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1.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 67(1): 89-104, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695392

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are prevalent and have long lasting effects. There is evidence of gender differences in exposure to different types of ACEs, with women experiencing higher levels of sexual abuse and cumulative adversity than men. Despite this, most research examining patterns of adversities have used joint samples, assuming that men and women have comparable profiles. The current study examines if distinct profiles of childhood adversities exist for men and women and analyzes their associations with multiple forms of interpersonal victimization during adulthood. Participants were 2,709 residents (91.6% men and 8.4% women) from eight prisons in Spain, who completed a self-administered survey. Latent Class Analysis revealed different patterns of childhood adversities for men and women. For both groups, higher adversity was associated with interpersonal harm during adulthood.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Prisioneiros , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Prisões
2.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP2234-NP2254, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531857

RESUMO

Existing research explores ethical and methodological considerations associated with interviewing men, including male survivors of domestic abuse, and interviewing female survivors of domestic and sexual abuse. However, there is no comparable body of research that specifically considers interviewing male survivors of sexual violence and abuse. Reflecting upon our experiences of interviewing 32 male survivors of female-perpetrated sexual violence, we critically discuss four key ethical and methodological issues that arose; the challenges around recruiting male survivor participants; the interview process; the impacts of gender dynamics between interviewers and participants; and the importance of research to participants. Based on our reflections we make a number of recommendations for scholars who are conducting future research with male survivors of sexual violence and abuse.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Sobreviventes , Princípios Morais , Identidade de Gênero
3.
Violence Against Women ; 29(1): 65-73, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36185016

RESUMO

Campbell et al. provided a candid summary of a long-term strategic plan to address relationship violence and sexual misconduct (RVSM) at Michigan State University (MSU). Coming in the aftermath of a national scandal and public outcry regarding MSU's lack of response to RVSM on its campus, the authors describe a coordinated university community response to understanding the prevalence of RVSM on campus, developing policy to respond to RVSM, and reestablishing community and survivor trust. In this commentary, we explore the innovations and sustainability of MSU's strategic plan and its potential replicability at other institutions of higher learning.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Universidades , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Comportamento Sexual , Violência
4.
Violence Against Women ; 29(1): 74-83, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256529

RESUMO

Michigan State University (MSU) created a long-term, values-based strategic plan to increase help-seeking and reduce the incidence of relationship violence and sexual misconduct. Creating systemic change in institutions of higher education is challenging, particularly so in the wake of massive institutional crises and betrayal, as we had at MSU. In this paper, we address the challenges and critiques of our strategic planning efforts offered by esteemed scholar-activists: Jacobson López (2023), Hirsch and Khan (2023), McMahon (2023), and Boots et al. (2023).


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Universidades , Comportamento Sexual , Violência/prevenção & controle , Michigan
5.
Violence Against Women ; 29(1): 56-64, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256523

RESUMO

Although recent decades have been marked by tremendous strides in addressing relationship violence and sexual misconduct at institutions of higher education across the country, there still exists a range of degree and meaningfulness of these changes. A key question raised by Campbell et al. in the discussion of the model developed at Michigan State University (MSU) is how to align institutional commitment with actions, as well as engage in "meaningful" change. Three aspects of the MSU model that stand out as especially critical for other institutions to consider include working toward culture change, engaging the larger campus community, and conducting an ongoing evaluation.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Universidades , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Michigan , Comportamento Sexual , Violência
6.
Violence Against Women ; 29(1): 3-34, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256536

RESUMO

This paper describes a multi-year initiative at Michigan State University (MSU) to change our institutional response to relationship violence and sexual misconduct (RVSM) in the aftermath of a large-scale institutional crisis. While the circumstances at MSU are unique, many universities have faced or will face moments that bring RVSM issues into the spotlight. To inform other colleges and universities, we describe how we developed a 5-year strategic plan to transform services for survivors and develop prevention programming for multiple audiences and at multiple levels of analysis. We titled this framework Know More. Do More. Support More, whereby "know more" reflects our ongoing use of campus climate surveys and data sharing to educate our community about RVSM; "do more" includes our institutional-level strategic plan for culture change; and "support more" provides guidance to our community members on how to respond to disclosures in a trauma-informed way and connect survivors to support services. We discuss the challenges and opportunities that stemmed from our choice to work "within the system" to create this model, as well as the ethical dilemmas we faced in these partnerships.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Universidades , Michigan , Violência/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle
7.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP2207-NP2217, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341366

