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1.
Dev Psychol ; 57(4): 519-534, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483346

RESUMO

Personal narrative is decontextualized talk where individuals recount stories of personal experiences about past or future events. As an everyday discursive speech type, narrative potentially invites parents and children to explicitly link together, generalize from, and make inferences about representations-i.e., to engage in higher-order thinking talk (HOTT). Here we ask whether narratives in early parent-child interactions include proportionally more HOTT than other forms of everyday home language. Sixty-four children (31 girls; 36 White, 14 Black, 8 Hispanic, 6 mixed/other race) and their primary caregiver(s) (M income = $61,000) were recorded in 90-minute spontaneous home interactions every 4 months from 14-58 months. Speech was transcribed and coded for narrative and HOTT. We found that parents at all visits and children after 38 months used more HOTT in narrative than non-narrative, and more HOTT than expected by chance. At 38- and 50-months, we examined HOTT in a related but distinct form of decontextualized talk-pretend, or talk during imaginary episodes of interaction-as a control to test whether other forms of decontextualized talk also relate to HOTT. While pretend contained more HOTT than other (non-narrative/non-pretend) talk, it generally contained less HOTT than narrative. Additionally, unlike HOTT during narrative, the amount of HOTT during pretend did not exceed the amount expected by chance, suggesting narrative serves as a particularly rich 'breeding ground' for HOTT in parent-child interactions. These findings provide insight into the nature of narrative discourse, and suggest narrative potentially may be used as a lever to increase children's higher-order thinking.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Relações Pais-Filho , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Pais
2.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431165

RESUMO

Covariance components were estimated for growth traits (BW, birth weight; WW, weaning weight; YW, yearling weight), visual scores (BQ, breed quality; CS, conformation; MS, muscling; NS, navel; PS, finishing precocity), hip height (HH), and carcass traits (BF, backfat thickness; LMA, longissimus muscle area) measured at yearling. Genetic gains were obtained and validation models on direct and maternal effects for BW and WW were fitted. Genetic correlations of growth traits with CS, PS, MS, and HH ranged from 0.20 ± 0.01 to 0.94 ± 0.01 and were positive and low with NS (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.20 ± 0.01) and favorable with BQ (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.37 ± 0.02). Null to moderate genetic correlations were obtained between growth and carcass traits. Genetic gains were positive and significant, except for BW. An increase of 0.76 and 0.72 kg is expected for BW and WW, respectively, per unit increase in estimated breeding value (EBV) for direct effect and an additional 0.74 and 1.43, respectively, kg per unit increase in EBV for the maternal effect. Monitoring genetic gains for HH and NS is relevant to maintain an adequate body size and a navel morphological correction, if necessary. Simultaneous selection for growth, morphological, and carcass traits in line with improve maternal performance is a feasible strategy to increase herd productivity.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Fenótipo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4780, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362899

RESUMO

Globally, bird migration is occurring earlier in the year, consistent with climate-related changes in breeding resources. Although often attributed to phenotypic plasticity, there is no clear demonstration of long-term population advancement in avian migration through individual plasticity. Using direct observations of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica) departing New Zealand on a 16,000-km journey to Alaska, we show that migration advanced by six days during 2008-2020, and that within-individual advancement was sufficient to explain this population-level change. However, in individuals tracked for the entire migration (50 total tracks of 36 individuals), earlier departure did not lead to earlier arrival or breeding in Alaska, due to prolonged stopovers in Asia. Moreover, changes in breeding-site phenology varied across Alaska, but were not reflected in within-population differences in advancement of migratory departure. We demonstrate that plastic responses can drive population-level changes in timing of long-distance migration, but also that behavioral and environmental constraints en route may yet limit adaptive responses to global change.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Alaska , Animais , Ásia , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Estações do Ano
4.
Vet Rec ; 189(1): 12-13, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241848

