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2.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(12): 503-509, 16 jun., 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180477

RESUMO

Introducción. Los prematuros tardíos constituyen actualmente el 70% de los nacimientos prematuros. Presentan mayor comorbilidad, incluyendo las alteraciones del neurodesarrollo, que pueden no manifestarse hasta la escolarización. Objetivo. Identificar dificultades en el desarrollo neurológico a los dos años de edad. Sujetos y métodos. Se valoró el desarrollo psicomotor a los dos años de los prematuros tardíos y del grupo control a término nacidos en nuestro centro entre enero y septiembre del año 2014 mediante la escala de Brunet-Lézine revisada y el cuestionario de edades y etapas para la detección de trastornos del neurodesarrollo Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3). Resultados. Se incluyó a 88 niños. Los prematuros tardíos presentaron puntuaciones inferiores en el lenguaje y el desarrollo postural. Las niñas obtuvieron resultados superiores en la edad de desarrollo global, la coordinación oculomotriz, el lenguaje y la sociabilidad. El cuestionario ASQ-3 detectó las diferencias en comunicación y socioindividuales. Se identificaron como factores de riesgo para presentar alteración del desarrollo la prematuridad, para alteración del lenguaje, y el sexo masculino, para menor edad de desarrollo y alteración del lenguaje. La correlación entre la valoración del lenguaje con la escala de Brunet-Lézine revisada y el cuestionario ASQ-3 fue buena, con un coeficiente de correlación de Pearson de 0,7 (p < 0,001), lo que nuestra la utilidad del cuestionario. Conclusiones. Los prematuros tardíos presentan menor desarrollo del lenguaje a los dos años. La prematuridad y el sexo masculino son factores de riesgo para presentar alteración. La valoración del lenguaje con el cuestionario ASQ-3 puede ser útil para detectar alteraciones


Introduction. Late preterm infants currently constitute 70% of preterm infant births. They present greater comorbidity, including neurodevelopment disorders, which may not manifest until the school age. Aim. To identify the existence of difficulties in the neurodevelopment at the age of two years. Subjects and methods. The psychomotor development was performed at two years of age in late preterm infants and term control group born at our center between January and September 2014, with Brunet-Lezine Revised test and Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3) questionnaire. Results. 88 children were included. Late preterm infants had lower scores in the language area and postural developmental. Girls achieved better results than males at global developmental age, oculo-motor coordination, language area and sociability. The ASQ-3 questionnaire detected differences in communication and socio-individual. Prematurity and male sex were identified as an independent risk factor to present a developmental disorder, prematurity for language impairment and male sex for younger developmental age and language impairment. The correlation between language assessment with the Brunet-Lezine Revised test and the ASQ-3 questionnaire was good, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7 (p < 0.001), showing the usefulness of the questionnaire. Conclusions. Late preterm infants have a lower developmental age in the language area at two years. Prematurity and male sex are risk factors for developmental disorder. Language assessment with the ASQ-3 questionnaire may be a useful tool to detect disorders and intervene early


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles
3.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(7): 1138-1152, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219287

