for protection against the consequences of climate change and disease, but also as part of our national heritage. While the cryopreservation of reproductive cells is a means of achieving these objectives, currently only fish sperm can be successfully frozen. Due to their large size, large yolk compartment, low membrane permeability and high chilling sensitivity, successful and reproducible protocols for the cryopreservation of fish oocytes and embryos still remains elusive. However, significant advances have been made in the cryopreservation of primordial germ cells as an alternative means of conserving both paternal and maternal genomes. Although more research needs to be carried out on how these cells can be optimally applied to emerging reproductive technologies, including transplantation techniques and surrogate broodstock technologies, the successful cryopreservation of fish germ cells, and the establishment of genetic resource banks, offers the possibility of both conserving and restoring threatened species. Further, current and future conservation efforts need to consider the impact of climate change in both in situ conservation and reintroduction efforts.In conclusion, it is anticipated that the successful cryopreservation of fish germplasm will result in a range of economic, ecological and societal benefits. In partnership with emerging assisted reproductive technologies, the successful cryopreservation of fish germplasm will lead to more efficient reproduction in aquaculture, assist selective breeding programmes, and be of crucial importance to future species conservation actions.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Criopreservação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Peixes , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 275-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471801

RESUMO

The dramatic growth of the captive giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population exemplifies how the application of scientific findings to animal care and reproductive management can improve conservation breeding outcomes. Detailed behavioral studies of giant panda estrus, pregnancy and cub rearing have demonstrated the importance of husbandry management that supports natural reproductive behavior to enhance breeding success. Natural breeding has been valuably augmented by the development of assisted reproductive techniques founded through detailed studies of the reproductive physiology of the giant panda and outlining fundamental information about reproductive seasonality, male fertility and characterization of the estrous cycle. The resultant holistic understanding of giant panda reproduction has improved reproductive success in the captive population to such an extent that it is now self-sustaining and provides surplus animals for reintroduction. Despite these significant advances, there are knowledge gaps and remaining challenges to be addressed. Pregnancy detection remains the single biggest challenge when determining if natural mating or assisted breeding have been successful. Because pregnancy can only be determined in the few weeks prior to parturition, there are gaps in understanding and detecting delayed implantation and early embryonic loss. Additionally, dynamic management practices and standard of care for reproductive assistance needs to be developed. Only large breeding centers in China have the ability to promote normal reproductive behaviors and allow mate choice for the giant panda. These challenges need to be addressed in the near future in order to maintain a self-sustaining, genetically diverse and behaviorally competent captive population. This chapter documents the development of successful giant panda managed breeding programs by focusing on three key areas, (1) the development of science-driven reproductive techniques to improve fecundity in a species where the mating system was poorly understood, (2) how targeted research and adaptive management of social settings surrounding estrus and breeding improved reproductive success, and (3) insights and solutions to challenges faced across the program's history with future directions for research.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Reprodução , Ursidae , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 327-362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471803

RESUMO

The successful development and application of an assisted breeding program in any animal relies primarily on a thorough understanding of the fundamental reproductive biology (anatomy, physiology and behaviour) of the species in question. Surely, the ultimate goal and greatest hallmark of such a program is the efficacious establishment of a series of reliable techniques that facilitate the reproductive and genetic management of fragmented populations, both in captivity and in the wild. Such an achievement is all that more challenging when knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species is essentially rudimentary and without adequate models to compare to. Using the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as a case study, this chapter provides insights into the development of a concept that began as small undergraduate student project but that subsequently evolved into the first-ever successful artificial insemination of a marsupial. Apart from this historical perspective, we shall also provide a brief review of the current reproductive biology of the koala, discuss technical elements of current assisted breeding technology of this species, its application to the closely related wombat, and the potential role it might play in helping to conserve wild koala populations in the form of a live koala genome bank. There is little doubt that the unique reproductive biology and tractability of the koala has been a benefit rather than a hindrance to the success of artificial breeding in this species.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Phascolarctidae , Animais , Inseminação Artificial , Reprodução
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 507-543, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471808

