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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4300-4306, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467745

RESUMO

Currently available drugs for complex diseases have such limitations as unsatisfactory efficacy, drug resistance, and toxic side effects. Complexity of biological systems is a determinant of drug efficacy. It is not an effective approach to find disturbance strategies for the complicated biological network for complex diseases based on the static topological structures, as biological systems undergo dynamic changes all the time. Supported by profound theoretical basis and rich clinical experience, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) emphasizes systematic and dynamic treatment depending on changes. Guided by TCM theory in practical treatment, Chinese medicine dynamically and comprehensively regulates the overall state. Therefore, if the dynamic factors are taken into consideration in design, the resultant drugs will be more effective. This study proposes state-regulating(SR) medicine from the perspective of system dynamics, elaborating the concept in terms of the connotations and principle and verifying the feasibility of SR medicine design with the attractor method. Thus, SR medicine is a new concept for drug discovery and design from the aspect of system dynamics, which integrates the TCM focusing on holistic dynamic regulation with biomedicine that features local microscopic research such as molecular mechanisms. The attractor method is a feasible techinical way for SR medicine design.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Descoberta de Drogas , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(5): 275-281, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470931

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, with the increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic disorders in recent years. As the disease progresses, it leads to hepatic fibrosis, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma, but there is still no cure for severe hepatic fibrosis. Currently, in order to develop drugs for the treatment of NASH, the effects of candidate drugs are evaluated by a long-term administration to mice and rats that are fed a high-fat or methionine-deficient diet to reproduce the pathology of fatty liver and liver fibrosis. Since drug development using these experimental animals is time-consuming and costly, in vitro models that reproduce the pathology of NASH have recently been developing. In this review, we will outline the current issues in the diagnosis and treatment of NASH, and introduce our research for the discovery of early diagnostic markers and the development of new therapeutic agents using liver organoid cultures derived from mouse models of NASH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Descoberta de Drogas , Fígado , Cirrose Hepática , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Organoides , Ratos
3.
Elife ; 102021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340747

RESUMO

The discovery of a drug requires over a decade of intensive research and financial investments - and still has a high risk of failure. To reduce this burden, we developed the NICEdrug.ch resource, which incorporates 250,000 bioactive molecules, and studied their enzymatic metabolic targets, fate, and toxicity. NICEdrug.ch includes a unique fingerprint that identifies reactive similarities between drug-drug and drug-metabolite pairs. We validated the application, scope, and performance of NICEdrug.ch over similar methods in the field on golden standard datasets describing drugs and metabolites sharing reactivity, drug toxicities, and drug targets. We use NICEdrug.ch to evaluate inhibition and toxicity by the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil, and suggest avenues to alleviate its side effects. We propose shikimate 3-phosphate for targeting liver-stage malaria with minimal impact on the human host cell. Finally, NICEdrug.ch suggests over 1300 candidate drugs and food molecules to target COVID-19 and explains their inhibitory mechanism for further experimental screening. The NICEdrug.ch database is accessible online to systematically identify the reactivity of small molecules and druggable enzymes with practical applications in lead discovery and drug repurposing.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/química , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/metabolismo , Fluoruracila/química , Fluoruracila/metabolismo , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Fluxo de Trabalho
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4688, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344896

RESUMO

Internalization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play pivotal roles in cell responsiveness. Dysregulation in receptor trafficking can lead to aberrant signaling and cell behavior. Here, using an endosomal BRET-based assay in a high-throughput screen with the prototypical GPCR angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), we sought to identify receptor trafficking inhibitors from a library of ~115,000 small molecules. We identified a novel dual Ras and ARF6 inhibitor, which we named Rasarfin, that blocks agonist-mediated internalization of AT1R and other GPCRs. Rasarfin also potently inhibits agonist-induced ERK1/2 signaling by GPCRs, and MAPK and Akt signaling by EGFR, as well as prevents cancer cell proliferation. In silico modeling and in vitro studies reveal a unique binding modality of Rasarfin within the SOS-binding domain of Ras. Our findings unveil a class of dual small G protein inhibitors for receptor trafficking and signaling, useful for the inhibition of oncogenic cellular responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/antagonistas & inibidores , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ras/química , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356603

