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1.
Psychol Sci Public Interest ; 25(1): 4-29, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832574

RESUMO

What solutions can we find in the research literature for preventing sexual violence, and what psychological theories have guided these efforts? We gather all primary prevention efforts to reduce sexual violence from 1985 to 2018 and provide a bird's-eye view of the literature. We first review predominant theoretical approaches to sexual-violence perpetration prevention by highlighting three interventions that exemplify the zeitgeist of primary prevention efforts at various points during this time period. We find a throughline in primary prevention interventions: They aim to change attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge (i.e., ideas) to reduce sexual-violence perpetration and victimization. Our meta-analysis of these studies tests the efficacy of this approach directly and finds that although many interventions are successful at changing ideas, behavior change does not follow. There is little to no relationship between changing attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge and reducing victimization or perpetration. We also observe trends over time, including a shift from targeting a reduction in perpetration to targeting an increase in bystander intervention. We conclude by highlighting promising new strategies for measuring victimization and perpetration and calling for interventions that are informed by theories of behavior change and that center sexually violent behavior as the key outcome of interest.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Prevenção Primária , Teoria Psicológica
2.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 26(1): 28-37, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837043

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offences with Testosterone-Lowering Medication (TLM) is a comparatively intrusive kind of intervention, which regularly takes place in coercive contexts. Thus, the question of efficacy, but also the question of who should be treated, when and for how long, are of great importance. METHODS: Recidivism rates of TLM-treated high-risk individuals (+TLM; n = 54) were compared with high-risk individuals treated with psychotherapy only in the same forensic outpatient clinic (-TLM; n = 79). RESULTS: Group differences suggested a higher initial risk of + TLM (e.g. higher ris-assessment, previous convictions). Despite the increased risk, after an average time at risk of six years, +TLM recidivated significantly less often and significantly later than - TLM (27.8% vs. 51.9%). Such an effect was also found for violent (1.9% vs. 15.2%), but not for sexual (5.6% vs. 10.1%) and serious recidivism (5.6% vs. 10.1%), which could be explained partly by the small number of cases. In the course of treatment, TLM proved to be a significant variable for a positive process, whereas a high risk-assessment score indicated a rather negative course. In total, n = 19 individuals had stopped their TLM treatment, of these 31.6% recidivated. CONCLUSION: The results support the efficacy of TLM, particularly in the group of high-risk offenders.


Assuntos
Reincidência , Delitos Sexuais , Testosterona , Humanos , Masculino , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Emerg Med ; 67(1): e65-e68, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual assault survivors may sustain vaginal trauma that requires intervention in the emergency department, or operating room. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 16-year-old female who was referred to the emergency department for evaluation of continued bleeding from a vaginal laceration following sexual assault 38 h prior. The bleeding limited the medical forensic medical examination, but she was hemodynamically stable. After the application of tranexamic acid (TXA)-soaked gauze, the patient's bleeding was controlled and the wound was able to be evaluated and the examination completed. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature that describes the use of topical TXA in a patient to achieve hemostasis in a vaginal laceration sustained from sexual violence.


Assuntos
Administração Tópica , Antifibrinolíticos , Lacerações , Ácido Tranexâmico , Vagina , Humanos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Adolescente , Lacerações/complicações , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Vagina/lesões , Delitos Sexuais , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
5.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304459, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a significant global public health problem and a violation of human rights experienced by one in three women worldwide. This study explores community perceptions of and responses to VAWG and challenges in accessing support services among female violence survivors in Arbaminch City. METHODS: We adopted a phenomenological explorative qualitative study design. A total of 62 participants including female violence survivors, religious leaders, service providers, police, women, and men in participated in interviews, focus group discussions, and observations in August 2022. Participants were selected purposively, and the findings were analyzed thematically. We applied data source and respondent triangulation to increase the findings' trustworthiness. RESULTS: Community perceptions of VAWG, specifically of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual violence (NPSV), varied depending on gender, age, and social position. IPV and NPSV were normalized through tolerance and denial by young and married men, while resistance to all forms of violence was common among women. Survivors of violence responded to the act of violence by leaving their homes, separating from their husbands, or taking harsh actions against their husbands, such as murder. Support for VAWG survivors was available through health care, free legal services, and a temporary shelter. Yet factors ranging from individual to societal levels, such as fear, lack of knowledge, lack of family and community support, and social and legal injustice, were barriers to accessing existing services. Nonetheless, violence survivors desired to speak about their experiences and seek psychosocial support. CONCLUSIONS: Our qualitative evidence gathered here can inform tailored VAWG prevention and response services such as interventions to shift social norms and the perception towards VAWG among different population group through raising awareness in schools, health care settings, faith-based venues, and using social media.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Etiópia , Masculino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Focais , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297650, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865311

