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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159716, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302419

RESUMO

Anthropogenic stressors on the environment are increasing at unprecedented rates and include urbanization, nutrient pollution, water management, altered land use and climate change. Their effects on disease vectors are poorly understood. A series of full factorial experiments investigated how key human induced abiotic pressures, and interactions between these, affect population parameters of the cosmopolitan disease vector, Culex pipiens s.l. Selected pressures include eutrophication, salinity, mean temperature, and temperature fluctuation. Data were collected for each individual pressure and for potential interactions between eutrophication, salinization and temperature. All experiments assessed survival, time to pupation, time to emergence, sex-ratio and ovipositioning behavior. The results show that stressors affect vector survival, may speed up development and alter female to male ratio, although large differences between stressors exist to quite different extents. While positive effects of increasing levels of eutrophication on survival were consistent, negative effects of salinity on survival were only apparent at higher temperatures, thus indicating a strong interaction effect between salinization and temperature. Temperature had no independent effect on larval survival. Overall, increasing eutrophication and temperatures, and the fluctuations thereof, lowered development rate, time to pupation and time to emergence while increasing levels of salinity increased development time. Higher levels of eutrophication positively impacted egg-laying behavior; the reverse was found for salinity while no effects of temperature on egg-laying behavior were observed. Results suggest large and positive impacts of anthropogenically induced habitat alterations on mosquito population dynamics. Many of these effects are exacerbated by increasing temperatures and fluctuations therein. In a world where eutrophication and salinization are increasingly abundant, mosquitoes are likely important benefactors. Ultimately, this study illustrates the importance of including multiple and combined stressors in predictive models as well as in prevention and mitigation strategies, particularly because they resonate with possible, but yet underdeveloped action plans.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Eutrofização , Larva , Temperatura
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.


Assuntos
Animais , Culicidae , Paquistão , Estações do Ano , Ecossistema , Ecologia
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2585: 157-169, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331773

RESUMO

Arboviral surveillance is a critical step in any effective mosquito control program. Surveillance aids in the early detection of pathogen transmission as well as establishes a baseline of transmission activity. Two of the most practical forms of arboviral surveillance is through the use of testing mosquito pools for the presence of pathogen and screening sentinel chickens for pathogen exposure. This chapter describes the process for each of these methods for West Nile virus.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Galinhas , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2585: 171-191, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331774

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world and endemic to much of the United States. Its range continues to expand as land use patterns change, creating more habitable environments for the mosquito vector. Though WNV is endemic, the year-to-year risk is highly variable, thus making it difficult to understand the risk for human spillover events. Abatement districts monitor for infected mosquitoes to help understand these potential risks and to help guide our understanding of the risk posed by these observed infected mosquitoes. Creating optimal monitoring networks will provide more informed decision-making tools for abatement districts and policy makers. Investment in these monitoring networks that capture robust observations on mosquito infection rates will allow for environmentally informed inference systems to help guide decision-making and WNV risk. In turn, enhanced decision-making tools allow for faster response times of more targeted and economical surveillance and mosquito population reduction efforts and the overall reduction of WNV transmission. Here we discuss the data streams, their processing, and specifically three ways to calculate WNV infection rates in mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2585: 211-225, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331777

RESUMO

Since its discovery in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda, West Nile virus (WNV) has been one of the leading causes of mosquito-transmitted infectious diseases (Smithburn, Burke, Am J Trop Med 20:22, 1940). Subsequently, it spread to Europe, Asia, Australia, and finally North America in 1999 (Sejvar, Ochsner 5(3):6-10, 2003). Worldwide outbreaks have continued to increase since the 1990s (Chancey et al, Biomed Res Int 2015:376230, 2015). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 51,000 cases of WNV infection and nearly 2400 cases of WNV-related death were reported in the USA from 1999 to 2019. The estimated economic impact of WNV infections is close to 800 million dollars in the USA from 1999 to 2012 (Barrett, Am J Trop Med Hyg 90:389, 2014).