RESUMO

Georgina Mills reports on research that examines the frequency and breed-related risk factors for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento , Cães , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 573, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese indigenous rabbits have distinct characteristics, such as roughage resistance, stress resistance and environmental adaptability, which are of great significance to the sustainable development of the rabbit industry in China. Therefore, it is necessary to study the genetic diversity and population structure of this species and develop genomic resources. RESULTS: In this study, we used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to obtain 1,006,496 SNP markers from six Chinese indigenous rabbit breeds and two imported rabbit breeds. Jiuyishan and Fujian Yellow rabbits showed the highest nucleotide diversity (π) and decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD), as well as higher observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He), indicating higher genetic diversity than other rabbits. The inbreeding coefficient (FIS) of New Zealand rabbits and Belgian rabbits was higher than that of other rabbits. The neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, principal component analysis (PCA), and population structure analysis of autosomes and Y chromosomes showed that Belgian, New Zealand, Wanzai, Sichuan White, and Minxinan Black rabbits clustered separately, and Fujian Yellow, Yunnan Colourful, and Jiuyishan rabbits clustered together. Wanzai rabbits were clearly separated from other populations (K = 3), which was consistent with the population differentiation index (FST) analysis. The selection signature analysis was performed in two populations with contrasting coat colours. With Sichuan White and New Zealand rabbits as the reference populations and Minxinan Black and Wanzai rabbits as the target populations, 408, 454, 418, and 518 genes with a selection signature, respectively, were obtained. Gene Ontology (GO) classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were performed on the genes with a selection signature. The results showed that the genes with a selection signature were enriched in the melanogenesis pathway in all four sets of selection signature analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first insights into the genetics and genomics of Chinese indigenous rabbit breeds and serves as a valuable resource for the further effective utilization of the species.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Coelhos , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Genômica , Nova Zelândia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199957

RESUMO

Viruses, and in particular the deformed wing virus (DWV), are considered as one of the main antagonists of honey bee health. The 'suppressed in ovo virus infection' trait (SOV) described for the first time that control of a virus infection can be achieved from genetically inherited traits and that the virus state of the eggs is indicative for this. This research aims to explore the effect of the SOV trait on DWV infections in queens descending from both SOV-positive (QDS+) and SOV-negative (QDS-) queens. Twenty QDS+ and QDS- were reared from each time four queens in the same starter-finisher colony. From each queen the head, thorax, ovaries, spermatheca, guts and eviscerated abdomen were dissected and screened for the presence of the DWV-A and DWV-B genotype using qRT-PCR. Queens descending from SOV-positive queens showed significant lower infection loads for DWV-A and DWV-B as well as a lower number of infected tissues for DWV-A. Surprisingly, differences were less expressed in the reproductive tissues, the ovaries and spermatheca. These results confirm that selection on the SOV trait is associated with increased virus resistance across viral genotypes and that this selection drives DWV towards an increased tissue specificity for the reproductive tissues. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the antiviral response and DWV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Abelhas/virologia , Cruzamento , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Doenças dos Animais/genética , Animais , Carga Viral
7.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 37(2): 339-366, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243877

RESUMO

Selected emergency conditions of male and female reproductive tracts in horses are described, including injuries affecting the external genitalia of male horses and emergent conditions arising during gestation in mares. Conditions affecting male horses are discussed in the context of breeding stallions, but kicks or other mechanisms of trauma in the groin can also affect geldings. Priapism, paraphimosis, trauma to the scrotum and testicles, and penile injury are discussed. In mares, traumatic vestibular injury, placentitis, hydropsic conditions, prepubic tendon and abdominal wall compromise, and uterine torsion are included. Clinical recognition of the problem, diagnostic procedures, and treatments are summarized.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Parafimose/veterinária , Priapismo/veterinária , Reprodução , Animais , Cruzamento , Emergências/veterinária , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/lesões , Genitália Masculina/lesões , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos , Masculino , Parafimose/diagnóstico , Parafimose/terapia , Gravidez , Priapismo/diagnóstico , Priapismo/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4572, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315894