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to examine whether viewing an anonymous survivor social media (Instagram) account was linked to PTSD symptoms and institutional betrayal among campus sexual misconduct survivors. Data were collected from 259 undergraduate students (78.8% female; 79.2% White) who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Results demonstrated that 85 participants (32.8%) endorsed exposure to at least one unwanted sexual experience since coming to college. Of these trauma-exposed participants, 21 (24.7%) reported clinically elevated symptoms of PTSD secondary to the unwanted sexual experience. The average number of instances of institutional betrayal following the sexual trauma was 2.73 (SD = 2.75), and institutional betrayal was positively correlated with PTSD symptoms (r = .29, p = .008). An independent samples t-test showed that trauma-exposed participants who viewed an anonymous survivor Instagram account specific to their college reported higher institutional betrayal compared to trauma-exposed participants who did not view the account (d = 1.55). Furthermore, frequent viewing of the Instagram account (i.e., at least once per week) was associated with the highest reported institutional betrayal (d = .49). Whether or not trauma-exposed participants viewed the Instagram account did not appear to be associated with PTSD symptoms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to examine the associations among exposure to an anonymous survivor Instagram account, institutional betrayal, and PTSD symptoms. While further research is needed to understand the causal relationship among these variables, these results highlight the continued and urgent need of institutions of higher education to address campus sexual misconduct, in the form of reporting/adjudication processes and robust prevention programming.


Assuntos
Traição , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Sobreviventes , Estudantes , Universidades
8.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP212-NP236, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341388

RESUMO

Sexual violence (SV) is common among college students, but the vast majority of these experiences are not formally reported to institutions of higher education (IHEs). While it is well known that alcohol and drug use is highly associated with SV, little is known about whether policies and procedures regarding substance use (SU) at IHEs may contribute to low rates of reporting. This study describes the association between SU violations and SV reporting at IHE campuses in the US and examines whether SU amnesty policies are associated with more SV reporting. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between SU violations and SV reporting and assess differences between IHE campuses by amnesty policy status. Around 50% of campuses between 2001 and 2018 document neither SV reports nor SU violations. IHE campuses with amnesty policies have more SV reports. On average, IHEs with amnesty policies have 2.7 SV reports per 1000 students and an additional 0.02 SV reports for each SU violation per 1000 students. Amnesty policies that reduce the potential costs of reporting like facing disciplinary action for alcohol or drug use are positively associated with both the level and rate of SV reporting. Institutions of higher education administrators interested in making reporting an option for more SV survivors should examine how their policies, especially those related to alcohol, may play in creating barriers to SV reporting.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Universidades , Estudantes , Políticas
9.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP84-NP107, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341375

RESUMO

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of stay-at-home orders in March 2020, experts warned of the possible threat of increased interpersonal violence among individuals isolated with abusers. Researchers have sought to understand how the pandemic impacted victims primarily through the analysis of administrative data sources, such as hospital and police records. However, the preponderance of this data shows a decrease in formal help-seeking among victims during the pandemic, speaking to an impaired access to services but limiting our understanding of other ways in which the pandemic has affected survivors. To overcome these limitations, we examined data collected about users of the National Sexual Assault Online Hotline (NSAOH). Information was collected through staff based on retrospective recall following one-on-one chat sessions with 470 victims of sexual violence who contacted the NSAOH in the first six months of the pandemic and discussed COVID-19-related concerns. We qualitatively examined open-ended descriptions of COVID-19-related concerns and identified the four most common: (1) mental health concerns, (2) creation or exacerbation of an unsafe living situation, (3) not being able to access services, and (4) not having access to a mandatory reporter or trusted adult. These findings demonstrate the myriad ways in which the pandemic affected the lives of victims of sexual violence and can inform practices for services and practitioners to best meet the needs of survivors moving forward. Specifically, these findings highlight the need for more accessible mental health services and funding for sexual assault service providers, as well as the importance of safety planning, particularly in times of crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Linhas Diretas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes
10.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP726-NP749, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360979

RESUMO

Institutions of higher education have attempted to respond to students' experiences of sexual victimization by developing resources and processes for addressing sexual misconduct. However, extant research suggests that students rarely use campus-based resources and many students lack knowledge about campus services and the processes that institutions of higher education take to respond to sexual misconduct. This study uses data from a campus climate survey at one midsized southeast university to examine students' perceived and actual knowledge about help-seeking and policies and procedures (i.e., mandatory reporting, investigation mandates, confidential resources, accommodations for survivors) at their university. Additionally, we explore gaps in their knowledge of these measures (N = 2261). We also consider the factors that predict these outcomes. On average, students report moderate perceived knowledge about help-seeking on campus. However, roughly 67% did not have a fully comprehensive and accurate understanding of policies and procedures to address sexual misconduct at the university. These findings are problematic, as institutions of higher education rely on survivors coming forward to report their experiences and participate in investigative processes when detecting and elevating complaints. We highlight implications for institutions of higher education.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades , Comportamento Sexual , Políticas
11.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP37-NP59, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365046