RESUMO

Angiotensin II (Ang II) may contain a charge relay system (CRS) involving Tyr/His/carboxylate, which creates a tyrosinate anion for receptor activation. Energy calculations were carried out to determine the preferred geometry for the CRS in the presence and absence of the Arg guanidino group occupying position 2 of Ang II. These findings suggest that Tyr is preferred over His for bearing the negative charge and that the CRS is stabilized by the guanidino group. Recent crystallography studies provided details of the binding of nonpeptide angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor, and these insights were applied to Ang II. A model of binding and receptor activation that explains the surmountable and insurmountable effects of Ang II analogues sarmesin and sarilesin, respectively, was developed and enabled the discovery of a new generation of ARBs called bisartans. Finally, we determined the ability of the bisartan BV6(TFA) to act as a potential ARB, demonstrating similar effects to candesartan, by reducing vasoconstriction of rabbit iliac arteries in response to cumulative doses of Ang II. Recent clinical studies have shown that Ang II receptor blockers have protective effects in hypertensive patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the usage of ARBS to block the AT1 receptor preventing the binding of toxic angiotensin implicated in the storm of cytokines in SARS-CoV-2 is a target treatment and opens new avenues for disease therapy.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/química , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/análogos & derivados , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Coelhos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/química , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356672

RESUMO

In the search for new therapeutic strategies to contrast SARS-CoV-2, we here studied the interaction of polydatin (PD) and resveratrol (RESV)-two natural stilbene polyphenols with manifold, well known biological activities-with Spike, the viral protein essential for virus entry into host cells, and ACE2, the angiotensin-converting enzyme present on the surface of multiple cell types (including respiratory epithelial cells) which is the main host receptor for Spike binding. Molecular Docking simulations evidenced that both compounds can bind Spike, ACE2 and the ACE2:Spike complex with good affinity, although the interaction of PD appears stronger than that of RESV on all the investigated targets. Preliminary biochemical assays revealed a significant inhibitory activity of the ACE2:Spike recognition with a dose-response effect only in the case of PD.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
7.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112887, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339980

RESUMO

Chemical studies of the aerial parts of the Australian desert plant Eremophila microtheca afforded the targeted and known diterpenoid scaffolds, 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid and 3-acetoxy-7,8-dihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid. The most abundant serrulatane scaffold was converted to the poly-methyl derivatives, 3-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid methyl ester and 3,7,8-trimethoxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid methyl ester using simple and rapid methylation conditions consisting of DMSO, NaOH and MeI at room temperature. Subsequently a 12-membered amide library was synthesised by reacting the methylated scaffolds with a diverse series of commercial primary amines. The chemical structures of the 12 undescribed semi-synthetic analogues were fully characterised following 1D/2D NMR, MS, UV, ECD and [α]D data analyses. All compounds were evaluated for their anthelmintic, anti-microbial and anti-viral activities. While none of the compounds significantly inhibited motility or development of the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) of a pathogenic ruminant parasite, Haemonchus contortus, the tri-methylated analogue induced a skinny phenotype in fourth-stage larvae (L4s) after seven days of treatment (IC50 = 14 µM). Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities were not observed at concentrations up to 20 µM. Activity against HIV latency reversal was tested in inducible, chronically-infected cells, with the tri-methylated analogue being the most active (EC50 = 38 µM).


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Diterpenos , Scrophulariaceae , Austrália , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 204: 114286, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358814

RESUMO

Enzyme inhibitors represent a substantial fraction of all small molecules currently in clinical use. Therefore, the early stage of drug-discovery process and development efforts are focused on the identification of new enzyme inhibitors through screening assays. The use of immobilized enzymes on solid supports to probe ligand-enzyme interactions have been employed with success not only to identify and characterize but also to isolate new ligands from complex mixtures. Between the available solid supports, magnetic particles have emerged as a promising support for enzyme immobilization due to the high superficial area, easy separation from the reaction medium and versatility. Particularly, the ligand fishing assay has been employed as a very useful tool to rapidly isolate bioactive compounds from complex mixtures, and hence the use of magnetic particles for enzyme immobilization has been widespread. Thus, this review provides a critical overview of the screening assays using immobilized enzymes on magnetic particles between 2006 and 2021.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas , Magnetismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Ligantes , Fenômenos Magnéticos
9.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(5): 34, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373963

