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1.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 249-259, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of salivary gland tumors is mainly unknown. The anatomical location of the salivary glands, with the mucosal pathway to the oral cavity and its rich microbiome, raises the question of potential viral background. OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the potential presence of herpes-, polyoma- and parvoviruses in pleomorphic adenoma (PA), recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (RPA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CaxPA). METHODS: Thirty different viruses were analyzed by PCR-based assays in 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded salivary gland tumors (25 PA, 31 RPA and 12 CaxPA). RESULTS: Virus DNA was detected altogether in 19/68 (28%) tumor samples. Human herpesviruses 6B and 7 (HHV-6B and HHV-7) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were frequently and almost exclusively found in CaxPA (5/12, 7/12, and 3/12, respectively). Within the 7 CaxPA that were virus-positive, 3 samples contained 3, and 1 sample even 4, different viruses. Infrequent viral positivity was shown for parvovirus B19 and cutavirus, as well as Merkel cell and Malawi polyomaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Our unexpected finding of herpesvirus DNA almost exclusively in CaxPA tissues deserves further in-depth studies.


Assuntos
Adenoma Pleomorfo/virologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândulas Salivares/virologia
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 1083-1088, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619925

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the correlation of EBV DNA load in two different types of plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in children with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection diseases. Methods: A retrospective evaluated was performed on EBV DNA quantification in plasma and PBMCs by qPCR between April, 2019 and December, 2020. The samples were collected from children of 456 cases with EBV infection and 2 306 healthy cases. In EBV infection group, boys were 253 and girls were 203, aged from 8 days to months to 16 years. In healthy group, boys were 1 267 and girls were 1 039, aged from 8 days to 16 years. Results: Infectious mononucleosis (IM) was the most common disease associated with EBV infection 73.68%(336/456). The detection rate of plasma and PBMCs in EBV infection group was 91.89% (419/456)and 99.34% (453/456)respectively, and was 100%(456/456) in plasma or PBMCs. The detection rate of plasma and PBMCs in healthy group was 1.13%(26/2 306) and 30.01%(715/2 306), respectively. Levels of EBV DNA in plasma and PBMCs in EBV infection group [IM, acute infections, pneumonia, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, tonsillitis and lymphadenitis] was significantly higher than those in healthy group (In plasma, Z=-47.18,-34.41,-33.40,-31.71,-24.38,-20.86 and -20.59,respectively; In PBMCs, Z=-33.17,-16.45,-11.33,-9.45,-5.57,-5.16 and -5.45, respectively; P<0.05). In IM group, EBV DNA load in plasma and PBMCs in remission stage was significantly lower than those in infection stage (Z=-11.45, -8.53;P<0.05). In PTLD group, there was significant difference in EBV DNA load in plasma between infection and remission stage (Z=-4.13, P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in EBV DNA load in PBMCs (Z=-0.817, P>0.05). Conclusions: EBV infection was mainly caused by IM. Combined detection of plasma and PBMCs in EBV DNA is valuable for improving diagnosis ability of EBV infection-related diseases, and the load of EBV DNA could be used as a marker.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Criança , DNA Viral , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27433, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622857

