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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124906, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550587

RESUMO

Benzene homologues have significant toxic effects to aquatic organisms. In this study, the acute toxicity data of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) were collected and screened, and the toxicity extrapolation model of paired BTEX was established. The results showed that except the correlation between benzene and xylene was not strong due to insufficient data, the linear correlation of the other five paired BTEX was good (p < 0.01), and R2 fitted by the four out of five paired BTEX was greater than 0.85. The cross validation showed that ethylbenzene-xylene model was optimal, and for most species (81.8%), the established five BTEX models had a prediction error of less than 10%. Also, these extrapolation models were validated by experimental results of Pseudorasbora parva. The difference between the predicted and measured values of the acute toxicity of BTEX was less than 1 fold, which indicated that the extrapolation model had high accuracy.


Assuntos
Benzeno/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Tolueno/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Xilenos/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cyprinidae , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
2.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124862, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550591

RESUMO

The photodegradation of benzisothiazolinone was studied in water under UV-Vis irradiation and led to fourteen photoproducts. Chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated using GC-MS, LCMS/MS, and FT-ICR-MS experiments. Based on the chemical structures determined and their appearance order, a photo induced-degradation mechanism of benzisothiazolinone has been proposed, which combines isomerization, oxidation, hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and elimination processes. In silico tests on mutagenicity, Fathead minnow LC50 and oral rat LD50 were carried out to estimate the toxicity of the photoproducts. Compared with experimental data, the calculated oral rat LD50 values were found to be the most relevant and thus used for toxicity estimation. The photoproducts including a phenolic or a sulfino group or both functions were found potentially more toxic than benzisothiazolinone.


Assuntos
Tiazóis/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Simulação por Computador , Cyprinidae , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Fotólise , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 308: 125576, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648092

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of cold storage at different temperatures (4, -0.5, -3, and -20 °C) on protein degradation and its relationship to structural changes of black carp muscle. At -0.5 and 4 °C, major structural changes occurred, including the formation of gaps between myofibers and myofibrils, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Gel-based proteomic analysis showed that these structural changes were accompanied by degradation of a series of myofibrillar proteins, including titin, nebulin, troponin, myosin, myomesin, myosin-binding protein, and α-actinin. Loss of extractable gelatinolytic and caseinolytic protease activities was also observed. At -3 and -20 °C, formation of ice crystals was the most noticeable change. The major proteins were degraded at different locations in the black carp muscle, and gelatinolytic and caseinolytic proteases appear to contribute to the degradation of those proteins.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Temperatura Baixa , Conectina/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteômica
4.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124935, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563720

RESUMO

Increasing studies have established the toxic effects of BPA on development and reproduction in animals. In present study, we investigated epigenetic effects on the transcription of several ovarian steroidogenic genes in rare minnows Gobiocypris rarus after BPA exposure at 15 µgL-1 for 21, 42 and 63 d. Results showed that short term BPA exposure (21 d) caused significant increase of both estradiol and testerone levels whereas long term exposure (63 d) led to significant decrease of them. The oocytes development was hindered after BPA exposure. BPA treatments for 21 and 42 d resulted in significant increase of genome DNA methylation in ovary while 63-d exposure caused marked decrease. The histone trimethylation levels (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) in the ovary were also disturbed by BPA. H3K9me3 was significantly decreased after 21 d whereas it was markedly increased after 42 and 63 d. The 42-d exposure caused significant decrease for H3K4me3. Meanwhile, 42- and 63-d BPA exposure led to significant decrease of H3K27me3. DNA methylation could involve in gene expression regulation of cyp17a1 and cyp19a1a after BPA exposure. After short (21 d) and long term (63 d) BPA exposure, the respective mRNA expression down-regulation and up-regulation of star, cyp11a1, and cyp17a1 were mediated by H3K9me3. This study suggests that epigenetic modulation including DNA and histone methylation could be responsible for the detrimental effects on ovary development upon BPA exposure in G. rarus. It is speculated that BPA exposures for short or long term duration could disturb the steroidogenesis in entirely different mechanisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Testosterona/metabolismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124943, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574443