RESUMO

This paper uses data from the American Voices Project, an interview study based on a random population sample, to explore the relationship between assault experiences and how people narrate their lives. Using quantitative sentiment analysis, we find that survivors of assault express significantly greater negative sentiment when asked to tell their life stories. These negative sentiments are observable throughout the entire interview, including before questions of assault are asked. Survivors of assault narrate their experiences with more anger, disgust, fear, and sadness, and less anticipation, joy, and trust than those who do not report assault experiences. We provide evidence that the negative sentiment associated with sexual violence is greater than having lost a parent and less than having experienced a significant financial hardship within the last month. We contextualize these findings with a qualitative evaluation of the interview transcripts, further substantiating our finding. Overall, this paper suggests that sexual violence is part of what we have called, drawing inspiration from the work of Beth Richie, a "matrix of harm" that structures people's lives. While our finding is consistent with what we might expect given the negative life experiences and sequalae associated with sexual assault, it has important implications. Sentimental differences in narrating life experience are an important yet relatively understudied phenomenon, and experiences of assault are rarely asked about yet may be consequential to both quantitative and qualitative accounts of social processes.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Sobreviventes , Humanos , Feminino , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Masculino , Adulto , Narração , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Ira , Adolescente , Emoções
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302363, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875238

RESUMO

With increasing violence, political, and economic instability in Latin America, there is a record number of migrants crossing the U.S. southern border. Latin American migrants are often exposed to traumatic events before leaving their home country and during migration. While prior studies document that sex may play a role in types of traumatic exposure, few studies compare differences in traumatic exposure by sex and place of occurrence of recently arrived immigrants. Addressing this gap, we recruited 120 adults who had recently crossed the U.S.-Mexico border. Participants completed questionnaires to characterize trauma exposures in their home country and during their migration journey. Results found that men reported higher levels of exposure to combat situations, while women were more likely to experience sexual assault. Both combat exposure and sexual traumas occurred more often in home countries than during migration. More than half of the full sample reported being threatened with a firearm. These data confirm gender differences in type of trauma and that exposures in the country of origin may provide the impetus to migrate.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , América Latina/etnologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , México/epidemiologia , México/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adolescente
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 360: 112070, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. These STIs are frequently asymptomatic, which often delays diagnosis and treatment with the risk of serious long-term complications. Current French recommendations call for targeted screening of populations considered to be at risk, including victims of sexual assault. However, no recent data on the prevalence of these STIs in this population are available in France. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of CT/NG infections among victims of sexual assault attending three Clinical Forensic Units (CFUs). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the forensic records of patients aged over 12 years reporting a sexual assault and referred between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021 to the CFU of Montpellier, Angers or Saint-Denis de La Réunion. Patients who had been screened for CT and NG infections were included. RESULTS: 341 alleged victims of sexual assault (324 women, 17 men, median age = 23 years) were screened for CT/NG STIs during the inclusion period (Montpellier, n=196; Angers, n=63; Saint-Denis, n=82). The median time between the sexual assault and the examination was 1 day. CT and NG were detected in 28 patients (8.2 %) and 8 patients (2.3 %) respectively, with no men tested positive. Positive results concerned genital samples, except for two CT-positive anorectal samples and one NG-positive oropharyngeal sample. Two patients (0.6 %) were co-infected with CT/NG. The overall prevalence of CT/NG STIs was 10.0 % and was higher in the 18-24 age group, reaching 13.2 % for CT. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter study confirms the high prevalence of CT/NG STIs in victims of sexual assault, and the vulnerability of the youngest age groups to these infections. Systematic screening for CT/NG STIs at the time of the forensic examination is the key to early diagnosis and effective treatment to prevent transmission and subsequent complications in these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Vítimas de Crime , Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Humanos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Prevalência , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Medicina Legal
9.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241252958, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of sexual assault and intimate partner violence often face many challenges in seeking/receiving healthcare and are often lost to follow up. OBJECTIVES: Our study objectives are to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction of using telemedicine technology among sexual assault and intimate partner violence patients who present to a Canadian Emergency Department. DESIGN: Qualitative research was conducted using a thematic approach. METHODS: Patients were identified from a case registry of all sexual assault and intimate partner violence cases seen between 1 April 2020 and 31 March 2022 from an emergency department of a large Canadian hospital. Qualitative trauma-informed interviews were conducted with consenting participants. Thematic qualitative analyses were performed to investigate barriers and drivers of telemedicine for follow-up care. RESULTS: Of the 1007 sexual assault and intimate partner violence patients seen during the study timeframe, 180 (8%) consented to be contacted for future research, and 10 completed an interview regarding telemedicine for follow-up care. All participants were cisgendered women, 5 (50%) experienced sexual assault, 6 (60%) physical assault, and 3 (30%) verbal assault. All knew their assailant, and 6 (60%) were assaulted by a current or former intimate partner. Three themes emerged as drivers of telemedicine use: increased comfort, increased convenience, and less time required for the appointment. Three thematic barriers to telemedicine use included lack of privacy from others, lack of safety from their assailant, and pressure to balance competing tasks during the appointment. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated that telemedicine for sexual assault and intimate partner violence follow-up care is feasible, acceptable, and can improve patient satisfaction with follow-up care. Ensuring safety and privacy are key considerations when offering telemedicine as an appropriate option for survivors.


