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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-11-10. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0035).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55138

RESUMO

This fact sheet highlights the link between alcohol consumption and violence. It explains how the effects of drinking depend on factors such as the amount consumed, cultural norms, and the particular setting. It also stresses the serious consequences of alcohol-fueled aggression and violence: homicides, sexual violence, and child abuse and neglect (also related to spending on drink rather than the child).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Violência , Agressão , Delitos Sexuais , Maus-Tratos Infantis
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-04. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0035).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55109

RESUMO

Esta hoja informativa destaca la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y la violencia. Explica cómo los efectos del consumo de alcohol dependen de factores como la cantidad consumida, las normas culturales y el entorno concreto, y también subraya las graves consecuencias de la agresión y la violencia alimentadas por el alcohol.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Violência , Agressão , Homicídio , Delitos Sexuais
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769825

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are linked to various conduct and behavior problems within juvenile delinquents, but fewer studies focused on these associations among specific forensic typologies of offending. Utilizing data from 3382 institutionalized delinquents in Texas, logistic regression models indicated multiple associations between ACEs and forensic typologies in both adjusted and unadjusted models, with sexual abuse and physical abuse emerging as the most consistent and robust predictors. Supplemental sensitivity models confirmed the associations between sexual abuse and physical abuse among youth who fit multiple forensic typologies. Models fared poorly at identifying youth who are engaged in fire setting. Implications for total and singular ACEs are discussed, along with how those relate to more clinically meaningful, forensic forms of juvenile delinquency.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Delinquência Juvenil , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Criança , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Abuso Físico
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769862

RESUMO

Juvenile perpetrators account for over 25% of all sexual offenses, and over one-third of such offenses are against victims under the age of 18. Given empirical connections between adverse childhood experience (ACE) exposure and perpetration of violence, we create victim typologies based on the juveniles' relationship to their victims among 5539 justice-involved adolescents who have committed violent against-person sexual felonies. Multinomial logistic regression is used to assess which covariates, including individual ACE exposures and cumulative traumatic exposures, are associated with victim typologies. This approach allows for better targeting of violence prevention efforts, as a more nuanced understanding of the increased likelihood to victimize specific victim groups lends to potential differences in treatment provision, beyond simplistic findings regarding ACE exposure increasing offending. Results indicate five classes of victim types, ranging from a low of 6.4%, with primarily strangers as victims, to 31.3%, with predominately acquaintances as victims, and only 12.9% with a diverse array of relationships to victims. Importantly, many demographic and individual risk factors, and specific traumatic exposures were related to victimizing one's sibling, while cumulative trauma as measured by an ACE score decreased the likelihood of victimizing classmates, while increasing the likelihood of victimizing siblings and other relatives compared to victimizing acquaintances.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Humanos , Violência
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770048

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the lifetime exposure to serious life events in people with visual impairment compared with the general population. Data were derived from a telephone survey including a probability sample of 736 adults with visual impairment (response rate: 61%). The lifetime prevalence of direct experiences with seventeen different categories of serious life events (Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5)) were compared to that obtained from the general Norwegian population (N = 1792, 36% response rate). Altogether, 68% of people with visual impairment had been directly exposed to at least one serious life event, with equal rates among males and females (p = 0.59). The prevalence of serious life events was higher than for the general population (60%, p < 0.001), especially for fire or explosions, serious accidents, sexual assaults, life-threatening illness or injury, and severe human suffering. In conclusion, our results indicate that people with visual impairment are more prone to experiencing serious life events. This highlights the need for preventive strategies that reduce the risk of serious life events in this population.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Baixa Visão , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(5): 424-438, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596432