RESUMO

Wildlife conservation requires varying degrees of management of endangered species as well as management of their potential predators and competitors. Conservation also depends on ameliorating human-wildlife conflict, especially where there is a threat to the safety of people and of their pets and livestock. In addition, sustainability of wildlife populations can be affected by feral domestic animals or invasive species, that require removal or control. With the increasing concern for animal welfare, non-lethal methods of limiting population size and distribution, such as fertility control, are gaining favor. Breeding programs in zoos depend on highly effective and selective contraception to manage sustainable insurance populations. This review covers fertility control methods currently in use, those that have not lived up to past promises, and others that are under development and present hope for addressing remaining challenges.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Anticoncepção/veterinária , Fertilidade , Animais , Cruzamento , Densidade Demográfica
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 251-257, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To build a schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system in Sichuan Province, so as to provide technical support for facilitating the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in the province. METHODS: The surveillance sites for schistosomiasis transmission risk were assigned in 63 endemic counties (districts) of 11 cities (prefectures) in Sichuan Province. During the period from 2015 through 2018, wild feces contamination, the sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections (fever patients, livestock and wild animals), water infectivity in key settings, snail distribution in key settings, and snail breeding risk (snail importation and spread, floating debris carrying snails and snail breeding in ecological wetlands) were monitored in the surveillance sites. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, a total of 1 636 wild faces were detected in Sichuan Province, and 3 faces were positive for S. japonicum, with a 0.18% positive rate; among 3 995 livestock and 59 wild mice monitored, no S. japonicum infection was detected. A total of 49 414 fever patients were monitored in 2018, and 493 were seropositive for S. japonicum infection; then, 445 seropositives were subjected to stool examinations, and no egg-positives were found. From 2010 to 2018, a total of 93 sentinel sites were assigned, and 3 994 sentinel mice were placed for monitoring the water infectivity, with one S. japonicum-infected mouse detected. Between 2015 and 2018, a total of 4 156 key settings were investigated covering an area of 1 998.46 hm2, and 668 settings were detected with snails (16.07%), covering an area of 193.26 hm2; 497 suspected settings with a likelihood of snail importation with plant introduction were monitored from 2017 to 2018, and 65 settings with snails were found with 2 673 snails captured; 593 sites were assigned to collect the floating debris from 2017 to 2018, and 9 191.39 kg floating debris were collected with 186 snails captured; 4 wetlands were monitored for the risk of schistosomiasis transmission from 2013 to 2015, and snail breeding was found in 2 wetlands. No S. japonicum infection was identified in snails captured from all surveillance sites. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and effective schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system has been successfully established in Sichuan Province. There is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk in local areas of Sichuan Province. Therefore, the integrated schistosomiasis control measures with emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections should be further intensified, and snail monitoring and control and monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in wetlands should be also intensified.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Cruzamento , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
7.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(9): 1095-1109, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365325

RESUMO

Verticillium longisporum is a vascular fungal pathogen leading to severe crop loss, particular in oilseed rape. Transcription factors (TF) are highly suited for genetic engineering of pathogen-resistant crops, as they control sets of functionally associated genes. Applying the AtTORF-Ex (Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor open reading frame expression) collection, a simple and robust screen of TF-overexpressing plants was established displaying reduced fungal colonization. Distinct members of the large ethylene response factor (ERF) family, namely ERF96 and the six highly related subgroup IXb members ERF102 to ERF107, were identified. Whereas overexpression of these ERF significantly reduces fungal propagation, single loss-of-function approaches did not reveal altered susceptibility. Hence, this gain-of-function approach is particularly suited to identify redundant family members. Expression analyses disclosed distinct ERF gene activation patterns in roots and leaves, suggesting functional differences. Transcriptome studies performed on chemically induced ERF106 expression revealed an enrichment of genes involved in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial indole glucosinolates (IG), such as CYP81F2 (CYTOCHROME P450-MONOOXYGENASE 81F2), which is directly regulated by IXb-ERF via two GCC-like cis-elements. The impact of IG in restricting fungal propagation was further supported as the cyp81f2 mutant displayed significantly enhanced susceptibility. Taken together, this proof-of-concept approach provides a novel strategy to identify candidate TF that are valuable genetic resources for engineering or breeding pathogen-resistant crop plants.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Resistência à Doença , Engenharia Genética , Fatores de Transcrição , Verticillium , Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Oecologia ; 191(1): 97-112, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422471