RESUMO

National prevalence of physical and sexual violence and its relationship to sexual behaviors are unknown among men who have sex with men (MSM). We estimated 12-month prevalence of physical and sexual violence and assessed relationships between violence and sexual behaviors among MSM. Data were obtained from National HIV Behavioral Surveillance 2017 that used time-space sampling methods to recruit and interview MSM in 22 U.S. cities. Weighted percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic regression with predicted marginal means. Overall, 10.2% (95% CI: 9.3%-11.2%) of MSM experienced physical violence only, 3.2% (95% CI: 2.7%-3.7%) experienced sexual violence only, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.9%-2.7%) experienced both types of violence, in the past 12 months. Compared to MSM who did not experience violence, those who did reported higher percentages of unemployment, poverty, homelessness, same-sex discrimination, non-injection drug use, and binge drinking. Violence was not independently associated with condomless anal sex among MSM. MSM who experienced both types of violence were more likely than those who did not experience violence to have had four or more male sex partners (aPR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37). MSM who experienced both types of violence (aPR=2.49, 95% CI: 1.52-4.09), sexual violence (aPR=2.27, 95% CI: 1.47-3.52), or physical violence (aPR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.27-2.44) were more likely than those who did not experience violence to have had exchange sex. Recent physical violence and sexual violence are common among MSM. Findings highlight the importance of violence screening and suggest the need for tailored interventions that improve the safety and economic security of MSM who experience violence, including those who exchange sex.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Delitos Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Cidades/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual , Prevalência
12.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP509-NP538, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392698

RESUMO

Empowerment Self-Defense (ESD) has been shown to be effective in reducing risk of sexual assault victimization among women, but because research in this area is still in its infancy, less is known about additional intervention outcomes that may explain how and why the intervention is effective and about other ways that ESD affects students. The purpose of this study was to examine ESD instructor perspectives about intervention outcomes they perceive to be most important for their students. Using qualitative case-study methodology, interviews from 15 ESD instructors from the United States and Canada were conducted and analyzed using thematic analysis, which yielded six themes: Agency, boundaries, core beliefs, health and healing, somatic experiences, and gender and intersectionality, with each theme having two or more subthemes. Although some of these outcomes have been quantitatively evaluated in previous ESD studies, over half (n = 10) have not yet been empirically measured and are the focus of this article. These 10 outcomes include enactment, self-determination, nonverbal communication, relationship quality, self-worth, healing, physical strength and power, downregulation, support and solidarity, and societal-level changes. In addition to developing standardized tools to measure these outcomes, future research should quantitatively evaluate these outcomes across diverse student populations and explore their effect on producing the profound outcome associated with ESD, which is reduced risk for sexual assault victimization.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Canadá
13.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP336-NP365, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416073

RESUMO

Awareness of the frequency of sexual victimization has been promoted through the #MeToo movement that opened the floodgates for survivors of sexual harassment, victimization, and violence to disclose their victimization. This research explores 41 rape victim advocates' perceptions of the #MeToo movement and concludes that they recognize its strengths and weaknesses. They credit the movement for: empowering survivors to disclose their experience possibly due to reduced stigma surrounding sexual victimization given the number of disclosures, providing support through social media from other survivors, and increasing societal awareness of the prevalence of sexual victimization. Those interviewed fault the movement for: giving the false perception that since so many survivors are stepping forward then reports must be fabricated, pressuring victims to support the movement through disclose and criticizing those who do not disclose, and hindering survivors' ability to escape media and social media coverage of sexual victimization. Advocates perceived #MeToo to be more of a "movement" rather than a "moment." However, to sustain its progress advocates suggested that action must be taken to create change for survivors and to reduce the occurrence of sexual victimization through policy/legal change and perpetrator accountability.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Humanos , Violência , Sobreviventes
14.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP466-NP508, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435767