A qualitative analysis of telemedicine and virtual healthcare for survivors of sexual assault and intimate partner violenceWhy was the study done? Sexual assault and intimate partner violence are prevalent issues in our society. More than 3/10 Canadian women have been sexually assaulted at least once since the age of 15 years and more than 4/10 Canadian women have experienced IPV in their lifetime. Survivors face many obstacles to receiving care after sexual assault and intimate partner violence and are often lost to follow up.What did the researchers do?The researchers studied the acceptability, feasibility, and satisfaction of using telemedicine technology among sexual assault and intimate partner violence survivors who presented to a Canadian Emergency Department. Sexual assault and intimate partner violence survivors were interviewed individually about their experience receiving follow-up care via telemedicine. The interviews were done using a trauma-informed approach, and data analyses were done to explore the barriers and drivers of telemedicine for follow-up care.What did the researchers find?The total number of interviews was 10, and all participants were cisgendered women. All knew their assailant and six were assaulted by a current or former intimate partner. Survivors found that telemedicine was an accessible way to have a follow-up appointment and were mostly satisfied with their experience. Three major drivers to using telemedicine included increased comfort being at home in their own space, increased convenience as they did not have to leave their house to have the appointment, and less time required for the appointment. Three major barriers to using telemedicine included lack of privacy from others during the appointment, pressure to balance competing tasks during the appointment, and lack of safety from their assailant.What do the findings mean?This study has shown that follow-up care for sexual assault and intimate partner violence survivors using telemedicine can be feasible, acceptable, and can improve patient satisfaction. However, it is important to consider factors such as safety and privacy on an individual basis when offering telemedicine as an option for follow-up care for survivors.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Delitos Sexuais , Sobreviventes , Telemedicina , Humanos , Feminino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adulto , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Canadá , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Satisfação do Paciente
11.
Lancet Public Health ; 9(6): e365-e375, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workplace sexual violence against women is a pressing global issue with scarce knowledge on its health implications. Existing research is largely limited to specific occupations, which calls for comprehensive, population-based studies. This study aimed to examine the associations between self-labelled workplace sexual violence and a variety of health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Icelandic women aged 18-69 years. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study were women in the Stress-And-Gene-Analysis (SAGA) cohort who answered the question regarding workplace sexual violence, defined in our study as encompassing all work sectors, academic settings, and other school environments. Eligible participants were women, aged 18-69 years, residing in Iceland, who spoke Icelandic and were listed in the Icelandic Population Register or had a contact number registered with the online 1819 service. Poisson and binomial regressions were used to assess the associations between workplace sexual violence and validated measures of current mental and physical health outcomes (eg, probable depression, general anxiety, and severe sleep problems). Multiple imputation was performed to account for