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1.
An. psicol ; 39(1): 119-126, Ene-Abr. 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213846

RESUMO

This study examined the role of social interest and empathy in helping and not helping adults during floods. Participants were split into two groups with helping behaviors (N=90) and without helping behaviors (N = 90) during floods from six cities, Khuzestan province, Iran. A demo-graphic questionnaire, the Social Interest Scale (SIS), and the Question-naire Measure of Empathic Tendency (QMET)) were used in this study. Analysis showed that people in the helping group had higher social interest than those in the control group. Also, individuals with helping behaviors had greater performance in susceptibility to emotional contagion, extreme emotional responsiveness, tendency to be moved by others' positive emo-tional experiences, tendency to be moved by others' negative emotional experiences, sympathetic tendency, willingness to be in contact with others who have problems, and the total score of empathy than persons in the control group.These findings can be combined with the emergency aid programs in natural disasters.(AU)


Este estudio examina el papel del interés social y la empatía en ayudar y no ayudar a los adultos durante las inundaciones. Los participantes se dividieron en dos grupos con comportamientos de ayuda (N = 90) y sin comportamientos de ayuda (N = 90) durante las inundaciones de seis ciudades, provincia de Juzestán, Irán. En este estudio se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, la Escala de Interés Social (SIS) y el Cuestionario de Medida de Tendencia Empática (QMET). El análisis mostró que las personas en el grupo de ayuda tenían mayor interés social y empatía que las del grupo de control. Este estudio describe cómo, en resumen, el interés social y la empatía contribuirían a ayudar a las personas afectadas por las inundaciones a salvar sus vidas y sus propiedades. Estos hallazgos se pueden combinar con los programas de ayuda de emergencia en desastres naturales y se convertirán en información pública.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Empatia , Inundações , Socorro de Urgência , Comportamento , Desastres Naturais , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Irã (Geográfico) , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 22: 23259582231152041, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718505

RESUMO

During public health crises, people living with HIV (PLWH) may become disengaged from care. The goal of this study was to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and recent flooding disasters on HIV care delivery in western Kenya. We conducted ten individual in-depth interviews with HIV providers across four health facilities. We used an iterative and integrated inductive and deductive data analysis approach to generate four themes. First, increased structural interruptions created exacerbating strain on health facilities. Second, there was increased physical and psychosocial burnout among providers. Third, patient uptake of services along the HIV continuum decreased, particularly among vulnerable patients. Finally, existing community-based programs and teleconsultations could be adapted to provide differentiated HIV care. Community-centric care programs, with an emphasis on overcoming the social, economic, and structural barriers will be crucial to ensure optimal care and limit the impact of public health disruptions on HIV care globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Pandemias , Quênia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674050

RESUMO

"Big events", such as wars, economic crises, pandemics, or natural disasters, affect the risk environment in which people use drugs. While the impact of big events on injection risk behaviors and access to drug-treatment services is well documented, less is known about the effects of big events on drug markets. Based on self-reporting data on drug availability among people who use drugs (PWUD) in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico and during the COVID-19 lockdown in a Midwestern US state, this study aims to document the effects of big events on drug markets. Qualitative data on the effects of Hurricane Maria on drug markets are based on participants' self-reporting (N = 31). Data collection started after the hurricane and ended in 2020. Data on changes to the drug supply during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected based on semi-structured interviews with PWUD (N = 40) in a Midwestern US state. Findings show that while the drug markets might have initially been affected by big events, most effects were temporary. Drug availability, pricing, and quality might have suffered some initial fluctuations but stabilized as the drug markets absorbed the initial shocks caused by the hurricane and the lockdown measures. In preparation for increasingly more frequent and virulent pandemics and natural disasters, health infrastructures should be strengthened to prevent not only overdose episodes and deaths but also drug-related harms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Porto Rico , Governo
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554970

