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1.
J Radiol Prot ; 44(2)2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834049

RESUMO

It is crucial to anticipate nuclear emergency scenarios and implement effective measures. Japan's climate and topography make it vulnerable to natural disasters; thus, it is necessary to address compounding and cascading disaster scenarios involving the simultaneous occurrence of natural and nuclear disasters. On 1 January 2024, an earthquake hit the Noto region of Ishikawa Prefecture, resulting in damage to the area around the Shika Nuclear Power Plant, located 90 km from the epicenter. This earthquake revealed that, in the event of a complex disaster, it is possible that residents living within 30 km of the Shika Nuclear Power Plant will be completely unprepared for a nuclear disaster. In the event of a complex disaster, it is crucial to implement appropriate countermeasures while balancing responses to both nuclear and natural disasters and optimizing radiation disaster prevention measures.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Japão , Humanos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos/prevenção & controle , Terremotos , Desastres Naturais , Centrais Nucleares , Proteção Radiológica
2.
Nurs Health Sci ; 26(2): e13135, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866383

RESUMO

Pregnant women experience medical and psychological difficulties in their daily lives during disasters. Since the care provided to them in disaster situations is unclear, it is necessary to better understand their experiences. This study aims to identify the maternal experiences of pregnant women during natural disasters. This research employed a modified grounded theory approach. Twenty-three pregnant women, living in disaster-affected areas, were interviewed. The research methods were utilized and interpretive analysis was conducted, resulting in a diagram and storyline to describe the process. The characteristics of the maternal experiences fluctuated between "being unable to face pregnancy because of the disaster response" and "facing the fact of being pregnant." To maintain a fluctuation between their affected life and their pregnant life, it was necessary to control the weighting between "securing a safe and secure place," "encountering support based on pregnancy," and "signs from the fetus." Clarifying the maternal experiences of pregnant women living in disaster areas revealed a multilayered structure of categories and relationships. This study suggests that understanding the structure of fluctuations and control is critical for the nursing practice.


Assuntos
Teoria Fundamentada , Desastres Naturais , Gestantes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Gestantes/psicologia
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(6): 410-420, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812801

RESUMO

Objective: To assess global, regional and national trends in the impact of floods from 1990 to 2022 and determine factors influencing flood-related deaths. Methods: We used data on flood disasters from the International Disaster Database for 1990-2022 from 168 countries. We calculated the annual percentage change to estimate trends in the rates of people affected and killed by floods by study period, World Health Organization (WHO) region, country income level and flood type. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the factors associated with death from floods. Findings: From 1990 to 2022, 4713 floods were recorded in 168 countries, which affected > 3.2 billion people, caused 218 353 deaths and were responsible for more than 1.3 trillion United States dollars of economic losses. The WHO Western Pacific Region had the most people affected by floods (> 2.0 billion), accounting for 63.19% (2 024 599 380/3 203 944 965) of all affected populations. The South-East Asia Region had the most deaths (71 713, 32.84%). The African and Eastern Mediterranean Regions had the highest number of people affected and killed by floods per 100 000 population in 2022. The odds of floods causing more than 50 deaths were significantly higher in low-income countries (adjusted odds ratio: 14.34; 95% confidence interval: 7.46 to 30.04) compared with high-income countries. Numbers of people affected and mortality due to floods declined over time. Conclusion: Despite the decreases in populations affected and deaths, floods still have a serious impact on people and economies globally, particularly in lower-income countries. Action is needed to improve disaster risk management and flood mitigation.


Assuntos
Inundações , Humanos , Saúde Global , Desastres , Países em Desenvolvimento , Modelos Logísticos , Desastres Naturais
5.
Crit Care Clin ; 40(3): 451-462, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796220

RESUMO

Practice of critical care in austere settings involves navigating rapidly evolving environments, where physical resources, provider availability, and healthcare capacity are constrained. Austere Critical Care focuses on maintaining the highest standard of care possible for patients while also identifying resource limitations, responding to patient surges, and adhering to proper triage practices at the austere site. This includes transferring the patient when able and necessary. This article describes the current practice of critical care medicine in the austere environment, using recent natural disasters, pandemics, and conflicts as case studies.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Triagem , Desastres Naturais , Pandemias , Região de Recursos Limitados
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1321535, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721546