RESUMO

Associations between sexual risk behavior (SRB) and sexual violence perpetration (SVP) contribute to the intersecting HIV and sexual violence epidemics in South Africa. We examined SVP and SRB, and their potential correlates among South African boys (N = 80; ages 15-17). Fifty-one percent endorsed SVP in the past year; 61% engaged in past-3-month SRB. Whereas most unique correlates were socio-structural, family, or community factors, correlates shared across behaviors were behavior-specific social norm perceptions and cognitive factors. In final multivariate models, food insecurity and positive attitudes toward delaying sex were associated with SVP (odds ratios [ORs] = 3.05 and 0.37, respectively), and community violence exposure, gender equitable social norm perceptions, positive attitudes toward delaying sex, and intentions to obtain sexual consent were associated with SRBs (ORs = 1.56-1.57, 0.90-0.38, 0.58-0.60, respectively). Interventions to address HIV/sexual violence risk among adolescents in South Africa should be integrated and multilevel.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Infecções por HIV , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(10): 531-539, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622818

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Athletes are vulnerable to sexual violence. Perpetrators of sexual violence may be a trusted coach, a member of the health care team, or a peer. The consequences of sexual violence are wide ranging, resulting in immediate and long-term physical and mental health outcomes that require recognition and comprehensive, multidisciplinary care. Sports medicine providers need to have specific knowledge and skill to care for athletes who experience sexual violence. Several sports organizations (e.g., International Olympic Committee, United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and the National Athletic Trainers' Association) have developed policies and procedures to prevent sexual violence and help sports medicine specialists provide care and services for athletes affected by sexual violence. Nevertheless, there remains a need for clinical guidelines, screening tools, and education, as well as clinical best practices to address sexual violence in sports medicine.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Medicina Esportiva , Esportes , Atletas , Humanos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 601, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence (SV) is an important public health problem which may cause long-lasting health problems. SV in older adults remains neglected in research, policies and practices. Valid SV prevalence estimates and associated risk factors in older adults are currently unavailable. In this study we measured lifetime and past 12-months sexual victimisation in older adults living in Belgium, its correlates, assailant characteristics and the way that victims framed their SV experiences. METHODS: SV was measured using behaviourally specific questions based on a broad definition of SV. Participants were selected via a cluster random probability sampling with a random route finding approach. Information on sexual victimisation, correlates, assailant characteristics and framing was collected via structured face-to-face interviews with adults aged 70 years and older living in Belgium (community-dwelling, assisted living and nursing homes). RESULTS: Among the 513 participants, the lifetime SV prevalence was 44% (55% F, 29% M). Past 12-months prevalence was 8% (9% F, 8% M). Female sex and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with lifetime SV (p < .05), non-heterosexual sexual orientation with past 12-months SV (p < .05). Correlates identified to be linked to elder abuse and neglect in previous studies were not linked with SV in our sample. 'Someone unknown' was identified as most common assailant. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual victimisation appears to be common in older adults in Belgium. Both correlates and assailant characteristics seem to differ from previous studies on elder abuse and neglect. Recognizing older adults as a risk group for sexual victimisation in research, policies and practices is of the utmost importance.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Abuso de Idosos , Delitos Sexuais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
9.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 266: 77-82, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to examine epidemiological data and identify risk factors for sexual assault. This study included women seeking care at the Geneva University Hospitals emergency obstetrics and gynaecological unit. METHOD: Retrospective, sociodemographic, and clinical data were collected from the medical reports. RESULTS: We reviewed 836 medical charts and registered 92.8 women and girls per year who consulted the emergency department after sexual assault. The average age was 26 (±12) years, with a median of 23 years. Body lesions were reported in 525 patients (63%) and genital traumatic lesions were reported in 230 (28%) patients. Sexual assault by a stranger was reported in 436 cases (52%). Thirty percent of patients knew their aggressor. Aggressions were predominantly committed on the weekend, accounting for 367 cases (46%), with nearly two-thirds (65%, n = 474) occurring between 10 pm and 6 am. In total, 399 (48%) patients who were sexually assaulted reported having consumed alcohol and 102 (12%) reported having taken drugs prior to the aggression; 80 (10%) patients had consumed both and 286 (34%) had amnesia. Half of the sample sought and received medical care within 24 h from the time the aggression took place. CONCLUSION: Sexual assault risk factors in our study population in Geneva included use of drugs and alcohol, with amnesia. Future prevention and education interventions should target these areas.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual
11.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 2861-2873, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676467

