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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548


Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.

Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.

Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677578


In the current study, bighead carp fish were used in conjunction with the flavourzyme enzyme to obtain (FPH) fish protein hydrolysates. The optimum conditions of the hydrolysis process included an enzyme/substrate ratio of 4% and a temperature of 50 °C and pH of 6.5. The hydrolysis time was studied and investigated at 1, 3, and 6 h, and the (DH) degree of hydrolysis was recorded at 16.56%, 22.23%, and 25.48%, respectively. The greatest yield value was 17.83% at DH 25.48%. By increasing the DH up to 25.48%, the crude protein and total amino acid composition of the hydrolysate were 88.19% and 86.03%, respectively. Moreover, more peptides with low molecular weight were formed during hydrolysis, which could enhance the functional properties of FPH, particularly the solubility property ranging from 85% to 97%. FTIR analysis revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis impacted the protein's secondary structure, as indicated by a remarkable wavelength of amide bands. Additionally, antioxidant activities were investigated and showed high activity of DDPH radical scavenging, and hydroxyl radical scavenging demonstrated remarkable activity. The current findings demonstrate that the functional, structural, and antioxidant characteristics of FPH might make it an excellent source of protein and suggest potential applications in the food industry.

Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Hidrólise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Carpas/metabolismo
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674975


Aquatic animals are increasingly challenged by O2 fluctuations as a result of global warming, as well as eutrophication processes. Teleost fish show important species-specific adaptability to O2 deprivation, moving from intolerance to a full tolerance of hypoxia and even anoxia. An example is provided by members of Cyprinidae which includes species that are amongst the most tolerant hypoxia/anoxia teleosts. Living at low water O2 requires the mandatory preservation of the cardiac function to support the metabolic and hemodynamic requirements of organ and tissues which sustain whole organism performance. A number of orchestrated events, from metabolism to behavior, converge to shape the heart response to the restricted availability of the gas, also limiting the potential damages for cells and tissues. In cyprinids, the heart is extraordinarily able to activate peculiar strategies of functional preservation. Accordingly, by using these teleosts as models of tolerance to low O2, we will synthesize and discuss literature data to describe the functional changes, and the major molecular events that allow the heart of these fish to sustain adaptability to O2 deprivation. By crossing the boundaries of basic research and environmental physiology, this information may be of interest also in a translational perspective, and in the context of conservative physiology, in which the output of the research is applicable to environmental management and decision making.

Cyprinidae , Hipóxia , Animais , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Coração , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
Food Res Int ; 163: 112149, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596101


Fishes are highly perishable, mainly stored and transported under frozen condition; however, they are mainly preferred as fresh or in chilled form for consumption because frozen storage compromises the texture quality and other sensory attributes. Shelf-life enhancement of rohu and seer fish steaks was studied using combination of ajwain extract (various concentrations) and γ-irradiation (various doses) under chilled storage (4 °C). These were analyzed periodically by microbiological, sensory, color and biochemical analyses during storage. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed thymol as major component. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of nine phenolic compounds including thymol in ajwain extract. The best result was achieved when samples were dipped in 10 % ajwain extract with 2 kGy gamma irradiation dose. An extended shelf-life of 5 and 10 days in case of rohu and seer fish steaks were attained respectively using this combination. These results were confirmed by microbial, biochemical and sensory analyses. The present study thus promises potential application of the above protocol in fishery industry for good quality of fish and commercial benefits.

Ammi , Apiaceae , Cyprinidae , Perciformes , Animais , Timol , Extratos Vegetais , Expectativa de Vida
Braz J Biol ; 84: e263540, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629637