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There are approximately 2 billion HBV-infected individuals worldwide, and approximately 1.87% to 7% of these individuals are copositive for HBsAg and HBsAb.Our study detected hepatitis B virus pgRNA (HBV RNA) levels in HBsAg and HBsAb copositive patients and then analyzed the correlation with HBV DNA, HBsAg, ALT, and AST levels. A total of 149 HBsAg and HBsAb copositive patients were identified from 66,617 outpatients.HBV RNA, HBV DNA, HBsAg, ALT, and AST serum levels were significantly different in different natural phases of HBV infection (immune tolerance phase, immune clearance phase, low replication phase, and reactivation phase) with statistical significance (P < .01). HBV RNA levels were positively correlated with HBV DNA, HBsAg, ALT, and AST levels. HBV RNA and HBV DNA levels were significantly increased in the HBeAg-positive group (66 patients) compared with the HBeAg-negative group (83 patients) (P < .01). In the HBeAg-positive group, HBV RNA levels were positively correlated with HBV DNA and HBsAg levels. In the HBeAg-negative group, HBV RNA levels were positively correlated with HBV DNA. Serum HBV RNA levels were positively correlated with HBV DNA, HBsAg, ALT, and AST levels.HBV RNA could be used as a virological indicator for antiviral therapy in HBsAg and HBsAb copositive hepatitis B patients.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 675, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marine bacteriophages play key roles in the community structure of microorganisms, biogeochemical cycles, and the mediation of genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer. Recently, traditional isolation methods, complemented by high-throughput sequencing metagenomics technology, have greatly increased our understanding of the diversity of bacteriophages. Oceanospirillum, within the order Oceanospirillales, are important symbiotic marine bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation and algal blooms, especially in polar regions. However, until now there has been no isolate of an Oceanospirillum bacteriophage, and so details of their metagenome has remained unknown. RESULTS: Here, we reported the first Oceanospirillum phage, vB_OliS_GJ44, which was assembled into a 33,786 bp linear dsDNA genome, which includes abundant tail-related and recombinant proteins. The recombinant module was highly adapted to the host, according to the tetranucleotides correlations. Genomic and morphological analyses identified vB_OliS_GJ44 as a siphovirus, however, due to the distant evolutionary relationship with any other known siphovirus, it is proposed that this virus could be classified as the type phage of a new Oceanospirivirus genus within the Siphoviridae family. vB_OliS_GJ44 showed synteny with six uncultured phages, which supports its representation in uncultured environmental viral contigs from metagenomics. Homologs of several vB_OliS_GJ44 genes have mostly been found in marine metagenomes, suggesting the prevalence of this phage genus in the oceans. CONCLUSIONS: These results describe the first Oceanospirillum phage, vB_OliS_GJ44, that represents a novel viral cluster and exhibits interesting genetic features related to phage-host interactions and evolution. Thus, we propose a new viral genus Oceanospirivirus within the Siphoviridae family to reconcile this cluster, with vB_OliS_GJ44 as a representative member.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Siphoviridae , Bacteriófagos/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Filogenia , Siphoviridae/genética
5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(8): 650-655, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474727

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), two of the most prevalent human herpesviruses, cause a wide spectrum of diseases and symptoms and are associated with serious health problem. In this study, we developed an internal control reference recombinase-aided amplification (ICR-RAA) assay for the rapid detection of EBV and CMV within 30 min. The assay had a sensitivity of 5 and 1 copies/test for EBV and CMV, respectively, with no cross reaction with other pathogens. In comparison with those of the commercial quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using extracted DNA was 93.33% and 84.84%, respectively; the specificity was 98.75% and 100.00%, respectively; and the Kappa values were 0.930 and 0.892 ( P < 0.05), respectively. In comparison with those of qPCR, the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using the DNA by thermal lysis was 72.22% and 80.00%, respectively; the specificity was 100.00%; and the Kappa values were 0.764 and 0.878 ( P < 0. 05), respectively. Thus, rapid and specific detection of EBV and CMV is possible using ICR-RAA assays.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/genética , DNA Viral/análise , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Recombinases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(236): 336-341, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection is defined as the presence of the hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid in liver tissues and/or serum in the absence of serum hepatitis B Virus surface antigen. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in end-stage renal disease patients is largely unknown. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in the hemodialysis population starting maintenance hemodialysis. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Internal Medicine of a tertiary care hospital. Convenience sampling method was used; 50 consecutive end-stage renal disease patients, who started maintenance hemodialysis from March 2019 to March 2020, were enrolled in the study. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Committee of the hospital (reference number: 351/2019). Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 50.34±12.65 years, and 42 (84%) were male. About 4 (8%) patients were diagnosed having occult hepatitis B infection, 3 (6%) of them were seropositive and 1 (2%) seronegative. About 41 (82%) patients had no history of hepatitis B vaccination series before starting hemodialysis; 36 (72%) had anti-hepatitis B surface antibody titre <10 mIU/ml. About 44 (88%) patients received a blood transfusion during their hemodialysis sessions and 14 (28%) patients had a history of receiving hemodialysis at other centres. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among end-stage renal disease patients starting hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Falência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Diálise Renal , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(8): 766-770, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517458