RESUMO

Kin selection and dispersal play a critical role in the evolution of cooperative breeding systems. Limited dispersal increases relatedness in spatially structured populations (population viscosity), with the result that neighbours tend to be genealogical relatives. Yet the increase in neighbours' fitness-related performance through altruistic interaction may also result in habitat saturation and thus exacerbate local competition between kin. Our goal was to detect the footprint of kin selection and competition by examining the spatial structure of relatedness and by comparing non-effective and effective dispersal in a population of a lekking bird, Tetrao urogallus. For this purpose, we analysed capture-recapture and genetic data collected over a 6-year period on a spatially structured population of T. urogallus in France. Our findings revealed a strong spatial structure of relatedness in males. They also indicated that the population viscosity could allow male cooperation through two non-exclusive mechanisms. First, at their first lek attendance, males aggregate in a lek composed of relatives. Second, the distance corresponding to non-effective dispersal dramatically outweighed effective dispersal distance, which suggests that dispersers incur high post-settlement costs. These two mechanisms result in strong population genetic structuring in males. In females, our findings revealed a lower level of spatial structure of relatedness and genetic structure in respect to males. Additionally, non-effective dispersal and effective dispersal distances in females were highly similar, which suggests limited post-settlement costs. These results indicate that kin-dependent dispersal decisions and costs have a genetic footprint in wild populations and are factors that may be involved in the evolution of cooperative courtship.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Aves , Feminino , França , Masculino
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 36-44, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442891

