Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.058
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614226

RESUMO

Major latex-like proteins (MLPs) play crucial roles in abiotic and biotic stresses. However, little was known about this gene family in cucumbers. In this study, a total of 37 putative cucumber MLP genes were identified on a genome-wide level and classified into three groups by sequence homologous comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana. Chromosome mapping suggested that only tandem duplication occurred in evolution. The multiple regulatory cis-elements related to stress, hormone, light and growth response were found in the promoter region of these CsMLP genes, indicating that CsMLPs might be widely involved in the process of plant growth, development and various stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis indicated a strong reprogramming of MLPs expression in response to Phytophthora melonis infection in cucumber. Knockdown of CsMLP1 reduced the P. melonis tolerance, while transient overexpression of CsMLP1 improved disease tolerance in cucumber. Conversely, the silence of CsMLP5 decreased the lesion area caused by P. melonis in the cotyledons, and overexpression of CsMLP5 promoted lesion expansion. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive basis for further mining the function of CsMLP members and will also be significant for elucidating the evolutionary relationship in cucumber.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cucumis sativus , Phytophthora , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Látex/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Phytophthora/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Filogenia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674649

RESUMO

Fruit glossiness is an important external fruit quality trait that greatly affects the marketability of fresh cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruits. A few reports have suggested that the extent of cuticular wax loading influences the glossiness of the fruit surface. In the present study, we tested the wax contents of two inbred cucumber lines, comparing a line with waxy fruit (3401) and a line with glossy fruit (3413). Wax content analysis and dewaxing analysis demonstrate that fruit cuticular wax loads negatively correlate with fruit glossiness in cucumber. Identifying genes that were differentially expressed in fruit pericarps between 3401 and 3413 and genes induced by abscisic acid suggested that the wax biosynthesis gene CsCER6 (Cucumis sativus ECERIFERUM 6) and the regulatory gene CsCER7 may affect wax accumulation on cucumber fruit. Expression analysis via RT-qPCR, GUS-staining, and in situ hybridization revealed that CsCER6 and CsCER7 are abundantly expressed in the epidermis cells in cucumber fruits. Furthermore, the overexpression and RNAi lines of CsCER6 and CsCER7 showed dramatic effects on fruit cuticular wax contents, fruit glossiness, and cuticle permeability. Our results suggest that CsCER6 and CsCER7 positively regulate fruit cuticular wax accumulation and negatively influence fruit glossiness.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Interferência de RNA , Ceras/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(2): 58, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588112

RESUMO

Nitrogen is an important factor affecting crop yield, but excessive use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer has caused decline in nitrogen utilization and soil and water pollution. Reducing the utilization of chemical nitrogen fertilizers by biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is feasible for green production of crops. However, there are few reports on how to have more ammonium produced by nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) flow outside the cell. In the present study, the amtB gene encoding an ammonium transporter (AmtB) in the genome of NFB strain Kosakonia radicincitans GXGL-4A was deleted and the △amtB mutant was characterized. The results showed that deletion of the amtB gene had no influence on the growth of bacterial cells. The extracellular ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) content of the △amtB mutant under nitrogen-free culture conditions was significantly higher than that of the wild-type strain GXGL-4A (WT-GXGL-4A), suggesting disruption of NH4+ transport. Meanwhile, the plant growth-promoting effect in cucumber seedlings was visualized after fertilization using cells of the △amtB mutant. NFB fertilization continuously increased the cucumber rhizosphere soil pH. The nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) content in soil in the △amtB treatment group was significantly higher than that in the WT-GXGL-4A treatment group in the short term but there was no difference in soil NH4+ contents between groups. Soil enzymatic activities varied during a 45-day assessment period, indicating that △amtB fertilization influenced soil nitrogen cycling in the cucumber rhizosphere. The results will provide a solid foundation for developing the NFB GXGL-4A into an efficient biofertilizer agent.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Cucumis sativus , Bactérias Fixadoras de Nitrogênio , Plântula , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Solo/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Fertilizantes/análise
4.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 258, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650145