RESUMO

Individual variation is increasingly recognized as a central component of ecological processes, but its role in structuring environmental niche associations remains largely unknown. Species' responses to environmental conditions are ultimately determined by the niches of single individuals, yet environmental associations are typically captured only at the level of species. Here, we develop scenarios for how individual variation may combine to define the compound environmental niche of populations, use extensive movement data to document individual environmental niche variation, test associated hypotheses of niche configuration, and examine the consistency of individual niches over time. For 45 individual white storks (Ciconia ciconia; 116 individual-year combinations), we uncover high variability in individual environmental associations, consistency of individual niches over time, and moderate to strong niche specialization. Within populations, environmental niches follow a nested pattern, with individuals arranged along a specialist-to-generalist gradient. These results reject common assumptions of individual niche equivalency among conspecifics, as well as the separation of individual niches into disparate parts of environmental space. These findings underscore the need for a more thorough consideration of individualistic environmental responses in global change research.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Cruzamento , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Estações do Ano
9.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203276

RESUMO

Regioisomers (or positional isomers) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of milk are known to show differential outcome in relation to human absorption. Quantitation of TAG regioisomers remains a big challenge due to the lack of facile chromatographic separation technique. The feasibility of using fragment ion intensity ratio to determine the ratio of co-eluting AAB/ABA-type regioisomer pairs was confirmed in this study. The ability of C30 stationary phase in resolving interfering TAG isomers was demonstrated for the first time. This allowed us to reveal the complexity of using fragment ion intensity to quantify 1,2-olein-3-palmitin (OOP), 1,3-olein-2-palmitin (OPO), 1,2-olein-3-stearin (OOS), and 1,3-olein-2-stearin (OSO) regioisomers in milk samples. A novel algorithm was proposed to consider the contribution of OPO/OOP and OSO/OOS double bond (DB)-isomers and to eliminate the interference of isobaric ions from other isomers, an aspect overlooked in previous studies. This liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method that requires no pre-fractioning and a moderate chromatographic separation time of 36 min is simple and, thus, suitable for screening a large number of samples for genetic analysis of this trait. Preliminary results using a small cohort of animals showed that OPO/OOP ratio differs significantly between Jersey and Holstein cows, and a large variation was also observed across individual Holstein cows.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Leite/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Estereoisomerismo , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068476

RESUMO

Yearling weight gain in male and female Israeli Holstein calves, defined as 365 × ((weight - 35)/age at weight) + 35, was analyzed from 814,729 records on 368,255 animals from 740 herds recorded between 1994 and 2021. The variance components were calculated based on valid records from 2008 through 2017 for each sex separately and both sexes jointly by a single-trait individual animal model analysis, which accounted for repeat records on animals. The analysis model also included the square root, linear, and quadratic effects of age at weight. Heritability and repeatability were 0.35 and 0.71 in the analysis of both sexes and similar in the single sex analyses. The regression of yearling weight gain on birth date in the complete data set was -0.96 kg/year. The complete data set was also analyzed by the same model as the variance component analysis, including both sexes and accounting for differing variance components for each sex. The genetic trend for yearling weight gain, including both sexes, was 1.02 kg/year. Genetic evaluations for yearling weight gain was positively correlated with genetic evaluations for milk, fat, protein production, and cow survival but negatively correlated with female fertility. Yearling weight gain was also correlated with the direct effect on dystocia, and increased yearling weight gain resulted in greater frequency of dystocia. Of the 1749 Israeli Holstein bulls genotyped with reliabilities >50%, 1445 had genetic evaluations. As genotyping of these bulls was performed using several single nucleotide polymorhphism (SNP) chip platforms, we included only those markers that were genotyped in >90% of the tested cohort. A total of 40,498 SNPs were retained. More than 400 markers had significant effects after permutation and correction for multiple testing (pnominal < 1 × 10-8). Considering all SNPs simultaneously, 0.69 of variance among the sires' transmitting ability was explained. There were 24 markers with coefficients of determination for yearling weight gain >0.04. One marker, BTA-75458-no-rs on chromosome 5, explained ≈6% of the variance among the estimated breeding values for yearling weight gain. ARS-BFGL-NGS-39379 had the fifth largest coefficient of determination in the current study and was also found to have a significant effect on weight at an age of 13-14 months in a previous study on Holsteins. Significant genomic effects on yearling weight gain were mainly associated with milk production quantitative trait loci, specifically with kappa casein metabolism.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Seleção Genética/genética
11.
Anim Genet ; 52(4): 385-394, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060099