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks cause major constraints to public and livestock health, and serious economic losses. It is well known that the immune response to infestations with cattle ticks is influenced by the host genetic background leading to distinct immunological profiles between bovine hosts genetically susceptible and resistant. The influence of Bos indicus (Bi) and Bos taurus (Bt) maternal lineage ancestry of mitochondrial DNA in the profile of the immune response of Zebu cattle to ticks remains unknown. The present work evaluated the hematological parameters and the immune response profile in the peripheral blood of a Guzerat dairy herd, further categorized into two maternal lineage ancestry subgroups (Bi-mtDNA and Bt-mtDNA) after experimental infestation with larvae of R. microplus. Our data demonstrated that although hematological and erythrogram analysis showed a similar profile throughout, some cell populations present a distinct profile between the groups. Especially MON, CD335+ and CD8+ T-cells are predominant in Bi-mtDNA. Moreover, an overall picture of R. microplus infestation demonstrated that Bi-mtDNA presented a more efficient and earlier innate immune response. Bi-mtDNA showed a greater number of connections with R. microplus counts and also with the CD25+ activation marker of the immune response. Bi-mtDNA showed greater number of connections, with an important participation of the innate immune while Bt-mtDNA showed a delay in the immune response. Elucidating the mechanisms by which resistant animals prevent heavy tick infestation is a crucial step in the development of predictive biomarkers for tick resistance for use in selective breeding programs, and is also potentially useful for the development of anti-tick vaccines.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Rhipicephalus/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/imunologia
10.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 36, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recessive loss-of-function (LOF) alleles at genes which are essential for life, can result in early embryonic mortality. Cattle producers can use the LOF carrier status of individual animals to make selection and mate allocation decisions. METHODS: Two beef cattle breeding strategies i.e. (1) selection against LOF carriers as parents and (2) simultaneous selection and mate allocation to avoid the occurrence of homozygous offspring in three scenarios, which differed in number and frequency of LOF alleles were evaluated using the mate selection program, MateSel. Scenarios included (a) seven loci with high-frequency LOF alleles, (b) 76 loci with low-frequency LOF alleles, and (c) 50 loci with random high- and low-frequency LOF alleles. In addition, any savings resulting from the information obtained by varying the percentage (0-100%) of the herd genotyped, together with segregation analysis to cover ungenotyped animals, were calculated to determine (1) which percentage optimized net profit for a fixed cost of genotyping ($30/test), and (2) the breakeven cost for genotyping. RESULTS: With full knowledge of the LOF alleles carried by selection candidates, the most profitable breeding strategy was always simultaneous selection and mate allocation to avoid homozygous affected offspring (aa) as compared to indiscriminate selection against carrier parents (Aa). The breakeven value of genotyping depended on the number of loci modeled, the LOF allele frequencies, and the mating/selection strategies used. Genotyping was most valuable when it was used to avoid otherwise high levels of embryonic mortalities. As the number of essential loci with LOF alleles increased, especially when some were present at relatively high minor allele frequencies, embryonic losses increased, and profit was maximized by genotyping 10 to 20% of a herd and using that information to reduce these losses. CONCLUSIONS: Genotyping 100% of the herd was never the most profitable outcome in any scenario; however, genotyping some proportion of the herd, together with segregation analysis to cover ungenotyped animals, maximized overall profit in scenarios with large numbers of loci with LOF alleles. As more LOF alleles are identified, such a mate selection software will likely be required to optimally select and allocate matings to balance the rate of genetic gain, embryonic losses, and inbreeding.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Genes Recessivos , Software , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Seleção Genética
11.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 42, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Columnaris disease (CD) is an emerging problem for the rainbow trout aquaculture industry in the US. The objectives of this study were to: (1) identify common genomic regions that explain a large proportion of the additive genetic variance for resistance to CD in two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations; and (2) estimate the gains in prediction accuracy when genomic information is used to evaluate the genetic potential of survival to columnaris infection in each population. METHODS: Two aquaculture populations were investigated: the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) odd-year line and the Troutlodge, Inc., May odd-year (TLUM) nucleus breeding population. Fish that survived to 21 days post-immersion challenge were recorded as resistant. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes were available for 1185 and 1137 fish from NCCCWA and TLUM, respectively. SNP effects and variances were estimated using the weighted single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for genome-wide association. Genomic regions that explained more than 1% of the additive genetic variance were considered to be associated with resistance to CD. Predictive ability was calculated in a fivefold cross-validation scheme and using a linear regression method. RESULTS: Validation on adjusted phenotypes provided a prediction accuracy close to zero, due to the binary nature of the trait. Using breeding values computed from the complete data as benchmark improved prediction accuracy of genomic models by about 40% compared to the pedigree-based BLUP. Fourteen windows located on six chromosomes were associated with resistance to CD in the NCCCWA population, of which two windows on chromosome Omy 17 jointly explained more than 10% of the additive genetic variance. Twenty-six windows located on 13 chromosomes were associated with resistance to CD in the TLUM population. Only four associated genomic regions overlapped with quantitative trait loci (QTL) between both populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genome-wide selection for resistance to CD in rainbow trout has greater potential than selection for a few target genomic regions that were found to be associated to resistance to CD due to the polygenic architecture of this trait, and because the QTL associated with resistance to CD are not sufficiently informative for selection decisions across populations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Animais , Resistência à Doença/genética , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 44, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental intercrosses between outbred founder populations are powerful resources for mapping loci that contribute to complex traits i.e. quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we present an approach and its accompanying software for high-resolution reconstruction of founder mosaic genotypes in the intercross offspring from such populations using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data on founder individuals (~ 30×) and very low-coverage sequence data on intercross individuals (< 0.5×). Sets of founder-line informative markers were selected for each full-sib family and used to infer the founder mosaic genotypes of the intercross individuals. The application of this approach and the quality of the estimated genome-wide genotypes are illustrated in a large F2 pedigree between two divergently selected lines of chickens. RESULTS: We describe how we obtained whole-genome genotype data for hundreds of individuals in a cost- and time-efficient manner by using a Tn5-based library preparation protocol and an imputation algorithm that was optimized for this application. In total, 7.6 million markers segregated in this pedigree and, within each full-sib family, between 10.0 and 13.7% of these were fully informative, i.e. fixed for alternative alleles in the founders from the divergent lines, and were used for reconstruction of the offspring mosaic genotypes. The genotypes that were estimated based on the low-coverage sequence data were highly consistent (> 95% agreement) with those obtained using individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The estimated resolution of the inferred recombination breakpoints was relatively high, with 50% of them being defined on regions shorter than 10 kb. CONCLUSIONS: A method and software for inferring founder mosaic genotypes in intercross offspring from low-coverage whole-genome sequencing in pedigrees from heterozygous founders are described. They provide high-quality, high-resolution genotypes in a time- and cost-efficient manner. The software is freely available at https://github.com/CarlborgGenomics/Stripes .