RESUMO

Pollen tube guidance within female tissues of flowering plants can be divided into preovular guidance, ovular guidance and a connecting stage called pollen tube emergence. As yet, no female factor has been identified to positively regulate this transition process. In this study, we show that an ovary-expressed bHLH transcription factor Cucumis sativus ALCATRAZ (CsALC) functions in pollen tube emergence in cucumber. CsALC knockout mutants showed diminished pollen tube emergence, extremely reduced entry into ovules, and a 95% reduction in female fertility. Further examination showed two rapid alkalinization factors CsRALF4 and CsRALF19 were less expressed in Csalc ovaries compared to WT. Besides the loss of male fertility derived from precocious pollen tube rupture as in Arabidopsis, Csralf4 Csralf19 double mutants exhibited a 60% decrease in female fertility due to reduced pollen tube distribution and decreased ovule targeting efficiency. In brief, CsALC regulates female fertility and promotes CsRALF4/19 expression in the ovary during pollen tube guidance in cucumber.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Cucumis sativus , Cucumis sativus/genética , Ovário/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/genética , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14637, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655051

RESUMO

Background: The calmodulin-like (CML) protein is a crucial Ca2+-binding protein that can sense and conduct the Ca2+ signal in response to extracellular stimuli. The CML protein families have been identified and characterized in many species. Nevertheless, scarce information on cucumber CML is retrievable. Methods: In this study, bioinformatic analyses, including gene structure, conserved domain, phylogenetic relationship, chromosome distribution, and gene synteny, were comprehensively performed to identify and characterize CsCML gene members. Spatiotemporal expression analysis in different organs and environment conditions were assayed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Forty-four CsCMLs family members were well characterized, and the results showed that the 44 CsCML proteins contained one to four EF-hand domains without other functional domains. Most of the CsCML proteins were intron-less and unevenly distributed on seven chromosomes; two tandemly duplicated gene pairs and three segmentally duplicated gene pairs were identified in the cucumber genome. Cis-acting element analysis showed that the hormone, stress, and plant growth and development-related elements were in the promotor regions. In addition, spatiotemporal expression analysis revealed distinctive expression patterns for CsCML genes in different tissues and environmental conditions, and a putative protein interaction network also confirmed their potential role in responding to various stimuli. These results provide a foundation for understanding CsCMLs and provide a theoretical basis for further study of the physiological functions of CsCMLs.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Cucumis sativus/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Calmodulina/genética , Filogenia , Família Multigênica/genética
6.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 1): 120521, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309299

RESUMO

Soil salinity severely limits crop yield and quality. Grafting onto tolerant rootstocks is known as an effective means to alleviate salt stress. The present study was planned to find out the potential roles, mechanisms and applications of luffa rootstock to improve salt tolerance of grafted cucumber plants. Here, we screened a highly salt-tolerant luffa rootstock by evaluating the growth, photosynthetic performance, antioxidant defense and the accumulation of Na+ and K+ under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between cucumber and luffa showed that luffa rootstock significantly improved the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as evidenced by higher fresh weight, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower relative electrical conductivity (REC), which was closely associated with the decreased accumulation of Na+ and increased the accumulation of K+ in shoots of luffa grafted cucumber seedlings, leading to a lower Na+:K+ ratio in shoot when compared with self-grafted cucumber. Furthermore, grafting with intermediate stock of luffa also sufficiently alleviated cucumber salt stress by reducing Na+ accumulation in shoot and the whole plant but increasing Na+ accumulation in interstock and root under salt stress, fully proving the salt tolerance depending on the capacity of luffa interstock to limit the transport of Na+ from the root to the shoot. More importantly, luffa rootstock improved the growth, yield and quality of grafted cucumber plants grown in pots in solar greenhouse as revealed by increased net photosynthetic rate, plant height, leaf number, yield, Vitamin C and soluble sugar but decreased titratable acid under both salinity and normal conditions. Together, these results, for the first time, clearly demonstrated that luffa,a new highly salt-tolerant rootstock, enhances salt tolerance and improves yield and quality of grafted cucumber plants by reducing sodium transport to the shoot.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Luffa , Raízes de Plantas , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio , Brotos de Planta
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245865, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339368

RESUMO

Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.