RESUMO

There is growing recognition that females engage in harmful sexual behaviour that is similar in severity and type to males. Existing research, however, suggests that there is a bias towards leniency in judicial systems for female sexual offenders (FSOs) in comparison to male sexual offenders (MSOs). Specifically, FSOs receive shorter sentences than do MSOs and are less likely to be sentenced to prison. The majority of research examining disparity in sentence outcomes for FSOs have been analysed through a quantitative lens. Qualitative methodology is also needed to understand any subjective differences in the way that judges perceive case-relevant factors and whether these perceptions differ as a function of the offender's gender. The present study is a qualitative study that examined judges' perceptions and descriptions of FSO compared to MSO in 10 matched cases of sexual offending. The study found that although there were many similarities in how judges perceived FSO compared to MSO, there were also unique differences that could explain more lenient sentences for FSOs (i.e. the vulnerability, poor mental health and adverse backgrounds of FSOs). Other unique differences found were that judges' perception of FSOs behaviour was described as depraved and cruel, whereas MSOs similar behaviour was not described in such an emotive way. The present study provides additional insight into the reasons for a bias towards leniency for FSOs. In particular, it points towards judicial focus on particular personal circumstances that are seen as relevant in sentencing FSOs but not for MSOs.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criminosos/psicologia , Prisões , Saúde Mental , Comportamento Sexual
15.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1299-NP1319, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440224

RESUMO

Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a common yet hidden form of violence. It is primarily perpetrated against women by their male partners and is associated with a range of serious mental and physical health outcomes. Despite these harms, it is chronically under-researched. In particular, the overlaps between IPSV and psychological abuse in relationships are poorly understood. Extant literature has focused primarily on the relationship between IPSV and physical violence, neglecting the fact that IPSV often involves verbal or emotional coercion, threats or blackmail rather than the use of 'force'. In this paper, we draw on reflexive thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with n = 38 victim/survivors of IPSV to explore how they understood the relationship between sexual and psychological abuse in their heterosexual relationships. Four themes were developed from this analysis: 1. I felt like I couldn't say Nno'; 2. I felt degraded and worthless; 3. Letting me know who's boss; and 4. Making me feel crazy. These themes broadly correspond to four distinct patterns or interactions between IPSV and psychological abuse. Our findings strongly suggest that the relationship between sexual and psychological abuse in relationships is far more complex than previous research would indicate. Psychological abuse is not simply a tool to obtain sex and sexual violence is not only used as a mechanism of psychological control. Instead, the two forms of abuse interact in ways that can be unidirectional, bi-directional or simultaneous to develop and maintain an environment of fear and control and erode women's self-worth.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Abuso Emocional , Heterossexualidade , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
16.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1569-NP1591, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465744

RESUMO

Although it is well-established that sexual assault results in variable and long-lasting negative impacts on emotional well-being, perceptions of physical health, and relationship functioning, these "psychosocial" outcomes may vary based on the type(s) of sexual trauma experienced. To identify the differential impact of sexual trauma type(s) on psychosocial outcomes among veterans and non-veterans, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Comparative Health Assessment Interview Research Study, a large, national survey study sponsored by the Department of Veterans Affairs. Participants included veterans (n = 3588) and non-veterans (n = 935) who endorsed experiencing childhood sexual assault (CSA), adult sexual assault (ASA, outside of military service for veteran participants), and/or military sexual assault (MSA). Eight measures were used to assess psychosocial outcomes: Well-Being Inventory (WBI) health satisfaction and physical health functioning items, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Patient Health Questionnaire (depression symptoms), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, WBI social satisfaction items, WBI social functioning items, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (social). A profile analysis was used to determine how sexual trauma type(s) influenced the pattern of responding to the eight psychosocial outcome measures. Veteran sexual assault survivors reported poorer psychological outcomes compared to non-veteran sexual assault survivors. Non-veteran sexual assault survivors reported poorer outcomes on the majority of social variables compared to veteran sexual assault survivors. Survivors of MSA-only reported poorer psychosocial outcomes compared to veteran and non-veteran survivors of CSA-only and ASA-only on most of the variables assessed. Survivors of ASA-only reported similar or modestly worse psychosocial outcomes when compared to survivors of CSA-only on the majority of variables assessed. Survivors of different types of sexual trauma reported distinct psychosocial outcomes, suggesting that assessment and treatment needs may differ by trauma type.