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia
13.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 45, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crossbreeding is widely used in pig production because of the benefits of heterosis effects and breed complementarity. Commonly, sire lines are bred for traits such as feed efficiency, growth and meat content, whereas maternal lines are also bred for reproduction and longevity traits, and the resulting three-way crossbred pigs are used for production of meat. The most important genetic basis for heterosis is dominance effects, e.g. removal of inbreeding depression. The aims of this study were to (1) present a modification of a previously developed model with additive, dominance and inbreeding depression genetic effects for analysis of data from a purebred sire line and three-way crossbred pigs; (2) based on this model, present equations for additive genetic variances, additive genetic covariance, and estimated breeding values (EBV) with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances; (3) use the model to analyse four production traits, i.e. ultra-sound recorded backfat thickness (BF), conformation score (CONF), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), recorded on Danbred Duroc and Danbred Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire crossbred pigs reared in the same environment; and (4) obtain estimates of genetic parameters, additive genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performances, and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances for this data set. RESULTS: Additive genetic correlations (with associated standard errors) between purebred and crossbred performances were equal to 0.96 (0.07), 0.83 (0.16), 0.75 (0.17), and 0.87 (0.18) for BF, CONF, ADG, and FCR, respectively. For BF, ADG, and FCR, the additive genetic variance was smaller for purebred performance than for crossbred performance, but for CONF the reverse was observed. EBV on Duroc boars were more accurate for purebred performance than for crossbred performance for BF, CONF and FCR, but not for ADG. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological developments led to equations for genetic (co)variances and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances in a three-way crossbreeding system. As illustrated by the data analysis, these equations may be useful for implementation of genomic selection in this system.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Depressão por Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Masculino
14.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 35, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Finnhorse was established as a breed more than 110 years ago by combining local Finnish landraces. Since its foundation, the breed has experienced both strong directional selection, especially for size and colour, and severe population bottlenecks that are connected with its initial foundation and subsequent changes in agricultural and forestry practices. Here, we used sequences of the mitochondrial control region and genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the genetic diversity and differentiation of the four Finnhorse breeding sections: trotters, pony-sized horses, draught horses and riding horses. Furthermore, we estimated inbreeding and effective population sizes over time to infer the history of this breed. RESULTS: We found a high level of mitochondrial genetic variation and identified 16 of the 18 haplogroups described in present-day horses. Interestingly, one of these detected haplogroups was previously reported only in the Przewalski's horse. Female effective population sizes were in the thousands, but declines were evident at the times when the breed and its breeding sections were founded. By contrast, nuclear variation and effective population sizes were small (approximately 50). Nevertheless, inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds. Based on nuclear SNP data, genetic differentiation among the four breeding sections was strongest between the draught horses and the three other sections (FST = 0.007-0.018), whereas based on mitochondrial DNA data, it was strongest between the trotters and the pony-sized and riding horses (ΦST = 0.054-0.068). CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a Przewalski's horse haplogroup in the Finnhorse provides new insights into the domestication of the horse, and this finding supports previous suggestions of a close relationship between the Finnhorse and eastern primitive breeds. The high level of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Finnhorse supports its domestication from a large number of mares but also reflects that its founding depended on many local landraces. Although inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds, the small nuclear effective population sizes of each of its breeding sections can be considered as a warning sign, which warrants changes in breeding practices.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Cavalos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , DNA Mitocondrial , Feminino , Finlândia , Endogamia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Densidade Demográfica , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2221-2230, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287755