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship between serum HBV pgRNA and antigen status in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with long-term nucleotide analogues, and to elucidate the reason and possible mechanism of high relapse rate in antiviral therapy of nucleotide analogues in chronic hepatitis B. Methods: 94 patients with chronic hepatitis B who had been treated with long-term antiviral therapy with nucleotide analogues (more than 2 years) were divided into 5 groups according to their HBeAg and HBsAg levels: e antigen positive group(group1), e antigen negative and HBsAg > 1 500 IU/L group(group2), e antigen negative and 100 IU/L< HBsAg < 1 500 IU/L group(group3), e antigen negative and HBsAg < 100 IU/L group(group4), e antigen negative and HBsAg negative group(group5). The level and detection rate of HBVpgRNA in different antigen states groups were analyzed and compared. In addition, in order to exclude the influence of other factors on the results of this study. The study was divided into groups according to age, gender and treatment time. Results: The detection rate of HBVpgRNA was 95.0% in patients with e antigen positive, while 43.2% in patients with e antigen seroconversion, which was significantly lower than that in patients with e antigen positive (P < 0.05). The detection rate of serum HBVpgRNA was 95.0% in e antigen positive group, 75.0% in group 2, 65.0% in e antigen negative with group 3, 15.0% in group 4 and 0% in group 5. Among them, group 1, group 2 and group 3 was significantly higher than that in group 4 and group 5. There was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the positive rate of serum HBV pgRNA among group 1, group 2 and group 3 (P > 0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in the positive rate of serum HBV pgRNA between group 4 and group 5 (P > 0.05). Moreover, the detection rate of serum HBV pgRNA was not correlated with age, gender and treatment time of nucleotide analogues (P > 0.05). Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between the serological antigen status and the presence of HBV pgRNA in chronic hepatitis B after long-term treatment of nucleotide analogues. The persistence of HBV pgRNA is closely related to the low seroconversion rate of e antigen and the high level of HBsAg. HBV pgRNA can be used as one of the biomarkers to judge the transcription activity and replication status of HBV cccDNA in liver.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , RNA
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(8): 771-775, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517459

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the risk factors that may affect the mutations in the reverse transcriptase region in chronic hepatitis B virus-infected patients. Methods: 678 hospitalized cases with chronic HBV infection who underwent HBV RT testing at Tianjin Second People's Hospital from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016 were collected retrospectively. Among them, 417 cases were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B, 219 cases with liver cirrhosis and 42 cases with primary liver cancer. There were 268 cases of non-use of any antiviral therapy, 138 cases of discontinuation of antiviral drugs for 6 months or more, and 272 cases of continuous antiviral therapy. HBV genotyping and RT region mutation sites were detected by direct sequencing. The risk factors that may affect the drug resistant mutation in the HBV RT mutation, including age, genotype, antiviral drug selection and medication time, hepatitis B virus infection, and biochemical markers were analyzed by univariate analysis to screen out independent risk factors. Results: Among 678 HBV-infected cases, 290 cases (42.8%) were detected with RT-region mutation. Among them, the pre-existing drug resistant rate was 6.72%, and the drug resistant mutation rate was 23.19% in treated patients. The drug resistant mutation rate of patients with continuous antiviral therapy was 66.18%. Gene mutations highest rate for 1 ~ 5 years was 27.14% in chronic HBV patients treated with antiviral therapy. Logistic regression analysis of the factors that had led to HBV mutation showed that old age, the selection of nucleoside drugs at the beginning of treatment and medication time were the main factors affecting HBV RT mutations. Conclusion: Abnormal ALT level, HBV genotype, HBV DNA quantitative level are the main factors influencing non-drug resistant mutations. Age over 60 years old, and long-term use of low-barrier nucleoside drugs are high-risk groups for HBV resistant. Therefore, HBV resistant monitoring should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/genética , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Acta Virol ; 65(3): 307-312, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565159

RESUMO

The first weeks of life are extremely important for the development of the immunity-virome interaction that affects human health in adulthood. In this study we analyzed Torque teno virus (TTV) dynamics during the first weeks of life in the full-term/premature infants in relation with the maternal TTV load and the type of feeding. 152 infants aged 1-14 weeks (63 full-term and 89 premature) and 33 mother-child pairs were analyzed for the whole blood TTV load by qPCR with test sensitivity of 1000 viral copies/ml. 50 infants were retested (at 2-11 time points) for TTV dynamics data. All one-week babies (n = 71) from TTV-positive mothers were TTV-negative, consistently with the previous findings of the lack of transplacental transmission of the virus. TTV was not detectable in newborns under two weeks of age. Most infants are TTV-positive by 14 weeks of age. Whole blood TTV load does not show significant correlation with full-term/prematurity, maternal TTV load, or feeding type. Keywords: Torque teno virus; transfusion-transmitted virus; commensal virus; TTV; viral load dynamics; TORCH infections; full-term and premature babies; breastfeeding; virome.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Torque teno virus , Adulto , DNA Viral/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Torque teno virus/genética , Carga Viral
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577794