RESUMO

Chicken is the most numerous among the domesticated livestock species. Across cultures, religions, and societies, chicken is widely accepted with little or no taboo compared to other domestic animals. Its adaptability to diverse environmental conditions and demonstrated potential for breeding improvement provide a unique genetic resource for addressing the challenges of food security in a world impacted by climatic change and human population growth. Recent studies, shedding new knowledge on the chicken genomes, have helped reconstruct its past evolutionary history. Here, we review the literature concerning the origin, dispersion, and adaptation of domestic chicken. We highlight the role of human and natural selection in shaping the diversity of the species and provide a few examples of knowledge gaps that may be the focus of future research.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Distribuição Animal , Evolução Biológica , Cruzamento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Genoma , Seleção Genética , Animais , Galinhas/genética
12.
Anim Genet ; 52(4): 492-504, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087001

RESUMO

Brazilian hair sheep constitute a genetic diversity hotspot. These animals are found in the harsh environments of the Brazilian Northwest (semi-arid) region. Genotypes (50K SNP chip) from seven Brazilian sheep breeds (five hair and two coarse wool types) and 87 worldwide breeds were used to test for population structure, admixture and genetic diversity. Moreover, phylogenetic trees evaluating migration events between genetic groups were built. Brazilian Somali, a fat-tailed breed, had a close relationship with East African breeds and clustered distinctly from other Brazilian breeds. Brazilian Blackbelly and Barbados Blackbelly had a close relationship. The Morada Nova breed did not show close relationships with European or African breeds, revealing a single migration event from an Algerian hair breed. Brazilian Fat-tail and Morada Nova share a common ancestor, but the former showed introgressions from Brazilian Somali and Afrikaner breeds, explaining the fat-tail phenotype. The Santa Inês breed received a substantial contribution from Brazilian Bergamasca and showed an admixed origin with recent introgressions from other breeds, mainly from Suffolk. Furthermore, Brazilian Somali and Brazilian Fat-tail are the most endangered sheep genetic resources in Brazil and should be the focus for ex situ conservation programs. In conclusion, Brazilian hair sheep show an African origin and are characterized by diverse genetic composition, reinforcing the need for conservation of these genetic resources, and at the same time, this highly diverse group has variability that can be used in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Pelo Animal , Cruzamento , Genoma , Genótipo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Pelo Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Filogenia
13.
Theriogenology ; 172: 80-87, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146972

RESUMO

In the present study, we standardized an in vitro oviduct explants model for cattle and assessed the oviduct explants binding ability and phenotypic characteristics of spermatozoa obtained from breeding bulls with high- and low-sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI%). Cryopreserved spermatozoa from Holstein Friesian crossbred breeding bulls (n = 45) with known field fertility were assessed for DFI% and were classified into either high DFI% or low DFI% category. Flow cytometry was used to assess sperm membrane integrity, acrosome reaction status, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentrations. It was found that spermatozoa from bulls with low DFI% had significantly higher (P < 0.05) membrane integrity, acrosome intactness, and mitochondrial membrane potential. To assess the sperm oviduct binding ability, oviduct explants were prepared by incubating the oviduct cells overnight in TCM-199 medium at 38.5 °C under 5% CO2. Different sperm concentrations and times of incubation were evaluated and found that 2 million spermatozoa and 1-h incubation yielded high binding index (BI). The BI was also significantly (P < 0.01) higher (>2 times) in the bulls with low-DFI% as compared to high DFI% bulls. The correlation between binding index and DFI% was negative and significant (r = -0.528; P < 0.05). Further, the binding index was positively correlated with conception rate (r = 0.703), intact sperm membrane (r = 0.631) and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.609). It is inferred that sperm phenotypic characteristics and oviduct binding ability are impaired in breeding bulls with high sperm DFI%, which might be associated with low conception rates in these bulls.