RESUMO

With the widespread recognition and in-depth implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), especially in the context of global climate change, the ecological environment of Belt and Road Initiative regions might be confronted with pressures and challenges with rapid socioeconomic development. In response to those potential environmental challenges, China has put forward Green BRI and enriched the new Silk Road with more environmental connotations, aiming to reduce the conflict between economic development and eco-environmental protection. Currently, there is a lack of systematic and holistic research on eco-environmental issues in BRI regions. In addition, feasible solutions to enhance BRI's contribution to the eco-environment remain insufficient. Having systematically reviewed the relevant literature on the eco-environment in BRI regions, we found that most regions along the BRI routes are in sensitive zones of climate and geological change, with fragile eco-environments and strong vulnerability to climate change, natural disasters and human activities. The main eco-environment status of the BRI regions is as follows: (1) The total water resources in BRI regions account for only 36% of the global total, with uneven distribution and complex spatial precipitation, posing higher pressure on water security. (2) Vegetation varies significantly from region to region. The vegetation in South Asia is the richest, with its mean annual NDVI exceeding 0.7. The NDVI in East Europe, Russia and South China are between 0.4 and 0.7, and that in Central Asia and West Asia are below 0.2. (3) The BRI regions are abundantly blessed with natural resources, with the total recoverable oil reserves, natural gas reserves and the total mining area reaching 66%, 65.5% and 42.31% of the world's total, respectively, but severe overexploitation and overconsumption of those resources degrade their eco-environment. Accordingly, future research directions, such as target on integrated, interdisciplinary and coordinated studies on eco-environmental issues in BRI regions, are proposed in this paper to achieve optimization of BRI's contribution to eco-environment protection in BRI regions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Federação Russa
5.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(6): 535-559, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36523196

RESUMO

The issuance of disaster declarations has become a politicized matter. Prior research has demonstrated that presidents are more generous in awarding disaster relief in federal election years, and that there is a prevalence to award governors from the opposing political party. Additionally, voters tend to reward presidents seeking re-election to a greater degree for disaster response assistance rather than funding preparedness. The original research for this paper explores the impact of natural disasters on re-election rates and analyzes voter trends during presidential election years in Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region 3 states for congruence with existing literature covering a national scope. Evaluations of the behaviors and (re)election margins of Presidents Bush and Obama are explored, and implications for President Trump's re-election effort are based on quantitative data and qualitative comparisons.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Política
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 4): e20210869, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477819

RESUMO

This work aims to carry out an analysis of the evolution of the civil defense protection policy in Brazil, as well as to present an overview of research related to public policies on natural disasters in the world. The research was developed by documentary analysis of Brazilian policies on the protection of civil defense and bibliometric analysis of the global data. The evolution of public policy on natural disasters in Brazil was divided into four different moments: a) military civil defense (1942-1946), b) disaster assistance policy (1967-1988), c) Civil Defense system in construction (1988-2005), and d) consolidation of the civil defense system (2005- to the present). The structuring of public policy reflected in 4 different stages in relation to the recording of information about disasters. Bibliometric analysis showed that the first works related to public civil defense policies in the world appeared only in 1980, and are mainly concentrated in the United States, which accounts for 42.56% of the works, while Brazil is the 6th country with 3.76% of global searches. Thus, it is possible to conclude that public policies and databases have a recent evolution both in Brazil and in the world, especially in developing countries.


Assuntos
Desastres Naturais , Política Pública , Brasil
7.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279418, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates gender differences in the treatment effects of business grants on firm performance following natural disasters, and seeks to identify the mechanisms underlying the unequal effects. METHOD: A panel data-set from an experiment in Sri Lanka is used to measure the difference in the treatment effects of a business grant on the performance of female and male-owned firms following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The sample of 608 microenterprises includes 297 female-owned firms and 311 male-owned firms. There are 338 firms (Male = 176, Female = 162) in the treatment group that received the grant and 270 firms (Male = 135, Female = 135) in the control group that did not receive the grant. Data on firm performance, firm characteristics and owner characteristics were collected in 13 survey waves from April 2005 to December 2010. Firm performance, which is measured by firm profit, is assessed by employing linear regression with fixed effects in an intention-to-treat analysis. FINDINGS: The results suggest that the business grant has a positive impact on the performance of male-owned firms, but zero effect on that of female-owned firms. Several potential mechanisms drive the results, including gender differences in business investment, household expenditure and initial business closures. The results also show a positive treatment effect of the business grant on the psychological recovery of recipients, but there is no evidence supporting gender differences in this dimension. CONTRIBUTION: This paper provides new evidence on gender differences in the treatment effects of business grants on firm performance in the context of post-disasters, and has implications for business recovery programs aimed at supporting female microentrepreneurs in the aftermath of large-scale catastrophes.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Sri Lanka , Empresa de Pequeno Porte , Tsunamis
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1017286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438230