This study was investigated to assess the effects of different traditional and commercial aqua feed on proximate composition, growth performance and survival rate of Labeo rohita reared in the composite semi-intensive culture system. The aqua feeds of various companies (AMG, Supreme, Aqua, Star Floating, Hi-Pro and Punjab feed) used as commercial feed. Farm made feeds were maize gluten and rice polish. For confidentiality, these feeds were randomly given code labels T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8 which were only known to investigating staffs. There were two replicates for each treatment. In this experiment, higher growth rate was observed in T3 as compared to other treatments. Lesser weight gain was observed in the T1 ( 270.30 ± 0.5 ). The maximum body length ( 19.25 ± 2.19) was found in T3. Similarly, the minimum body length (5.97 ± 2.94) was seen in T2. FCR ratio (2.36 ± 0.01 ) was recorded in T3. Simultaneously, FCR (1.86 ± 0.002 ) was also recorded in T4 that is the perfect ratio for farmers. Higher SGR was noted in T3 (1.62 ± 0.05 ). Overall, T4 showed lesser SGR (1.05 ± 0.001 ). T4 showed the higher crude protein ( 28.66 ± 0.24 % ). In the body composition higher level of fat content was recorded in T3 ( 5.46 ± 0.33 %). These outcomes also proved that the rise in the dietary protein level and lipid content can improve the fish's body crude fats and protein level. Thus, based on growth performance, survival and proximate composition. It is concluded that T3 and T4 may be recommended for commercial culture of L. rohita.

Cyprinidae , Dieta , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
Zool Res ; 44(2): 259-268, 2023 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650065


Reproductive strategies and spawning habits play key roles in the evolution of endemic East Asian cyprinids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of spawning habits are not well understood. We recently identified zona pellucida (Zp) as the top differentially expressed protein between East Asian cyprinids that produce adhesive and semi-buoyant eggs, suggesting that Zp protein may play important roles in the regulation of egg type. In this work, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which oocyte-specific expression of zp genes from rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), an East Asian cyprinid laying adhesive eggs, was driven by a zebrafish zp3.2 gene promoter. We found that the transgenic eggs obtained partial adhesiveness and exhibited alteration in hydration and buoyancy. Abnormal metabolism of vitellogenin (VTG) may contribute to enhanced hydration and/or buoyancy. Our work shows that expression of the exogenous zp3a gene from an adhesive-egg producing fish is sufficient to induce changes in both egg adhesiveness and buoyancy in zebrafish, emphasizing the important role of zp genes in the regulation of spawning habits. Our results thus provide new insights into how endemic East Asian cyprinids may have adapted to the Yangtze river-lake system via changes in spawning habits.

Cyprinidae , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/genética , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Adesividade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética
Food Chem ; 409: 135279, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603476


This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxyl radical oxidizing system (HROS) and endogenous oxidizing system (EOS, i.e., frozen storage at -20 °C) on protein oxidation, digestive properties, and peptide modification of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) fillets. The oxidation degree increased with the frozen time and H2O2 concentration as evidenced by carbonyl group generation and sulfhydryl group loss in MPs. The digestibility of protein declined gradually during frozen storage, while it increased after treatment with 5 mM H2O2 compared with no H2O2 intervention. More modification numbers and types were observed in the EOS group than HROS in digested MPs peptides, which might be due to the complexity of the frozen fillet system such as the presence of lipid. The potential conversion of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) to α-aminoadipic acids (AAA) was observed in HROS. Additionally, the myosin heavy chain was more susceptible to oxidation among all MPs by EOS oxidation.

Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Radical Hidroxila , Oxirredução , Congelamento
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242922, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350302


Abstract Seven hundred and twenty four fish specimens were captured from March to September 2016. The materials used in the current study were cast nets, hand nets. Eight cyprinid fish species were studied for their length-weight relationships. Parameter b in the LWR was 3.03, 3.06, 3.02, 2.29, 2.82, 3.43, 2.73 and 2.47 for Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto and Arassius auratus respectively. Current study is the first attempt on the LWRs of cyprinid species, provide a baseline approach for conservation and /management of local fish fauna of economic importance.

Resumo Um total de 724 espécimes de peixes foi capturado de março a setembro de 2016. Os materiais usados ​​no presente estudo foram redes de lançamento, redes de mão. Oito espécies de peixes ciprinídeos foram estudadas quanto às suas relações peso/comprimento. O parâmetro b no LWR foi 3,03, 3,06, 3,02, 2,29, 2,82, 3,43, 2,73 e 2,47 para Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto e Arassius auratus respectivamente. O estudo atual é a primeira tentativa sobre os LWRs de espécies de ciprinídeos, fornecendo uma abordagem de base para a conservação e o manejo da ictiofauna local de importância econômica.

Animais , Cyprinidae , Rios , Paquistão
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249422, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339393


Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.

Resumo O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.

Animais , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Aminoácidos
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247791, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285637


Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.