RESUMO

Secondary sexual characteristics (SSCs) are important features that have evolved in many fish species because of inter-individual competition for mates. SSCs are crucial not only for sexual selection, but also for other components of the reproductive process and parental care. Externally, they are especially clear in males (for instance, tubercles, fatpad, anal finnage, colouration) but are also externally present in the females (for instance, ovipositor). These characters are under hormonal control and as such there has been much interest in incorporating them as measures in fish test methods to assess the potential endocrine activity of chemicals. Here we describe the external SSCs in typical laboratory test species for endocrine testing - fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). We also provide some examples and discuss the utility of SSC responses to the endocrine activity of chemicals in the field and the laboratory. This paper is not aimed to provide a comprehensive review of SSCs in fish but presents a view on the assessment of SSCs in regulatory testing. Due to the current regulatory importance of establishing an endocrine mode-of-action for chemicals, we also consider other, non-endocrine factors that may lead to SSC responses in fish. We conclude with recommendations for how the assessment of SSCs in fish could be usefully incorporated into the endocrine hazard and risk assessment of chemicals.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiologia , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Masculino , Vitelogeninas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518684

RESUMO

Generally, fish are thought to have a limited ability to utilize carbohydrate. Postprandial blood glucose is cleared sluggishly in fish, resulting in prolonged hyperglycemia. Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) play an important role in glucose utilization. In the present study, the expression levels of glut2 in different tissues were detected in grass carp. Furthermore, the effects of oral glucose administration on glut2 mRNA expression in the liver, intestine and kidney were investigated, and we also evaluated the response of glut2 mRNA to insulin and glucagon in the primary hepatocytes of grass carp. The expression level of glut2 mRNA was highest in the liver, followed by the intestine and kidney, but lower in other tissues. The result of glucose tolerance test (GTT) showed that serum glucose reached the highest level at 3 h after GTT and recovered to the basic level at 6 h. The glut2 mRNA in the intestine was up-regulated at 1 h after GTT. However, the glut2 mRNA expression in the liver of grass carp was unchanged after GTT for 1, 3, 6 h, and even decreased at 12 h after GTT. In addition, the expression of glut2 mRNA in the primary hepatocytes was enhanced by insulin and glucagon at 3 h post treatment. These results suggested that glut2 expression in the liver of grass carp was sensitive to insulin and glucagon, but not blood glucose. The up-regulation of glut2 by these hormones might be involved in the bi-directional transportation of glucose in the liver.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/biossíntese , Glucose/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526840

RESUMO

The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates the responses of various immune cytokines. In this study, we identified socs3s genes of blunt snout bream. 209- and 216-aa long peptides are encoded by socs3a and socs3b genes, respectively. The socs3s mRNAs are expressed consistently during the entire process of embryonic development. Whole-mount in situ hybridization detected socs3a in the eyes and posterior somites at 12 h post fertilization (hpf), transcribed at the otic vesicle at 24 hpf, and transcribed at the eyes, brain, and otic vesicle at 36 hpf; while the socs3b mRNA was transcribed at the notochord at 12 hpf, expressed in the brain, eyes, and tailbud at 24 hpf, and detected in the brain at 36 hpf. The expression of socs3a is slightly different from that of socs3b in tissues of juvenile and adult blunt snout bream. After recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) treatment, the transcript levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were increased in gills, spleen, kidney, and gonads. After Aerononas hydrophila infection, the mRNA levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were significantly increased in the liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney tissues. Blunt snout bream were susceptible to various pathogenic microorganisms, we intraperitoneally injected blunt snout bream with A. hydrophila to explore the immune mechanism of socs3s. These results suggested that socs3s of blunt snout bream plays important roles in the regulation of embryonic development and tissue growth, and that socs3s may also play key roles in regulating the bacterial-induced congenital immune response. Socs3s genes has the potential to be used as targeted genes to improve the immunity against bacteria, which is conducive to the improvement of production and breeding.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/biossíntese , Animais , Especificidade de Órgãos
8.
Food Chem ; 303: 125419, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470276

