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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248122, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355851

RESUMO

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


Resumo Por ser o vetor do vírus do Nilo Ocidental e da falaríase, o controle de Culex quinquefasciatus Say é provavelmente essencial. O tratamento com inseticida sintético parece ser mais eficaz para o controle dos mosquitos vetores. No entanto, esses produtos são tóxicos para o meio ambiente e organismos não visados. Consequentemente, o controle ecológico dos mosquitos vetores é necessário. Nesse sentido, o inseticida botânico parece mais produtivo. Portanto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia do extrato metanólico e de várias frações, incluindo n-hexano, acetato de etila, clorofórmio e fração aquosa, obtidos do extrato metanólico de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. e Justicia adhatoda L. usando funil de separação contra os estágios larval, pupal e adulto de C. quinquefasciatus. As larvas e pupas de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a várias concentrações (31,25-1000 ppm) de extrato metanólico, e suas frações por 24 horas de período de exposição. Para o bioensaio knock-down (bioensaio de impregnação de papel de filtro), diferentes concentrações do extrato metanólico e suas várias frações (ou seja, 0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1 mg / mL) foram aplicadas por um período de exposição de 1 hora. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando desvio padrão, análise Probit e regressão linear. Os valores de R2 de larvas, pupas e adultos variaram de 0,4 a 0,99. Os valores de LC50 (concentração que causa 50% de mortalidade) para larvas de terceiro estádio tardio após 24 horas de período de exposição variaram de 93-1856,7 ppm, enquanto os valores de LC90 variaram de 424-7635,5ppm. Os valores de LC50 para pupas variaram de 1326,7-6818,4 ppm e os valores de LC90 variaram de 3667,3-17427,9 ppm, respectivamente. O KDT50 variou de 0,30 a 2,8% e os valores de KDT90 variaram de 1,2 a 110,8%, respectivamente. Por fim, a espécie J. adhatoda pôde ser eficaz para controlar populações de mosquitos vetores.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Anopheles , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2585: 145-156, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331772

RESUMO

Identifying the mosquitoes responsible for transmitting human disease-causing pathogens is of critical importance for effective control of mosquito-borne outbreaks. West Nile virus is often transferred by adult female mosquitoes in the genus Culex, which deposit eggs in a variety of aquatic habitats throughout the world. Herein we describe several methodological approaches to monitor these species in nature, as well as offering details for data collection and analysis.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Ecossistema , Surtos de Doenças
4.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106726, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273537

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important mosquito-borne infectious disease in rural areas of Asia that is caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the major vector of JEV, nevertheless there are other mosquitoes that may be able to transmit JEV. This study confirms that the midgut, head tissue, salivary glands, and reproductive tissue of Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus are all able to be infected with JEV after a virus-containing blood meal was ingested by female mosquitoes. Even though the susceptibility to JEV of the different tissues varies, the virus-positive rate increased with the number of days after JEV infection. Moreover, once JEV escapes the midgut barrier, the oral transmission rates of JEV were 16%, 2%, and 21% for Ae. albopictus, Ar. subalbatus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus at 14 days after infection at 30 °C, respectively. There is no supporting evidence to suggest vertical transmission of JEV by the tested mosquitoes. Collectively, raising the temperature enhances JEV replication in the salivary gland of the three mosquito species, suggesting that global warming will enhance mosquito vector competence and that this is likely to lead to an increase in the probability of JEV transmission.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Feminino , Temperatura , Taiwan , Mosquitos Vetores
5.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106720, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288768

RESUMO

West Nile virus is perhaps the widest distributed arbovirus globally, being maintained in nature by transmission among ornithophagic Culex mosquitoes and a wide-variety of birds. A factor contributing to the success of the WNV invasion is the ability of the virus to successfully overwinter. Experimental studies on the preservation and transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens pallens under simulated overwintering conditions have shown that Cx. p. pallens has a preservative effect on West Nile virus under low-temperature conditions. After the temperature rises, the virus reproduces rapidly and can spread to susceptible animals while the mosquitos feed on blood. This research is of great significance for exploring how West Nile virus enters new areas and how the cycle of transmission is maintained China.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Estações do Ano
6.
Parasitol Int ; 92: 102688, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228969

