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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027420

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious infection that may break the healthcare system of several countries. Here, we aimed at presenting a critical view of ongoing drug repurposing efforts for COVID-19 as well as discussing opportunities for development of new treatments based on current knowledge of the mechanism of infection and potential targets within. Finally, we also discuss patent protection issues, cost effectiveness and scalability of synthetic routes for some of the most studied repurposing candidates since these are key aspects to meet global demand for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
2.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036293

RESUMO

A novel series of some hydrazones bearing thiazole moiety were generated via solvent-drop grinding of thiazole carbohydrazide 2 with various carbonyl compounds. Also, dehydrative-cyclocondensation of 2 with active methylene compounds or anhydrides gave the respective pyarzole or pyrazine derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. Additionally, the anti-viral activity of all the products was tested against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) using molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The average binding affinities of the compounds 3a, 3b, and 3c (-8.1 ± 0.33 kcal/mol, -8.0 ± 0.35 kcal/mol, and -8.2 ± 0.21 kcal/mol, respectively) are better than that of the positive control Nelfinavir (-6.9 ± 0.51 kcal/mol). This shows the possibility of these three compounds to effectively bind to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and hence, contradict the virus lifecycle.


Assuntos
Antivirais/síntese química , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteases/síntese química , Pirazinas/síntese química , Pirazóis/síntese química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Termodinâmica , Interface Usuário-Computador , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 220, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024075
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5464-5467, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019216

RESUMO

In vitro cytotoxicity screening is a crucial step of anticancer drug discovery. The application of deep learning methodology is gaining increasing attentions in processing drug screening data and studying anticancer mechanisms of chemical compounds. In this work, we explored the utilization of convolutional neural network in modeling the anticancer efficacy of small molecules. In particular, we presented a VGG19 model trained on 2D structural formulae to predict the growth-inhibitory effects of compounds against leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM, without any use of chemical descriptors. The model achieved a normalized RMSE of 15.76% on predicting growth inhibition and a Pearson Correlation Coefficient of 0.72 between predicted and experimental data, demonstrating a strong predictive power in this task. Furthermore, we implemented the Layer-wise Relevance Propagation technique to interpret the network and visualize the chemical groups predicted by the model that contribute to toxicity with human-readable representations.Clinical relevance-This work predicts the cytotoxicity of chemical compounds against human leukemic lymphoblast CCRF-CEM cell lines on a continuous scale, which only requires 2D images of the structural formulae of the compounds as inputs. Knowledge in the structure-toxicity relationship of small molecules will potentially increase the hit rate of primary drug screening assays.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Leucemia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação
5.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 34: 2058738420966078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045858

RESUMO

Given the sharp spreading of COVID-19 pandemic all around the world, our attention was brought to consider that that many cationic drugs (i.e. those characterized by the presence, at physiological pH value, of one or more cationic groups, both primary, secondary, tertiary and guanidinic aminic groups) could have any effect in impairing SARS-CoV2 entry in the host cell. This could open to new therapeutic chances against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050240

RESUMO

Studying disease models at the molecular level is vital for drug development in order to improve treatment and prevent a wide range of human pathologies. Microbial infections are still a major challenge because pathogens rapidly and continually evolve developing drug resistance. Cancer cells also change genetically, and current therapeutic techniques may be (or may become) ineffective in many cases. The pathology of many neurological diseases remains an enigma, and the exact etiology and underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Viral infections spread and develop much more quickly than does the corresponding research needed to prevent and combat these infections; the present and most relevant outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, which originated in Wuhan, China, illustrates the critical and immediate need to improve drug design and development techniques. Modern day drug discovery is a time-consuming, expensive process. Each new drug takes in excess of 10 years to develop and costs on average more than a billion US dollars. This demonstrates the need of a complete redesign or novel strategies. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has played a critical role in drug discovery ever since its introduction several decades ago. In just three decades, NMR has become a "gold standard" platform technology in medical and pharmacology studies. In this review, we present the major applications of NMR spectroscopy in medical drug discovery and development. The basic concepts, theories, and applications of the most commonly used NMR techniques are presented. We also summarize the advantages and limitations of the primary NMR methods in drug development.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Humanos
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4935, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004797