Assuntos
Oviductos , Espermatozoides , Acrossomo , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3420, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103535

RESUMO

Theory shows how sexual selection can exaggerate male traits beyond naturally selected optima and also how natural selection can ultimately halt trait elaboration. Empirical evidence supports this theory, but to our knowledge, there have been no experimental evolution studies directly testing this logic, and little examination of possible associated effects on female fitness. Here we use experimental evolution of replicate populations of broad-horned flour beetles to test for effects of sex-specific predation on an exaggerated sexually selected male trait (the mandibles), while also testing for effects on female lifetime reproductive success. We find that populations subjected to male-specific predation evolve smaller sexually selected mandibles and this indirectly increases female fitness, seemingly through intersexual genetic correlations we document. Predation solely on females has no effects. Our findings support fundamental theory, but also reveal unforseen outcomes-the indirect effect on females-when natural selection targets sex-limited sexually selected characters.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Aptidão Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Comportamento Predatório
15.
Animal ; 15(7): 100252, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090091

RESUMO

Effective shelter has been demonstrated to reduce neonatal lamb mortality rates during periods of inclement weather. Periods of high wind speed and rainfall have been shown to influence shelter usage; however, it is not yet known how ewe factors such as breed, age and body condition score influence shelter-seeking behaviour. This study, conducted on a working upland farm in the UK, examined impact of artificial shelter on the biological and climatic factors that influence peri-parturient ewe behaviour. Pregnant ewes (n = 147) were randomly allocated between two adjacent fields which were selected for their similarity in size, topography, pasture management, orientation to the prevailing wind and available natural shelter. In one field, three additional artificial shelters were installed to increase the available shelter for ewes, this field was designated the Test field; no additional artificial shelter was provided in the second field which was used as the Control field. Individual ewes were observed every 2 h between 0800 and 1600 for 14 continuous days to monitor their location relative to shelter. Ewe breed (Aberfield and Highlander), age (2-8 years) and body condition score were considered as explanatory variables to explain flock and individual variance in shelter-seeking behaviour and the prevalence of issues which required the intervention of the shepherd, termed 'shepherding problems'. Any ewe observed with dystocia, a dead or poor vigour lamb or who exhibited mismothering behaviour was recorded as a shepherding problem. The prevalence of these shepherding problems which necessitate human intervention represents arguably the most critical limiting factor for the successful management of commercial sheep flocks in outdoor lambing systems. Overall, ewes in the Test field with access to additional artificial shelter experienced fewer shepherding problems than those in the Control field (P < 0.05). A significant breed effect was also observed, with Highlander ewes more likely to seek shelter than Aberfield ewes (P < 0.001), and experiencing significantly fewer shepherding interventions (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate the substantial and significant benefits to animal welfare and productivity that can be achieved through the provision of shelter in commercial, upland, outdoor lambing systems in the UK.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ovinos , Comportamento Espacial
16.
Zootaxa ; 4969(2): 293317, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186928

RESUMO

The genus Phagocata (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) is represented in Israel by two pigmented species, namely, Phagocata armeniaca (Komárek, 1916), reported previously from Armenia, the Caucasus and eastern Turkey, and more recently known from the constantly cold headwaters of the River Jordan in northern Israel, and Phagocata punctata sp. nov., which was found inhabiting the littoral of the south-eastern shore of Lake Kinneret where there are large seasonal temperature fluctuations. Several samples of both species were collected in different seasons and raised in the laboratory at various temperatures and their habitats, morphology, karyology (2n = 34) and breeding behaviour were compared. The results of cross-breeding experiments are given, with most of the F1 offspring showing a range of patterns of colouration, gut branching and fecundity which were intermediate to those of the parent species. However, crossbreeding also resulted in a small proportion of abnormalities among the F1, and especially the F2, generations, indicating an incomplete reproductive compatibility, but supporting the hypothesis of their common origin. An emended description of Dugesia salina (Whitehouse, 1914), is also given together with karyological data (2n = 16) from material collected from a saline spring, En Sheva (Tabgha), situated on the north-western shore of Lake Kinneret.