RESUMO

The use of chemical insecticides in agriculture has posed several challenges to environment and ecosystem health. Pesticides of biological origin are considered to be suitable for sustainable environment. In the present study bioactive compounds from Penicillium sp. was isolated and tested for insecticidal activity on Spodoptera litura and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium sp. were characterized using GC-MS and FT-IR analysis. GC-MS analysis showed 20 different bioactive compounds namely, Propanoic acid, ethyl ester, Acetic Acid, Propyl Ester, Isopentyl Acetate, Acetic Acid, 2-Methylpropyl Ester, Behenic alcohol, 1-Hexadecene, 1-Octadecene, 1-Hexacosanol, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 1-Tetradecanol, 1-Dodecene, Tetrydamine, and Octadecanoic acid. The presence of functional groups such as, chloroalkanes, sulfonates, phosphines, amines, carboxylic acid, alkanes, and isocyanates was identified by using FTIR. Ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium sp., were tested for larvicidal activity on Spodoptera litura and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae showed significant larval mortality after 48 h of exposure with LC50: 72.205 mg/ml: LC90: 282.783 mg/ml and LC50: 94.701 mg/ml: LC90:475.049 mg/ml respectively. High antifeedant activity was observed in 300 µg/ml at 48 h of crude extract exposure. The present study concludes that Penicillium sp., secondary metabolites are effective for control of Spodoptera litura and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Inseticidas , Penicillium , Animais , Spodoptera , Ecossistema , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Larva , Agricultura , Ésteres/análise , Ésteres/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
7.
Bioorg Chem ; 130: 106258, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371818

RESUMO

A number of novel annulated pyrazolopyranopyrimidines were prepared via reaction of iminoether of the corresponding 6-amino-5-cyano-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivative 1 with different nitrogen nucleophiles. The structure of the synthesized compounds was deduced based on IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data. The larvicidal potency of the synthesized compounds against the lab and field strains of Culex pipiens and Musca domestica larvae was evaluated and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) was discussed. The assay revealed that the tested pyranopyrazole derivatives exhibited good larvicidal bio-efficacy whereas iminoether 4 exhibited the highest efficiency, for lab more than field strains of both species. Also, M. domestica larvae were more sensitive to tested compounds than C. pipiens. The field strain showed low resistance ratios to all compounds with only about 2 folds. The inhibitory effects of synthesized molecules on nAChRs were evaluated by molecular docking. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the newly synthesized compounds against normal human fibroblasts (WI-38) was investigated. The cytotoxic assay showed that derivatives 4 and 5 were not harmful to normal fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Culex , Moscas Domésticas , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 405, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex are found across the globe and are the focus of many research studies. Among the temperate species C. pipiens sensu stricto (s.s.), two forms are usually described: molestus and pipiens. These two forms are indistinguishable in terms of morphology but show behavioral and physiological differences that may have consequences for their associated epidemiology. The two forms are well defined in the northern part of the species distribution, where autogeny is strictly associated with the molestus form. However, whether the two remain distinct and show the characteristic differences in behavior is less clear in North Africa, at the southern edge of their range. METHODS: The association between autogeny, as determined by ovarian dissection, and molecular forms, based on the CQ11 microsatellite marker, was studied in six Moroccan populations of C. pipiens. RESULTS: An overall low prevalence of autogeny was found at three of the Moroccan regions studied, although it reached 17.5% in the Agadir population. The prevalence of form-specific CQ11 alleles was quite similar across all populations, with the molestus allele being rarer (approx. 15%), except in the Agadir population where it reached 43.3%. We found significant deficits in heterozygotes at the diagnostic CQ11 locus in three populations, but the three other populations showed no significant departure from panmixia, which is in line with the results of a retrospective analysis of the published data. More importantly, we found no association between the autogeny status and CQ11 genotypes, despite the many females analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: There was limited evidence for two discrete forms in Morocco, where individuals carrying pipiens and molestus alleles breed and mate in the same sites and are equally likely to be capable of autogeny. These observations are discussed in the epidemiological context of Morocco, where C. pipiens is the main vector of several arboviruses.