RESUMO

Background: Displacement due to natural disaster exposure is a major source of distress, and disproportionately affects people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Public mental health resources following natural disasters and displacement are often limited in LMICs. In 2017, the population of one island in Vanuatu, a lower-middle income country, was displaced due to volcanic activity. Following the launch of a public mental health policy in 2009, psychosocial support interventions are increasingly available, providing an opportunity to assess relationships with distress following displacement. Methods: 440 people contributed data. We assessed distress using a local adaptation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and types of psychosocial support available and received, including from health professionals, support groups, and traditional networks such as chiefs, traditional healers, and church leaders. We analyzed relationships between distress and psychosocial support, controlling for sociodemographic covariates. Results: Professional and group support was reported available by 86.8-95.1% of participants. Traditional support networks were widely used, especially by men. Availability of professional support predicted lower distress among men (p < 0.001) and women (p = 0.015) ( η p 2 = 0.026-0.083). Consulting church leaders for psychosocial support was associated with higher distress among men (p = 0.026) and women (p = 0.023) ( η p 2 = 0.024-0.031). Use of professional and group support was lower than reported availability. Discussion: Increased collaboration between professional and traditional support networks could help respond to mental health needs following natural disasters in LMICs with limited infrastructure. Providing training and resources to church leaders might be a specific target for improvement. Promoting use of available services represents a continued public health need.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Renda , Pobreza/psicologia
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 315: 115529, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427478

RESUMO

This paper examines key processes from the social identity model of traumatic identity change in the context of the aftermath of a natural disaster. It focuses on the roles of (i) group membership gain, (ii) group membership continuity, (iii) social identity revitalisation, and (iv) the severity of natural disaster exposure on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress (PTS). PARTICIPANTS: (N = 410, Mage = 53.24 years) comprised adult survivors of the Australian 2019-20 Black Summer bushfires, recruited to complete an online survey via geo-targeted Facebook advertisements. RESULTS: showed that group membership gain was positively correlated with PTG, whilst group membership continuity negatively correlated with PTS, highlighting the different roles played by group gain and continuity in post-trauma recovery. Preliminary evidence for the validity of a new author-developed social identity revitalisation measure was found, which mediated some relationships between group gain and continuity and PTG and PTS. Lastly, the extent that participants were affected by the fires moderated the relationship between group gain and PTS. Specifically, for those most affected, group gain was correlated with lower reported PTS, whilst for those less affected, group gain was correlated with higher reported PTS. We discuss implications for theory and draw attention to the concept of revitalisation, which shows promise as a potentially critical contributor to post-trauma recovery.


Assuntos
Desastres Naturais , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Austrália , Identificação Social , Processos Grupais
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430084

RESUMO

Natural disasters continue to worsen in both number and intensity globally, but our understanding of their long-term consequences on individual and community health remains limited. As climate-focused researchers, we argue that a publicly funded research agenda that supports the comprehensive exploration of these risks, particularly among vulnerable groups, is urgently needed. This exploration must focus on the following three critical components of the research agenda to promote environmental justice in the age of climate change: (1) a commitment to long term surveillance and care to examine the health impacts of climate change over their life course; (2) an emphasis on interventions using implementation science frameworks; (3) the employment of a transdisciplinary approach to study, address, and intervene on structural disadvantage among vulnerable populations. Without doing so, we risk addressing these consequences in a reactive way at greater expense, limiting the opportunity to safeguard communities and vulnerable populations in the era of climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Desastres Naturais , Justiça Ambiental , Conhecimento , Saúde Pública
11.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(8): 109-121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239502