RESUMO

Introduction: Disaster relief volunteers must have certain psychological and cognitive characteristics. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the training program on improving knowledge, functional skills, and attitude among disaster volunteers. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2023 in Iran, including an intervention and control group and follow-ups. Ninety health volunteers were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 45. The experimental group received the training program for an hour a week for three months. The control group received no intervention. The participants of both groups completed the disaster preparedness questionnaire at the pre-test, post-test, and one and three months after the intervention. Data was analyzed using SPSS "version 26" software in the methods section. Results: The intervention effect were significant in increasing the volunteers' functional skills (F = 3.75), knowledge (F = 166.50), and attitude (F = 1.74), all in (p = 0.001). According to the results, this effect was stable over time for functional skills (F = 1.83) and knowledge (F = 18.04) all in (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Training programs can help improve skills, attitudes and knowledge in natural disaster volunteers. Researchers interested in the field of natural disaster relief, particularly health researchers, could consider further examining the aforementioned topics in their studies.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Voluntários , Humanos , Masculino , Irã (Geográfico) , Feminino , Voluntários/educação , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desastres Naturais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento em Desastres , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12015, 2024 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797740

RESUMO

The study aimed to examine the association of expanded adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with psychological distress in adulthood. The data from nation-wide online cohort was used for analysis. Community dwelling adults in Japan were included. The ACEs was assessed by 15 items of ACE-J, including childhood poverty and school bullying. Severe psychological distress was determined as the score of Kessler 6 over 13. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, by using sample weighting. A total of 28,617 participants were analyzed. About 75% of Japanese people had one or more ACEs. The prevalence of those with ACEs over 4 was 14.7%. Those with ACEs over 4 showed adjusted odds ratio = 8.18 [95% CI 7.14-9.38] for severe psychological distress. The prevalence of childhood poverty was 29% for 50-64 year old participants and 40% of 65 or older participants. The impact of childhood poverty on psychological distress was less than other ACEs in these age cohorts. Bullying was experienced 21-27% in young generations, but 10% in 65 or older participants. However, the impact on psychological distress in adulthood was relatively high in all age groups. ACEs have impacted mental health for a long time. Future research and practice to reduce ACEs are encouraged.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Bullying , Saúde Mental , Desastres Naturais , Pobreza , Humanos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Japão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Criança , Instituições Acadêmicas , Angústia Psicológica , Prevalência , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301255, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574077

RESUMO

Natural disasters, like pandemics and earthquakes, are some of the main causes of distress and casualties. Governmental crisis management processes are crucial when dealing with these types of problems. Social media platforms are among the main sources of information regarding current events and public opinion. So, they have been used extensively to aid disaster detection and prevention efforts. Therefore, there is always a need for better automatic systems that can detect and classify disaster data of social media. In this work, we propose enhanced Arabic disaster data classification models. The suggested models utilize domain adaptation to provide state-of-the-art accuracy. We used a standard dataset of Arabic disaster data collected from Twitter for testing the proposed models. Experimental results show that the provided models significantly outperform the previous state-of-the-art results.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Terremotos , Desastres Naturais , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Opinião Pública
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298076, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683792

RESUMO

Debris flow is a typical natural disaster in the middle reaches of the Dadu River, Southwest China. Field physical model tests were conducted to reveal the mechanism of river blocking by debris flow in the middle reaches of the Dadu River. The dynamic processes of riHver blocking by debris flows were revealed, and based on which three typical river-blocking modes of debris flow are observed, i.e. thrust-type river blocking, mixed-flow-type river blocking and progressive river blocking. The test results showed that the material composition of debris flows plays an important role in the river-blocking mode, only the tests that adopted the mixed soil and gravel exhibited the thrust-type river blocking mode. The material composition has a controlling effect on the thrust-type river-blocking model. Mixed-flow-type river-blocking mode appears most often in the tests with an intersection angle of 60°, because the small intersection angle is conducive to the mixing of the debris flow and the water in the main channel. The debris flows composed of sand tend to block the river with mixed-flow-type river-blocking mode, accounting for 50% of the occurrences in the model tests. The high flow rate and discharge in the main channel and the low flow rate and discharge in the branch channel are the key factors controlling the progressive river-blocking mode. The test results in this study can support the debris flow disaster prevention and mitigation in this area.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Movimentos da Água , China , Desastres Naturais
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 348: 116843, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603916

