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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764245

RESUMO

Humans are living in an uncertain world, with daily risks confronting them from various low to high hazard events, and the COVID-19 pandemic has created its own set of unique risks. Not only has it caused a significant number of fatalities, but in combination with other hazard sources, it may pose a considerably higher multi-risk. In this paper, three hazardous events are studied through the lens of a concurring pandemic. Several low-probability high-risk scenarios are developed by the combination of a pandemic situation with a natural hazard (e.g., earthquakes or floods) or a complex emergency situation (e.g., mass protests or military movements). The hybrid impacts of these multi-hazard situations are then qualitatively studied on the healthcare systems, and their functionality loss. The paper also discusses the impact of pandemic's (long-term) temporal effects on the type and recovery duration from these adverse events. Finally, the concept of escape from a hazard, evacuation, sheltering and their potential conflict during a pandemic and a natural hazard is briefly reviewed. The findings show the cascading effects of these multi-hazard scenarios, which are unseen nearly in all risk legislation. This paper is an attempt to urge funding agencies to provide additional grants for multi-hazard risk research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Desastres Naturais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres/economia , Terremotos , Emergências , Inundações , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784792

RESUMO

Background: Scant attention has been paid to how risk perceptions of public health crises may affect people's mental health. Aims: The aims of this study are to (1) construct a conceptual framework for risk perception and depression of people in public health crises, (2) examine how the mental health of people in the crisis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affected by risk perception and its associated factors, including distance perception of the crisis and support of prevention and control policies, and (3) propose policy recommendations on how to deal with psychological problems in the current COVID-19 crisis. Methods: Online questionnaire survey was implemented. A total of 6373 people visited the questionnaire online, 1115 people completed the questionnaire, and the number of valid questionnaires was 1081. Structural equation modeling was employed for data analysis. Results: Risk perception and its associated factors significantly affect the mental health of people in public health crises. Specifically, (1) distance perception of public health crises is negatively associated with depression among people, (2) affective risk perception is positively associated with depression of people in public health crises, (3) cognitive risk perception is negatively associated with depression of people in public health crises, and (4) support of prevention and control policies is negatively associated with depression of people in public health crises. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that risk perception plays an important role in affecting the mental health of people in a public health crisis. Therefore, health policies aiming to improve the psychological wellbeing of the people in a public health crisis should take risk perception into consideration.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Desastres Naturais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Coronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806697

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the orders and structures of societies, particularly in the fields of medical and nursing professions. The researcher aims to understand the experiences, sense of belonging, and decision-making processes about Japanese pre-service nursing students and how the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing, and lockdown has influenced their understanding as pre-service nursing professionals in Japan. As this study focuses on the issues of pre-service nursing students, the researcher invited forty-nine pre-service nursing students for a virtual interview due to the recommendation of social distancing. To increase the coverage of the population, the researcher employed snowball sampling to recruit participants from all over Japan. Although the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the overall performance of the medical and nursing professions, all participants showed a sense of belonging as Japanese citizens and nursing professionals due to the natural disaster of their country. More importantly, all expressed their desires and missions to upgrade and improve the overall performance of the public health system due to the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results discovered that many Japanese nursing students advocated that Japan's national development, the benefits and advantages of their country, were of a greater importance than their own personal development and goals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Escolha da Profissão , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Japão/epidemiologia , Desastres Naturais , Pandemias , Administração em Saúde Pública/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 938-940, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673302

RESUMO

Mosquitoborne disease outbreaks occur every year in the United States from one or more of the arboviral diseases dengue, West Nile, LaCrosse, Eastern equine encephalitis, and Zika (1). Public opinion communicated through traditional and social media and the Internet, competing public health and resource priorities, and local conditions can impede the ability of vector control organizations to prevent and respond to outbreaks of mosquitoborne disease. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and CDC performed a coordinated review of the concerns and challenges associated with continuation of mosquito surveillance and control during public health emergencies and disasters. This report highlights the first joint recommendation from EPA and CDC. Mosquito surveillance and control should be maintained by state and local mosquito control organizations to the extent that local conditions and resources will allow during public health emergencies and natural disasters. Integrated pest management (IPM) is the best approach for mosquito control (2). IPM uses a combination of methods, including both physical and chemical means of control (3). For chemical means of control, CDC and EPA recommend the use of larvicides and adulticides following the EPA label. It is imperative that public health recommendations be followed to ensure the safety of the pesticide applicator and the public.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Ambiental , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Desastres Naturais , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Environmental Protection Agency
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232836, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484814