RESUMO

Extreme weather events, such as Hurricane María, shed light on the importance of understanding the factors that promote resilience, defined as bouncing back after adverse events. The current study took a qualitative focus group approach toward understanding resilience in employees of the hospitality industry after Hurricane María. The hospitality industry plays an important role in disaster responses due to its role in supporting local and national economies, job stability for vulnerable employees, and in supporting response efforts, eg, housing aid workers. Through a series of in-depth focus groups, employees from San Juan, Puerto Rico and surrounding areas shared their Hurricane María experiences in terms of themselves as individuals, their workplaces, and their community. Major themes focused on the importance of the preparedness phase of the disaster response timeline, measuring impact and response on multiple levels in interdependent systems, creating and promoting awareness of resources, and acknowledging both struggle and strength when conceptualizing transformative potential. These findings can inform actionable strategies for individuals, organizations, and communities.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Organizações , Porto Rico
12.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(8): 167-175, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The increased risk of mental health disorders in the months and years following a natural disaster highlights the need for more immediate preventive intervention. The objective of the current study was to learn from a real-time implementation of a natural disaster response following the Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico to identify strategies for providing mental health services immediately after a natural disaster. METHODS: Two focus groups were held with faculty (n = 6) and graduate students (n = 4) from a graduate psychology program at the Universidad Carlos Albizu, Centro Universitario Mayagüez. An additional key informant interview was conducted with two faculty member participants. Data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The delivery of mental health services was organized into three major themes: (1) finding a way to communicate, (2) targeting key access points for outreach and centralization of resources, and (3) providing triaged mental health care based on level of need. CONCLUSIONS: Findings are used to guide recommendations for mental health response preparation in future natural disaster contexts.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Porto Rico
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16978, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216852

RESUMO

Floods are the most commonly occurring natural disasters in India due to India's unique geographical location and socioeconomic conditions. Frequent flooding causes enormous loss of human lives and damage crops and public utilities. Furthermore, floods adversely affect economic development and increase the government's financial burden by increasing spending on various disaster mitigation measures. Recent empirical literature based on cross-national comparisons shows that disaster fatalities and damages are monotonically decreasing in per capita income. We challenge this view on the monotonic negative relationship between income and flood damages. We examine the non-monotonic (inverted U-shaped) relationship between per capita income and flood impact in terms of deaths, people affected, and damages due to floods in 19 major Indian states from 1980 to 2011, using Poisson and Tobit estimation methods. In particular, deaths and the population affected by floods increase with a turning point of income up to 882 US$ and 578 US$, respectively, and diminishes thereafter. Our results confirm an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and fatalities and the population affected by floods. In addition to income, we argue that government responsiveness plays an essential role in mitigating the risk of floods. We employ the fixed-effect Poisson estimation method to examine the government's role in protecting people against disaster risk, focusing on regional differences in India. Deaths from floods remain non-linear and follow the inverted U-pattern with respect to government responsiveness. However, the effect of government responsiveness on flood fatalities and flood damages is statistically insignificant. Our results further suggest that high-income states experience a lower death toll from floods. The high-income (rich) states are capable of incurring a higher threshold level of income and higher natural calamity expenditure to reduce flood fatalities and protect the population affected by floods than the low-income (poor) states. The poor states have minimal resources and face severe financial constraints to reduce the death toll from floods. From the perspective of public policy, the poor states, in particular, require an increase in income, better governance, and effective disaster management policies to mitigate flood impact.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Inundações , Governo , Humanos , Renda
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231645