RESUMO

It is often unclear which course of action gives the best outcome. We can reduce this uncertainty by gathering more information, but gathering information always comes at a cost. For example, a sports player waiting too long to judge a ball's trajectory will run out of time to intercept it. Efficient samplers must therefore optimize a trade-off: when the costs of collecting further information exceed the expected benefits, they should stop sampling and start acting. In visually guided tasks, adults can make these trade-offs efficiently, correctly balancing any reductions in visuomotor uncertainty against cost factors associated with increased sampling. To investigate how this ability develops during childhood, we tested 6- to 11-year-olds, adolescents, and adults on a visual localization task in which the costs and benefits of sampling were formalized in a quantitative framework. This allowed us to compare participants to each other and to an ideal observer who maximizes expected reward. Visual sampling became substantially more efficient between 6 and 11 years, converging onto adult performance in adolescence. Younger children systematically undersampled information relative to the ideal observer and varied their sampling strategy more. Further analyses suggested that young children used a suboptimal decision rule that insufficiently accounted for the chance of task failure, in line with a late developing ability to compute with probabilities and costs. We therefore propose that late development of efficient information sampling, a crucial element of real-world decision-making under risk, may form an important component of suboptimality in child perception, action, and decision-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Recompensa
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012611, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One nutritional intervention advocated to prevent malnutrition among children is lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS). LNS provide a range of vitamins and minerals, but unlike most other micronutrient supplements, LNS also provide energy, protein and essential fatty acids. Alternative recipes and formulations to LNS include fortified blended foods (FBF), which are foods fortified with vitamins and minerals, and micronutrient powders (MNP), which are a combination of vitamins and minerals, OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of preventive LNS given with complementary foods on health, nutrition and developmental outcomes of non-hospitalised infants and children six to 23 months of age, and whether or not they are more effective than other foods (including FBF or MNP).This review did not assess the effects of LNS as supplementary foods or therapeutic foods in the management of moderate and severe acute malnutrition. SEARCH METHODS: In October 2018, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 21 other databases and two trials registers for relevant studies. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews and contacted the authors of studies and other experts in the area for any ongoing and unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that evaluated the impact of LNS plus complementary foods given at point-of-use (for any dose, frequency, duration) to non-hospitalised infants and young children aged six to 23 months in stable or emergency settings and compared to no intervention, other supplementary foods (i.e. FBF), nutrition counselling or multiple micronutrient supplements or powders for point-of-use fortification of complementary foods. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened studies for relevance and, for those studies included in the review, extracted data, assessed risk of bias and rated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We carried out statistical analysis using Review Manager software. We used a random-effects meta-analysis for combining data as the interventions differed significantly. We set out the main findings of the review in 'Summary of findings' tables,. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified a total of 8124 records, from which we included 17 studies (54 papers) with 23,200 children in the review. The included studies reported on one or more of the pre-specified primary outcomes, and five studies included multiple comparison groups.Overall, the majority of trials were at low risk of bias for random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessment, incomplete outcome data, selective reporting and other sources of bias, but at high risk of bias for blinding of participants and personnel due to the nature of the intervention. Using the GRADE approach, we judged the quality of the evidence for most outcomes as low or moderate.LNS+complementary feeding compared with no intervention Thirteen studies compared LNS plus complementary feeding with no intervention. LNS plus complementary feeding reduced the prevalence of moderate stunting by 7% (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.98; nine studies, 13,372 participants; moderate-quality evidence), severe stunting by 15% (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98; five studies, 6151 participants; moderate-quality evidence), moderate wasting by 18% (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91; eight studies; 13,172 participants; moderate-quality evidence), moderate underweight by 15% (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.91; eight studies, 13,073 participants; moderate-quality evidence), and anaemia by 21% (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.90; five studies, 2332 participants; low-quality evidence). There was no impact of LNS plus complementary feeding on severe wasting (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.66 to 2.46; three studies, 2329 participants) and severe underweight (RR 0.78, 95%CI 0.54 to 1.13; two studies, 1729 participants). Adverse effects did not differ between the groups (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.01; three studies, 3382 participants).LNS+complementary feeding compared with FBF Five studies compared LNS plus complementary feeding with other FBF, including corn soy blend and UNIMIX. We pooled four of the five studies in meta-analyses and found that, when compared to other FBF, LNS plus complementary feeding significantly reduced the prevalence of moderate stunting (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97; three studies, 2828 participants; moderate-quality evidence), moderate wasting (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.97; two studies, 2290 participants; moderate-quality evidence), and moderate underweight (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91; two studies, 2280 participants; moderate-quality evidence). We found no difference between LNS plus complementary feeding and FBF for severe stunting (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.42; two studies, 729 participants; low-quality evidence), severe wasting (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.19 to 2.81; two studies, 735 participants; moderate-quality evidence), and severe underweight (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.25; one study, 173 participants; low-quality evidence).LNS+complementary feeding compared with MNP Four studies compared LNS plus complementary feeding with MNP. We pooled data from three of the four studies in meta-analyses and found that compared to MNP, LNS plus complementary feeding significantly reduced the prevalence of moderate underweight (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.99; two studies, 2004 participants; moderate-quality evidence) and anaemia (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.68; two studies, 557 participants; low-quality evidence). There was no difference between LNS plus complementary feeding and MNP for moderate stunting (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.02; three studies, 2365 participants) and moderate wasting (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.23; two studies, 2004 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review suggest that LNS plus complementary feeding compared to no intervention is effective at improving growth outcomes and anaemia without adverse effects among children aged six to 23 months in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia and Africa, and more effective if provided over a longer duration of time (over 12 months). Limited evidence also suggests that LNS plus complementary feeding is more effective than FBF and MNP at improving growth outcomes.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estado Nutricional , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Formulados , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente
5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 661-673, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062119