Resumo Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) é uma tremenda ameaça aos vegetais em todo o mundo, inclusive no Paquistão. O presente trabalho foi conduzido para investigar a variabilidade genética de isolados de CMV infectando vegetais de ervilha e espinafre na região de Pothwar, Paquistão. Pesquisas com base em sorologia durante 2016-2017 revelaram 31,70% da incidência geral da doença por CMV em safras de ervilha e espinafre. O ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática em sanduíche de anticorpo triplo (TAS-ELISA) revelou que todos os isolados positivos pertencem ao subgrupo II do CMV. Dois cDNA selecionados de amostras positivas para ELISA representando cada safra de ervilha e espinafre foram amplificados por PCR (ca.1100 pb) e sequenciados correspondendo ao gene CMV CP que compartilhou 93,7% de identidade de nucleotídeo um com o outro. Ambas as sequências de isolados de ervilha CMV (AAHAP) e espinafre (AARS) do Paquistão foram submetidas ao GenBank como nos de acesso. MH119071 e MH119073, respectivamente. A análise BLAST revelou 93,4% de identidade de sequência do isolado AAHAP com SpK (KC763473) do Irã, enquanto o isolado AARS compartilhou a identidade máxima (94,5%) com a cepa 241 (AJ585519) da Austrália e agrupada com alguns isolados de referência do subgrupo II de CMV do Reino Unido (Z12818) e EUA (AF127976) em uma reconstrução filogenética vizinha. Um total de 59 sítios polimórficos (segregantes) (S) com diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) de 0,06218 foi evidente, enquanto nenhum evento INDEL foi observado em isolados do Paquistão. A distância evolutiva de isolados de CMV do Paquistão foi registrada como 0,0657 entre si e 0,0574-0,2964 com outros isolados de CMV relatados em outras partes do mundo. Um fluxo gênico frequente (Fst = 0,30478 < 0,33) foi observado entre os isolados de CMV do Paquistão e relatados anteriormente. Na análise de diferenciação genética, os valores de três testes estatísticos baseados em permutação viz, Z (84,3011), Snn (0,82456) e Ks * (4,04042) não foram significativos. A análise estatística revelou os valores 2,02535, 0,01468 e 0,71862 de Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F * e D * respectivamente, demonstrando que a população de CMV está sob seleção de balanceamento.


Assuntos
Cucumovirus/genética , Cucumis sativus , Paquistão , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Variação Genética , Spinacia oleracea , Ervilhas
8.
Plant Dis ; 106(4): 1167-1174, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546773

RESUMO

Cucurbit production in Florida is impacted by downy mildew on a yearly basis. Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM), caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is one of the most devastating cucurbit diseases and can lead to complete yield loss. Nearly continuous production of cucurbits occurs temporally throughout Florida, which puts extensive pressure on the pathogen population to select for individuals that are resistant to fungicides in use labeled for CDM. Loss of efficacy as a result of fungicide resistance developing is becoming a major concern for Florida cucurbit growers who rely on these products to manage CDM. This study was established to evaluate the field activity of 11 utilized fungicides by determining their duration of activity when applied at various intervals for the management of CDM in cucumber under Florida field conditions. By comparing levels of percent CDM control and area under the disease progress curve values, the fungicide's duration of field activity was established. Field activities were <1 week for dimethomorph and fluopicolide; 1 week for cymoxanil; 1 to 2 weeks for chlorothalonil and mancozeb; 2 weeks for ethaboxam; 1 to 3 weeks for propamocarb, cyazofamid, and ametoctradin + dimethomorph; and 2 to 4 weeks for oxathiapiprolin and fluazinam. Knowledge of duration of field activity can potentially improve the development of CDM management programs and slow the resistance selection.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Florida , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 570, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf color mutants are ideal materials to study pigment metabolism and photosynthesis. Leaf color variations are mainly affected by chlorophylls (Chls) and carotenoid contents and chloroplast development in higher plants. However, the regulation of chlorophyll metabolism remains poorly understood in many plant species. The chloroplast signal-recognition particle system is responsible for the insertion of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins (LHCPs) to thylakoid membranes, which controls the chloroplast development as well as the regulation of Chls biosynthesis post-translationally in higher plants. RESULTS: In this study, the yellow leaf cucumber mutant, named yl, was found in an EMS-induced mutant library, which exhibited a significantly reduced chlorophyll content, abnormal chloroplast ultrastructure and decreased photosynthetic capacity. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the phenotype of yl was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. Using BSA-seq technology combined with the map-based cloning method, we narrowed the locus to a 100 kb interval in chromosome 3. Linkage analysis and allelism test validated the candidate SNP residing in CsaV3_3G009150 encoding one homolog of chloroplast signal-recognition particle (cpSRP) receptor in Arabidopsis, cpFtsY, could be responsible for the yellow leaf phenotype of yl. The relative expression of CscpFtsY was significantly down-regulated in different organs except for the stem, of yl compared with that in the wild type (WT). Subcellular localization result showed that CscpFtsY located in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. CONCLUSIONS: The yl mutant displayed Chls-deficient, impaired chloroplast ultrastructure with intermittent grana stacks and significantly decreased photosynthetic capacity. The isolation of CscpFtsY in cucumber could accelerate the progress on chloroplast development by cpSRP-dependant LHCP delivery system and regulation of Chls biosynthesis in a post-translational way.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cucumis sativus , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555697