RESUMO

The long-term mortality risk of natural disasters is a key threat to disaster resilience improvement, yet an authoritative certification and a reliable surveillance system are, unfortunately, yet to be established in many countries. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of post-disaster indirect deaths in Japan, to improve the existing disaster recovery evaluation system and support decision making in public policy. This study first investigated the definition of indirect deaths via a literature review before examining the observed number of indirect deaths via case study, census data from the Population Demographic and Household Surveys, other social surveys, and reports in the case of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which severely damaged northeastern Japan, especially the three prefectures, which are the target areas in this context (i.e., Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi). It was found that the reported number of indirect deaths was significantly underestimated. In total, 4657 indirect deaths were estimated to have occurred in the target prefectures. This was higher than the reported number, which was 3784. The overall statistics established via collaboration between local administrations and governments can be improved to provide better reference for researchers and policymakers to investigate the long-term effects of natural disaster.


Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Desastres Naturais , Japão/epidemiologia , Tsunamis
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15862, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151272

RESUMO

When a severe natural disaster occurs, the extraction of post-disaster building damage information is one of the methods to quickly obtain disaster information. The increasingly mature high-resolution remote sensing technology provides a solid foundation for obtaining information about building damage. To address the issues with inaccurate building positioning in existing building damage assessment methods, as well as poor classification due to similar minor and major damage characteristics in building damage classification. Based on U-Net, we designed a two-stage building damage assessment network. The first stage is an independent U-Net focused on building segmentation, followed by a Siamese U-Net focused on building damage classification. The Extra Skip Connection and Asymmetric Convolution Block were used for enhancing the network's ability to segment buildings on different scales; Shuffle Attention directed the network's attention to the correlation of buildings before and after the disaster. The xBD dataset was used for training and testing in the study, and the overall performance was evaluated using a balanced F-score (F1). The improved network had an F1 of 0.8741 for localization and F1 of 0.7536 for classification. When compared to other methods, it achieved better overall performance for building damage assessment and was able to generalize to multiple disasters.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141766

RESUMO

This paper provides a comprehensive set of methodologies that have been used in the literature to give a monetary value to the human impact in a natural disaster setting. Four databases were searched for relevant published and gray literature documents with a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-seven studies that quantified the value of a statistical life in a disaster setting or discussed methodologies of estimating value of life were included. Analysis highlighted the complexity and variability of methods and estimations of values of statistical life. No single method to estimate the value of a statistical life is universally agreed upon, although stated preference methods seem to be the preferred approach. The value of one life varies significantly ranging from USD 143,000 to 15 million. While an overwhelming majority of studies concern high-income countries, most disaster casualties are observed in low- and middle-income countries. Data on the human impact of disasters are usually available in disasters databases. However, lost lives are not traditionally translated into monetary terms. Therefore, the full financial cost of disasters has rarely been evaluated. More research is needed to utilize the value of life estimates in order to guide policymakers in preparedness and mitigation policies.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Efeitos Antropogênicos , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Publicações
19.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(9): 2312-2318, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This qualitative systematic review will identify, appraise, and synthesize existing qualitative evidence regarding the experiences of pregnant people during a natural disaster to gain a deeper understanding of the complex factors influencing their experiences. INTRODUCTION: During natural disasters, pregnant people would benefit from health workers, including nurses, midwives, and other professionals, considering their needs and providing support to address complex factors, including family relationships, social support, and stress; however, little is known about the experiences of pregnant people during a natural disaster. This study is the first qualitative systematic review of the experiences of pregnant people during a disaster. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will include studies that focus on pregnant people's experiences of living in a disaster area during a natural disaster. It will include both published and unpublished qualitative studies, with data collected through interviews and observations, in either English or Japanese. METHODS: The databases and other sources to be searched include MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO (in English); and CiNii and Ichushi-Web (in Japanese). Further, we will cross-check the reference lists of included studies with search outcomes to identify any additional studies suitable for analysis. The search for gray literature will be conducted using Google Scholar and ProQuest. We will use the recommended JBI approach for study selection, critical appraisal, data extraction, and data synthesis. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42021265326.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Desastres Naturais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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