RESUMO

The perishable nature of fresh agricultural products and their vulnerability to environmental impacts make fresh agricultural product supplies susceptible to more complex social risks and unpredictable natural risks. This study identifies 13 social and natural risk factors that could adversely affect the fresh agricultural product supply and uses ISM and MICMAC to develop a hierarchical structure of the risks to analyze the correlation of these risk factors. The results showed that these risk factors have a strong positive correlation, a reasonable risk-sharing mechanism should be established for the fresh agricultural product supply and the improvement in the supervision error correction system should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças dos Animais , Animais , China , Clima , Comércio , Cultura , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Desastres Naturais , Doenças das Plantas , Risco , Tecnologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479510

RESUMO

The online encyclopedia Wikipedia strives for objectivity and neutrality. However, Wikipedia also provides articles about negative events (e.g., earthquakes, terrorist attacks) that likely elicit strong, negative emotions. These emotions might slip into Wikipedia articles. Previous research has demonstrated that Wikipedia articles on terrorist attacks contained more anger-related content than Wikipedia articles on earthquakes. This previous research focused on the expression of emotional reactions in existing Wikipedia articles and used an automatic linguistic analysis tool that counted the number of emotion-related words. In order to extend this approach, the first aim of the present research was to replicate these findings by focusing on the emotional reactions during and after reading the articles. Second, previous research did not look at the geographical location of the negative events, which may be a relevant, influential factor. Emotional reactions may be stronger for geographically closer events (i.e., Europe for Europeans) than for geographically more distant events (i.e., Asia). Two studies, one with few raters rating their emotional reactions to many Wikipedia articles (S1 Study) and another with many raters rating their emotional reactions to few Wikipedia articles (S1 Study), demonstrated that Wikipedia articles on terrorist attacks elicited more threat, anger, sadness, and anxiety than Wikipedia articles on earthquakes. These effects occurred for negative events in Europe but were absent for events in Asia, with one exception. The anger effect was the same across Europe and Asia. Thus, event type and geographical proximity are relevant factors for explaining threat and emotional reactions to Wikipedia articles.


Assuntos
Atitude , Emoções , Desastres Naturais , Mídias Sociais , Terrorismo/psicologia , Ásia , Características Culturais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-05-21. (PAHO/PHE/CPI/COVID-19-20-0020).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52170

RESUMO

Most shelters in the Caribbean are community centers, schools, or churches that are limited in size. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) distancing requirements subsequently reduced the number of persons a shelter can accommodate during the hurricane season. This document reinforces some measures to follow per international emergency shelter protocols factoring in conditions for spacing between beds/cots, recreation areas and ventilation according to The Sphere Handbook, FEMA, and Australian Red Cross. Physical distancing and hygienic standards were modified highlighting that ideal requirements are not always feasible; therefore, we may choose realistic recommendations for practical purposes and suspected cases of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Abrigo , Abrigo de Emergência , Aviso de Furacão , Desastres Naturais , Região do Caribe
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20192880, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370672

RESUMO

Natural disasters can cause rapid demographic changes that disturb the social structure of a population as individuals may lose connections. These changes also have indirect effects as survivors alter their within-group connections or move between groups. As group membership and network position may influence individual fitness, indirect effects may affect how individuals and populations recover from catastrophic events. Here we study changes in the social structure after a large predation event in a population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus), when a third of adults were lost. Using social network analysis, we examine how heterogeneity in sociality results in varied responses to losing connections. We then investigate how these differences influence the overall network structure. An individual's reaction to losing associates depended on its sociality prior to the event. Those that were less social before formed more weak connections afterwards, while more social individuals reduced the number of survivors they associated with. Otherwise, the number and size of social groups were highly robust. This indicates that social preferences can drive how individuals adjust their social behaviour after catastrophic turnover events, despite the population's resilience in social structure.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Animais , Camundongos , Desastres Naturais , Rede Social
11.
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 15(1): 1-17, jan.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1098424