RESUMO

Sexual minority men disproportionately experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) compared to heterosexual men, resulting in greater risk of psychiatric and substance use diagnoses, sexual risk taking, and HIV acquisition later in life. However, little is known about psychiatric and substance use disparities between gay and bisexual men who have experienced CSA. We recruited a purposive convenience sample in Boston and Miami, involving self-report and clinical interview data from 290 sexual minority men (M age = 38.0 years) who reported CSA, defined as unwanted sexual contact before 13 years of age with an adult or person five years older, or unwanted sexual contact between 13 and 16 years of age with a person 10 years older (or any age with the threat of force or harm). We compared those who self-identified as gay (n = 199) versus bisexual (n = 64) on demographic and structural variables (i.e., government benefits, unstable housing, and neighborhood crime) as well as psychiatric and substance use diagnoses. Across 15 unique diagnoses, three were more common in bisexual men than gay men in unadjusted models: bipolar disorder (OR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.01-8.34), obsessive compulsive disorder (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.01-4.88), and alcohol use disorder (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.03-3.38). Bisexual men were also more likely to meet criteria for "any substance use disorder" than were gay men (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.10-3.59). However, when race, education, and income were included as covariates, the odds ratios reduced significantly (bipolar disorder: aOR = 1.98, 95% CI: 0.59-6.61; obsessive compulsive disorder: aOR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.64-3.77; alcohol use disorder, aOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 0.80-2.98; any substance use disorder, aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 0.93-3.45, respectively). Our results highlight the mental health needs, including problematic substance use, of bisexual men with histories of CSA, as well as the importance of accounting for potential confounding demographic variables that may influence disparities in mental health and substance use.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Bissexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 3201-3222, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697692