RESUMO

In 2020, unprecedented circumstances led to significant mental health consequences. Individuals faced mental health stressors that extended beyond the devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including widespread social unrest following the murder of George Floyd, an intense hurricane season in the Atlantic, and the politically divisive 2020 election. The objective of this analysis was to consider changes in help-seeking behavior following exposure to multiple social stressors and a natural disaster. Data from Crisis Text Line (CTL), a national text-based mental health crisis counseling service, was used to determine how help-seeking behavior changed in the wake of each event. Wilcoxon rank sum tests assessed changes in help-seeking behavior for each event in 2020 as compared to the same period in 2019. AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models examined if changes in crisis conversation volumes following each event differed. Higher median conversation volumes noted for the COVID-19 pandemic (+1 to +5 conversations), Hurricane Laura (+1 to +7 conversations) and the 2020 Election (+1 to +26 conversations). ARIMA models show substantial increases in help-seeking behavior following the declaration of a national emergency for the COVID-19 pandemic (+4.3 to +38.2%) and following the 2020 election (+3 to +24.44%). Our analysis found that the mental health response following social stressors may be distinct from natural events, especially when natural disasters occur in the context of multiple social stressors. This analysis adds to the growing body of literature considering the mental health impact of exposure to multiple co-occurring societal stressors, like police violence and a global pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Desastres Naturais , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lancet Microbe ; 5(6): e594-e605, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518791

RESUMO

The effects of climate change and natural disasters on fungal pathogens and the risks for fungal diseases remain incompletely understood. In this literature review, we examined how fungi are adapting to an increase in the Earth's temperature and are becoming more thermotolerant, which is enhancing fungal fitness and virulence. Climate change is creating conditions conducive to the emergence of new fungal pathogens and is priming fungi to adapt to previously inhospitable environments, such as polluted habitats and urban areas, leading to the geographical spread of some fungi to traditionally non-endemic areas. Climate change is also contributing to increases in the frequency and severity of natural disasters, which can trigger outbreaks of fungal diseases and increase the spread of fungal pathogens. The populations mostly affected are the socially vulnerable. More awareness, research, funding, and policies on the part of key stakeholders are needed to mitigate the effects of climate change and disaster-related fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fungos , Micoses , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Fungos/patogenicidade , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Temperatura , Ecossistema
16.
J Emerg Manag ; 22(1): 89-99, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533703

RESUMO

This study explores disaster responses across the United States for Winter Storm Jaxon in 2018 by utilizing demographic and sentiment analysis for Twitter®. This study finds that people show highly fluctuated responses across the study periods and highest natural sentiment, followed by positive sentiment and negative sentiment. Also, some sociodemographic and Twitter variables, such as gender and long text, are strongly related to human sentiment, whereas other sociodemographic and Twitter variables, such as age and the higher number of retweets, are not associated with it. The results show that governments and disaster experts should consider a multitude of sociodemographic and Twitter variables to understand human responses and sentiment during natural disaster events.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Análise de Sentimentos , Demografia
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298854, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bangladesh's islands, because of their geographical location, frequently encounter crises like floods and river erosion, which pose significant threats to the residents' well-being and livelihoods. To delve into the effects of these disasters on livelihood and healthcare challenges, a mixed-method study was undertaken in a riverine-island near a major river of Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY: Between February 15th and February 28th, 2023, a cross-sectional study was conducted on an island in Bangladesh. The quantitative method involved conducting a survey of 442 households, with a total of 2921 participants. Additionally, 10 in-depth interviews and 10 key-informant interviews were conducted using semi-structured guidelines. Qualitative interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a thematic analysis. Triangulation was employed in this study through the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis, resulting in the presentation of findings that offer an in-depth comprehension of the phenomenon being investigated. RESULTS: River erosions and floods are common and recurring natural disasters that significantly impact the lives of the riverine island inhabitants. These disasters often disrupted their livelihoods, forced many residents to endure substandard living conditions or relocated during flood events. The island faced a low diagnostic prevalence of chronic diseases (e.g., 5.1% of adults were hypertension and 2.5% are diabetes) because of the absence of diagnostic facilities and a shortage of certified doctors. A significant number of chronic illness people in the community turned to alternative medicine sources (39.3%) such as homeopathy, Kabiraj, and Ayurvedic medicine, especially it gets increased during periods of natural disasters. Moreover, reproductive aged women revealed that 79.4% of them gave birth at home, with 6.0% of these home deliveries resulting in miscarriage or infant death. The destruction of crops, unstable job opportunities, an inadequate educational system, and a deficient healthcare delivery system exacerbated the hardships faced by the population affected by these disasters. CONCLUSION: The failure to seek treatment for chronic diseases and undiagnosed diseases is a significant health issue among the aging adults on the island. Island residents face the challenge of establishing effective prevention strategies for the well-being of older adults especially at the period of natural disasters. It is crucial for the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to collaborate to prevent the negative effects of floods and river erosions. This should include efforts to enhance the quality of education, healthcare services, job opportunities, and financial assistance for rebuilding homes.