RESUMO

The five-membered pyrrolidine ring is one of the nitrogen heterocycles used widely by medicinal chemists to obtain compounds for the treatment of human diseases. The great interest in this saturated scaffold is enhanced by (1) the possibility to efficiently explore the pharmacophore space due to sp3-hybridization, (2) the contribution to the stereochemistry of the molecule, (3) and the increased three-dimensional (3D) coverage due to the non-planarity of the ring-a phenomenon called "pseudorotation". In this review, we report bioactive molecules with target selectivity characterized by the pyrrolidine ring and its derivatives, including pyrrolizines, pyrrolidine-2-one, pyrrolidine-2,5-diones and prolinol described in the literature from 2015 to date. After a comparison of the physicochemical parameters of pyrrolidine with the parent aromatic pyrrole and cyclopentane, we investigate the influence of steric factors on biological activity, also describing the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the studied compounds. To aid the reader's approach to reading the manuscript, we have planned the review on the basis of the synthetic strategies used: (1) ring construction from different cyclic or acyclic precursors, reporting the synthesis and the reaction conditions, or (2) functionalization of preformed pyrrolidine rings, e.g., proline derivatives. Since one of the most significant features of the pyrrolidine ring is the stereogenicity of carbons, we highlight how the different stereoisomers and the spatial orientation of substituents can lead to a different biological profile of drug candidates, due to the different binding mode to enantioselective proteins. We believe that this work can guide medicinal chemists to the best approach in the design of new pyrrolidine compounds with different biological profiles.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Pirrolidinas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Estereoisomerismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4785, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373459

RESUMO

The implementation of applied engineering principles to create synthetic biological systems promises to revolutionize medicine, but application of fundamentally redesigned organisms has thus far not impacted practical drug development. Here we utilize an engineered microbial organism with a six-letter semi-synthetic DNA code to generate a library of site-specific, click chemistry compatible amino acid substitutions in the human cytokine IL-2. Targeted covalent modification of IL-2 variants with PEG polymers and screening identifies compounds with distinct IL-2 receptor specificities and improved pharmacological properties. One variant, termed THOR-707, selectively engages the IL-2 receptor beta/gamma complex without engagement of the IL-2 receptor alpha. In mice, administration of THOR-707 results in large-scale activation and amplification of CD8+ T cells and NK cells, without Treg expansion characteristic of IL-2. In syngeneic B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice, THOR-707 enhances drug accumulation in the tumor tissue, stimulates tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T and NK cells, and leads to a dose-dependent reduction of tumor growth. These results support further characterization of the immune modulatory, anti-tumor properties of THOR-707 and represent a fundamental advance in the application of synthetic biology to medicine, leveraging engineered semi-synthetic organisms as cellular factories to facilitate discovery and production of differentiated classes of chemically modified biologics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-2/química , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Interleucina-2/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2 , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Biologia Sintética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445763

RESUMO

Unfortunately, COVID-19 is still a threat to humankind and has a dramatic impact on human health, social life, the world economy, and food security. With the limited number of suggested therapies under clinical trials, the discovery of novel therapeutic agents is essential. Here, a previously identified anti-SARS-CoV-2 compound named Compound 13 (1,2,5-Oxadiazole-3-carboximidic acid, 4,4'-(methylenediimino) bis,bis[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]hydrazide) was subjected to an iterated virtual screening against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using a combination of Ligand Designer and PathFinder. PathFinder, a computational reaction enumeration tool, was used for the rapid generation of enumerated structures via default reaction library. Ligand designer was employed for the computerized lead optimization and selection of the best structural modification that resulted in a favorable ligand-protein complex. The obtained compounds that showed the best binding to Mpro were re-screened against TMPRSS2, leading to the identification of 20 shared compounds. The compounds were further visually inspected, which resulted in the identification of five shared compounds M1-5 with dual binding affinity. In vitro evaluation and enzyme inhibition assay indicated that M3, an analogue of Compound 13 afforded by replacing the phenolic moiety with pyridinyl, possesses an improved antiviral activity and safety. M3 displayed in vitro antiviral activity with IC50 0.016 µM and Mpro inhibition activity with IC50 0.013 µM, 7-fold more potent than the parent Compound 13 and potent than the antivirals drugs that are currently under clinical trials. Moreover, M3 showed potent activity against human TMPRSS2 and furin enzymes with IC50 0.05, and 0.08 µM, respectively. Molecular docking, WaterMap analysis, molecular dynamics simulation, and R-group analysis confirmed the superiority of the binding fit to M3 with the target enzymes. WaterMap analysis calculated the thermodynamic properties of the hydration site in the binding pocket that significantly affects the biological activity. Loading M3 on zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) increased the antiviral activity of the compound 1.5-fold, while maintaining a higher safety profile. In conclusion, lead optimized discovery following an iterated virtual screening in association with molecular docking and biological evaluation revealed a novel compound named M3 with promising dual activity against SARS-CoV-2. The compound deserves further investigation for potential clinical-based studies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361800