missing values in the dataset. FINDINGS: The study was conducted from March 1, 2018, to July 1, 2019. Of the 113 814 women deemed eligible for study inclusion, 104 197 were invited to take part in the online survey. Of those invited, 30 403 women completed the survey and were included in the SAGA cohort. Among these participants, 15 812 provided answers to the question regarding exposure to workplace sexual harassment or violence. Exposure to sexual violence was associated with an increased prevalence of probable depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·50 [95% CI 1·41-1·60]), general anxiety (PR 1·49 [1·40-1·59]), social phobia (PR 1·62 [1·48-1·78]), self-harm (PR 1·86 [1·53-2·28]), suicidal ideation (PR 1·68 [1·44-1·68]), suicide attempts (PR 1·99 [1·62-2·44]), binge drinking (PR 1·10 [1·01-1·20]), sleep problems (PR 1·41 [1·48-1·91]), physical symptoms (PR 1·59 [1·48-1·70]), and sick leave (PR 1·20 [1·12-1·28]). The prevalence of the health outcomes among those exposed show age-related differences: younger women report anxiety or depression more frequently, while older women report sleep problems after experiencing workplace sexual violence. INTERPRETATION: In this cross-sectional study self-reported experiences of sexual violence in the workplace were associated with several self-reported health outcomes. The findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to promote workplace safety and to mitigate adverse health implications among people who have experienced workplace sexual violence. Future research should explore factors such as the frequency, duration, and relationship dynamics of workplace sexual violence, as well as the effect on different genders and sexual orientations, to deepen our understanding of these experiences and inform effective prevention strategies. FUNDING: Reykjavík Energy Research Fund, The Icelandic Gender Equality Fund, European Research Council, and Icelandic Center for Research.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(6): 2319-2335, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727786

RESUMO

Growing access to technology and media has presented new avenues of influence on youth attitudes and norms regarding sexuality and sexual violence, as well as new technological pathways through which to perpetrate sexual violence. The aim of this research was to understand contextual influences on and needs for scale-up of sexual violence prevention programming in the media-violence context of Vietnam. We conducted 45 interviews with high school teachers (n = 15), university lecturers (n = 15), and affiliates from youth-focused community service organizations (n = 15) from across Vietnam. Additionally, we conducted four sector-specific focus groups with a sub-sample of interview participants (k = 4, n = 22). Media and technology were brought up consistently in relation to sexual violence prevention and sexual health information. Key informants noted that, in Vietnam, generational differences in acceptability of sex and lack of comprehensive sexuality education intersect with new technological opportunities for exposure to sexual information and media. This creates a complex landscape that can promote sexual violence through priming processes, instigate mimicry of violent media, and presents new opportunities for the perpetration of sexual violence though technology. Development of comprehensive sexual education, including violence prevention education, is imperative, with consideration of age-specific needs for Vietnamese youth.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Vietnã , Adolescente , Feminino , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Adulto , Grupos Focais , Professores Escolares/psicologia
13.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(6): 2011-2023, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696089