RESUMO

Gramicidin A (1) is a peptide antibiotic that disrupts the transmembrane ion concentration gradient by forming an ion channel in a lipid bilayer. Although long used clinically, it is limited to topical application because of its strong hemolytic activity and mammalian cytotoxicity, likely arising from the common ion transport mechanism. Here we report an integrated high-throughput strategy for discovering analogues of 1 with altered biological activity profiles. The 4096 analogue structures are designed to maintain the charge-neutral, hydrophobic, and channel forming properties of 1. Synthesis of the analogues, tandem mass spectrometry sequencing, and 3 microscale screenings enable us to identify 10 representative analogues. Re-synthesis and detailed functional evaluations find that all 10 analogues share a similar ion channel function, but have different cytotoxic, hemolytic, and antibacterial activities. Our large-scale structure-activity relationship studies reveal the feasibility of developing analogues of 1 that selectively induce toxicity toward target organisms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Gramicidina/análogos & derivados , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Farmacêutica , Eritrócitos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gramicidina/química , Gramicidina/farmacologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Coelhos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 1045-1056, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910899

RESUMO

Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease that is estimated to affect 339 million people globally. The symptoms of about 5-10% of patients with asthma are not adequately controlled with current therapy, and little success has been achieved in developing drugs that target the underlying mechanisms of asthma rather than suppressing symptoms. Over the past 3 years, well powered genetic studies of asthma have increased the number of independent asthma-associated genetic loci to 128. In this Series paper, we describe the immense progress in asthma genetics over the past 13 years and link asthma genetic variants to possible drug targets. Further studies are needed to establish the functional significance of gene variants associated with asthma in subgroups of patients and to describe the biological networks within which they function. The genomics-guided discovery of plausible drug targets for asthma could pave the way for the repurposing of existing drugs for asthma and the development of new treatments.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Asma/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Descoberta de Drogas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
9.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872217

RESUMO

A pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the number of newly reported cases continues to increase. More than 19.7 million cases have been reported globally and about 728,000 have died as of this writing (10 August 2020). Recently, it has been confirmed that the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) enzyme is responsible not only for viral reproduction but also impedes host immune responses. The Mpro provides a highly favorable pharmacological target for the discovery and design of inhibitors. Currently, no specific therapies are available, and investigations into the treatment of COVID-19 are lacking. Therefore, herein, we analyzed the bioactive phytocompounds isolated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) from Tinospora crispa as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using molecular docking study. Our analyses unveiled that the top nine hits might serve as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules, with three of them exerting biological activity and warranting further optimization and drug development to combat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Tinospora/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/classificação , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Domínio Catalítico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/classificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Termodinâmica , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a critical pandemic that has affected human communities worldwide, and there is an urgent need to develop effective drugs. Although there are a large number of candidate drug compounds that may be useful for treating COVID-19, the evaluation of these drugs is time-consuming and costly. Thus, screening to identify potentially effective drugs prior to experimental validation is necessary. METHOD: In this study, we applied the recently proposed method tensor decomposition (TD)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE) to gene expression profiles of multiple lung cancer cell lines infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We identified drug candidate compounds that significantly altered the expression of the 163 genes selected by TD-based unsupervised FE. RESULTS: Numerous drugs were successfully screened, including many known antiviral drug compounds such as C646, chelerythrine chloride, canertinib, BX-795, sorafenib, sorafenib, QL-X-138, radicicol, A-443654, CGP-60474, alvocidib, mitoxantrone, QL-XII-47, geldanamycin, fluticasone, atorvastatin, quercetin, motexafin gadolinium, trovafloxacin, doxycycline, meloxicam, gentamicin, and dibromochloromethane. The screen also identified ivermectin, which was first identified as an anti-parasite drug and recently the drug was included in clinical trials for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: The drugs screened using our strategy may be effective candidates for treating patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Células A549 , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/classificação , Humanos
11.
Pharmacol Rev ; 72(4): 862-898, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929000

RESUMO

RNA-based therapies, including RNA molecules as drugs and RNA-targeted small molecules, offer unique opportunities to expand the range of therapeutic targets. Various forms of RNAs may be used to selectively act on proteins, transcripts, and genes that cannot be targeted by conventional small molecules or proteins. Although development of RNA drugs faces unparalleled challenges, many strategies have been developed to improve RNA metabolic stability and intracellular delivery. A number of RNA drugs have been approved for medical use, including aptamers (e.g., pegaptanib) that mechanistically act on protein target and small interfering RNAs (e.g., patisiran and givosiran) and antisense oligonucleotides (e.g., inotersen and golodirsen) that directly interfere with RNA targets. Furthermore, guide RNAs are essential components of novel gene editing modalities, and mRNA therapeutics are under development for protein replacement therapy or vaccination, including those against unprecedented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pandemic. Moreover, functional RNAs or RNA motifs are highly structured to form binding pockets or clefts that are accessible by small molecules. Many natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic antibiotics (e.g., aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, oxazolidinones, and phenicols) can directly bind to ribosomal RNAs to achieve the inhibition of bacterial infections. Therefore, there is growing interest in developing RNA-targeted small-molecule drugs amenable to oral administration, and some (e.g., risdiplam and branaplam) have entered clinical trials. Here, we review the pharmacology of novel RNA drugs and RNA-targeted small-molecule medications, with a focus on recent progresses and strategies. Challenges in the development of novel druggable RNA entities and identification of viable RNA targets and selective small-molecule binders are discussed. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: With the understanding of RNA functions and critical roles in diseases, as well as the development of RNA-related technologies, there is growing interest in developing novel RNA-based therapeutics. This comprehensive review presents pharmacology of both RNA drugs and RNA-targeted small-molecule medications, focusing on novel mechanisms of action, the most recent progress, and existing challenges.