RESUMO

In the battle to quickly identify potential yellow fever arbovirus outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, active syndromic surveillance of acute febrile jaundice patients across the country is a powerful tool. However, patients who test negative for yellow fever virus infection are too often left without a diagnosis. By retroactively screening samples for other potential viral infections, we can both try to find sources of patient disease and gain information on how commonly they may occur and co-occur. Several human arboviruses have previously been identified, but there remain many other viral families that could be responsible for acute febrile jaundice. Here, we assessed the prevalence of human herpes viruses (HHVs) in these acute febrile jaundice disease samples. Total viral DNA was extracted from serum of 451 patients with acute febrile jaundice. We used real-time quantitative PCR to test all specimens for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). We found 21.3% had active HHV replication (13.1%, 2.4%, 6.2% and 2.4% were positive for CMV, HSV, HHV-6 and VZV, respectively), and that nearly half (45.8%) of these infections were characterized by co-infection either among HHVs or between HHVs and other viral infection, sometimes associated with acute febrile jaundice previously identified. Our results show that the role of HHV primary infection or reactivation in contributing to acute febrile jaundice disease identified through the yellow fever surveillance program should be routinely considered in diagnosing these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Febre Amarela , Citomegalovirus , DNA Viral , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Humanos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 912, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entecavir (ETV) is recommended as a first-line anti-HBV treatment. However, many chronic hepatitis B patients initiate anti-HBV treatment such as lamivudine and telbivudine with low genetic barriers in China, which leads to compensatory mutations and increases the rate of ETV resistance. The management of ETV resistance in China is an essential clinical issue. METHODS: Patients from 2011 to 2017 with nucleos(t)ide analog resistance were screened and 72 patients with ETV resistance were included. These patients received different rescue therapies including an ETV and adefovir (ADV) combination therapy group (n = 25), a tenofovir (TDF) monotherapy group (n = 27), and an ETV and TDF combination therapy group (n = 20). Virologic, biochemical, and serologic responses were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: The rate of ETV resistance among all HBV-resistant variants increased from 6.04% in 2011 to 15.02% in 2017. TDF monotherapy and TDF combination groups showed similar rates of negative HBV DNA at 48 weeks (74.07% vs 70.00%, P > 0.05), while the ETV and ADV group showed the worst virologic response (28.00%). Also, TDF monotherapy and TDF combination therapy showed similar decline of HBV DNA at weeks 12, 24, and 48. There was no significant difference in the rates of HBeAg clearance, ALT normalization, and abnormal renal function among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: TDF monotherapy showed a comparable virologic response to TDF and ETV combination therapy and a better virologic response than ETV and ADV combination therapy. Thus, TDF monotherapy is the preferred rescue therapy for ETV resistance.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 922, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum alanine transaminase (ALT) flares occur frequently in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected mothers with antepartum antiviral therapy (AVT). We aimed to characterize the T cell immunity in HBV-infected mothers experiencing postpartum ALT flares. METHODS: Twenty HBV-infected pregnant women who received AVT at 26-28 weeks of gestation were enrolled and followed up until 15-18 weeks postpartum. Among the 20 HBV-infected pregnant women, 6 experienced postpartum ALT flare (AF mothers), while 14 did not (NAF mothers). T lymphocyte phenotypes and functions were analyzed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Compared to NAF mothers, the quantitative HBsAg levels in AF mothers decreased significantly at 6-8 or 15-18 weeks postpartum. Significant differences in HBeAg levels between these groups were only found at delivery. Regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in AF mothers were lower than those of NAF mothers before AVT; however, there were no significant differences in Treg numbers at other follow-up points. Expression of other T cell phenotypes were similar between the two groups. T cells in AF mothers produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-2) or less anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) than those in NAF mothers before, during, or after antiviral treatment. The ratio of IFN-γ to IL-10 producing by CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells was higher in AF mothers than that in NAF mothers during pregnancy or after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of T cell immunity was distinct between mothers with postpartum ALT flare and those without ALT flare from pregnancy to postpartum, which indicated that T cell immunity might get involved in postpartum ALT flare.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Alanina Transaminase , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
13.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e08072020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495262