Assuntos
Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Anticorpos
6.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106720, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288768

RESUMO

West Nile virus is perhaps the widest distributed arbovirus globally, being maintained in nature by transmission among ornithophagic Culex mosquitoes and a wide-variety of birds. A factor contributing to the success of the WNV invasion is the ability of the virus to successfully overwinter. Experimental studies on the preservation and transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens pallens under simulated overwintering conditions have shown that Cx. p. pallens has a preservative effect on West Nile virus under low-temperature conditions. After the temperature rises, the virus reproduces rapidly and can spread to susceptible animals while the mosquitos feed on blood. This research is of great significance for exploring how West Nile virus enters new areas and how the cycle of transmission is maintained China.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Estações do Ano
7.
Malar J ; 21(1): 363, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of insecticide-treated bed nets has been proven to be effective in reducing malaria transmission in highly endemic areas. Use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has been embraced by many malaria endemic countries. LLINs are up to 95% effective in inhibiting blood feeding, when used consistently even after 7 years. The challenge, however, is enhancing their consistent use, especially by the most vulnerable groups (children under 5 years and pregnant women). The study established factors associated with consistent use of bed nets for malaria control among children under 5 years in Soroti district. METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional design, with multi-stage sampling of households. A total of 400 households (HH) were sampled and the HH head in each household interviewed. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with 7 key informants who were knowledgeable on the subject matter. Data analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 at Univariate, Bivariate and Multivariable levels; after entry and cleaning. Key informants' data were summarized manually; verbatim quotes and text used to reinforce quantitative data in line with objectives. RESULTS: Only 56.8% of the 690 children under 5 years used bed nets consistently. The factors affecting consistent bed net use were age of the child, their use of bed nets the previous night, occupation of caretaker, respondents' perceived susceptibility, perceived risk of getting malaria, size and shape of the bed nets. Rectangular nets were difficult to hang daily in huts according to most key informants. CONCLUSION: Consistent bed net use among under fives is still below the RBM target of 85% by 2015 and can be enhanced by providing conical bed nets and setting aside a health education programme to emphasize the effectiveness of even one mosquito in spreading malaria at night to the entire household and ability of bed nets to stop transmission better than other methods.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Gravidez , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Uganda , Malária/prevenção & controle
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7465, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463257

RESUMO

Morphogenesis of many protozoans depends on a polarized establishment of cortical cytoskeleton containing the subpellicular microtubules (SPMTs), which are apically nucleated and anchored by the apical polar ring (APR). In malaria parasite Plasmodium, APR emerges in the host-invading stages, including the ookinete for mosquito infection. So far, the fine structure and molecular components of APR as well as the underlying mechanism of APR-mediated apical positioning of SPMTs are largely unknown. Here, we resolve an unprecedented APR structure composed of a top ring plus approximate 60 radiating spines. We report an APR-localizing and SPMT-binding protein APR2. APR2 disruption impairs ookinete morphogenesis and gliding motility, leading to Plasmodium transmission failure in mosquitoes. The APR2-deficient ookinetes display defective apical anchorage of APR and SPMT due to the impaired integrity of APR. Using protein proximity labeling, we obtain a Plasmodium ookinete APR proteome and validate ten undescribed APR proteins. Among them, APRp2 and APRp4 directly interact with APR2 and also mediate the apical anchorage of SPMTs. This study sheds light on the molecular basis of APR in the organization of Plasmodium ookinete SPMTs.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Malária , Animais , Microtúbulos , Citoesqueleto , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Malar J ; 21(1): 362, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cambodia has made significant progress towards achieving malaria elimination by 2025. Cases continue to decrease and are primarily concentrated in forested areas. Forest-goers are most at risk of malaria due to their proximity to the forest, poor sleeping conditions, frequent mobility, and distance from health services. Consistent use of long-lasting insecticidal nets or hammock nets (LLINs/LLIHNs), early diagnosis and treatment of cases are central to reducing disease burden. The aim of this study was to understand forest-goers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to malaria prevention and care-seeking, and to identify key behavioural determinants of LLIN/LLIHN use and prompt care-seeking within 24 h of developing a fever. METHODS: A mixed-methods study design consisting of a cross-sectional survey and qualitative in-depth interviews was implemented in two Cambodian provinces. Survey participants (N = 654) were recruited using respondent driven sampling. Interview participants (N = 28) were selected using purposive sampling. Findings from the survey were analysed using univariate and bivariate analysis and multivariate weighted logistic regression. Interviews were coded and analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: All study participants had heard of malaria and 98% knew that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes. LLIN/LLIHN ownership was high (94%). Although 99% of participants perceived LLIN/LLIHN use as an important malaria prevention measure, only 76% reported using one during their last visit to the forest. Only 39% of survey participants who reported seeking care did so within the recommended 24 h from fever onset during their last febrile illness. Among all study participants, 43% did not seek any healthcare during their last febrile episode. In controlled regression models, perceived community social norms were significantly associated with LLIN/LLIHN use (OR: 2.7, 96% CI 1.99-2.64) and care-seeking within 24 h of fever onset (OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.00-2.88). Social support from other forest-goers was also significantly associated with LLIN/LLIHN use (OR: 4.9, 95% CI 1.32-18.12). CONCLUSIONS: Study findings are consistent with other studies on LLIN/LLIHN use and care-seeking behaviours. While rates of LLIN/LLIHN ownership were high among the study population, rates of use were not as high. More concerning were the delayed care-seeking behaviours. Social behaviour change activities should incorporate social norms and social support as mechanisms for behaviour change given the identified positive correlations with LLIN/LLIHN use and prompt care-seeking.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Malária , Animais , Humanos , Camboja , Estudos Transversais , Malária/prevenção & controle , Florestas , Febre
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277237, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355844