RESUMO

Potato virus Y (PVY) exists as several strains with distinct symptomology and tuber yield effects in different potato varieties. Recently, new recombinant strains have proliferated and dominated local populations around the world. In this study, PVYO, PVYN:O, PVYN-Wi, and PVYNTN strains were tracked across Canada from 2014 to 2017, showing rapid evolution of populations away from the traditionally dominant PVYO to recombinants PVYN-Wi (western Canada) and PVYNTN (eastern Canada). Simultaneously, 30 potato varieties were inoculated with PVYO, PVYN:O, and PVYNTN in controlled greenhouse experiments. Foliar symptoms of primary (mechanical inoculation mimicking aphid infection) and secondary (tuber seedborne) infection were cataloged, and tuber yield measured. On average, and generally similar in primary and secondary infection, symptom expression and yield reduction were most severe with PVYO, followed by PVYN:O and PVYNTN. Strong mosaic symptoms were most commonly expressed with PVYO infection, and only seen with PVYN:O or PVYNTN in 15 and 3 varieties, respectively. Across variety-strain combinations, yield reduction was correlated with symptom severity, most strongly in PVYO-infected plants (e.g., AC Chaleur, Beljade, Envol, Norland, and Pacific Russet), and four varieties exhibited tuber necrotic ringspot disease with PVYNTN (AC Chaleur, Envol, Pacific Russet, and Yukon Gold).


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Potyvirus , Vírus Reordenados , Solanum tuberosum , Replicação Viral , Animais , Cruzamento , Canadá , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , Potyvirus/fisiologia , Vírus Reordenados/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
16.
Phytochemistry ; 166: 112057, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306913

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) leaves accumulate phytoalexins in response to pathogen attack. The major phytoalexins in rice are diterpenoids such as oryzalexins, momilactones, and phytocassanes. We measured the amount of oryzalexin A in leaves irradiated by UV light, treated with jasmonic acid, or inoculated with conidia of Bipolaris oryzae in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar Kasalath. Nipponbare leaves accumulated oryzalexin A at a high concentration, but Kasalath leaves did not. The locus responsible for this difference was mapped using backcrossed inbred lines and chromosome substitution lines. A region on Chr. 12 containing the KSL10 gene was responsible for the deficiency in oryzalexin A in the Kasalath cultivar. The amount of KSL10 transcript increased in Nipponbare leaves but not in Kasalath leaves in response to UV light irradiation, indicating that the suppressed expression of KSL10 caused the deficiency of oryzalexin A in Kasalath. We analyzed oryzalexin A accumulation in UV light-irradiated leaves of cultivars in the world rice core collection. There were cultivars that accumulated oryzalexin A and those that did not, and both of these chemotypes were found in japonica and indica subspecies. Furthermore, these chemotypes were found in the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon. The phylogenetic relationship of KSL10 sequences was not correlated to oryzalexin A chemotypes. These findings suggested that the biosynthesis of oryzalexin A was acquired by a common ancestor of O. rufipogon and was lost multiple times during the evolutionary process.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Cruzamento
17.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2204-2211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355735

RESUMO

One hundred and one rice genotypes were evaluated for response to sheath blight disease under greenhouse and lowland irrigated field conditions in Guyana. The level of resistance varied from highly resistant to resistant in 14 genotypes over five experimental trials. These genotypes were also observed with low area under the disease progress curve values and slow blighting reactions against artificial inoculation of the pathogen. Genotypes GR1568-31-9-1-1-2-1 and cultivar Rustic had susceptible reactions in all experiments. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis was used to study the genotype and environment interactions. The analysis revealed that 52.98% of the total sum of square was attributed to genotype effect, 7.50% was attributable to environment effect, and 39.52% was attributable to genotype by environment interaction (G × E) effects. The G × E was almost as large as the genotype effect, thus indicating significant differences of genotypes across the testing environments. This revealed that resistance was slightly influenced by the G × E. The genotypes that showed stable resistance in all environments in this study could be used for breeding the sheath blight resistance in rice.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Modelos Estatísticos , Oryza , Cruzamento , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Genótipo , Guiana , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 38, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pig and poultry breeding programs aim at improving crossbred (CB) performance. Selection response may be suboptimal if only purebred (PB) performance is used to compute genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) because the genetic correlation between PB and CB performance ([Formula: see text]) is often lower than 1. Thus, it may be beneficial to use information on both PB and CB performance. In addition, the accuracy of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance may improve when the breed-of-origin of alleles (BOA) is considered in the genomic relationship matrix (GRM). Thus, our aim was to compare scenarios where GEBV are computed and validated by using (1) either CB offspring averages or individual CB records for validation, (2) either a PB or CB reference population, and (3) a GRM that either accounts for or ignores BOA in the CB individuals. For this purpose, we used data on body weight measured at around 7 (BW7) or 35 (BW35) days in PB and CB broiler chickens and evaluated the accuracy of GEBV based on the correlation GEBV with phenotypes in the validation population (validation correlation). RESULTS: With validation on CB offspring averages, the validation correlation of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance was lower with a CB reference population than with a PB reference population for BW35 ([Formula: see text] = 0.96), and about equal for BW7 ([Formula: see text] = 0.80) when BOA was ignored. However, with validation on individual CB records, the validation correlation was higher with a CB reference population for both traits. The use of a GRM that took BOA into account increased the validation correlation for BW7 but reduced it for BW35. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that the benefit of using a CB reference population for genomic prediction of PB animals for CB performance should be assessed either by validation on CB offspring averages, or by validation on individual CB records while using a GRM that accounts for BOA in the CB individuals. With this recommendation in mind, our results show that the accuracy of GEBV of PB animals for CB performance was equal to or higher with a CB reference population than with a PB reference population for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.8, but lower for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.96. In addition, taking BOA into account was beneficial for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.8 but not for a trait with an [Formula: see text] of 0.96.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Galinhas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Valores de Referência
19.
Yi Chuan ; 41(6): 486-493, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257197