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem; therefore, we aimed to report HBV genotypes in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 103 HBsAg-positive samples were subjected to HBV genotyping and subgenotyping. RESULTS: The following genetic compositions of samples were found: F-54% (F2-83.33%), A-40% (A1-65%), D-6%, C2-1%, E-1%, and G-1%. CONCLUSIONS: Some genotypes are only prevalent in certain parts of the world; however, the State of Ceará is a hub for migration and has one of the most important liver transplantation centers in Brazil, which can explain the prevalence of the F genotype.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Hepatite B , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Genótipo , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Prevalência
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(71): 8977-8980, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486619

RESUMO

This study reports a photoelectrochemical biosensor for dopamine-loaded liposome-encoded magnetic beads cleaved by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas 12a system for the quantification of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related DNA using neodymium-doped BiOBr nanosheets (Nd-BiOBr) as a photoactive matrix. Magnetic beads and dopamine-loaded liposomes are covalently attached to the both ends of ssDNA to construct dumbbell-shaped dopamine-loaded liposome-encoded magnetic bead (DLL-MB) probes. When the guide RNA binds to the target HPV-16, the ssDNA will be cleaved by Cas12a, thereby degrading the double dumbbell probes. After magnetic separation, the dissolved DLLs are treated with Triton X-100 to release the dopamine (as an electron donor), which was then detected by an amplified photocurrent using the Nd-BiOBr-based photoelectrode.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA Viral/análise , Endodesoxirribonucleases/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Dopamina/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Fluoresceínas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Papillomavirus Humano 16/química , Lipossomos/química , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Processos Fotoquímicos
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009701, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551020

RESUMO

The speed of development, versatility and efficacy of mRNA-based vaccines have been amply demonstrated in the case of SARS-CoV-2. DNA vaccines represent an important alternative since they induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models and in human trials. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA-based vaccine regimens expressing different prefusion-stabilized Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigens upon intramuscular injection followed by electroporation in rhesus macaques. Different Spike DNA vaccine regimens induced antibodies that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and elicited robust T cell responses. The antibodies recognized and potently neutralized a panel of different Spike variants including Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Eta and A.23.1, but to a lesser extent Beta and Gamma. The DNA-only vaccine regimens were compared to a regimen that included co-immunization of Spike DNA and protein in the same anatomical site, the latter of which showed significant higher antibody responses. All vaccine regimens led to control of SARS-CoV-2 intranasal/intratracheal challenge and absence of virus dissemination to the lower respiratory tract. Vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody titers and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis inversely correlated with transient virus levels in the nasal mucosa. Importantly, the Spike DNA+Protein co-immunization regimen induced the highest binding and neutralizing antibodies and showed the strongest control against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.


Assuntos
Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Viral/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunização Passiva , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(12): 1, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473190

RESUMO

Purpose: HIV infection is associated with a variety of ocular surface diseases. Understanding the difference of the ocular microbiota between HIV-infected and healthy individuals as well as the influence of antiretroviral therapy will help to investigate the pathogenesis of these conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on subjects including HIV-negative individuals, untreated HIV-infected individuals, and HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy. Conjunctival microbiota was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing of the samples obtained from the conjunctival swab. Results: The microbial richness in ocular surface was similar in HIV-negative, untreated HIV-positive, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) subjects. The bacterial compositions were similar in the two HIV infection groups but were significantly different from the HIV-negative group. HAART changed the beta diversity of bacterial community as determined by Shannon index. CD4+ T cell count had no significant influence on the diversity of ocular microbiota in HIV-infected individuals. Conclusions: The data revealed the compositional and structural difference in conjunctival microbial community in subjects with and without HIV infection, indicating that HIV infection or its treatment, may contribute to ocular surface dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto , Bactérias/metabolismo , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , HIV , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo
17.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 63, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduction of the reservoir of latent HIV-infected cells might increase the possibility of long-term remission in individuals living with HIV. We investigated factors associated with HIV-1 proviral DNA levels in children receiving different antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategies in the children with HIV early antiretroviral therapy (CHER) trial. METHODS: Infants with HIV < 12 weeks old with CD4% ≥ 25% were randomized in the CHER trial to early limited ART for 40 or 96 weeks (ART-40 W, ART-96 W), or deferred ART (ART-Def). For ART-Def infants or following ART interruption in ART-40 W/ART-96 W, ART was started/re-started for clinical progression or CD4% < 25%. In 229 participants, HIV-1 proviral DNA was quantified by PCR from stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children who had received ≥ 24 weeks ART and two consecutive undetectable HIV-1 RNA 12-24 weeks apart. HIV-1 proviral DNA was compared between ART-Def and ART-96 W at week 96, and in all arms at week 248. Factors associated with HIV-1 proviral DNA levels were evaluated using linear regression. FINDINGS: Longer duration of ART was significantly associated with lower HIV-1 proviral DNA at both 96 (p = 0.0003) and 248 weeks (p = 0.0011). Higher total CD8 count at ART initiation was associated with lower HIV-1 proviral DNA at both 96 (p = 0.0225) and 248 weeks (p = 0.0398). Week 248 HIV-1 proviral DNA was significantly higher in those with positive HIV-1 serology at week 84 than those with negative serology (p = 0.0042). INTEPRETATION: Longer ART duration is key to HIV-1 proviral DNA reduction. Further understanding is needed of the effects of "immune-attenuation" through early HIV-1 exposure. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, National Institutes of Health, Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Criança , DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Carga Viral , Latência Viral
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 175, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584601