RESUMO

ß-Cyclodextrin- and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin/Danube common nase (Chondrostoma nasus L.) oil complexes (ß-CD- and HP-ß-CD/CNO) have been obtained for the first time. The fatty acid (FA) profile of the CNO indicates an important content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the most important being eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 6.3%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 1.6%), both ω-3 FAs. The complexes have been obtained by kneading method. The moisture content and successful of molecular encapsulation have been evaluated by thermal and spectroscopic techniques. Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analyses reveals that the moisture content of CD/CNO complexes significantly decreased, compared to starting CDs. On the other hand, the crystallinity index was for the first time determined for such type of complexes, the ß-CD/CNO complex having values of 43.9(±18.3)%, according to X-ray diffractometry. FA profile and CD/CNO characteristics sustain the use of these ω-3 based complexes for food supplements or functional food products, but further studies are needed.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cyprinidae , Solubilidade , Difração de Raios X
9.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 504-510, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833321

RESUMO

In the traditional view of sexual selection, females are the choosier sex, and males of many species often develop exaggerated ornaments. Recently, however, the evolution and maintenance of female ornaments has also attracted significant attention. In the present study, we examined the function of a female ornament, i.e., red coloration of the area around gill cover, in the context of male mate preferences in the cyprinid fish Puntius titteya. The result of a dichotomous choice experiment showed that males preferred females with redder coloration. Together with the results of a previous study, these findings suggest that males and females in this species mutually select each other based on red coloration. In addition, females with higher color saturation spawned larger eggs. With supplementation of carotenoid-rich foods, females exhibited redder coloration and higher color saturation. These results imply that, by choosing females based on carotenoid-based coloration, males might obtain high quality mates and offspring.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133739, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756834

RESUMO

Understanding mechanisms of fish invasion success is crucial to controlling existing invasions and preventing potential future spread. Despite considerable advances in explaining successful fish invasions, little is known about how non-native fish successfully invade alpine freshwater ecosystems. Here, we explore the role of fish life history and environmental factors in contributing to invasion success of Pseudorasbora parva on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We compared life history trait differences between native populations in lowland China with introduced populations in lowland Europe and the high elevation Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse life-history trait variation across elevation gradients. A random forest model was developed to identify the key environmental filters influencing P. parva invasion success. Life history characteristics differed substantially between native and introduced populations. Compared with native Chinese populations, introduced populations in lowland Europe had smaller body size, higher fecundity, smaller oocytes and earlier maturation. Introduced populations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau had smaller body size, lower fecundity, smaller oocytes and later maturation compared with native populations. 1-Year-Length and fecundity in all age classes of females significantly increased with increasing elevation. 2-Year-Length and 3-Year-Length of male significantly increased while maximal longevity and length at first maturity were significantly decreased with the elevation gradient. Habitat type, annual mean temperature, elevation, annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, were the 5 most important predictors for the occurrence of the P. parva. Our study indicates that invasive P. parva adopt different life history strategies on the plateau compared with invasive populations at low elevations, highlighting that more studies are required for a better understanding of biological invasion under extreme conditions. Considering the ongoing hydrologic alteration and climate change, our study also highlighted that P. parva may expand their distribution range in the future on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tibet
11.
Zootaxa ; 4603(1): zootaxa.4603.1.6, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717242