RESUMO

Grafting is widely applied to enhance the tolerance of some vegetables to biotic and abiotic stress. Salicylic acid (SA) is known to be involved in grafting-induced chilling tolerance in cucumber. Here, we revealed that grafting with pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, Cm) as a rootstock improved chilling tolerance and increased the accumulation of SA, abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in grafted cucumber (Cucumis sativus/Cucurbita moschata, Cs/Cm) leaves. Exogenous SA improved the chilling tolerance and increased the accumulation of ABA and H2O2 and the mRNA abundances of CBF1, COR47, NCED, and RBOH1. However, 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP) and L-a-aminooxy-b-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) (biosynthesis inhibitors of SA) reduced grafting-induced chilling tolerance, as well as the synthesis of ABA and H2O2, in cucumber leaves. ABA significantly increased endogenous H2O2 production and the resistance to chilling stress, as proven by the lower electrolyte leakage (EL) and chilling injury index (CI). However, application of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitors sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) and fluridone (Flu) abolished grafting or SA-induced H2O2 accumulation and chilling tolerance. SA-induced plant response to chilling stress was also eliminated by N,N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU, an H2O2 scavenger). In addition, ABA-induced chilling tolerance was attenuated by DMTU and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, an H2O2 inhibitor) chloride, but AIP and AOPP had little effect on the ABA-induced mitigation of chilling stress. Na2WO4 and Flu diminished grafting- or SA-induced H2O2 biosynthesis, but DMTU and DPI did not affect ABA production induced by SA under chilling stress. These results suggest that SA participated in grafting-induced chilling tolerance by stimulating the biosynthesis of ABA and H2O2. H2O2, as a downstream signaler of ABA, mediates SA-induced chilling tolerance in grafted cucumber plants.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/farmacologia
11.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557835

RESUMO

Based on the modification of natural products and the active substructure splicing method, a series of new N-(thiophen-2-yl) nicotinamide derivatives were designed and synthesized by splicing the nitrogen-containing heterocycle natural molecule nicotinic acid and the sulfur-containing heterocycle thiophene. The structures of the target compounds were identified through 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS spectra. The in vivo bioassay results of all the compounds against cucumber downy mildew (CDM, Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk.et Curt.) Rostov.) in a greenhouse indicated that compounds 4a (EC50 = 4.69 mg/L) and 4f (EC50 = 1.96 mg/L) exhibited excellent fungicidal activities which were higher than both diflumetorim (EC50 = 21.44 mg/L) and flumorph (EC50 = 7.55 mg/L). The bioassay results of the field trial against CDM demonstrated that the 10% EC formulation of compound 4f displayed excellent efficacies (70% and 79% control efficacies, respectively, each at 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L) which were superior to those of the two commercial fungicides flumorph (56% control efficacy at 200 mg/L) and mancozeb (76% control efficacy at 1000 mg/L). N-(thiophen-2-yl) nicotinamide derivatives are significant lead compounds that can be used for further structural optimization, and compound 4f is also a promising fungicide candidate against CDM that can be used for further development.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Oomicetos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499239