Assuntos
Planárias/classificação , Animais , Cruzamento , Israel , Lagos , Planárias/anatomia & histologia , Reprodução
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 223, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dogs are a breed of animals that play important roles in security service, companionship, hunting, guard, work and models of research for application in humans. Intelligence is the key factor to success in life, most especially for dogs that are used for security purposes at the airports, seaports, public places, houses, schools and farms. However, it has been reported that there is correlation between intelligence, body weight, height and craniometry in human. In view of this, literatures were searched on body weight, height and body surface areas of ten dogs with intent to determining their comparative level of intelligence using encephalization quotient. RESULTS: Findings revealed that dogs have relationship of brain allometry with human as proven by encephalization quotient [Formula: see text] and Brain Mass (E) = kpß, where p is the body weight; k = 0.14 and ß = 0.528, respectively. Saganuwa's formula yielded better results as compared with the other formulas. Dogs with body surface area (BSA), weight and height similar to that of human are the most intelligent. Doberman pinscher is the most intelligent followed by German shepherd, Labrador retriever, Golden retriever, respectively.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cruzamento , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cães
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1952): 20210813, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102890

RESUMO

Cattle are one of the most intensively bred domestic animals, providing humans with a multitude of products and uses. Using data from the fossil record, we test if their domestication, as for other taxa, has resulted in a reduction of their brain size. We not only conclude that Bos taurus (domestic cattle) have smaller brains than their wild ancestor, Bos primigenius (aurochs), but that brain size varies significantly by breed, with some having much smaller brains than others. Differences in husbandry practices between several breed categories align with a range of human engagement, which also aligns with the degree of selection for docility. Sampling 317 domestics from 71 breeds, we investigate if differences in brain size correlate with the intensity of human contact. A clear pattern emerges whereby a brain reduction gradient parallels a gradient in behavioural selection. Bullfighting cattle, which are bred for fighting and aggressive temperament, have much larger brains than dairy breeds, which are intensively selected for docility. Our results add to a fundamental aspect of animal domestication theory: the interplay between basic features of the domestic environment-selection for docility, absence of predators and human provision of resources-seems to explain differences in brain size.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Cruzamento , Animais , Bovinos , Fósseis , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 410, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are two genetically distinct subspecies of cattle, Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus, which arose from independent domestication events. The two types of cattle show substantial phenotypic differences, some of which emerge during fetal development and are reflected in birth outcomes, including birth weight. We explored gene expression profiles in the placenta and four fetal tissues at mid-gestation from one taurine (Bos taurus taurus; Angus) and one indicine (Bos taurus indicus; Brahman) breed and their reciprocal crosses. RESULTS: In total 120 samples were analysed from a pure taurine breed, an indicine breed and their reciprocal cross fetuses, which identified 6456 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two pure breeds in at least one fetal tissue of which 110 genes were differentially expressed in all five tissues examined. DEGs shared across tissues were enriched for pathways related to immune and stress response functions. Only the liver had a substantial number of DEGs when reciprocal crossed were compared among which 310 DEGs were found to be in common with DEGs identified between purebred livers; these DEGs were significantly enriched for metabolic process GO terms. Analysis of DEGs across purebred and crossbred tissues suggested an additive expression pattern for most genes, where both paternal and maternal alleles contributed to variation in gene expression levels. However, expression of 5% of DEGs in each tissue was consistent with parent of origin effects, with both paternal and maternal dominance effects identified. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify candidate genes potentially driving the tissue-specific differences between these taurine and indicine breeds and provide a biological insight into parental genome effects underlying phenotypic differences in bovine fetal development.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Domesticação , Impressão Genômica , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Gravidez
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3717, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162841

RESUMO

Rawls argued that fairness in human societies can be achieved if decisions about the distribution of societal rewards are made from behind a veil of ignorance, which obscures the personal gains that result. Whether ignorance promotes fairness in animal societies, that is, the distribution of resources to reduce inequality, is unknown. Here we show experimentally that cooperatively breeding banded mongooses, acting from behind a veil of ignorance over kinship, allocate postnatal care in a way that reduces inequality among offspring, in the manner predicted by a Rawlsian model of cooperation. In this society synchronized reproduction leaves adults in a group ignorant of the individual parentage of their communal young. We provisioned half of the mothers in each mongoose group during pregnancy, leaving the other half as matched controls, thus increasing inequality among mothers and increasing the amount of variation in offspring birth weight in communal litters. After birth, fed mothers provided extra care to the offspring of unfed mothers, not their own young, which levelled up initial size inequalities among the offspring and equalized their survival to adulthood. Our findings suggest that a classic idea of moral philosophy also applies to the evolution of cooperation in biological systems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Gravidez , Predomínio Social
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