RESUMO

Despite experiencing high rates of sexual violence, there is limited research that explores coping and support needs among trans women of color and those from migrant backgrounds. This article examines the impact of sexual violence, as well as responses and support needs in relation to sexual violence, among 31 trans women of color, aged between 18-54 years, living in Australia. Women were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling, local LGBTQI + networks, and social media. Study advertisements invited participation from people 18 years and older, who identified as a "trans woman of color" or "trans woman from a non-English speaking background," to take part in a study about their lives as trans women of color and experiences of sexual violence. In-depth interviews and photovoice took place between September 2018 and September 2019. Findings were analyzed through thematic analysis, drawing on intersectionality theory. Sexual violence was reported to be associated with fear, anxiety, and depression, and, for a minority of women, self-blame. While women reported hypervigilance and avoiding going out in public as measures to anticipate and protect themselves from sexual violence, they also demonstrated agency and resilience. This included putting time and effort into appearing as a cisgender woman, naming violence, seeking support, rejecting self-blame, and engaging in self-care practices to facilitate healing. Trans women highlighted the need for multi-faceted sexual violence prevention activities to encourage education, empowerment and cultural change across the general population and support services, in order to promote respect for gender, sexuality and cultural diversity.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Migrantes , Transexualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
13.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 508-522, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Young people in sub-Saharan Africa face one of the world's highest burdens of sexual violence. Previous impact evaluations indicated that a 6-week empowerment-based behavioral intervention in Nairobi informal (slum) settlements can reduce sexual assault. This qualitative study investigated girls' and boys' experiences of the intervention to identify potential mechanisms of change. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study in Nairobi slums with students (aged 15-21 years) who had participated in 2 parallel school-based curriculums called IMPower (girls) and Your Moment of Truth (boys) at least 1 year ago. Data were collected via 10 focus group discussions (5 for boys, 5 for girls) with 6-11 participants in each and 21 individual in-depth interviews (11 boys, 10 girls) that explored participants' experiences of the intervention and their suggestions for improvement. Findings were analyzed using thematic network analysis guided by empowerment theory. RESULTS: Girls described how the intervention enabled them to recognize and resist sexual assault via verbal and physical strategies for self-protection, negotiate sexual consent, and exercise agency. Boys described increased ability to avoid risky behaviors and "bad" peer groups and to understand and respect consent. Girls also described how the intervention strengthened their self-confidence, and boys said that it boosted positive life values and gender-equal attitudes. Skilled facilitators and interactive and relevant content were highlighted as key to intervention success. Areas of improvement included expanding the curriculum to contain more content on sexual and reproductive health and rights and involving out-of-school youth, parents, teachers, and communities. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that a relatively short, behavioral school-based intervention can empower both girls and boys to prevent various forms of sexual violence in a low-income setting where it is endemic. Incorporating multilevel support structures, such as involving communities and families, could further enhance young people's long-term safety, health, and well-being.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Empoderamento , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual
14.
Maturitas ; 153: 48-60, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among adults. Over 35% of women worldwide report lifetime exposure to sexual violence. While psychosocial factors broadly have been linked to CVD risk, it is unclear if a history of sexual violence is associated with increased risk for CVD. This study employed quantitative meta-analysis to investigate the association between sexual violence and CVD risk. METHODS: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched through March 1, 2021. Included articles had a measure of sexual violence and at least one cardiovascular outcome (i.e., clinical CVD, subclinical CVD, select CVD risk factors) in women and men aged 18 years or older. Data were expressed as odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) extracted from fully-adjusted models. OR and HR effects were pooled separately, given the inability to statistically harmonize these effects and differences in interpretation, using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of effects was tested using Cochran's Q test. RESULTS: Overall, 45 articles based on 830,579 adults (77.1% women) were included (113 individual effects expressed as OR and 9 individual effects expressed as HR). Results indicated that sexual violence was related to adult CVD risk (OR [95%CI] = 1.25 [1.11-1.40]; HR [95%CI] = 1.17 [1.05-1.31]). Results varied by outcome type and measurement, and timing of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with a history of sexual violence demonstrate greater CVD risk relative to those without this history. The results highlight the importance of addressing sexual violence in CVD risk reduction efforts.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peacekeeper-perpetrated sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) account for 36% of the global reports of formal SEA allegations to the UN between 2007 and 2021. However, formally reported SEA represents only a fraction of that which occurs, and community experiences of peacekeeper-perpetrated SEA are likely different than those reflected in official UN documents. METHODS: Using mixed-methods, cross-sectional data collected in the DRC in 2018, we used descriptive analysis and multivariate Poisson regression with robust error estimates to examine the participant and narrative characteristics associated with sharing an experience about peacekeeper-perpetrated SEA. RESULTS: Participants in Bukavu (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 0.85, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.91) and Kalemie (aRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.81) were less likely to share narratives about sexual interactions, while civilian UN personnel (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.34) were slightly more likely to be implicated in narratives about sexual interactions. Narratives in which the outcome was deemed fair to the woman/girl were more likely to be about sexual interactions (aRR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12). Both the regression analysis and the participants' interpretation of the shared narratives illustrated the significant role poverty played in SEA, suggesting that the outcomes of sexual interactions may have been deemed fair since affected women/girls were perceived to have benefited financially/materially. CONCLUSION: There is significant variation between host communities in the likelihood of sharing narratives about SEA, which could prove useful for informing more targeted SEA prevention initiatives. Narratives about sexual interactions with UN personnel were more often deemed to have fair outcomes for the affected women/girls, likely related to ongoing poverty in host communities and perceived financial/material gain. These findings highlight how extreme poverty may impact perceptions around informed consent as well as fairness and require further study. Perceptions around fair outcomes would disincentivise formal reporting, which needs to be considered when devising community-based complaint networks.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos
17.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 5(3): 427-441, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533187

RESUMO

Originally relatively ignored in forensic investigations because its genetic analysis lacks inference of individual identification, the value of Y chromosome analysis has been proven in cases of sexual assault, particularly where the amount of material left by a male assailant is limited in comparison with female DNA. All routine analysis of autosomal DNA, however, targets a gene (AMELY) on the Y chromosome in order to identify the sex of the DNA source and this is discussed in the context of the genetic structure of this male-specific chromosome. Short-tandem repeat markers on the chromosome are tested in dedicated multiplexes that have developed over time and these are described alongside international guidance as to their use in a forensic setting. As a marker of lineage, the Y chromosome provides additional tools to assist in the inference of ancestry, both geographical and familial and the value of Y chromosome testing is illustrated through descriptions of cases of criminal and historical interest. A decision to analyse the Y chromosome has to be considered in the context, not only of the circumstances of the case, but also with regard to the ethical questions it might raise, and these are discussed in relation to the cases that have been described in more detail in the accompanying online supplementary material.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Delitos Sexuais , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501964