RESUMO

After comparing specimens of Vanmanenia collected from the Lancang-jiang (the upper Mekong River), Yuan-jiang (the upper Red River), Lixian-jiang (first branch of the Red River), and Jinsha-jiang (the upper Yangtze River) drainages in Yunnan, China, we considered the specimens of Vanmanenia from Shunbi Township, Yangbi County, Yunnan (a branch of the Lancang-jiang drainage basin, the upper Mekong River) a new species, herein named V. microcephala sp. nov. Our investigation also suggested that V. striata should be restored as a valid species. On the basis of the systematic comparison of morphological characteristics of the genus Vanmanenia and based on the combination of the characteristics of the rostral fold, rostral barbels, the bars/marks on the flank, the rows of spots on the paired fins, and the markings on the caudal-fin base, the loaches of Vanmanenia should be divided into three groups: 1) the barred group, characterized by bars on the flank, 2), the cusped rostral fold group, characterized by the rostral fold lobes forming a cusp process, and 3) the barbeled rostral fold group, characterized by the rostral fold lobes specialized as secondary barbels. The barred group differs from congeners in Vanmanenia by the following combination of characters: three rostral lobes with a smooth and arcuate outer edge, a pattern of bars on the flank, and spotless paired fins. This group includes six species: V. crassicauda, V. microcephala sp. nov., V. serrilineata, V. striata, V. tetraloba, and Vanmanenia pseudostriata. The new species, V. microcephala, differs from the other species in the barred group by the following combination of characters: the lateral side of the body with 14-22 vermiculations with widths smaller than the diameter of the eye; the dorsal side of the head covered with a large black blotch; the gill opening smaller and its upper angle aligned with the lower edge of the eye; and the head smaller, head depth 45.2-47.1% head length. The characteristic evolutionary trends, origin, and taxonomic status of the barred group in the genus Vanmanenia are also discussed.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Cipriniformes , Nadadeiras de Animais , Animais , China , Rios
12.
Zootaxa ; 4695(2): zootaxa.4695.2.4, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719355

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Garra is described from the Ranga River of the Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Garra magnacavus, new species, differs from its congeners in having an incipient proboscis with a transverse lobe, 15-19 rounded large pits on the snout, weakly developed non-fleshy central callous pad, and an elongate body with 42 lateral-line and 14-16 predorsal scales.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Índia , Rios
13.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(5): 851-864, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The growth promoting effect of lysine and betaine as well as the expression of candidate genes reflecting their efficacy, such as ghrelin, leptin, Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF- 1) and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) was examined in Labeo rohita fingerlings. METHODS: One hundred eighty healthy juveniles from a homologous population were randomly distributed to 15 rectangular tanks of 150 litres capacity. The experiment was carried out for 60 days with five treatment groups consisting T1 (0.25% Betaine), T2 (0.5% Betaine), T3 (0.75% Lysine) and T4 (1.5% Lysine) and control group. The experiment was carried out for 60 days with five treatment groups consisting T1 (0.25% Betaine), T2 (0.5% Betaine), T3 (0.75% Lysine) and T4 (1.5% Lysine) and control group. At the end of trial, the growth parameters such as weight gain, SGR, PER were estimated from the weight of the triplicate groups. The digestive, metabolic and antioxidant enzymes were analysed using spectrophotometric methods. The intestine, brain and liver were sampled from the treatments and expression of different genes ghrelin, leptin, GHSR, IGF-1 and GHRH was also performed by realtime PCR. RESULTS: A significant (P<0.05) increase in weight gain, SGR, PER and lowest FCR was found in T4 group which was significantly (p < 0.05) different from other experimental groups. The highest mRNA expression levels of expression were found in T4 group which was similar to that of ghrelin gene mRNA of T2 group. The significantly (p<0.05) highest GHSR, GHRH and IGF-1 gene expression levels were found in T4 treatment group compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals that the lysine and betaine stimulate growth and expression of ghrelin GHRH, GHS-R and IGF-1 genes. The increase of IGF-I mRNA expression with lysine and betaine supplementation revealed that these compounds act as growth modulators. However, lysine was found to be a more potent modulator of growth compared to betaine.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisina/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grelina/genética , Grelina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Zootaxa ; 4674(4): zootaxa.4674.4.4, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715994