RESUMO

There is scientific evidence on the protective effects of nut intake against cognitive decline in the elderly; however, this effect has been less explored in child neurodevelopment and no studies have explored the potential longitudinal association with nut intake during pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the association of maternal nut intake during pregnancy with child neuropsychological outcomes. We included 2208 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in four regions of Spain. The follow up settings were during pregnancy (first and third trimesters), birth, 1.5, 5 and 8 years. Neuropsychological examinations were based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1.5 years), McCarthy scales of Children's Abilities (5 year), Attention Network Test (ANT, 8 year) and N-Back test (8 year). Nut intake in pregnancy was reported through a validated food frequency questionnaire during the first and the third trimester. Multivariable regressions analyzed associations after controlling for priori selected confounders notably maternal education, social class, body mass index, energy intake, fish intake, omega-3 supplements, alcohol consumption and smoking habits during pregnancy. Children within the highest tertile of maternal nut consumption during first pregnancy trimester (> 32 g/week) had a decrease of 13.82 ms [95% confidence interval (CI) - 23.40, - 4.23] in the ANT-hit reaction time standard error, compared to the first tertile (median 0 g/w). A similar protective association pattern was observed with the other cognitive scores at the different child ages. After correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni familywise error rate (FWER), Hochberg FWER and Simes false discovery rate, ANT-hit reaction time standard error remained significant. Final model estimates by inverse probability weighting did not change results. Third pregnancy trimester nut intake showed weaker associations. These data indicate that nut intake during early pregnancy is associated with long-term child neuropsychological development. Future cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this association pattern in order to further extend nutrition guidelines among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mães , Nozes , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
6.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 544-557, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030872

RESUMO

The current study examined the indirect effect of the use of behavioral parenting skills following the Infant Behavior Program, a brief, home-based adaptation of the child-directed interaction phase of parent-child interaction therapy, on infant language production. Participants were 60 infants (55% male, mean age 13.47 ± 1.31 months) and their caregivers, who were recruited at a large urban pediatric primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the infant behavior program or standard pediatric primary care. Results demonstrated a significant indirect effect of caregivers' use of positive parenting skills (i.e., praise, reflections, and behavior descriptions) on the relation between group and infant total utterances at the 6-month follow-up, such that infants whose caregivers increased their use of positive parenting skills following the intervention showed greater increases in language production. These findings extend previous research examining parenting skills as a mechanism of change in infant language production, and highlight the potential for an early parenting intervention to target behavior and language simultaneously during a critical period in language development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguagem , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
7.
Dev Psychobiol ; 61(3): 477-490, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942517

RESUMO

The study of cognitive development in children with early brain injury reveals crucial information about the developing brain and its plasticity. However, information on long-term outcomes of these children, especially in domains relevant to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) remains limited. In the current review, our goal is to address the existing research on cognitive development of children with pre- or perinatal focal brain lesion (PL) as it relates to children's STEM-related skills and suggest future work that could shed further light on the developmental trajectories of children with PL. We argue that examining STEM-related development in children with PL will have broader implications for our understanding of the nature of the plasticity children with PL exhibit as well as address theoretical questions in the field regarding the foundation skills for STEM, including visuospatial and mathematical skills.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Linguagem , Conceitos Matemáticos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(6): 2447-2460, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937735