Resumo O crescimento do setor de aquicultura é fortemente dependente do fornecimento contínuo de rações baratas para peixes com perfil nutricional equilibrado. Porém, a farinha de peixe (FM) não consegue atender a essa demanda devido à sua escassa oferta e alto custo. Com o objetivo de testar o potencial da farinha de semente de canola (MSC) como substituto da farinha de peixe, um ensaio alimentar de 12 semanas foi conduzido para verificar o desempenho de crescimento e a composição centesimal de alevinos de Labeo rohita. A ração de proteína da ração teste foi satisfeita substituindo FM por CSM em 0, 25, 50 e 75%. Dezesseis dietas de teste, viz., TD1 (controle), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 e TD16 foram suplementadas com ácido cítrico (CA; 0 e 2,5%) e fitase (PHY; 0 e 750 FTU / kg) em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. O maior ganho de peso (11,03g), % de ganho de peso (249,21%), taxa de crescimento específico (1,39) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (1,20) foram registrados por peixes alimentados com TD12. Além disso, o mesmo nível aumentou a proteína bruta (59,26%) e a gordura (16,04%), sendo significativamente diferente (p <0,05) do controle. Conclusivamente, a adição de fitase acidificada (CA; 2,5%, PHY; 750 FTU / kg) em TD12 (CSM = 50%) levou a um melhor crescimento e composição próxima de alevinos de L. rohita.

Animais , Cyprinidae , 6-Fitase , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285634


Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.

Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.

Animais , Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243975, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285629


Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.

Resumo No sul e sudeste da Ásia, três gêneros de espécies de peixes, ou seja, Tor, Neolissochilus e Naziritor, são comumente conhecidos como Mahseer com pelo menos 47 espécies. Entre estas, 23 pertencem ao gênero Tor, 22 a Neolissochilus e um a Naziritor, ou seja, Naziritor zhobensis. Recentemente, outra espécie adicionada ao gênero Naziritor é Naziritor chelynoides na Índia. Entre as espécies de Tor, Tor putitora (Hamilton) é o Mahseer mais amplamente distribuído no Paquistão e em outros países do subcontinente indiano. No entanto, com base apenas em caracteres morfológicos, alguns autores identificam as contrapartes paquistanesas como Tor macrolepis (Heckel) (uma espécie que se presume ser encontrada exclusivamente no sistema do rio Indo), distinta de Tor putitora (uma espécie encontrada no sistema do rio Ganga Brahmaputra). A fim de resolver essas ambiguidades taxonômicas, o presente estudo realizou medidas merísticas e morfométricas de Mahseer coletadas em um total de 11 corpos d'água do Paquistão. As razões entre os caracteres morfométricos foram calculadas e analisadas estatisticamente usando o teste t e o coeficiente de correlação. Duas espécies identificadas como Tor putitora e Naziritor zhobensis foram os únicos habitantes Mahseer do sistema fluvial Indo no Paquistão. Tor putitora ocorreu em todos os locais pesquisados, enquanto Nazirtor zhobensis tinha uma faixa de distribuição do rio Zhob aos afluentes do rio Gomal, afluentes da margem direita do rio Indo. O estudo corrobora que não há sinapomorfias morfológicas inequívocas em nenhuma das populações existentes de ambas as espécies. O estudo demonstra ainda que o comprimento da cabeça, um caractere frequentemente usado na taxonomia de Mahseer, não é boa medida para identificação das espécies. Finalmente, o presente estudo estabelece que Naziritor zhobensis ainda existe nos corpos d'água do Paquistão e que o Mahseer dourado ocorrendo no sistema fluvial Indo do Paquistão é Tor putitora.

Animais , Cyprinidae , Paquistão , Índia
J Environ Radioact ; 257: 107092, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535220


Accumulation of dietary 241Am in freshwater omnivorous fish (Carassius gibelio) was studied aiming to estimate the distribution and retention of 241Am in the fish body. Amphipods labeled with 241Am served as a food item. From 0.4 to 0.6% of ingested 241Am was retained in the fish body after short courses of feeding and depuration, the trophic transfer factor of 241Am for whole organism level was about 2∙10-4.