Assuntos
Inundações , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Doença Crônica
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e49929, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disasters are becoming more frequent due to the impact of extreme weather events attributed to climate change, causing loss of lives, property, and psychological trauma. Mental health response to disasters emphasizes prevention and mitigation, and mobile health (mHealth) apps have been used for mental health promotion and treatment. However, little is known about their use in the mental health components of disaster management. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review was conducted to explore the use of mobile phone apps for mental health responses to natural disasters and to identify gaps in the literature. METHODS: We identified relevant keywords and subject headings and conducted comprehensive searches in 6 electronic databases. Studies in which participants were exposed to a man-made disaster were included if the sample also included some participants exposed to a natural hazard. Only full-text studies published in English were included. The initial titles and abstracts of the unique papers were screened by 2 independent review authors. Full texts of the selected papers that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed by the 2 independent reviewers. Data were extracted from each selected full-text paper and synthesized using a narrative approach based on the outcome measures, duration, frequency of use of the mobile phone apps, and the outcomes. This scoping review was reported according to the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews). RESULTS: Of the 1398 papers retrieved, 5 were included in this review. A total of 3 studies were conducted on participants exposed to psychological stress following a disaster while 2 were for disaster relief workers. The mobile phone apps for the interventions included Training for Life Skills, Sonoma Rises, Headspace, Psychological First Aid, and Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioural Health Disaster Response Apps. The different studies assessed the effectiveness or efficacy of the mobile app, feasibility, acceptability, and characteristics of app use or predictors of use. Different measures were used to assess the effectiveness of the apps' use as either the primary or secondary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A limited number of studies are exploring the use of mobile phone apps for mental health responses to disasters. The 5 studies included in this review showed promising results. Mobile apps have the potential to provide effective mental health support before, during, and after disasters. However, further research is needed to explore the potential of mobile phone apps in mental health responses to all hazards.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Aplicativos Móveis , Desastres Naturais , Telemedicina , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Telemedicina/métodos
19.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e40, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The importance of companion animals in the daily lives of people, and the increasing incidence and severity of natural disasters impacting people and their animals, is very well documented. However, despite the advancement of companion animal response capabilities, decontamination remains an inconsistently implemented component of disaster response. The challenge for local authorities is their need for planning factors and protocols specific to companion animal decontamination which are generally lacking. Data is provided on the average time requirements, water use and containment resources necessary, and the personnel required to decontaminate (decon) a large number of companion dogs. METHODS: Sixty-three lightly contaminated, medium weight, short to medium coat, highly tractable dogs (Labradors and Hounds) from a State facility colony were used to determine the water requirements, soap effectiveness, and time required to complete decon (washing/bathing). Data were collected over a 6-mo period using 2 personnel that were randomly assigned to wash the dogs. Difference in weight, bathing time, and water use between groups was evaluated using a 2-tailed 2-sample t-test for independent data. RESULTS: The time and water requirements were significantly different between medium coated dogs and short coated dogs. On average, for a short coated dog, the amount of time to complete decon was 7 min, and the amount of water was 8-10 gal. For medium coated dogs, the time increased to 10-12 min to complete the process and 12-15 gal water. DISCUSSION: The results of this study provide important insights emergency management planners, animal response team members, and community personnel tasked with implementation of mass decontamination of companion dogs following a natural or man-made disaster.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Descontaminação , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Animais de Estimação , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
J Trauma Stress ; 37(2): 267-279, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38196345

RESUMO

Youth exposed to natural disasters are at risk of developing trauma-related symptoms as well as engaging in substance use. Although previous research has established associations between disaster-related stressors and substance use in youth, less has focused on how symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may underpin this association. The current study used network analysis to identify specific PTSD symptoms associated with substance use following a natural disaster. Participants were 91,732 youths (Grades 3-12) from across Puerto Rico who completed a needs assessment 5-9 months after Hurricane Maria made landfall in September 2017. We examined associations between PTSD symptoms and substance use, identified clusters of symptoms and bridges between them, and explored age- and binary gender-related differences in associations between specific PTSD symptoms and substance use. Analyses identified two symptom communities: (a) arousal and reactivity, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and substance use, and (b) avoidance and intrusion. Broader findings suggested that substance use was most strongly associated with PTSD-related irritability and angry outbursts among youths. Surrounding nodes explained only 4.1% of the variance in substance use, but this was higher among youths who reported not having a supportive adult, R2 = 8.5; friend, R2 = 7.9; or teacher/counselor, R2 = 7.7, in their life. The bridge symptoms of sleep disruption and physiological reactivity were identified as potentially critical intervention targets for disrupting PTSD symptom networks after a natural disaster. Implications for triaged mental health care following natural disasters and directions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres Naturais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Humanos , Hispânico ou Latino/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Porto Rico , Criança
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