RESUMO

Females of container-breeding mosquito species use visual and chemical cues to determine suitable habitats to oviposit their eggs. Female Culex mosquitoes oviposit single egg rafts containing hundreds of eggs on the surface of water in container habitats. In this project, the effects of water volume and nutrient concentration were studied using three semi-controlled field assays to determine the role these parameters play on female Culex mosquito oviposition preference. The results of this study suggest female Culex prefer to oviposit in larger volumes of water and higher concentrations of nutrients separately, but chose intermediate conditions when presented with a combination of these two variables, which follows the Goldilocks principle. This choice may provide their offspring with optimal conditions for development by reducing intraspecific competition, thereby maximizing the biological fitness of the ovipositing Culex females.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Culex , Culicidae , Feminino , Animais , Água/farmacologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Oviposição , Nutrientes
11.
Malar J ; 21(1): 349, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) play a key role in reducing malaria transmission in endemic countries. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated a substantial decrease in the bioefficacy of LLINs for malaria prevention delivered to Papua New Guinea (PNG) between 2013 and 2019. This coincided with a rise in malaria cases in the country. The present study was aimed at determining the underlying cause of the reduced bioefficacy observed in these LLINs. The main hypothesis was that a change in the coating formulation of the respective LLIN product was responsible, and had led to significantly altered product properties and performance. METHODS: A set of PermaNet® 2.0 LLIN samples (n = 12) manufactured between 2007 and 2019 was subjected to combustion ion chromatography in order to understand the chemistry of the LLIN polymer coating formulation. In addition, World Health Organization (WHO) LLIN standard wash tests and cone bioassays were conducted to further characterize the change in product performance that occurred between 2012 and 2013. RESULTS: High polymer fluorine content (average 3.2 g/kg) was measured in PermaNet® 2.0 manufactured up to 2012, whereas nets which were manufactured after 2012 contained very little polymer fluorine (average 0.04 g/kg) indicating a coating formulation change from a fluorocarbon (FC)-based to a non-FC-based formulation. The coating formulation change as part of the manufacturing process thus resulted in a significant reduction in bioefficacy. In addition, the manufacturing change affected wash resistance leading to a faster reduction in 24 h mosquito mortality in the non-FC-coated product with consecutive washes. CONCLUSION: A change in coating formulation of PermaNet® 2.0 resulted in reduced product performance in PNG. Post-2012 PermaNet® 2.0 LLINs should not be considered to be the same product as PermaNet® 2.0 LLINs produced prior to and in 2012. Coating formulation changes should be validated to not impact LLIN product performance.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Fluorcarbonetos , Inseticidas , Animais , Papua Nova Guiné , Flúor , Polímeros
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(11): e0010868, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community presence of loiasis must be determined before mass drug administration programmes for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis can be implemented. However, taking human blood samples for loiasis surveillance is invasive and operationally challenging. A xenosurveillance approach based on the molecular screening of mosquitoes and their excreta/feces (E/F) for Loa loa DNA may provide a non-invasive method for detecting the community presence of loiasis. METHODS: We collected 770 wild mosquitoes during a pilot study in a known loiasis transmission area in Mbalmayo, Cameroon. Of these, 376 were preserved immediately while 394 were kept in pools to collect 36-hour E/F samples before processing. Carcasses and E/F were screened for L. loa DNA. To demonstrate this method's potential for integrated disease surveillance, the samples were further tested for Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans, and Plasmodium falciparum. RESULTS: Despite limited sample numbers, L. loa DNA was detected in eight immediately-stored mosquitoes (2.13%; 95% CI 1.08 to 4.14), one carcass stored after providing E/F (0.25%; 95% CI 0.04 to 1.42), and three E/F samples (estimated prevalence 0.77%; 95% CI 0.15 to 2.23%). M. perstans and P. falciparum DNA were also detected in carcasses and E/F samples, while W. bancrofti DNA was detected in E/F. None of the carcasses positive for filarial worm DNA came from pools that provided a positive E/F sample, supporting the theory that, in incompetent vectors, ingested parasites undergo a rapid, complete expulsion in E/F. CONCLUSIONS: Mosquito xenosurveillance may provide a useful tool for the surveillance of loiasis alongside other parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Loíase , Malária Falciparum , Animais , Humanos , Loa/genética , Mansonella , Wuchereria bancrofti/genética , Loíase/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Projetos Piloto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Fezes
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19946, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402904