Amerício , Anfípodes , Cyprinidae , Monitoramento de Radiação , Animais , Amerício/análise , Amerício/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar
J Fish Biol ; 100(1): 10-14, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547104


Interspecies hybrids have long been studied to further understanding of speciation. Reciprocal crosses sometimes have asymmetric viability, a phenomenon termed 'Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule'. It has been proposed that this asymmetry is caused by Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities between nuclear genes and cytoplasmic factors (e.g., maternal transcripts, mitochondrial genome). The molecular basis of this hypothesis has received little empirical investigation, presumably due to the lack of an appropriate model system. We report a case of extreme asymmetry in viability between reciprocal hybrids of zebrafish Danio rerio and pearl danio Danio albolineatus. Hybrids from D. rerio females × D. albolineatus males (n = 4 crosses) were viable, with 83.2 ± 9.6% surviving from fertilization to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) and 80.1 ± 14.4% surviving from 5 to 21 dpf. Hybrids from D. albolineatus females × D. rerio males (n = 6 crosses) were inviable after embryonic development. These hybrids developed pericardial oedema at 1 dpf and only 37.2 ± 18.0% survived from fertilization to 5 dpf. Of the 595 larvae alive at 5 dpf, only one juvenile with stunted growth survived to 21 dpf. We propose that given the resources available for the D. rerio model system and the strong asymmetry in viability between reciprocal crosses, these hybrids will allow investigation of the molecular basis for Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule.

Cyprinidae , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Núcleo Celular , Citoplasma , Feminino , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra/genética
J Parasitol ; 108(6): 577-581, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459092


Freshwater fishes in the southwestern United States live in some of the most highly modified habitats in the country. As a result, the relatively small number of native fish species has been impacted in many ways, including the introduction of nonnative fishes and their parasites. Both Gila orcutti and Pimephales promelas have been introduced to the Santa Clara Drainage, the former is native to adjacent drainages in southern California, while the latter was introduced from the eastern United States. Two hundred and fourteen G. orcutti (arroyo chub) and 18 P. promelas (fathead minnow) were collected and necropsied in June through September 2017 and May through September 2018. Eight macroparasite taxa were collected from these fishes, including 6 native and 2 nonnative parasites. Four taxa of parasites were shared between G. orcutti and P. promelas: Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Asian fish tapeworm), diplostomid metacercariae, larval acuariid cysts, and Lernaea cyprinacea (anchor worm). This study also reports the first host-association records of G. orcutti with Gyrodactylus sp., S. acheilognathi, diplostomid metacercariae, Rhabdochona sp., Contracaecum sp., and larval acuariid cysts in the Santa Clara River. Additionally, it provides the first host-association records of P. promelas with larval acuariid cysts in the Santa Clara River. This study identifies new host-parasite associations that may be useful for future conservation efforts.

Cyprinidae , Cistos , Animais , Rios , California , Larva
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343604


Intermuscular bones (IBs), which are little, bony spicules in muscle, are embedded in lower teleosts' myosepta. Despite the importance of studying IB development in freshwater aquaculture species, the genes associated with IB development need to be further explored. In the present study, we identified four stages of IB development in barbel steed (Hemibarbus labeo), namely stage 1: IBs have not emerged, stage 2: a few small IBs have emerged in the tail, stage 3: longer IBs gradually emerged in the tail and stage 4: all of the IBs in the tail are mature and long, via Alizarin red staining. Subsequently, we used the HiseqXTen platform to sequence and de novo assemble the transcriptome of epaxial muscle (between 35th and 40th myomere) of barbel steed at 29 days (stage 1) and 42 days (stage 3) after hatching. A total of 190,814 unigenes were obtained with an average length and N50 of 648 bp and 1027 bp, respectively. We found 2174 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between stages 1 and 3, of which 378 and 1796 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis showed that several DEGs functioned in ossification, positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation, osteoblast differentiation, and BMP signaling pathway, and were further enriched in signal pathway, including osteoclast differentiation, TGF-ß signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and other KEEG pathways. In conclusion, we identified genes that may be related to IB development, such as kazal type serine peptidase inhibitor domain 1 (KAZALD1), extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), tetranectin, bone morphogenetic protein 1 (bmp1), acid phosphatase 5 (ACP5), collagen type XI alpha 1 chain (COL11A1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), pannexin-3 (PANX3), sp7 transcription factor (Sp7), and c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), by comparing the transcriptomes of epaxial muscle before and after IB ossification. This study provided a theoretical basis for identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying IB development in fish.