RESUMO

In this paper we erect Asaccotrema n. gen. of Lissorchiidae Magath, 1917 (Trematoda, Monorchioidea) and provide a description of Asaccotrema vietnamiense n. sp., that infects freshwater fish in Vietnam. The morphology of Asaccotrema n. gen. is significantly different from that of other lissorchiid genera due to the absence of the cirrus-sac, and position of the genital pore sublaterally, near the middle level of the esophagus. The male terminal genitalia are characterized by the presence of the seminal vesicle, which is surrounded by prostate gland-cells, a tubular pars prostatica and a long unarmed ejaculatory duct. The terminal portion of the cluster of prostate gland-cells, which surrounds pars prostatica and the distal end of seminal vesicle, is covered with a thin-walled open-ended membrane, and the other constituents of the male terminal genitalia are naked. Asaccotrema vietnamiense n. sp. specimens are found as progenetic metacercariae on the liver of the sidestripe rasbora, Rasbora paviana Tirant (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae). A partial sequence was obtained for the 28S rRNA gene (rDNA) of A. vietnamiense n. sp. The 28S rDNA-based phylogenetic analyses support the integration of A. vietnamiense n. sp. into the Lissorchiidae clade, which also includes Lissorchis kritskyi Barnhart Powell, 1979 and Asymphylodora perccotti Besprozvanykh, Ermolenko Atopkin, 2012. This is the second record of a lissorchiid species in fish in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Doenças dos Peixes , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnã
15.
Zootaxa ; 4671(2): zootaxa.4671.2.3, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716054

RESUMO

Garra roseae, new species, is described from the stream Tang-e-Sarhe in the Iranian Makran region. It is distinguished from its congeners in the Middle East by lacking barbels, having a small mental disc, 42-58 total scales along the lateral line, 24-30 scales along the predorsal midline, and 20-24 circumpeduncular scales. It is further characterised by having five diagnostic nucleotide substitutions and a minimum K2P distance of 5.39% to G. rossica and 5.49% to G. nudiventris in the mtDNA COI barcode region. Garra phryne from eastern Iran is considered to be a synonym of G. nudiventris.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial , Irã (Geográfico) , Oriente Médio , Rios
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3349-3357, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729574

RESUMO

The genus Chloromyxum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) is defined as having ridged or smooth bivalvular myxospores containing four polar capsules, with/without caudal filaments. Currently containing more than 140 nominal species, this genus is reasonably speciose with myxospores of unique but heterogeneous morphology. Recent phylogenetic studies have demonstrated its polyphyletic nature. During our myxosporean survey of freshwater fish, a new coelozoic myxosporean species, Chloromyxum trilineatum n. sp., was detected in the gall bladder of the pale chub, Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), which originated from central Japan. Spores were subspherical, measuring 8.5-9.1 (8.8) µm in length, 7.6-8.2 (8.0) µm in width, and 6.8-7.8 (7.4) µm in thickness (n = 20). The valvular surface was smooth and three or four distinct ridges ran parallel to the suture line. Four almost equal polar capsules, 2.9-3.8 (3.3) µm in length and 1.6-2.4 (2.0) µm in width, assembled at the apical part of the spores. The partial nucleotide sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, 2014 bp in length, was closest to that of morphologically distinct Chloromyxum ellipticum, infecting the gall bladder of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in China with 96.99% (1673/1725) identity and three insertion/deletion (indel) sites, followed by Chloromyxum legeri, infecting the gall bladder of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Czech Republic with 89.97% (1803/2004) identity and 14 indel sites. Other myxosporean species, including Chloromyxum spp. from the gall bladder or urinary system of freshwater and marine fish, were phylogenetically distant from the present species.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , República Tcheca , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Japão , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
17.
Zootaxa ; 4619(3): zootaxa.4619.3.7, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716293

RESUMO

A new species of Garra with a rostral proboscis is described from the Barak River drainage in Manipur, India. Garra paratrilobata, new species, is distinguished from its congeners in having the combination of the following characters: a prominent trilobed proboscis, the median lobe with 5-7 uni- to tricuspid tubercles on its anterior margin and 4-6 minute tubercles on its anteroventral margin; lateral lobe of the proboscis with 3-4 minute tubercles; lateral surface of the snout lobular, with 6-9 tubercles; 33-34 lateral-line scales; and the rostral surface concave, creased and depressed.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Índia , Rios , Tristeza
18.
Zootaxa ; 4615(3): zootaxa.4615.3.11, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716339