RESUMO

We examined language profiles of 2571 children, 30-68 months old, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), other developmental disabilities (DD), and typical development from the general population (POP). Children were categorized as expressive dominant (ED), receptive dominant (RD), or nondominant (ND). Within each group, the ED profile was the least frequent. However, children in the ASD group were more likely to display an ED profile than those in the DD or POP groups, and these children were typically younger, had lower nonverbal cognitive skills, and displayed more severe social-affect symptoms of ASD compared to their peers with RD or ND profiles. These findings have research and clinical implications related to the focus of interventions targeting young children with ASD and other DDs.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Masculino
9.
Codas ; 31(2): e20180022, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942288

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were 1) To evaluate the tutoring effect on the type of the narrative produced by typically developing children, 2) To compare this effect between children from state and private schools and 3) to relate it with vocabulary, age and school performance. METHODS: The sample was composed by 107 children from state and private schools, aged from 4 to 9 years, within typical development. Children's narratives were prompted by sequences of pictures and scored according to the type of discourse: descriptive, causal or intentional. Children's narrative performance was compared before and after tutoring, between (state and private school) and within groups. The type of narrative was correlated with vocabulary, age and school performance. RESULTS: Before tutoring, most narratives were classified as descriptive. After tutoring, there was a predominance of intentional narratives. Children from state and private schools showed a similar response pattern with and without tutoring. After tutoring, the type of narrative showed significant correlation with vocabulary and academic performance. CONCLUSION: Tutoring improved the quality of children's narratives and this effect correlated with the vocabulary.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Narração , Vocabulário , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Setor Privado , Setor Público
10.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 51-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the construct validity and model-based reliability of general and specific contributions of the subscales of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) when evaluating motor skills across a range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and bifactor analysis were conducted on BOT-2 data from 187 elementary school students (grades 1 to 6) (mean age: 113 ± 20 months; boys: n = 117, 62.56%) and on MABC-2 data from 127 elementary school students (grade 1) (mean age: 76 ± 2 months; boys: n = 58, 45.67%). RESULTS: The results of the CFA fit the data for multidimensionality for the BOT-2 and presented poor fit indices for the MABC-2. For both tests, the bifactor model showed that the reliability of the subscales was poor. CONCLUSIONS: The BOT-2 exhibited factorial validity with a multidimensional structure among the current samples, but the MABC-2 showed poor fit indices, insufficient to confirm its multidimensional structure. For both tests, most of the reliable variance came from a general motor factor (M-factor), therefore the scoring and reporting of subscale scores were not justified for both tests.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(4): 736-742, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984547

RESUMO

We previously reported that exclusively breastfed infants born to mothers with pregestational obesity gain less weight during the first month after birth than those born to mothers of normal pregestational weight. This issue is potentially important since lower weight gain in breastfed infants of obese mothers might increase the risk of developing later obesity. Breast milk quality and quantity, together with breastfeeding practice, possibly influence infants' feeding behavior, appetite control, and regulation of growth later in life. The issue of whether breast milk protein patterns from obese mothers differ in composition from those of non-obese mothers remains largely unexplored. Here, we established a breast milk proteomic pattern that discriminates obese mothers and infants with delayed weight gain at 1 month after birth from normal-weight mothers with infants of the same age and with normal weight gain. Obese mothers were matched to normal-weight mothers (n = 26; body mass index 33.5 ± 3.2 vs 21.5 ± 1.5 kg·m-2). The mean weight gain of infants in the obese group at 1 month after birth was 430.8 g lower than that of the infants in the control group. Analysis of the breast milk delipidized fraction by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization on CM10 and Q10 arrays was followed by MS-assisted purification and LC-MS/MS microsequencing of a selected biomarker. We identified 15 candidate protein biomarkers, seven of which were overexpressed in the obese group and eight in the normal-weight group. One of the most significant candidate biomarkers, overexpressed in the obese group, was identified as a fragment of the sixth extracellular domain of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. Further structural identification of these candidate biomarkers and their validation in clinical assays may facilitate the development of a predictive immunoassay.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano , Mães
12.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 77-87, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939296