Cyprinidae , Cipriniformes , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Animais , Transcriptoma , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cipriniformes/genética
J Fish Biol ; 101(5): 1150-1159, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373002


Gymnocypris przewalskii (Naked carp), a native teleost, plays an important role in maintaining the ecological balance of Lake Qinghai (altitude, 3.2 km), the largest saline lake in China. In this study, a new gill cell line from G. przewalskii was developed using the explant technique and named as GPG. This cell line was maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) (high glucose), supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and was successfully subcultured up to 32 passages. Meanwhile, this cell line was also authenticated by sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes and by chromosome analysis. With the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, the GPG cell line could express green fluorescent protein (GFP) at about 5% transfection efficiency. MTT test showed that Clostridium botulinum toxin (BTX) was toxic to the cell line. After cryopreservation with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), this cell line could be successfully revived at an efficiency over 70%. This study revealed that the GPG cell line could be used as materials for physio-chemical investigation of G. przewalskii and also provided a tool for gene function study and toxicological reaction in vitro.

Cyprinidae , Lagos , Animais , Tibet , Brânquias , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Cyprinidae/genética , Linhagem Celular
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277698, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395176


Throughout the world, wetlands have experienced degradation and declines in areal coverage. Fortunately, recognition of the value of wetlands has generated interest in preserving and restoring them. Post-restoration monitoring is necessary to analyze success or failure, thereby informing subsequent management decisions. Restoration of oxbow wetlands has become the focus of targeted restoration efforts to promote recovery of biodiversity and sensitive species, and to enhance ecosystem services. The fish communities of oxbows have been the subject of many monitoring studies. However, a recommended sampling methodology for monitoring the fish communities of oxbows has not been described, thereby limiting our capacity to effectively monitor these ecosystems. We compared four sampling methodologies (backpack electrofishing, fyke netting, minnow trapping, and seining) for fish community data collection with a primary objective of determining an effective method for sampling fish communities in small oxbow wetlands. Seining and fyke netting were determined to be effective methods for sampling oxbow fish communities. Backpack electrofishing and minnow trapping produced low taxonomic richness values and sampled a smaller proportion of species present than seining and fyke netting. Although seining and fyke netting produced similar taxonomic diversity and abundance values, these two gears differ in their ease of implementation and potential habitat disturbance generated by sampling. Therefore, consideration must be given to how species present (especially sensitive species) within the wetland could be impacted by sampling disturbance when choosing between seining and fyke netting.

Cyprinidae , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Manejo de Espécimes
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 24(6): 1138-1147, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350467


Growth is an economically important trait in bighead carp and other aquaculture species that affects production efficiency. Interestingly, the head of the bighead carp has a high market value in China; therefore, it is important to study the genetic bases of both growth and body shape traits. A genome-wide association study was performed based on 2b-RAD sequencing of 776 individuals to identify SNPs associated with growth and body shape traits, including body weight, body length, body height, and deheaded body length. In total, 26 significant and 19 suggestive SNPs were identified, and more than half of these significant SNPs were clustered in LG16. Two LGs (LG16 and LG21) contained QTLs associated with body weight. Fourteen SNPs of LG16 and two LG21 SNPs were found to be associated with body length. For body height, 12 significantly associated SNPs were identified in LG16. Additionally, 12 SNPs of LG16 and 3 SNPs of LG21 were found to be associated with deheaded body length. Forty-three genes were significantly or suggestively associated with body shape/growth traits based on GWAS results, 18 of which were candidate genes for all BW, BL, BH, and DBL traits. One of these genes, fndc5b, was selected for further analyses. Association analysis revealed that one SNP (g.245 C > T) in the introns of fndc5b was significantly associated with growth-related traits in growth-extreme samples. The mRNA levels of fndc5b in the brains of the lightweight group were significantly higher than those of the heavy-weight group. This study helps to reveal the genetic structure of growth and body development in fish and provides candidate genes for future molecular marker-assisted selection for fast growth and better body conformation in bighead carp.

Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Somatotipos , Cyprinidae/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Carpas/genética