RESUMO

Sexual abuse of children is increasing at an alarming rate. This study aims to describe the risk factors and the effects of sexual abuse on children. This unobtrusive qualitative study was conducted on children aged 10 to 18 years old who experienced sexual abuse and followed-up at a psychiatric clinic between the years 2019 and 2021. The information from case records was transcribed. Thematic analysis was performed. Thirty case records were reviewed. The mean age of the victims was 14.6 years; 94% of the victims had experienced vaginal penetration, and 23% of the cases involved incest. The results indicated that socio-psychological predisposing factors involving family structure and dynamic dysfunction, low intrapersonal strength, social influence, and low family socioeconomic status could lead to sexual victimization. This sexual victimization can then lead to emotional turmoil, negative effects on cognitive, academic and social function, negative parental reactions toward the incident, the creation of baby-mother relationships and love-hate relationships, and a lack of goals and hope for the future. Children who experienced sexual abuse may show rape or pregnancy symptoms but may also show entirely non-specific ones. A thorough examination of their history, including biopsychosocial aspects, is necessary to appropriately care for them.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incesto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1326-1331, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555003

RESUMO

Nonheterosexual (sexual minority) women report experiencing more sexual violence than heterosexual (sexual majority) women (1,2). Sexual minority women are often categorized as a collective whole, which fails to capture the nuances in sexual violence among subgroups of sexual minority women, such as bisexual and lesbian women (3). To estimate the prevalence of lifetime forced vaginal intercourse (forced sex) and of nonvoluntary first vaginal intercourse among women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed data from female respondents who were interviewed during 2011-2017 for the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); respondents were stratified by self-reported sexual identity, attraction, and behavior. Log-binomial regressions and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed to compare experiences across each dimension of sexual orientation, controlling for demographic characteristics. Compared with sexual majority women,* prevalence of any male-perpetrated nonvoluntary first vaginal intercourse or forced sex (nonvoluntary or forced sex) was higher among women who identified as bisexual (36.1% versus 17.5%), reported attraction to the opposite and same sex (30.3% versus 15.8%), and reported sexual behavior with the opposite and same sex (35.7% versus 15.9%). These sexual minority women reported that their earliest experience of nonvoluntary or forced sex occurred at younger ages than did that of sexual majority women. Among women who were unsure of their sexual attraction, the prevalence of nonvoluntary first vaginal intercourse was also higher than among sexual majority women. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive prevention approaches tailored for sexual minority women and prevention of child sexual abuse, given the average ages at earliest nonvoluntary or forced sex experience among sexual minority women (range = 12.5-16.3 years). Additional research is needed into the circumstances of and norms or attitudes that influence perpetration of nonvoluntary or forced sex and broader sexual violence against sexual minority women. Prevention of nonvoluntary or forced sex victimization among sexual minority women will require comprehensive approaches to prevent sexual violence and child sexual abuse. Engaging sexual minority women in the development of sexual violence prevention efforts and research would help ensure that the experiences of sexual minority women across the spectrum are represented.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 116(7): 627-634, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533583

RESUMO

Relevant exposure to important infectious pathogens can occur during sexual assault. If there is a latent period between exposure and illness due to an infection with pathogens, a postexposure prophylaxis can effectively inhibit the infection. In the present review article possible postexposure prophylaxis treatment for tetanus, hepatitis B, HIV and hepatitis A are discussed with a focus on the time window within which a specific regimen should be started and in which temporal order. These recommendations are based on the epidemiologic conditions in Germany. Moreover, the two most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial infections, namely Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis are presented, as victims of sexual assault in particular often do not return for control investigations in an outpatient setting.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão
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