Assuntos
Culex , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mosquitos Vetores , Repetições de Microssatélites , Ecossistema
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18664, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333318

RESUMO

Mosquito transmit numbers of parasites and pathogens resulting in fatal diseases. Species identification is a prerequisite for effective mosquito control. Existing morphological and molecular classification methods have evitable disadvantages. Here we introduced Deep learning techniques for mosquito species identification. A balanced, high-definition mosquito dataset with 9900 original images covering 17 species was constructed. After three rounds of screening and adjustment-testing (first round among 3 convolutional neural networks and 3 Transformer models, second round among 3 Swin Transformer variants, and third round between 2 images sizes), we proposed the first Swin Transformer-based mosquito species identification model (Swin MSI) with 99.04% accuracy and 99.16% F1-score. By visualizing the identification process, the morphological keys used in Swin MSI were similar but not the same as those used by humans. Swin MSI realized 100% subspecies-level identification in Culex pipiens Complex and 96.26% accuracy for novel species categorization. It presents a promising approach for mosquito identification and mosquito borne diseases control.


Assuntos
Culex , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 437, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of mosquito species is essential for the development and optimization of strategies to control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. Problems with the morphological identification of mosquito species have led to the use of molecular identification techniques, in particular the Folmer cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) PCR system (FCOS), originally designed to identify a range of other invertebrates. METHODS: As there can be difficulties identifying mosquitoes using FCOS, we re-evaluated the FCOS primers and developed a new COI-based SYBR PCR (the Auburn COI system-AUCOS) to improve the molecular identification of mosquitoes. Sequence data in GenBank for 33 species from 10 genera of mosquitoes were used to develop our AUCOS primers. Two molecular assays (AUCOS, FCOS) and morphological identification were carried out on mosquitoes collected from the field in Auburn, Alabama (USA) and on Saint Kitts. RESULTS: With a convenience sample of individual mosquitoes comprising 19 species from six genera in Saint Kitts (n = 77) and Auburn (n = 48), our AUCOS provided higher-quality sequence data than FCOS. It also proved more sensitive than FCOS, successfully amplifying 67.5% (85/126) as opposed to 16.7% (21/126) of the samples. The species determined by morphology, or genus with damaged samples, matched that as determined by AUCOS for 84.9% (62/73) of the samples. Morphological classification was confirmed by FCOS with 81.0% (17/21) of samples producing utilizable sequences. While both FCOS and AUCOS correctly identified all the Aedes, Anopheles, Deinocerites, and Uranotaenia species in the study, identification of Culex species was less successful with both methods: 50.0% (3/6) by FCOS and 35.7% (5/14) by AUCOS. CONCLUSIONS: The AUCOS DNA barcoding system for mosquito species described in this study is superior to the existing FCOS for the identification of mosquito species. As AUCOS and FCOS amplify the same variable region of the COI, the large amount of existing data on GenBank can be used to identify mosquito species with sequences produced by either PCR.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Primers do DNA/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19946, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402904