Assuntos
Militares , Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Veteranos/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1239-NP1260, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459411

RESUMO

Intersectionality and minority stress frameworks were used to guide examination and comparisons of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms) and protective factors (religiosity, spirituality, social support) among 673 Black, Latinx, and White lesbian and bisexual women with and without histories of sexual assault. Participants were from Wave 3 of the 21-year longitudinal Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study. More than one-third (38%) of participants reported having experienced adolescent or adult sexual assault (i.e., rape or another form of sexual assault) since age 14. Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multivariate analyses of covariance were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that levels of religiosity/spirituality and psychological distress varied by race/ethnicity and by sexual identity (i.e., Black lesbian, Black bisexual, Latinx lesbian, Latinx bisexual, White lesbian, White bisexual). Black lesbian women reported the highest level of religiosity/spirituality whereas White lesbian women reported the lowest level. White bisexual women reported the highest level of psychological distress whereas White lesbian women reported the lowest level. We found no significant differences in reports of sexual assault or in social support (i.e., significant other, family, friend, and total social support). However, White lesbian women had higher friend, significant other, and total social support relative to the other five groups of women with minoritized/marginalized sexual identities. Future work should examine whether religiosity, spirituality, and social support serve as protective factors that can be incorporated into mental health treatment for lesbian and bisexual who have experienced sexual assault to reduce psychological distress.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Delitos Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Brancos , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
18.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1738-NP1761, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466782

RESUMO

The prevalence of experiencing sexual assault is alarmingly high among Transgender and Gender Diverse people (TGD; people whose gender identities and/or expressions are not traditionally associated with their sex assigned at birth) and is associated with various mental health sequalae. Perceived social support has been shown to abate the negative outcomes of sexual assault among cisgender individuals, yet little is known about this association among TGD people, especially which provider of support (i.e., family, friends, or significant others) may be most beneficial. To that end, 191 TGD adults were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk to examine perceived social support as a potential moderator of the association between sexual assault victimization and post-sexual assault trauma symptomology. Results showed an interaction trending toward significance between sexual assault and support from a significant other. Decomposition of this interaction demonstrated that sexual assault was associated with post-assault trauma symptoms when support from a significant other was low (ß = .25, p < .05) but not high (ß = .10, p = .089). The interaction between sexual assault and perceived social support was not significant for perceived support from friends (p = .133) or family (p = .954). Findings highlight the need for additional research on perceived social support as a potential buffering mechanism between sexual assault and post-assault symptomology in TGD people.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Transexualidade/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
19.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1320-NP1342, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term mental and physical health consequences of childhood maltreatment have been well documented. Less known are the longer-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, specifically the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts adult life success. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess the extent to which childhood experiences of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and childhood neglect predict life success at 30 years of age. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data are from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a pre-birth cohort study which follows children from conception to 30 years of age. METHODS: Details of childhood maltreatment are from two sources; child safety agency notifications (and substantiations) linked to the survey data with self-reports of childhood experiences of maltreatment obtained at the 30-year follow-up using the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Life success is a 9-item composite measure (alpha = 0.76) obtained at the 30-year follow-up. We use logistic regression models (with control for covariates) to examine the association between overall as well as specific forms of childhood maltreatment on adult life success. We further test these models using different cut-offs and propensity analyses to adjust for loss to follow-up. RESULTS: Childhood maltreatment whether measured by agency report or self-report predicts overall low life success; agency substantiation OR = 1.88(1.14,3.08) & self-report OR = 2.60 (2.10,3.25). Self-report physical abuse, OR = 2.37(1.72,3.28); sexual abuse, OR = 2.85(2.05,3.96); emotional abuse, OR = 2.53(1.85,3.45) and neglect, OR = 2.36(1.83,3.03) all predict higher levels of low life success. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment extend to a wide range of day-to-day circumstances and extend into mid- to later life.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1117-NP1140, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College student interpersonal violence victimization is a major public health issue. Sexual assault and intimate partner violence have negative effects on mental and physical health, as well as an individual's ability to perform well academically and fully participate in the college experience. Because an individual's race impacts how they experience the world, it is important to consider racial differences in experiences of interpersonal violence. STUDY QUESTION: This study sought to understand the particular characteristics of Black, White, and Hispanic students that increase their risk of experiencing interpersonal violence victimization. METHOD AND SUBJECTS: Researchers performed a latent class analysis using the Spring 2013 data from the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II to determine whether the risk factors for victimization of college students vary based on race. Data was collected from 123,078 college students attending 153 institutions of higher learning. FINDINGS: Results of this latent class analysis showed a 5 class solution where each class had unique risks that increased the potential for interpersonal violence victimization based on the race of the respondent. IMPLICATIONS: Group based differences need to be considered when developing prevention strategies to reduce the risk of victimization on college campuses. Because different risks increase victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic students, it is important to consider how risk reduction strategies may differ for these groups; and ensure that all prevention strategies are culturally informed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência de Gênero , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Universidades , Fatores de Risco , Grupos Raciais
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