Assuntos
RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Técnicas de Química Analítica/normas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/organização & administração , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , MicroRNAs/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA/efeitos adversos , RNA Antissenso/farmacologia , RNA Antissenso/uso terapêutico , RNA Guia/farmacologia , RNA Guia/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Riboswitch/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Biochemistry ; 59(39): 3741-3756, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931703

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is essential to viral replication and cleaves highly specific substrate sequences, making it an obvious target for inhibitor design. However, as for any virus, SARS-CoV-2 is subject to constant neutral drift and selection pressure, with new Mpro mutations arising over time. Identification and structural characterization of Mpro variants is thus critical for robust inhibitor design. Here we report sequence analysis, structure predictions, and molecular modeling for seventy-nine Mpro variants, constituting all clinically observed mutations in this protein as of April 29, 2020. Residue substitution is widely distributed, with some tendency toward larger and more hydrophobic residues. Modeling and protein structure network analysis suggest differences in cohesion and active site flexibility, revealing patterns in viral evolution that have relevance for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Descoberta de Drogas , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913008

RESUMO

We and others propose vimentin as a possible cellular target for the treatment of COVID-19. This innovative idea is so recent that it requires further attention and debate. The significant role played by vimentin in virus-induced infection however is well established: (1) vimentin has been reported as a co-receptor and/or attachment site for SARS-CoV; (2) vimentin is involved in viral replication in cells; (3) vimentin plays a fundamental role in both the viral infection and the consequent explosive immune-inflammatory response and (4) a lower vimentin expression is associated with the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and fibrosis. Moreover, the absence of vimentin in mice makes them resistant to lung injury. Since vimentin has a twofold role in the disease, not only being involved in the viral infection but also in the associated life-threatening lung inflammation, the use of vimentin-targeted drugs may offer a synergistic advantage as compared with other treatments not targeting vimentin. Consequently, we speculate here that drugs which decrease the expression of vimentin can be used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and advise that several Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs be immediately tested in clinical trials against SARS-CoV-2, thus broadening therapeutic options for this type of viral infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vimentina/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Regulação para Baixo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 13): 394, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-target interaction prediction is of great significance for narrowing down the scope of candidate medications, and thus is a vital step in drug discovery. Because of the particularity of biochemical experiments, the development of new drugs is not only costly, but also time-consuming. Therefore, the computational prediction of drug target interactions has become an essential way in the process of drug discovery, aiming to greatly reducing the experimental cost and time. RESULTS: We propose a learning-based method based on feature representation learning and deep neural network named DTI-CNN to predict the drug-target interactions. We first extract the relevant features of drugs and proteins from heterogeneous networks by using the Jaccard similarity coefficient and restart random walk model. Then, we adopt a denoising autoencoder model to reduce the dimension and identify the essential features. Third, based on the features obtained from last step, we constructed a convolutional neural network model to predict the interaction between drugs and proteins. The evaluation results show that the average AUROC score and AUPR score of DTI-CNN were 0.9416 and 0.9499, which obtains better performance than the other three existing state-of-the-art methods. CONCLUSIONS: All the experimental results show that the performance of DTI-CNN is better than that of the three existing methods and the proposed method is appropriately designed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos
15.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(14): 2133-2146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922174