RESUMO

Within the US, children and adolescents who engage in sexually abusive behavior are often subjected to sex offender registration and notification requirements, which contribute to stigmatization and forfeiture of their civil rights without empirical basis (Lancaster, 2011; Pickett et al., 2023; Zilney & Zilney, 2009). To date, 39 states subject children with adjudicated sexual offenses to sex offender registration requirements, with most recent estimates revealing that approximately 200,000 youth have been placed on sex offender registries within the US and many are now on the registry as adults (Pickett et al., 2020). This severe response-by both members of the public and policymakers-toward children who engage in inappropriate sexual behavior is imposed upon children and adolescents with adjudicated sexual offenses in an effort to meet goals of reducing sexual violence and increasing community safety. Within the current discourse, we review the history of registration and notification practices for adolescents with sexual offenses, describe what registration and notification policies entail, and then present empirical and theoretical evidence of the harmful outcomes associated with implementation of registration and notification requirements for sexual offenses. Thus, the predominant aim of this discourse is to encourage thoughtful and critical examination of registration and notification policies and their iatrogenic impacts.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Adolescente , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistema de Registros , Criança , Estados Unidos , Criminosos/psicologia , Masculino , Abuso Sexual na Infância/legislação & jurisprudência , Delinquência Juvenil , Feminino
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299578, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728279

RESUMO

The leading role of the media is very important in the new media era to build the reporting system and framework of sexual violence crimes, guide people's awareness and public opinion, and improve society's vigilance on sexual crimes. This study took People's Daily Online, a representative online media in China, as a research object to analyse the reporting of sexual crimes over the past 15 years. We conducted relevant searches for specific keywords set in the Python crawler and used IBM SPSS Statistics 19 software to analyse the frequency of relevant content. The results of the research show that, firstly, there have been significant changes in the number of news stories about sexual crimes. Second, the majority of sexual crime news stories are from mainland China. Third, the focus of the news stories and people is relatively concentrated on the perpetrators. Fourth, the People's Daily Online's coverage of sexual crimes focuses on blaming the perpetrators. Fifth, sexual crimes show that the framework is more episodic. This paper examines changes in the coverage of sexual crimes in China and captures how the media cover socially relevant issues, providing important insights for future social health, psychological awareness and diversion, and media policy.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , China , Humanos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Jornais como Assunto , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Opinião Pública , População do Leste Asiático
17.
Cuad Bioet ; 35(113): 27-40, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734921

RESUMO

The consumption of pornography over the Internet by minors has been increasing exponentially in recent years. The use of digital technologies and the ease of access to these contents are causes that explain this event. Simultaneously, there is concern about the increase in sexual violence, associated with discriminatory behavior, despite the efforts of laws and programs that promote sexual reproductive health (SRH) and the principle of equality. From a bioethical point of view, it is urgent to address this issue, which affects the physical and psychological health of minors and their affective-sexual education. The study addresses whether it is possible to relate the consumption of online pornography by minors and sexual violence. To do this, legal sources, reports from associations, audiovisual councils and scientific studies are consulted. In all of them, the relationship between the consumption of online pornography by adolescents and risky behavior in emotional-sexual matters and gender inequality is evident. In the legal and fiscal sphere, it is alerted to the damage that is occurring and points out the need to propose lines of action that reverse this situation. We propose measures to technically regulate access to content. These measures are based on the precautionary principle, a tool that has been applied in fields such as health and the environment. More studies and political actions are needed to make the Internet a safe place for minors.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica , Internet , Literatura Erótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Humanos , Adolescente , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(5): 1016-1021, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, predictors and perpetrators of violence, and its impact on the mental health of female healthcare workers. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June to October 2022 at three tertiary care hospitals after approval from the ethics review board of Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised female healthcare workers, including doctors, nurses and paramedical staff. Data was collected regarding workplace violence using a structured questionnaire adopted from literature. The incidence of verbal, physical and sexual violence in the preceding 12 months was noted, and predictors were analysed. Data was analysed using SPSS 25. RESULTS: Of the 140 subjects with an age range of 16-60 years, verbal violence was experienced by 102(72.9%) and physical violence by 26(18.6%), while verbal and physical forms of sexual violence were reported by 33(23.6%) and 13(9.3%), respectively. Those in the Medicine department had significantly lower odds of experiencing verbal violence compared to those from the Surgery department (adjusted odds ratio=0.223; 95% confidence interval: 0.078-0.036; p=0.005). Those in the Emergency department had significantly greater odds of experiencing physical violence compared to those in Surgery (adjusted odds ratio=8.716; 95% confidence interval: 1.693-44.87; p=0.01). Violence had a significant detrimental impact on the mental health of female healthcare workers (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Violence was found to be prevalent in the healthcare sector, specifically in stressful and critical-care departments, like Emergency and Surgery.