RESUMO

Cucumber is one of the most widely cultivated greenhouse vegetables, and its quality and yield are threatened by drought stress. Studies have shown that carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) enrichment can alleviate drought stress in cucumber seedlings; however the mechanism of this [CO2] enrichment effect on root drought stress is not clear. In this study, the effects of different drought stresses (simulated with 0, 5% and 10% PEG 6000, i.e., no, moderate, and severe drought stress) and [CO2] (400 µmol·mol-1 and 800 ± 40 µmol·mol-1) on the cucumber seedling root proteome were analyzed using the tandem mass tag (TMT) quantitative proteomics method. The results showed that after [CO2] enrichment, 346 differentially accumulating proteins (DAPs) were found only under moderate drought stress, 27 DAPs only under severe drought stress, and 34 DAPs under both moderate and severe drought stress. [CO2] enrichment promoted energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and secondary metabolism, induced the expression of proteins related to root cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, effectively maintained the balance of protein processing and degradation, and enhanced the cell wall regulation ability. However, the extent to which [CO2] enrichment alleviated drought stress in cucumber seedling roots was limited under severe drought stress, which may be due to excessive damage to the seedlings.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Plântula , Plântula/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553483

RESUMO

The leaf angle is an important factor determining plant shoot architecture that may boost crop yield by increasing photosynthetic efficiency and facilitating high-density planting. Auxin is an important phytohormone involved in leaf angle regulation. Here, we identified two Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Indoleacetic Acid (IAA) glucosyltransferase gene CsIAGLU in 80 re-sequenced cucumber lines, of which the CsIAGLU717G,1234T is the dominant allele associated with a small leaf pedicle angle (LPA), whereas CsIAGLU717C,1234A is linked with a large LPA. CsIAGLU was highly expressed in leaves and petioles. In natural cucumber populations, the expression of CsIAGLU was negatively correlated with the LPA. The mutation of CsIAGLU induced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system resulted in elevated free IAA levels and enlarged cell expansion on the adaxial side of the petiole base, thus producing a greater LPA. Consistently, exogenous IAA treatment led to increased LPA and cell size. Therefore, our findings suggest that CsIAGLU functions as a negative regulator of LPA development via auxin-mediated cell expansion in cucumber, providing a valuable strategy for cucumber breeding with small LPAs.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497615

RESUMO

The study aimed to detect the content of mandipropamid enantiomers in unprocessed and processed tomato, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, and cowpea samples and assess the health risks to Chinese consumers. Data showed that washing and soaking with an acidic solution reduced the mandipropamid residue from vegetable samples by 54.1-82.2%. The pickling process resulted in a 6.2-65.2% loss of mandipropamid from cucumber, Chinese cabbage, and cowpea samples. Peeling and juicing were the best removing techniques for mandipropamid residues in tomato and cucumber (removal rate (RR) value > 91%), and cooking for 5 min could effectively reduce the levels of mandipropamid in Chinese cabbage and cowpea (RR values of 81.4-99.7%). The values of processing factor for the processed vegetable samples are all less than one. No significant enantioselectivity of mandipropamid was found in the vegetables during processing. Health risk data showed that samples of four types of mandipropamid-contaminated vegetables were safe for consumption after processing.


Assuntos
Brassica , Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Verduras/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cucumis sativus/química
15.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(2 Suppl 3): E21-E27, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36479487

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetables are excellent sources of health-promoting bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables helps prevent the onset and progression of many non-communicable diseases. The Mediterranean diet envisages consumption of healthy vegetables and fruit on a daily basis for maximum health benefits. Traditional use envisages vegetable-based and fruit-based diets, and many studies scientifically proved the beneficial effects of Mediterranean vegetables and fruits. Rich in bioactive phytochemicals, citrus, cucumbers and grapes have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, anti-ageing and anti-cancer properties. Studies indicate that intake of citrus, cucumbers and grapes reduces hypertension, hyperlipidemia, skin problems and infections and improves the health of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. These beneficial effects are mediated by several bioactive molecules present in Mediterranean diet vegetables and fruits, such as citrus, cucumbers and grapes. Indeed, they contains flavones, isoflavones, tannins, polyphenols and many beneficial natural molecules. This review focuses on the bioactive ingredients in citrus fruit, cucumbers and grapes, all components of the Mediterranean diet, and their health effects. A deep understanding of Mediterranean diet's components, as well as clinical trials to test natural molecules beneficial effects, will permit to further explore the therapeutic potential of the Mediterranean diet in several pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Citrus , Cucumis sativus , Dieta Mediterrânea , Vitis , Humanos
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21802, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526706