RESUMO

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography is an evolving technology that integrates the separation and analysis technology of TLC with biological activity detection technology, which has shown a steep rise in popularity over the past few decades. It connects TLC with convenient, economic and intuitive features and bioautography with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we discuss the research progress of TLC bioautography and then establish a definite timeline to introduce it. This review summarizes known TLC bioautography types and practical applications for determining antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant compounds and for inhibiting glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, tyrosinase and cholinesterase activity constitutes. Nowadays, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to identify original, natural products with anti-COVID potential compounds from Chinese traditional medicine and natural medicinal plants. We also give an account of detection techniques, including in situ and ex situ techniques; even in situ ion sources represent a major reform. Considering the current technical innovations, we propose that the technology will make more progress in TLC plates with higher separation and detection technology with a more portable and extensive scope of application. We believe this technology will be diffusely applied in medicine, biology, agriculture, animal husbandry, garden forestry, environmental management and other fields in the future.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): e358-e368, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339656

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which cells lose their epithelial characteristics, for instance apical-basal cell polarity and cell-cell contact, and gain mesenchymal properties, such as increased motility. In colorectal cancer, EMT has an important role in tumour progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. There has been accumulating evidence from preclinical and early clinical studies that show that EMT markers might serve as outcome predictors and potential therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer. This Review describes the fundamentals of EMT, including biology, newly partial EMT, and associated changes. We also provide a comprehensive summary of therapeutic compounds capable of targeting EMT markers, including drugs in preclinical and clinical trials and those with repurpose potential. Lastly, we explore the obstacles of EMT bench-to-bedside drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360558

RESUMO

Experimental screening of large sets of compounds against macromolecular targets is a key strategy to identify novel bioactivities. However, large-scale screening requires substantial experimental resources and is time-consuming and challenging. Therefore, small to medium-sized compound libraries with a high chance of producing genuine hits on an arbitrary protein of interest would be of great value to fields related to early drug discovery, in particular biochemical and cell research. Here, we present a computational approach that incorporates drug-likeness, predicted bioactivities, biological space coverage, and target novelty, to generate optimized compound libraries with maximized chances of producing genuine hits for a wide range of proteins. The computational approach evaluates drug-likeness with a set of established rules, predicts bioactivities with a validated, similarity-based approach, and optimizes the composition of small sets of compounds towards maximum target coverage and novelty. We found that, in comparison to the random selection of compounds for a library, our approach generates substantially improved compound sets. Quantified as the "fitness" of compound libraries, the calculated improvements ranged from +60% (for a library of 15,000 compounds) to +184% (for a library of 1000 compounds). The best of the optimized compound libraries prepared in this work are available for download as a dataset bundle ("BonMOLière").


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/normas , Proteínas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
15.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21798, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339064

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic threatens human species with mortality rate of roughly 2%. We can hardly predict the time of herd immunity against and end of COVID-19 with or without success of vaccine. One way to overcome the situation is to define what delineates disease severity and serves as a molecular target. The most successful analogy is found in BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia, which is the golden biomarker, and simultaneously, the most effective molecular target. We hypothesize that S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) is one such molecule. The underlying evidence includes accumulating clinical information that S100A8 is upregulated in severe forms of COVID-19, pathological similarities of the affected lungs between COVID-19 and S100A8-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model, homeostatic inflammation theory in which S100A8 is an endogenous ligand for endotoxin sensor Toll-like receptor 4/Myeloid differentiation protein-2 (TLR4/MD-2) and mediates hyper-inflammation even after elimination of endotoxin-producing extrinsic pathogens, analogous findings between COVID-19-associated ARDS and pre-metastatic lungs such as S100A8 upregulation, pulmonary recruitment of myeloid cells, increased vascular permeability, and activation coagulation cascade. A successful treatment in an animal COVID-19 model is given with a reagent capable of abrogating interaction between S100A8/S100A9 and TLR4. In this paper, we try to verify our hypothesis that S100A8 governs COVID-19-associated ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Calgranulina A/fisiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Pandemias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/patologia , Calgranulina A/sangue , Calgranulina A/genética , Quimiocina CXCL11/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/genética , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Dissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Descoberta de Drogas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Fosfatos Açúcares/farmacologia , Fosfatos Açúcares/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima , Internalização do Vírus
16.
J Chem Phys ; 155(4): 044110, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340364