Assuntos
Centros de Atenção Terciária , Violência no Trabalho , Humanos , Feminino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302827, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748666

RESUMO

This study assesses the effect of the #MeToo movement on the language used in judicial opinions on sexual violence related cases from 51 U.S. state and federal appellate courts. The study introduces various indicators to quantify the extent to which actors in courtrooms employ language that implicitly shifts responsibility away from the perpetrator and onto the victim. One indicator measures how frequently the victim is mentioned as the grammatical subject, as research in the field of psychology suggests that victims are assigned more blame the more often they are referred to as the grammatical subject. The other two indices designed to gauge the level of victim-blaming capture the sentiment of and the context in sentences referencing the perpetrator. Additionally, judicial opinions are transformed into bag-of-words and tf-idf vectors to facilitate the examination of the evolution of language over time. The causal effect of the #MeToo movement is estimated by means of a Difference-in-Differences approach comparing the development of the language in opinions on sexual offenses and other crimes against persons as well as a Panel Event Study approach. The results do not clearly identify a #MeToo-movement-induced change in the language in court but suggest that the movement may have accelerated the evolution of court language slightly, causing the effect to materialize with a significant time lag. Additionally, the study considers potential effect heterogeneity with respect to the judge's gender and political affiliation. The study combines causal inference with text quantification methods that are commonly used for classification as well as with indicators that rely on sentiment analysis, word embedding models and grammatical tagging.


Assuntos
Idioma , Humanos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino
20.
Psychol Assess ; 36(6-7): 407-424, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619490

RESUMO

The present study examined the convergent, structural, and predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO) scores in a sample of 200 men on community supervision for sexual offenses, attending forensic community outpatient services and followed up an average 8.6 years. The VRS-SO and two additional dynamic sexual recidivism risk measures-STABLE 2007 and Sex Offender Treatment Intervention and Progress Scale (SOTIPS)-were coded archivally from clinic files; Static-99R ratings were extracted. Recidivism data were captured from Royal Canadian Mounted Police records. VRS-SO static, dynamic, and total scores demonstrated expected patterns of convergence with total and subscale scores of the risk measures. Moreover, a confirmatory factor analysis of the VRS-SO dynamic item scores demonstrated acceptable model fit for a correlated three-factor solution consistent with prior confirmatory factor analyses. Discrimination analyses demonstrated that VRS-SO dynamic and total scores and STABLE 2007 scores had large prediction effects for 5-year sexual recidivism (area under the curves [AUCs] = .71-.72) while SOTIPS had a medium effect for this outcome (AUC = .67); the measures yielded medium to large effects for nonsexual recidivism. Cox regression survival analyses demonstrated that VRS-SO dynamic, Sexual Deviance factor, and SOTIPS scores each incrementally predicted sexual recidivism controlling for Static-99R or VRS-SO static factor scores. VRS-SO calibration analyses demonstrated that expected or predicted 5-year sexual recidivism rates showed generally close correspondence to the rates predicted or observed in the present community sample. Results support the psychometric properties of the VRS-SO, a sexual violence risk assessment and treatment planning measure, to a community outpatient sample. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Psicometria , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Violência/prevenção & controle , Análise Fatorial , Canadá
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