RESUMO

We extend a previously developed epidemiological model for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans in Greece, employing laboratory-confirmed WNV cases and mosquito-specific characteristics of transmission, such as host selection and temperature-dependent transmission of the virus. Host selection was defined by bird host selection and human host selection, the latter accounting only for the fraction of humans that develop symptoms after the virus is acquired. To model the role of temperature on virus transmission, we considered five temperature intervals (≤ 19.25 °C; > 19.25 and < 21.75 °C; ≥ 21.75 and < 24.25 °C; ≥ 24.25 and < 26.75 °C; and > 26.75 °C). The capacity of the new model to fit human cases and the week of first case occurrence was compared with the original model and showed improved performance. The model was also used to infer further quantities of interest, such as the force of infection for different temperatures as well as mosquito and bird abundances. Our results indicate that the inclusion of mosquito-specific characteristics in epidemiological models of mosquito-borne diseases leads to improved modelling capacity.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Temperatura , Modelos Epidemiológicos , Mosquitos Vetores , Aves
14.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(10): 911-921, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404745

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Diseases caused by microbes vectored by mosquitoes are still a health problem in tropical countries today. DHF and Malaria are the two primary diseases vectored by mosquitoes, the morbidity and mortality rates have increased in low countries until now. However, the best way to control these two diseases is to control vectors, namely mosquitoes. Research has been conducted to determine the bioactive content and larvicidal activity of local plant extracts of North Sulawesi. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The clove and trumpet flower samples were obtained from Minahasa, while the nutmeg samples were obtained from Sitaro Regency. Empirically, people use plant parts to repel mosquitoes. Extraction of plant simplicia was carried out by the maceration method. Qualitative and quantitative methods carried out the phytochemical content analysis. Qualitative analysis uses Harborne's (1996) method while qualitative analysis uses the UV Vis Spectrophotometer method. Toxicity tests were carried out on mosquito larvae developed in the laboratory. <b>Results:</b> The results showed that combining clove leaf extract, nutmeg flesh extract and trumpet flower synergistically increased the bioactive content. Flavonoids increased in the combination of extracts compared to partial extracts. The combination of extracts showed the highest toxicity to mosquito larvae (LC<sub>50</sub>: 22.541 mg L<sup>1</sup>), while the lowest was the partial extract of clove leaves with LC<sub>50</sub> (54.965 mg L<sup>1</sup>). <b>Conclusion:</b> The combination of extracts showed the best toxicity activity on mosquito larvae. Research on bioactive characteristics and toxicity in adult mosquitoes needs to be carried out in the future.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Inseticidas , Humanos , Animais , Indonésia , Inseticidas/análise , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360289