RESUMO

Catástrofes naturais produzem impactos na vida da população, em especial daquela parcela que se encontra em situação de vulnerabilidade. O presente estudo teve por objetivo problematizar as contribuições da Psicologia em relação à vulnerabilidade socioambiental gerada por desastres naturais. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa com utilização de casos extraídos de publicações em mídias digitais. Primeiramente, foram investigados os tipos de catástrofes naturais, bem como a noção de vulnerabilidade socioambiental. Em seguida, foi analisado o caso que ficou conhecido como "Megadesastre da Região Serrana do Rio de Janeiro", ocorrido em 2011. As análises dos documentos de domínio público demonstraram que os processos de desterritorialização e criação de novos territórios acontecem mediante sofrimento e angústia, mas também geram processos de cooperação e conexão. Como conclusão, constata-se que o profissional da Psicologia é chamado frequentemente a intervir nesse tipo de situação, cabendo-lhe realizar um exercício de acolhimento analítico e político das populações atingidas.


Natural disasters produce impacts on the lives of the population, in particular that portion which lies in situation of vulnerability. The present study aimed to discuss the contributions of psychology in relation to social and environmental vulnerability generated by natural disasters. This is a qualitative research using cases drawn from publications in digital media. First were investigated the types of natural disasters as well as the notion of social and environmental vulnerability. Then, was analyzed the case that became known as "Mega disaster of the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro", held in 2011. The analysis of public domain documents demonstrated that the processes of deterritorialization and creation of new territories happen through suffering and anguish, but also generate cooperation and connection processes. As a conclusion, noted that the professional of psychology is often called to intervene in this kind of situation, and carry out an exercise of analytical and political acceptance of the stricken populations.


Desastres naturales producen impactos en la vida de la población, en particular la parte que se encuentra en situación de vulnerabilidad. El presente estudio pretende analizar las aportaciones de la psicología en relación con la vulnerabilidad social y ambiental generada por los desastres naturales. Es una investigación cualitativa con casos extraídos de publicaciones en medios digitales. En primer lugar, se investigaron los tipos de desastres naturales, así como la noción de vulnerabilidad social y ambiental. Luego, se analizó el caso de que se conocía como "Mega desastres de la región montañosa de Río de Janeiro", que ocurrió en 2011. El análisis de documentos de dominio público demostró que los procesos de desterritorialización y creación de nuevos territorios pasan por sufrimiento y angustia, pero también generan procesos de cooperación y conexión. Como conclusión, se observa que el profesional de la psicología a menudo está llamado a intervenir en este tipo de situación y llevar a cabo un ejercicio de aceptación de análisis y política de las poblaciones afectadas.


Assuntos
Vulnerabilidade Social , Vulnerabilidade a Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Psicologia Social , Estresse Psicológico , Territorialidade , Desastres , Emoções , Acolhimento , Angústia Psicológica
13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(1): 139-149, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148219

RESUMO

Social media research during natural disasters has been presented as a tool to guide response and relief efforts in the disciplines of geography and computer sciences. This systematic review highlights the public health implications of social media use in the response phase of the emergency, assessing (1) how social media can improve the dissemination of emergency warning and response information during and after a natural disaster, and (2) how social media can help identify physical, medical, functional, and emotional needs after a natural disaster. We surveyed the literature using 3 databases and included 44 research articles. We found that analyses of social media data were performed using a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Social media platforms were identified as broadcasting tools presenting an opportunity for public health agencies to share emergency warnings. Social media was used as a tool to identify areas in need of relief operations or medical assistance by using self-reported location, with map development as a common method to visualize data. In retrospective analyses, social media analysis showed promise as an opportunity to reduce the time of response and to identify the individuals' location. Further research for misinformation and rumor control using social media is needed.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Desastres Naturais , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Planejamento em Desastres/tendências , Humanos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Mídias Sociais/instrumentação
14.
Vet Rec ; 186(9): 275-277, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139627
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(14): 16507-16520, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124305