RESUMO

In a seminal study, Yoon, Johnson and Csibra [PNAS, 105, 36 (2008)] showed that nine-month-old infants retained qualitatively different information about novel objects in communicative and non-communicative contexts. In a communicative context, the infants encoded the identity of novel objects at the expense of encoding their location, which was preferentially retained in non-communicative contexts. This result had not yet been replicated. Here we attempted two replications, while also including a measure of eye-tracking to obtain more detail of infants' attention allocation during stimulus presentation. Experiment 1 was designed following the methods described in the original paper. After discussion with one of the original authors, some key changes were made to the methodology in Experiment 2. Neither experiment replicated the results of the original study, with Bayes Factor Analysis suggesting moderate support for the null hypothesis. Both experiments found differential attention allocation in communicative and non-communicative contexts, with more looking to the face in communicative than non-communicative contexts, and more looking to the hand in non-communicative than communicative contexts. High and low level accounts of these attentional differences are discussed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comunicação , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
13.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 88-99, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947141

RESUMO

Relatively little work has examined potential interactions between child intrinsic factors and extrinsic environmental factors in the development of negative affect in early life. This work is important because high levels of early negative affectivity have been associated with difficulties in later childhood adjustment. We examined associations between infant frontal electroencephalogram (EEG), maternal parenting behaviors, and children's negative affect across the first two years of life. Infant baseline frontal EEG asymmetry was measured at 5 months; maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness were observed during mother-child interaction at 5 and 24 months; and mothers provided reports of toddler negative affect at 24 months. Results indicated that maternal sensitive behaviors at 5 months were associated with less negative affect at 24 months, but only for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry. Similarly, maternal sensitive behaviors at 24 months were associated with less toddler negative affect at 24 months, but only for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry. In contrast, maternal intrusive behaviors at 5- and 24-months were associated with greater toddler negative affect, but only for infants with right frontal EEG asymmetry at 5-months. Findings suggest that levels of negative affect in toddlers may be at least partially a result of interactions between children's own early neurophysiological functioning and maternal behavior during everyday interactions with children in the first two years of life.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
14.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(8): 315-320, 16 abr., 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180664

RESUMO

Introducción. Esta investigación se inscribe en los estudios de corte longitudinal para evaluar la evolución de los recién nacidos prematuros con el uso de pruebas estandarizadas. Objetivos. Analizar la trayectoria del desarrollo mental de un grupo de recién nacidos prematuros e identificar si la edad gestacional es un predictor significativo de su evolución. Sujetos y métodos. Se evaluó a 359 recién nacidos prematuros en tres momentos de su desarrollo (entre 1 y 9 meses, entre 10 y 18 meses, y entre 19 y 30 meses de edad), utilizando las escalas Bayley de desarrollo infantil. Para analizar la trayectoria del desarrollo mental de la muestra se aplicó el procedimiento de modelos lineales mixtos. Resultados. Las trayectorias del desarrollo mental de estos niños se ajustan a un modelo de la curva de desarrollo cuadrática. Los resultados muestran que la edad gestacional es un predictor significativo de la puntuación inicial que explica el 34% del total de la variabilidad interindividual. Conclusiones. Los niños con puntuaciones iniciales más bajas son los que más incrementan sus puntuaciones con la edad, un dato importante de cara a la predicción del futuro desarrollo de los prematuros y que previene sobre la realización de pronósticos negativos en el primer año de vida


Introduction. This research falls within the category of longitudinal studies assessing the evolution of prematurely born infants with the use of standardized tests. Aims. To analyze the trajectory of the mental development of a group of premature infants and to identify if gestational age is a significant predictor of their evolution. Subjects and methods. 359 prematurely born infants were assessed at three stages of their development (between 1-9 months, 10-18 months and 19-30 months of age), using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. To analyze the trajectory of the sample mental development, a linear mixed model procedure was applied. Results. The trajectories of the mental development of these children conform to a model of the quadratic development curve. The results show that gestational age is a significant predictor of the initial score that explains 34% of the total interindividual variability. Conclusions. Children with lowest initial scores are those who most increase them with age, an important fact for the prediction of premature newborns future development. This fact should be taken into account regarding negative prognoses in the first year of life


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 6873270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930944