RESUMO

Introduction: viral infection caused by hepatitis B virus is the most frequent transfusion-transmitted viral infection. Although the search for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood banks has significantly reduced the risk for transfusion-transmitted virus infection, there is still a residual transfusion risk of transmission from donors with occult hepatitis B. Blood bags containing aHBc with or without aHBs and viral DNA can cause infections and represent a threat to transfusion safety when aHBc levels are undetectable. The purpose of this study is to determine the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) as well as at the St Martin de Porres's Catholic Hospital (SMPCH) in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study among blood donors at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) and the St Martin de Porres's Catholic Hospital. In these subjects the search for aHBc and/or the aHBs was conducted by immunochromatography. HBV DNA test was performed on blood samples tested positive for aHBc and/or aHBs by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique using specific primers. Results: out of a total of 193 blood donors negative for HIV, HBV (HBsAg), HCV serological markers and treponema infections, the overall seroprevalence of aHBc and/or aHBs was 9,84% (19/193). Out of a total of 19 potentially infected donors, HBV DNA was detected in 03 individuals, including 02 aHBc carriers and 01 carrier of both aHBc and aHBs, reflecting a prevalence of occult hepatitis B of 15,79% (3/19) [IC 95% =3,38%-39,58%] and a residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus of 1,55% (3/193) [IC 95% =0,32%-4,48%]. Conclusion: this study shows that the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus is low. However, it is recommended to screan blood donors for aHBc and/or aHBs.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Seleção do Doador/métodos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Segurança do Sangue/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue/normas , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360884

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been reported to be present in different types of human cancers, including CRCs, where they can play a key role in the onset and/or progression of these cancers. Thus, we herein explored the prevalence of high-risk HPVs and EBV in a cohort of 94 CRC tissue samples and 13 colorectal normal tissues from the Lebanese population using polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and tissue microarray methodologies. We found that high-risk HPVs are present in 64%, while EBV is present in 29% of our CRC samples. Additionally, our data showed that high-risk HPV types (16, 18, 35, 58, 51, 45, 52, 31, and 33) are the most frequent in CRC in the Lebanese cohort, respectively. Our data point out that HPVs and EBV are copresent in 28% of the samples. Thus, this study clearly suggests that high-risk HPVs and EBV are present/copresent in CRCs, where they could play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, further investigations using a larger cohort are needed to elucidate the possible cooperation between these oncoviruses in the development of CRC.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2937-2942, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347169

RESUMO

The genus Gyrovirus was assigned to the family Anelloviridae in 2017 with only one recognized species, Chicken anemia virus. Over the last decade, many diverse viruses related to chicken anemia virus have been identified but not classified. Here, we provide a framework for the classification of new species in the genus Gyrovirus and communicate the establishment of nine new species. We adopted the 'Genus + freeform epithet' binomial system for the naming of these species.


Assuntos
Gyrovirus/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Anelloviridae/classificação , Anelloviridae/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/classificação , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Viral/genética , Gyrovirus/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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