RESUMO

Petroleum industry can create enormous wealth and employment opportunities, which is one of the pillars of the national economy. The transportation conditions of petroleum products are complex and changeable. The natural disaster-induced dangerous chemical leakage may damage the ecological environment, which leads to substantial economic losses. It significantly undermines the sustainable development agenda. Therefore, assessing the possibility of leakage and the potential environmental damages becomes a primary task to decision-makers to formulate maintenance plans. This paper evaluated the risk of an oil pipeline leakage under the regional geological disasters. Specifically, risk assessment indicators system was established considering the common threat of multiple natural hazards in the region. The sensitivities of the influence factors were determined using the combined GIS and the contribution rate model. The fuzzy analysis approach was used to process the expert's judgment to obtain a real-time disaster hazard. Meanwhile, in terms of the analysis of pipeline failure causes, the assessment system of disaster resistance ability was developed to determine the possibility of leakage. The leakage-induced environmental losses were quantified by monetary quantification. Finally, the level of environmental risk was determined using a 5 × 5 probability-currency matrix. Case results show that the risk level is medium, thereby appropriate maintenance measures need to be taken to reduce the risk. Overall, this study provides necessary help to prevent the leakage of petroleum products in transportation. Also, the environmental risk presented in the form of currency can promote non-environmental professional risk decision-makers better understand the degree of risk.


Assuntos
Desastres , Petróleo , Meio Ambiente , Desastres Naturais , Medição de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947798

RESUMO

Objective: As most studies relating to mental health and disasters have employed cross-sectional or follow-up assessments about psychological health with post-disaster information, the association between changes in social ties and mental health remains unclear. We examined the relationship between the changes in survivor neighborhood ties and depressive symptoms before and after a natural disaster. Methods: Participants were 3567 individuals aged ≥65 years living in Iwanuma city who had responded to questionnaires by the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study both predating the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and 2.5 years afterward. Changes in the depressive symptoms were assessed using the geriatric depression scale (GDS) at the baseline and follow-up survey. Changes in the neighborhood ties were assessed by asking the participants about their interactions with people in their neighborhood. Possible confounders were adjusted in a linear regression model. Results: Among the 3111 participants in this analysis, 1073 (34.5%) had increased GDS score after the disaster. There were 336 (10.8%) individuals who had neighborhood ties before the disaster, but had no ties afterward; their mean GDS score increased from 2.93 points in 2010 to 3.19 points in 2013. Among those who had not had ties before and after the disaster the mean GDS score remained almost stable, from 2.19 points in 2010 to 2.12 points in 2013. The participants with post-disaster ties were significantly less likely to have an increased GDS score compared with those who had not had ties before and after the disaster (ß = -0.39; 95% confidence interval: -0.72, -0.06). Conclusions: Increased neighborhood ties after the disaster reduced the risk of depressive symptoms even when survivors suffered disaster damages. The study reinforces the importance of social capital in disaster recovery and suggests to local governments and local communities that fostering horizontal, neighborhood ties may improve disaster preparedness and mental health resilience.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Terremotos , Desastres Naturais , Características de Residência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Tsunamis , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936871

RESUMO

Catastrophic natural disasters cause devastating damage and leave a huge number of homeless people. Waiting for resettlement in a post-disaster environment brings human suffering, which is defined by waiting cost in this paper. Taking into account waiting cost and fairness consideration simultaneously, a mixed integer linear programming model is constructed for the multiperiod location-allocation process. Two fairness indicators are incorporated to guarantee both the whole-process equity and the periodic equity. The model is implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) and solved by the CPLEX solver. An illustrative example is provided to explain the model characteristics. Furthermore, a case study of the Yushu earthquake is conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the model to practical problems.


Assuntos
Terremotos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo de Emergência , Modelos Estatísticos , Desastres Naturais , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos
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