RESUMO

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are found widely throughout the world. Several species can transmit pathogens to humans and other vertebrates. Mosquitoes harbor great amounts of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The bacterial composition of the microbiota of these invertebrates is associated with several factors, such as larval habitat, environment, and species. Yet little is known about bacterial interaction networks in mosquitoes. This study investigates the bacterial communities of eight species of Culicidae collected in Vale do Ribeira (Southeastern São Paulo State) and verifies the bacterial interaction network in these species. Sequences of the 16S rRNA region from 111 mosquito samples were analyzed. Bacterial interaction networks were generated from Spearman correlation values. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in all species. Wolbachia was the predominant genus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus. Aedes scapularis, Aedes serratus, Psorophora ferox, and Haemagogus capricornii were the species that showed a greater number of bacterial interactions. Bacterial positive interactions were found in all mosquito species, whereas negative correlations were observed in Hg. leucocelaenus, Ae. scapularis, Ae. serratus, Ps. ferox, and Hg. capricornii. All bacterial interactions with Asaia and Wolbachia were negative in Aedes mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Mercúrio , Microbiota , Wolbachia , Humanos , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Brasil , Culicidae/genética , Bactérias/genética , Wolbachia/genética , Microbiota/genética
16.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366489

RESUMO

Understanding the interaction between viruses and ecosystems in areas with or without anthropic interference can contribute to the organization of public health services, as well as prevention and disease control. An arbovirus survey was conducted at Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil, where 632 local residents, 338 vertebrates and 15,774 pools of hematophagous arthropods were investigated. Neutralization antibodies of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, subtype IIIA, Mucambo virus (MUCV) were detected in 57.3% and 61.5% of humans and wild vertebrates, respectively; in addition, genomic fragments of MUCV were detected in pool of Uranotaenia (Ura.) geometrica. The obtained data suggest an enzootic circulation of MUCV in the area. Understanding the circulation of endemic and neglected arboviruses, such as MUCV, represents an important health problem for the local residents and for the people living in the nearby urban centers.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Arbovírus , Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Vertebrados
17.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423175