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) is a powerful tool which can be used to estimate the breeding value of individual animals by using the molecular markers of the animal's entire genome. GS improves the accuracy and intensity of selection, reduces the interval of generation, and realizes the effects of early accuracy selection contributing to a significant evolution in animal breeding. In the past decade, GS was successfully applied in the genetic improvement of dairy animals with improved selection accuracy and genetic gain of breeding animals. However, GS focuses on the genetic gain of target traits while it ignores the genetic relationship between mating pairs such that it ignores long term genetic merits such as an increase in inbreeding coefficient of offspring population, a decrease of genetic diversity and the homozygous presentation of harmful genes. In 2016, genomic mating (GM) was proposed as a sustainable genetic selection method using genomic information of the breeding candidate individuals to optimize selection and mating with resultant control of the growth rate of population inbreeding coefficient and achieving long-term and sustainable genetic progress. Therefore, GM is more suitable for modern animal breeding than GS, especially for the genetic improvement of indigenous species. In this review, we summarize the basic concepts, methods, and applications of GM, and then present examples comparing the effects of six simulated mating schemes. This review serves as a valuable reference for the applications of animal breeding methods.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Genômica , Seleção Genética , Animais , Endogamia
20.
Yi Chuan ; 41(7): 644-652, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307973

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips have been widely used in genetic studies and breeding applications in animal and plant species. The quality of SNP genotypes is of paramount importance. More often than not, there are situations in which a number of genotypes may fail, requiring them to be imputed. There are also situations in which ungenotyped loci need to be imputed between different chips, or high-density genotypes need to be imputed based on low-density genotypes. Under these circumstances, the validity and reliability of subsequent data analyses is subject to the accuracy of these imputed genotypes. For justifying a better understanding of factors affecting imputation accuracy, in the present study, the impacts of SNP genotyping call rate and SNP genotyping error rate on the accuracy of genotype imputation were investigated under two scenarios in 20 116 U.S. Holstein cattle, each genotyped with a GGP 50K SNP chip. When the two factors were not correlated in scenario 1, simulated genotyping call rate varied from 50% to 100% and simulated genotyping error rate changed from 0% to 50%, with both factors being independent of each other. In scenario 2, genotyping error rates were correlated with genotyping call rate, and the relationship was set up by fitting a linear regression model between the two variables on a real dataset. That is, the simulated SNP call rate varied from 100% to 50% whereas the SNP genotyping rate changed from 0% to 13.55%. Finally, a 5-fold cross-validation was used to assess the subsequent imputation accuracy. The results showed that when original SNP genotyping call rate were independent of SNP genotyping error rate, the imputation accuracy did not change significantly with the original genotyping call rate (P>0.05), but it decreased significantly as the genotyping error rate increased (P<0.01). However, when original genotyping call rate was negatively correlated with genotyping error rate, the imputation error increased with elevated original genotyping error rate. In both scenarios, genotyping call rate needs to be no less than 0.90 in order to obtain 98% or higher genotype imputation accuracy. The present results can provide guidance for establishing quality assurance criteria for SNP genotyping in practice.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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