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 spread quickly across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11 declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The mortality rate, hospital disorders and incalculable economic and social damages, besides the unproven efficacy of the treatments evaluated against COVID-19, raised the need for immediate control of this disease. Therefore, the current study employed in silico tools to rationally identify new possible SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. That is an enzyme conserved among the coronavirus species; hence, the identification of an Mpro inhibitor is to make it a broad-spectrum drug. Molecular docking studies described the binding sites and the interaction energies of 74 Mpro-ligand complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). A structural similarity screening was carried out in order to identify possible Mpro ligands that show additional pharmacological properties against COVID-19. We identified 59 hit compounds and among them, melatonin stood out due to its prominent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities; it can reduce oxidative stress, defence cell mobility and efficiently combat the cytokine storm and sepsis. In addition, melatonin is an inhibitor of calmodulin, an essential intracellular component to maintain angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) on the cell surface. Interestingly, one of the most promising hits in our docking study was melatonin. It revealed better interaction energy with Mpro compared to ligands in complexes from PDB. Consequently, melatonin can have response potential in early stages for its possible effects on ACE-2 and Mpro, although it is also promising in more severe stages of the disease for its action against hyper-inflammation. These results definitely do not confirm antiviral activity, but can rather be used as a basis for further preclinical and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4929-4935, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene are frequently found in various cancer types. IDH1 mutants produce 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), an oncometabolite, from alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG). This 2-HG plays a key role in tumorigenesis via inhibition of α-KG dependent enzymes. For this reason, IDH1 mutant could be an ideal target for the treatment of cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To find a new IDH1 inhibitor, 8,364 compounds were obtained from Korea Chemical Bank. Using high-throughput screening (HTS) of a chemical library, we unveiled a compound that could inhibit the IDH1 mutant. RESULTS: According to the enzyme assay, our compound (KRC-09) effectively inhibited the activity of IDH1 R132H mutant. In addition, KRC-09 decreased the concentration of intracellular 2-HG in the U-87 MG cell line harboring IDH1 R132H. CONCLUSION: In this article, we present a novel chemical scaffold that suppresses the activity of an IDH1 mutant.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Descoberta de Drogas , Glutaratos/metabolismo , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Mutação , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
17.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906733

RESUMO

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the outbreak caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) a pandemic. The rapid spread of the disease surprised the scientific and medical community. Based on the latest reports, news, and scientific articles published, there is no doubt that the coronavirus has overloaded health systems globally. Practical actions against the recent emergence and rapid expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 require the development and use of tools for discovering new molecular anti-SARS-CoV-2 targets. Thus, this review presents bioinformatics and molecular modeling strategies that aim to assist in the discovery of potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Besides, we reviewed the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and innate immunity, since understanding the structures involved in this infection can contribute to the development of new therapeutic targets. Bioinformatics is a technology that assists researchers in coping with diseases by investigating genetic sequencing and seeking structural models of potential molecular targets present in SARS-CoV2. The details provided in this review provide future points of consideration in the field of virology and medical sciences that will contribute to clarifying potential therapeutic targets for anti-SARS-CoV-2 and for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis and virulence of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14290, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868801

RESUMO

Several drug candidates have been proposed and tested as the latest clinical treatment for coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir/lopinavir, and favipiravir are under trials for the treatment of this disease. The hyperpolarization technique has the ability to further provide a better understanding of the roles of these drugs at the molecular scale and in different applications in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging. This technique may provide new opportunities in diagnosis and research of COVID-19. Signal amplification by reversible exchange-based hyperpolarization studies on large-sized drug candidates were carried out. We observed hyperpolarized proton signals from whole structures, due to the unprecedented long-distance polarization transfer by para-hydrogen. We also found that the optimal magnetic field for the maximum polarization transfer yield was dependent on the molecular structure. We can expect further research on the hyperpolarization of other important large molecules, isotope labeling, as well as polarization transfer on nuclei with a long spin relaxation time. A clinical perspective of these features on drug molecules can broaden the application of hyperpolarization techniques for therapeutic studies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Amidas/química , Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Lopinavir/química , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pirazinas/química , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Ritonavir/química , Ritonavir/farmacologia
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 13): 387, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug discovery is known for the large amount of money and time it consumes and the high risk it takes. Drug repositioning has, therefore, become a popular approach to save time and cost by finding novel indications for approved drugs. In order to distinguish these novel indications accurately in a great many of latent associations between drugs and diseases, it is necessary to exploit abundant heterogeneous information about drugs and diseases. RESULTS: In this article, we propose a meta-path-based computational method called NEDD to predict novel associations between drugs and diseases using heterogeneous information. First, we construct a heterogeneous network as an undirected graph by integrating drug-drug similarity, disease-disease similarity, and known drug-disease associations. NEDD uses meta paths of different lengths to explicitly capture the indirect relationships, or high order proximity, within drugs and diseases, by which the low dimensional representation vectors of drugs and diseases are obtained. NEDD then uses a random forest classifier to predict novel associations between drugs and diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The experiments on a gold standard dataset which contains 1933 validated drug-disease associations show that NEDD produces superior prediction results compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos
20.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978312

RESUMO

The magnitude of the morbidity and mortality inflicted upon the global population in less than 1 year has driven the inescapable conclusion that the discovery and development of effective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are urgent and should be prioritized. The antiviral drug discovery programs that emerged for HIV and hepatitis C virus have enabled technology and expertise to accelerate this process for SARS-CoV-2. The description of candidate lead inhibitors for the viral main protease (Mpro) exemplifies this accelerated approach and reminds us of the needs and opportunities for addressing this pandemic.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Betacoronavirus , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Indóis , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais
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