RESUMO

Annual plants allocate soil nutrients to floral display and pollinator rewards to ensure pollination success in a single season. Nitrogen and phosphorus are critical soil nutrients whose levels are altered by intensive land use that may affect plants' fitness via pollinator attractiveness through floral display and rewards. In a controlled greenhouse study, we studied in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) how changes in soil nitrogen and phosphorus influence floral traits, including nectar and pollen reward composition. We evaluated how these traits affect bumble bee (Bombus impatiens, an important cucumber pollinator) visitation and ultimately fruit yield. While increasing nitrogen and phosphorus increased growth and floral display, excess nitrogen created an asymptotic or negative effect, which was mitigated by increasing phosphorus. Male floral traits exhibited higher plasticity in responses to changes in soil nutrients than female flowers. At 4:1 nitrogen:phosphorus ratios, male flowers presented increased nectar volume and pollen number resulting in increased bumble bee visitation. Interestingly, other pollinator rewards remained consistent across all soil treatments: male and female nectar sugar composition, female nectar volume, and pollen protein and lipid concentrations. Therefore, although cucumber pollination success was buffered in conditions of nutrient stress, highly skewed nitrogen:phosphorus soil ratios reduced plant fitness via reduced numbers of flowers and reward quantity, pollinator attraction, and ultimately yield.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Néctar de Plantas , Abelhas , Animais , Solo , Polinização/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Plantas , Fósforo , Nitrogênio
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(10): 2725-2735, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384608

RESUMO

To explore whether there is an interaction between melatonin (MT) and calcium (Ca2+) in regulating heat tolerance of plants, we analyzed the response of endogenous MT and Ca2+ to heat stress, and examined the effect of MT and Ca2+ on the reactive oxygen (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant system, and transcripts of heat shock factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) of cucumber seedlings under high temperature stress. Seedlings were foliar sprayed with 100 µmol·L-1 MT, 10 mmol·L-1 CaCl2, 3 mmol·L-1 ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca2+ chelating agent) +100 µmol·L-1 MT, 0.05 mmol·L-1 chlorpromazine (calmodulin antagonist, CPZ) +100 µmol·L-1 MT, 100 µmol·L-1 p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA, inhibitor of MT) +10 mmol·L-1 CaCl2 or deionized water (H2O), respectively. The results showed that both endogenous MT and Ca2+ in cucumber seedlings were induced by high temperature stress. The seedlings treated with exogenous MT showed significant increases in the mRNA expression of calmodulin (CaM), calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK5), calcineurin B-like protein (CBL3) and CBL interacting protein kinase (CIPK2) compared with the control at normal temperature. The mRNA levels of tryptophane decarboxylase (TDC), 5-hydroxytryptamine-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine methyltransferase (ASMT), key genes of MT biosynthesis and endogenous MT content were also induced by Ca2+ in cucumber seedlings. Exogenous MT and CaCl2 alleviated the heat-induced oxidative damage through increasing antioxidant ability, reducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and upregulating the mRNA abundances of HSF7, HSP70.1 and HSP70.11, as evidenced by mild thermal damage symptoms, lower heat injury index and electrolyte leakage under heat stress. The positive effect of MT-induced antioxidant capacity and mRNA expression of HSPs was removed by adding EGTA and CPZ in stressed seedlings. Similarly, the mitigating role of Ca2+ in the peroxidation damage to high temperature stress was reversed by p-CPA. These results suggested that both MT and Ca2+ could induce heat tolerance of cucumber seedlings, which had crosstalk in the process of heat stress signal transduction.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Melatonina , Cucumis sativus/genética , Melatonina/farmacologia , Cálcio , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/genética , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Calmodulina/farmacologia , Ácido Egtázico/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Temperatura , Estresse Fisiológico , Plântula/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/farmacologia
18.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 234, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichoderma spp. are important agricultural biocontrol microorganisms that are often used as effective components of microbial fungicides and microbial biofertilizers. However, most of these products are prepared by a single strain in monoculture, which significantly limits the biocontrol efficiency and stability of Trichoderma products. Therefore, the establishment of a design and screening approach for consortia with multi-Trichoderma strains for co-culture is of great importance to overcome the shortage of traditional Trichoderma biocontrol products. RESULTS: First, 15 Trichoderma strains were screened in terms of mycelium growth rate, antagonistic activity to a variety of pathogens, stress tolerance to high temperature and salt stress, and cucumber seedling growth promotion level. Then, the combinations of Trichoderma asperellum GDSF1009 (CGMCC NO. 9512), Trichoderma asperelloides Z4-1 (CGMCC NO. 40245), Trichoderma harzianum 10569 (CGMCC NO. 40246), and T. asperellum 10264 (CGMCC NO. 22404) were finally screened as an optimal consortium for co-culture underlying the levels of plant growth-promoting and antagonistic activity to Fusarium oxysporum and seed germination promotion relative to the monoculture of a single strain. Consortia with multiple co-cultured strains were found to generate larger amounts of free amino acids than those from the monoculture of a single strain, and a pot assay also indicated that metabolites of co-cultures were able to promote cucumber seedling growth superior to that with monoculture of a single strain, even though the promotion was better than from simply mixed cultures from each of the four Trichoderma strains. Taken together, the co-culture consortia composed of the four compatible interactive Trichoderma strains was a potential novel multiple strain biocontrol agent based on the combination of synthetic consortia design and co-culture. In the field experiment, we found that the growth-promoting effect of the co-culture fermentation filtrate was better than that of the single culture fermentation filtrate. Compared with T-Z4-1, T-1009, T-10264 and T-10569, the plant height of cucumber was increased by 22.99%, 42.06%, 24.18% and 30.09%, respectively, and the stem diameter was increased by 16.59%, 18.83%, 13.65% and 14.70%, respectively. CONCLUSION: An approach to designing and screening Trichoderma consortia for co-culture was established. The consortia co-culture presented a better performance in antagonistic activity and cucumber growth compared with a monoculture of a single strain. Thus, it is of great significance to lay the foundation for the creation of a novel Trichoderma biofungicide or biomanure to resist cucumber Fusarium wilt and promote cucumber growth.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Trichoderma , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Plântula , Plantas , Micélio
19.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(12)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341539