RESUMO

Opsarius putaoensis, new species, is described from the Mali Hka River, a tributary of the Irrawaddy River in northern Myanmar. For convenience of identification, Opsarius sensu Rainboth (1991) in Southeast Asia and India can be divided into two species groups based on the number of anal-fin rays: (1) the O. gatensis species group with more than 12 branched anal-fin rays, and (2) the O. barna species group with fewer than 11 branched anal-fin rays. The remaining species of the O. barna species group can be divided into two species subgroups by the presence or absence of barbels: (1) the O. chatricensis species subgroup without barbels, and (2) the O. barnoides species subgroup with one or two pairs of barbels. Opsarius putaoensis sp. nov. is a member of the O. chatricensis species subgroup together with O. chatricensis, O. arunachalensis, and O. barna. Opsarius putaoensis is most similar to O. chatricensis in overall appearance, including the number of vertical bars and color pattern, but it differs from O. chatricensis by the following characters: insertion of dorsal not reaching posterior end of pelvic fin base vs. reaching, vertical bars 6-7 vs. 7-8, vertical bars extending to the lateral line vs. not, branched anal-fin rays 9 vs. 10, branched pelvic-fin rays 7 vs. 8, branched pectoral-fin rays 12, rarely 11 vs. 11, circumpeduncular scales 12 vs. 14, and scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line 7-8 vs. 6. It is distinguished from all other species of the genus Opsarius by a combination of the following characters: barbels absent, dentary with parallel rows of tubercles, snout much shorter than eye diameter, mouth gape below anterior edge of orbit, body deep with depth 25.6-33.3% SL, pectoral and pelvic axial scales lobate, lateral line completely perforated with 35-38 scales, scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line 7-8, predorsal scales 15, circumpeduncular scales 12, branched dorsal-fin rays 7, branched anal-fin rays 9, branched pelvic-fin rays 7, insertion of dorsal not reaching pelvic-fin base, body with 6-7 vertical bars, extending to lateral line, and distal edge of dorsal fin black.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Cor , Índia , Mianmar , Rios
19.
Zootaxa ; 4614(1): zootaxa.4614.1.5, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716389

RESUMO

Alburnoides holciki was described from the Hari River basin, which was the only basin it was known from. Populations from the Amu Darya basin were previously recognized as A. eichwaldii or Alburnoides sp. Our study recognized specimens of Alburnoides from the Amu Darya basin as A. holciki based on morphological data and the COI barcode gene. The population from the Zeravshan basin showed some morphological differences compared to others but were similar in the COI gene and needs further investigation. New results extend the range of A. holciki for almost 1000 km -from the Hari River to the upper Amu Darya tributaries in Tajikistan. The intraspecific genetic similarity in the COI gene between populations in the Hari and Amu Darya rivers supports the geographical hypothesis of a recent connection of these rivers.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , DNA Mitocondrial , Animais , Ásia Central , Rios , Tadjiquistão
20.
Zootaxa ; 4671(1): zootaxa.4671.1.8, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716597

RESUMO

Pseudophoxinus cilicicus, new species, is described from the Arsuz, Ceyhan and Seyhan river drainages in the Gulf of Iskenderun. It is distinguished from other members of the Pseudophoxinus zeregi species group by having a complete lateral line with 38-45 + 2-3 scales, the lower lip usually slightly projecting beyond the tip of the upper lip, a prominent black stripe along the flank, and no black pigments below the lateral line. Pseudophoxinus cilicicus is distinguished from P. zekayi by a minimum K2P distance of 3.8% based on the mitochondrial DNA barcode region. Pseudophoxinus atropatenus and P. sojuchbulagi are returned to the genus Rutilus.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Cor , DNA Mitocondrial , Rios , Estações do Ano
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