RESUMO

We extend a previously developed epidemiological model for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans in Greece, employing laboratory-confirmed WNV cases and mosquito-specific characteristics of transmission, such as host selection and temperature-dependent transmission of the virus. Host selection was defined by bird host selection and human host selection, the latter accounting only for the fraction of humans that develop symptoms after the virus is acquired. To model the role of temperature on virus transmission, we considered five temperature intervals (≤ 19.25 °C; > 19.25 and < 21.75 °C; ≥ 21.75 and < 24.25 °C; ≥ 24.25 and < 26.75 °C; and > 26.75 °C). The capacity of the new model to fit human cases and the week of first case occurrence was compared with the original model and showed improved performance. The model was also used to infer further quantities of interest, such as the force of infection for different temperatures as well as mosquito and bird abundances. Our results indicate that the inclusion of mosquito-specific characteristics in epidemiological models of mosquito-borne diseases leads to improved modelling capacity.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Temperatura , Modelos Epidemiológicos , Mosquitos Vetores , Aves
12.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(11): 529-534, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354964

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) continues to cause significant numbers of human infections and fatalities despite the availability of efficacious vaccines. It is regarded as an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with the potential of introduction into many countries. In 2022, JEV was detected in Australia on a hitherto unprecedented scale, with local transmission by indigenous mosquitoes to amplifying swine hosts and to humans. In this study, we review this recent disease activity, propose possible routes of virus movement, ecological drivers of activity, and consider possible future transmission scenarios. Measures to enhance current surveillance systems and potential strategies for health authorities to minimize future risks are discussed.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Humanos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277237, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355844

RESUMO

Females of container-breeding mosquito species use visual and chemical cues to determine suitable habitats to oviposit their eggs. Female Culex mosquitoes oviposit single egg rafts containing hundreds of eggs on the surface of water in container habitats. In this project, the effects of water volume and nutrient concentration were studied using three semi-controlled field assays to determine the role these parameters play on female Culex mosquito oviposition preference. The results of this study suggest female Culex prefer to oviposit in larger volumes of water and higher concentrations of nutrients separately, but chose intermediate conditions when presented with a combination of these two variables, which follows the Goldilocks principle. This choice may provide their offspring with optimal conditions for development by reducing intraspecific competition, thereby maximizing the biological fitness of the ovipositing Culex females.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Culex , Culicidae , Feminino , Animais , Água/farmacologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Oviposição , Nutrientes
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19544, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380224

RESUMO

Competent arbovirus vectors are found in the culicid mosquito fauna of south-west Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. In La Reunion, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are known vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Culex quinquefasciatus is a potential vector of Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. To prepare a vector-control field trial against Ae. aegypti, this study aimed at identifying the best trapping strategy to catch adult Ae. aegypti, using BG-Sentinel traps (Biogents, Germany). It was implemented in two sites in southern La Reunion. Catches of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were also recorded. A Latin square design was used to estimate the detection probability and the apparent daily density-according to the BG-Sentinel trapping strategy: none, carbon dioxide (CO2), a commercial attractant-BG-Lure (Biogents, Germany), or both. The use of CO2 alone was associated with a higher detection probability for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, as well as a large increase in their apparent density. Traps with BG-Lure-alone or in combination with CO2, did not improve the detection probability of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The same result was found for male Ae. albopictus. For females, baiting BG-Sentinel traps with CO2 or BG-Lure had no significant effect. The same apparent densities were found for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in both study sites-where Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were found at very low densities during previous surveys.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Culex , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Dióxido de Carbono , Reunião , Controle de Mosquitos
15.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364044

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria produce a variety of antibacterial and larvicidal metabolites, which could be used to cure diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and to efficiently overcome issues regarding insecticide resistance. In the current study, the antibacterial and larvicidal potential of Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate isolated from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum BCH-1 has been evaluated. Bioactive compounds were extracted by ethyl acetate and were fractionated by gradient column chromatography from crude extract. Based on FT-IR analysis followed by GC-MS and ESI-MS/MS, the active compound was identified to be Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Antibacterial potential was evaluated by disk diffusion against E. coli (12.33 ± 0.56 mm inhibition zone) and S. aureus (5.66 ± 1.00 mm inhibition zone). Larvicidal potency was performed against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, where Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate showed 100% mortality at 250 ppm after 72 h with LC50 of 67.03 ppm. Furthermore, after 72 h the acetylcholinesterase inhibition was observed as 29.00, 40.33, 53.00, 64.00, and 75.33 (%) at 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. In comet assay, mean comet tail length (14.18 ± 0.28 µm), tail DNA percent damage (18.23 ± 0.06%), tail movement (14.68 ± 0.56 µm), comet length (20.62 ± 0.64 µm), head length (23.75 ± 0.27 µm), and head DNA percentage (39.19 ± 0.92%) were observed at 250 ppm as compared to the control. The current study for the first time describes the promising antibacterial and larvicidal potential of Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum that would have potential pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Escherichia coli , Extratos Vegetais/química , Larva , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e266219, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383798