RESUMO

A lipid bilayer produced from the host membrane makes up around 20% of the weight of the dengue virus (DENV) virion and is crucial for virus entry. Despite its significance, the virion's lipid composition is still poorly understood. In tandem with lipid profiles of the cells utilised to generate the virions, this work determined a partial lipid profile of DENV virions derived from two cell lines (C6/36 and LLC-MK2). The results showed distinctive profiles between the two cell types. In the mammalian LLC-MK2 cells, 30.8% (73/237 identified lipid species; 31 upregulated, 42 downregulated) of lipid species were altered in response to infection, whilst in insect C6/36 cells only 12.0% (25/208; 19 upregulated, 6 downregulated) of lipid species showed alterations in response to infection. For virions from LLC-MK2 cells, 14 lipids were detected specifically in virions with a further seven lipids being enriched (over mock controls). For virions from C6/36 cells, 43 lipids were detected that were not seen in mock preparations, with a further 16 being specifically enriched (over mock control). These results provide the first lipid description of DENV virions produced in mammalian and mosquito cells, as well as the lipid changes in the corresponding infected cells.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Vírus da Dengue , Animais , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Vírion/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mamíferos
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD008923, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Larval source management (LSM) may help reduce Plasmodium parasite transmission in malaria-endemic areas. LSM approaches include habitat modification (permanently or temporarily reducing mosquito breeding aquatic habitats); habitat manipulation (temporary or recurrent change to environment); or use of chemical (e.g. larviciding) or biological agents (e.g. natural predators) to breeding sites. We examined the effectiveness of habitat modification or manipulation (or both), with and without larviciding. This is an update of a review published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: 1. To describe and summarize the interventions on mosquito aquatic habitat modification or mosquito aquatic habitat manipulation, or both, on malaria control. 2. To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of mosquito aquatic habitat modification or mosquito aquatic habitat manipulation, or both, on malaria control. SEARCH METHODS: We used standard, extensive Cochrane search methods. The latest search was from January 2012 to 30 November 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized intervention studies comparing mosquito aquatic habitat modification or manipulation (or both) to no treatment or another active intervention. We also included uncontrolled before-after (BA) studies, but only described and summarized the interventions from studies with these designs. Primary outcomes were clinical malaria incidence, malaria parasite prevalence, and malaria parasitaemia incidence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB 2 tool for RCTs and the ROBINS-I tool for non-randomized intervention studies. We used a narrative synthesis approach to systematically describe and summarize all the interventions included within the review, categorized by the type of intervention (habitat modification, habitat manipulation, combination of habitat modification and manipulation). Our primary outcomes were 1. clinical malaria incidence; 2. malaria parasite prevalence; and 3. malaria parasitaemia incidence. Our secondary outcomes were 1. incidence of severe malaria; 2. anaemia prevalence; 3. mean haemoglobin levels; 4. mortality rate due to malaria; 5. hospital admissions for malaria; 6. density of immature mosquitoes; 7. density of adult mosquitoes; 8. sporozoite rate; 9. entomological inoculation rate; and 10. HARMS: We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence for each type of intervention. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Six used an RCT design, six used a controlled before-after (CBA) study design, three used a non-randomized controlled design, and one used an uncontrolled BA study design. Eleven studies were conducted in Africa and five in Asia. Five studies reported epidemiological outcomes and 15 studies reported entomological outcomes. None of the included studies reported on the environmental impacts associated with the intervention. For risk of bias, all trials had some concerns and other designs ranging from moderate to critical. Ten studies assessed habitat manipulation (temporary change to the environment). This included water management (spillways across streams; floodgates; intermittent flooding; different drawdown rates of water; different flooding and draining regimens), shading management (shading of drainage channels with different plants), other/combined management approaches (minimal tillage; disturbance of aquatic habitats with grass clearing and water replenishment), which showed mixed results for entomological outcomes. Spillways across streams, faster drawdown rates of water, shading drainage canals with Napier grass, and using minimal tillage may reduce the density of immature mosquitoes (range of effects from 95% reduction to 1.7 times increase; low-certainty evidence), and spillways across streams may reduce densities of adult mosquitoes compared to no intervention (low-certainty evidence). However, the effect of habitat manipulation on malaria parasite prevalence and clinical malaria incidence is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence). Two studies assessed habitat manipulation with larviciding. This included reducing or removal of habitat sites; and drain cleaning, grass cutting, and minor repairs. It is uncertain whether drain cleaning, grass cutting, and minor repairs reduces malaria parasite prevalence compared to no intervention (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 0.83; very low-certainty evidence). Two studies assessed combination of habitat manipulation and permanent change (habitat modification). This included drainage canals, filling, and planting of papyrus and other reeds for shading near dams; and drainage of canals, removal of debris, land levelling, and filling ditches. Studies did not report on epidemiological outcomes, but entomological outcomes suggest that such activities may reduce the density of adult mosquitoes compared to no intervention (relative risk reduction 0.49, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.50; low-certainty evidence), and preventing water stagnating using drainage of canals, removal of debris, land levelling, and filling ditches may reduce the density of immature mosquitoes compared to no intervention (ranged from 10% to 55% reductions; low-certainty evidence). Three studies assessed combining manipulation and modification with larviciding. This included filling or drainage of water bodies; filling, draining, or elimination of rain pools and puddles at water supply points and stream bed pools; and shoreline work, improvement and maintenance to drainage, clearing vegetation and undergrowth, and filling pools. There were mixed effect sizes for the reduction of entomological outcomes (moderate-certainty evidence). However, filling or draining water bodies probably makes little or no difference to malaria parasite prevalence, haemoglobin levels, or entomological inoculation rate when delivered with larviciding compared to no intervention (moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Habitat modification and manipulation interventions for preventing malaria has some indication of benefit in both epidemiological and entomological outcomes. While the data are quite mixed and further studies could help improve the knowledge base, these varied approaches may be useful in some circumstances.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Malária , Humanos , Adulto , Animais , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Larva , Ecossistema , Água , Hemoglobinas
19.
PLoS Biol ; 20(11): e3001870, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378688

RESUMO

Bunyaviruses lack a specific mechanism to ensure the incorporation of a complete set of genome segments into each virion, explaining the generation of incomplete virus particles lacking one or more genome segments. Such incomplete virus particles, which may represent the majority of particles produced, are generally considered to interfere with virus infection and spread. Using the three-segmented arthropod-borne Rift Valley fever virus as a model bunyavirus, we here show that two distinct incomplete virus particle populations unable to spread autonomously are able to efficiently complement each other in both mammalian and insect cells following co-infection. We further show that complementing incomplete virus particles can co-infect mosquitoes, resulting in the reconstitution of infectious virus that is able to disseminate to the mosquito salivary glands. Computational models of infection dynamics predict that incomplete virus particles can positively impact virus spread over a wide range of conditions, with the strongest effect at intermediate multiplicities of infection. Our findings suggest that incomplete particles may play a significant role in within-host spread and between-host transmission, reminiscent of the infection cycle of multipartite viruses.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Culicidae , Orthobunyavirus , Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Mamíferos
20.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(11): 1587, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323844

Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais
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