RESUMO

Predicting language performances after preterm birth is challenging. It is described in the literature that early exposure to the extrauterine environment can be either detrimental or advantageous for neurodevelopment. However, the emphasis mostly lies on the fact that preterm birth may have an unfavorable effect on numerous aspects of development such as cognition, language, and behavior. Various studies reported atypical language development in preterm born children in the preschool years but also in school-aged children and adolescents. This review gives an overview of the course of language development and examines how prematurity can lead to atypical linguistic performances. In this paper, we mainly focus on environmental and neurophysiological factors influencing preterm infant neuroplasticity with potential short- and long-term effects on language development. Further research, however, should focus on examining the possible benefits that early exposure might entail.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguagem , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
16.
Clín. salud ; 30(1): 21-31, mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180395

RESUMO

Los bebés expuestos a altos niveles de ansiedad materna durante la etapa prenatal pueden desarrollar un eje HPA (hipotálamo pituitario adrenal) más reactivo, lo que supone vulnerabilidad a padecer psicopatologías. En este estudio prospectivo investigamos las relaciones entre la ansiedad prenatal maternal, el desarrollo psicológico infantil y la reactividad del eje HPA en bebés de 2 a 3 meses. Recogimos datos de cuarenta y seis díadas de madres y bebés. El análisis principal no reveló relaciones significativas entre las tres variables estudiadas, pero la variabilidad apuntó a que la ansiedad materna prenatal podría asociarse a efectos diferenciales en la reactividad del eje HPA en función del desarrollo psicológico infantil. Además, los resultados indicaron que las madres con ansiedad prenatal presentaban otros síntomas psicopatológicos, como sensibilidad interpersonal (p < .001) y obsesión-compulsión (p < .001). Esto es significativo para futuras investigaciones y a nivel clínico para promover intervenciones psicológicas durante la gestación


Babies exposed to high levels of maternal anxiety during the prenatal period may develop a more reactive HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis, which poses a vulnerability to psychopathology. In this prospective study, we investigated the relationships between antenatal maternal anxiety, infant psychological developmen,t and HPA axis reactivity in 2 to 3-month-old babies. We use data from forty-six mother-child dyads. The main analysis did not reveal significant relationships between the variables studied, but the variability pointed out that antenatal maternal anxiety could be associated with differential effects on the reactivity of the HPA axis according to the child’s psychological development. In addition, the results indicated that mothers with prenatal anxiety presented other psychopathological symptoms, such as interpersonal sensitivity (p < .001) and obsession-compulsion (p < .001). This is significant for future research and - at a clinical level - to promote psychological interventions during pregnancy


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
17.
Midwifery ; 74: 57-67, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927633