RESUMO

The presence and establishment of Culicidae in urban areas increase the transmissibility of tropical diseases, since some species can participate as vectors of pathogens. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the indoor and outdoor abundance of immature and adult populations of Culicidae at the urban area of Porto Velho, Rondônia. Mosquitoes were captured using electric aspirators and ovitraps in September and December 2018 in 27 households spread over nine neighborhoods. A total of 2,342 specimens were collected, distributed among five species, of which Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) were the most abundant. Considering the sum total obtained by both techniques, more mosquitoes were captured indoors than outdoors. However, the GLM estimates for the ovitrap technique showed that immature Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly more abundant in the outdoors, on average. The opposite result was observed for electrical aspiration, in which Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were more abundant indoors. The average number of winged Ae. albopictus showed no significant difference between indoors and outdoors. Our findings corroborate the data on the abundance and incidence of these three species in other regions of Brazil, highlighting the need for continuous surveillance due to their importance in disease transmission to humans. We also demonstrated that the ovitrap is a sensitive device to monitor Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae and wild species that occasionally frequent urban areas, and thus can be used for surveillance, especially when there are budgetary constraints. Therefore, we emphasize that the combination of techniques, in addition to identifying which species and which stage of development are more frequent inside and outside households, also allows for the implementation of specific and integrated control measures.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Humanos , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Brasil , Larva
17.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1300, 2022 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435882

RESUMO

Reproductive diapause serves as biological mechanism for many insects, including the mosquito Culex pipiens, to overwinter in temperate climates. While Cx. pipiens diapause has been well-studied in the laboratory, the timing and environmental signals that promote diapause under natural conditions are less understood. In this study, we examine laboratory, semi-field, and mosquito surveillance data to define the approximate timeline and seasonal conditions that contribute to Cx. pipiens diapause across the United States. While confirming integral roles of temperature and photoperiod in diapause induction, we also demonstrate the influence of latitude, elevation, and mosquito population genetics in shaping Cx. pipiens diapause incidence across the country. Coinciding with the cessation of WNV activity, these data can have important implications for mosquito control, where targeted efforts prior to diapause induction can decrease mosquito populations and WNV overwintering to reduce mosquito-borne disease incidence the following season.


Assuntos
Culex , Diapausa , Animais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Culex/genética , Diapausa/genética , Estações do Ano , Reprodução , Temperatura
18.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366578

RESUMO

A fatal case of Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurred in northern Australia in early 2021. Sequence studies showed that the virus belonged to genotype IV (GIV), a genotype previously believed to be restricted to the Indonesian archipelago. This was the first locally acquired case of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) GIV to occur outside Indonesia, and the second confirmed fatal human case caused by a GIV virus. A closely related GIV JEV strain subsequently caused a widespread outbreak in eastern Australia in 2022 that was first detected by fetal death and abnormalities in commercial piggeries. Forty-two human cases also occurred with seven fatalities. This has been the first major outbreak of JEV in mainland Australia, and geographically the largest virgin soil outbreak recorded for JEV. This outbreak provides an opportunity to discuss and document the factors involved in the virus' spread and its ecology in a novel ecological milieu in which other flaviviruses, including members of the JE serological complex, also occur. The probable vertebrate hosts and mosquito vectors are discussed with respect to virus spread and its possible endemicity in Australia, and the need to develop a One Health approach to develop improved surveillance methods to rapidly detect future outbreak activity across a large geographical area containing a sparse human population. Understanding the spread of JEV in a novel ecological environment is relevant to the possible threat that JEV may pose in the future to other receptive geographic areas, such as the west coast of the United States, southern Europe or Africa.