RESUMO

A multi-level layered elongation method was developed for efficiently analyzing the electronic states of local structures in large bio/nano-systems at the full ab initio level of theory. The original elongation method developed during the last three decades in our group has focused on the system in one direction from one terminal to the other terminal to sequentially construct the electronic states of a polymer, called a theoretical synthesis of polymers. In this study, an important region termed the central (C) part is targeted in a large polymer and the remainder are terminal (T) parts. The electronic structures along with polymer elongation are calculated repeatedly from both end T parts to the C central part at the same time. The important C part is treated with large basis sets (high level) and the other regions are treated with small basis sets (low level) in the ab initio theoretical framework. The electronic structures besides the C part can be reused for other systems with different structures at the C part, which renders the method computationally efficient. This multi-level layered elongation method was applied to the investigation on DNA single bulge recognition of small molecules (ligands). The reliability and validity of our approach were examined in comparison with the results obtained by direct calculations using a conventional quantum chemical method for the entire system. Furthermore, stabilization energies by the formation of the complex of bulge DNA and a ligand were estimated with basis set superposition error corrections incorporated into the elongation method.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Química Computacional , Descoberta de Drogas , Ligantes , Teoria Quântica
17.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452405

RESUMO

Transcriptomics, proteomics and pathogen-host interactomics data are being explored for the in silico-informed selection of drugs, prior to their functional evaluation. The effectiveness of this kind of strategy has been put to the test in the current COVID-19 pandemic, and it has been paying off, leading to a few drugs being rapidly repurposed as treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several neglected tropical diseases, for which treatment remains unavailable, would benefit from informed in silico investigations of drugs, as performed in this work for Dengue fever disease. We analyzed transcriptomic data in the key tissues of liver, spleen and blood profiles and verified that despite transcriptomic differences due to tissue specialization, the common mechanisms of action, "Adrenergic receptor antagonist", "ATPase inhibitor", "NF-kB pathway inhibitor" and "Serotonin receptor antagonist", were identified as druggable (e.g., oxprenolol, digoxin, auranofin and palonosetron, respectively) to oppose the effects of severe Dengue infection in these tissues. These are good candidates for future functional evaluation and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Transcriptoma , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/genética , Dengue/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Antagonistas da Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Dengue Grave/sangue , Dengue Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue Grave/genética , Dengue Grave/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445321

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen and a serious concern to food industries. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced naturally by a wide range of bacteria mostly belonging to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which also comprises many strains used as starter cultures or probiotic supplements. Consequently, multifunctional strains that produce bacteriocins are an attractive approach to combine a green-label approach for food preservation with an important probiotic trait. Here, a collection of bacterial isolates from raw cow's milk was typed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-Biotyping and supernatants were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Screening was performed with live Listeria monocytogenes biosensors using a growth-dependent assay and pHluorin, a pH-dependent protein reporting membrane damage. Purification by cation exchange chromatography and further investigation of the active compounds in supernatants of two isolates belonging to the species Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactococcus garvieae suggest that their antimicrobial activity is related to heat-stable proteins/peptides that presumably belong to the class IIa bacteriocins. In conclusion, we present a pipeline of methods for high-throughput screening of strain libraries for potential starter cultures and probiotics producing antimicrobial compounds and their identification and analysis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Bacteriocinas/biossíntese , Lactococcus/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus/metabolismo , Microbiota , Leite/microbiologia , Pediococcus acidilactici/isolamento & purificação , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360966

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide and are characterized by the chronic and progressive deterioration of neural function. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD), represent a huge social and economic burden due to increasing prevalence in our aging society, severity of symptoms, and lack of effective disease-modifying therapies. This lack of effective treatments is partly due to a lack of reliable models. Modeling neurodegenerative diseases is difficult because of poor access to human samples (restricted in general to postmortem tissue) and limited knowledge of disease mechanisms in a human context. Animal models play an instrumental role in understanding these diseases but fail to comprehensively represent the full extent of disease due to critical differences between humans and other mammals. The advent of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology presents an advantageous system that complements animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Coupled with advances in gene-editing technologies, hiPSC-derived neural cells from patients and healthy donors now allow disease modeling using human samples that can be used for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(8): 2043-2049, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346202

RESUMO

The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens and the lack of new medicines to treat the infections they cause remain a significant global threat. In recent years, this ongoing unmet need has encouraged more research groups to focus on the discovery and development of nontraditional antibacterial agents, ranging from anti-virulence strategies to bacteriophage and ways to modulate the microbiome. The Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator (CARB-X) is a global nonprofit public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating antibacterial-related research. Importantly, the CARB-X portfolio supports a wide variety of novel and innovative nontraditional programs to help the global antibacterial research ecosystem understand the potential that these modalities can play in the management or prevention of serious infections. We describe here the breadth of the CARB-X pipeline of novel nontraditional products.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Descoberta de Drogas
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