RESUMO

With the increasing reliance on intensive arable agriculture, analysis of the problems associated with continuous cropping has become a global research focus. Here, high-throughput sequencing and nontargeted metabolomics were used to evaluate the responses of soil microbial community structure and soil metabolic function to continuous cucumber cultivation (from 1 to 18 years of continuous cultivation) in greenhouses. Continuous cucumber cropping resulted in increased soil nutrient concentrations, but decreased concentrations of available nutrients. The abundance of several bacterial genera associated with nutrient cycling, such as Bacillus and Sphingomonas, was reduced by continuous cucumber cultivation. The abundance of several beneficial fungal genera, including pathogen antagonists (e.g. Chaetomium, Mortierella, Aspergillus, and Penicillium), were found to gradually decrease in response to the increased duration of continuous cropping. 3-amino-2-naphthoic acid and L-valine increased initially and then decreased as the cropping continued, which were related to fatty acid metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. We also confirmed a close association between microbial community structure and soil metabolites. This study linked the changes in microbial community structure and metabolites in the rhizosphere soil and provided new insights into soil-microbial interactions in continuous cucumber culture systems.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Microbiota , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Rizosfera
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18522, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323754

RESUMO

Reductions in the quality and yield of crops continuously produced in the same location for many years due to annual increases in soil-borne pathogens. Environmentally-friendly methods are needed to produce vegetables sustainably and cost effectively under protective cover. We investigated the impact of biofertilizers on cucumber growth and yield, and changes to populations of soil microorganisms in response to biofertilizer treatments applied to substrate or soil. We observed that some biofertilizers significantly increased cucumber growth and decreased soil-borne pathogens in soil and substrate. Rhizosphere microbial communities in soil and substrate responded differently to different biofertilizers, which also led to significant differences in microbial diversity and taxonomic structure at different times in the growing season. Biofertilizers increase the prospects of re-using substrate for continuously producing high-quality crops cost-effectively from the same soil each year while at the same time controlling soil-borne disease.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Solo , Solo/química , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Rizosfera , Bactérias , Produtos Agrícolas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...