Assuntos
Culex , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Genótipo , Mosquitos Vetores , Vertebrados
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 420, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimating human exposure to mosquito vectors is crucial for the prediction of malaria transmission and intervention impact. The human landing catch method is frequently used to directly measure estimate exposure rates; however, there has been an increasing shift from this method to exposure-free alternatives, such as the mosquito electrocuting traps (MET) and other approaches. While these latter methods can provide robust and representative values of human exposure and mosquito density, they often still require a human volunteer, which poses logistical challenges. Additionally, in the case of the MET, the early MET prototype (METe) required human volunteers to wear protective clothing that could be uncomfortable. We investigated two alternative trapping approaches to address these challenges by comparing the performance of the METe prototype to: (i) a modified caged MET prototype that offers full protection to users (METc) and (ii) a barrier screen trap (BST) designed to passively sample (host-seeking and blood-fed) mosquitoes outdoors without requiring a human participant. METHODS: The relative performance of the METe, METc and BST were evaluated in a 3 × 3 Latin square field experiment design conducted in south-eastern Tanzania over 12 nights of sampling. The outcomes of interest were the nightly catch of mosquitoes and biting time estimates. RESULTS: The METc and BST caught similar numbers of An. arabiensis as the METe (relative ratio [RR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-1.39, P = 0.38 and RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.63-2.04, P = 0.69, respectively). Similarly, the METc and BST caught similar numbers of Culex spp. as the METe (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.62-1.22, P = 0.42 and RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.57-1.12, P = 0.199, respectively). All three trapping methods indicated a similar pattern of biting activity by An. arabiensis and Culex spp., characterized by biting starting in the early evening (18:00-22:00), peaking when people are typically sleeping (22:00-05:00) and dropping off drastically toward the morning (05:00-07:00). CONCLUSIONS: The modifications made to the METe design to improve user comfort and remove the need for protective clothing did not result in an underestimation of mosquito vector abundance nor misrepresentation of their biting time pattern. We recommend the METc for use over the METe design. Similarly, the BST demonstrated potential for monitoring malaria and filariasis vector densities in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Culex , Filariose , Malária , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Humanos , Tanzânia , Mosquitos Vetores , Malária/prevenção & controle , Fenótipo , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 423, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The common house mosquito Culex pipiens is known to be a major vector for West Nile virus. In order to decrease risks of West Nile virus outbreaks in Europe, insecticides and the bio-larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) are commonly used for vector control. Alarmingly, insecticide resistance has been reported in Cx. pipiens populations from Southern Europe and several countries neighbouring Europe. For Central and Northern Europe, however, the phenotypic insecticide resistance status of Cx. pipiens has not yet been investigated. METHODS: A literature review was performed to assess the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens. To fill the gap of knowledge for Central and Northern Europe, WHO susceptibility tests with permethrin, deltamethrin, malathion, bendiocarb and DDT and a larval toxicity test with Bti were performed with a Cx. pipiens population from Belgium, a country in Central Europe. RESULTS: This research provides the first evidence of widespread phenotypic insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens. In general, Cx. pipiens developed resistance against multiple insecticides in several countries. Another Cx. pipiens population from Belgium was tested and showed insecticide resistance against deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT and possibly against bendiocarb. The bio-larvicide Bti caused lower mortality than reported for other Cx. pipiens populations in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the urgent need for insecticide resistance monitoring against commonly used adulticides and larvicides in Europe, for the translation of knowledge gained regarding the limited efficiency and availability of insecticide into EU legislation and the need for innovative non-chemical vector control tools in order to counter the widespread insecticide resistance in Culex populations.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Culex , Inseticidas , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Permetrina , DDT , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores
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