RESUMO

Postnatal depression (PND) has been a common depressive mental disorder among the mothers in a low-income country like Bangladesh where stunting, underweight and wasting are prevalent among infants. The present prospective cohort study was carried out among 297 non-depressed and 103 depressed mothers (ages 18-36 years) to find the association between post natal depression and growth of infants. Data were collected by face to face interview through semi-structured questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were taken with proper anthropometric techniques and calibrated instruments. Postnatal depression was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and infants' physical growth was assessed by Z score of weight, length and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). The overall prevalence of post natal depression was found 22% [95% CI, 21.71-30.29]. Infants of depressed mothers were found iller in comparison with the infants of non-depressed mothers (p < 0.001) which could result in growth retardation of infants. According to the MUAC level, infants of depressed mothers were more at risk of malnutrition (p < 0.001). Early detection of postpartum depression, implementation of interventions, prevention or treatment of maternal depressive disorders and effective strategies will not only ameliorate the impact of PND among mothers but also facilitates infant growth.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/complicações , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Urbana/tendências
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of maternal parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with childhood weight status has been well studied; however, little is known about these factors with respect to the rate of weight changes in early childhood. METHODS: This study was based on a prospective longitudinal study. The follow-up surveys were conducted at the ages of 1, 3, 6, 8, 12, and 18 months. Child weight was investigated twice at each wave. Data on maternal parity, pre-pregnancy weight and height were collected at baseline. The latent growth curve model was used to examine the effects of interested predictors on the trajectory of weight in early childhood. RESULTS: Finally, 893 eligible mother-child pairs were drawn from the cohort. In adjusted models, multiparas were associated with higher birth weight (ß = 0.103) and slower weight change rate of children (ß = -0.028). Pre-conception BMI (ß = 0.034) and GWG (ß = 0.014) played important roles in the initial status of child weight but did not have effects on the rate of weight changes of the child. CONCLUSIONS: Multiparous pregnancy is associated with both higher mean birth weight and slower weight-growth velocity in early childhood, while pregravid maternal BMI and GWG are only related to the birth weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Paridade/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ganho de Peso
19.
PLoS Med ; 16(3): e1002766, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, nearly 250 million children (43% of all children under 5 years of age) are at risk of compromised neurodevelopment due to poverty, stunting, and lack of stimulation. We tested the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) on early child development (ECD) among children enrolled in the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial in rural Zimbabwe. METHODS AND FINDINGS: SHINE was a cluster-randomized community-based 2×2 factorial trial. A total of 5,280 pregnant women were enrolled from 211 clusters (defined as the catchment area of 1-4 village health workers [VHWs] employed by the Zimbabwean Ministry of Health and Child Care). Clusters were randomly allocated to standard of care, IYCF (20 g of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement per day from age 6 to 18 months plus complementary feeding counseling), WASH (ventilated improved pit latrine, handwashing stations, chlorine, liquid soap, and play yard), and WASH + IYCF. Primary outcomes were child length-for-age Z-score and hemoglobin concentration at 18 months of age. Children who completed the 18-month visit and turned 2 years (102-112 weeks) between March 1, 2016, and April 30, 2017, were eligible for the ECD substudy. We prespecified that primary inferences would be drawn from findings of children born to HIV-negative mothers; these results are presented in this paper. A total of 1,655 HIV-unexposed children (64% of those eligible) were recruited into the ECD substudy from 206 clusters and evaluated for ECD at 2 years of age using the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) to assess gross motor, fine motor, language, and social skills; the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) to assess vocabulary and grammar; the A-not-B test to assess object permanence; and a self-control task. Outcomes were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. For all ECD outcomes, there was not a statistical interaction between the IYCF and WASH interventions, so we estimated the effects of the interventions by comparing the 2 IYCF groups with the 2 non-IYCF groups and the 2 WASH groups with the 2 non-WASH groups. The mean (95% CI) total MDAT score was modestly higher in the IYCF groups compared to the non-IYCF groups in unadjusted analysis: 1.35 (0.24, 2.46; p = 0.017); this difference did not persist in adjusted analysis: 0.79 (-0.22, 1.68; p = 0.057). There was no evidence of impact of the IYCF intervention on the CDI, A-not-B, or self-control tests. Among children in the WASH groups compared to those in the non-WASH groups, mean scores were not different for the MDAT, A-not-B, or self-control tests; mean CDI score was not different in unadjusted analysis (0.99 [95% CI -1.18, 3.17]) but was higher in children in the WASH groups in adjusted analysis (1.81 [0.01, 3.61]). The main limitation of the study was the specific time window for substudy recruitment, meaning not all children from the main trial were enrolled. CONCLUSIONS: We found little evidence that the IYCF and WASH interventions implemented in SHINE caused clinically important improvements in child development at 2 years of age. Interventions that directly target neurodevelopment (e.g., early stimulation) or that more comprehensively address the multifactorial nature of neurodevelopment may be required to support healthy development of vulnerable children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01824940.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Higiene/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , População Rural , Saneamento/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Água Potável/normas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saneamento/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 252, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Responsive caregiving, or interactions in which caregivers give appropriate responses to a child's signals, is linked to improved psychosocial, cognitive and physical outcomes in children. However, much remains unknown about how responsive caregiving affects child development across cultural and socioeconomic contexts. The purpose of this study is to examine predictors of maternal responsive caregiving and investigate how these interactions are associated with children's development. METHODS: Data for the current analyses came from a longitudinal study designed to follow mothers from the third trimester through the first three years of the child's life. To assess responsive caregiving, the Observation of Mother-Child Interaction (OMCI) measure was used to examine maternal and child behaviors during a 5-min picture book activity at 24 months. Outcomes included child height-for-age z-score and child socioemotional development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Socioemotional (ASQ-SE) in which lower scores demonstrated better development. Using mean comparisons, the effects of baseline sociodemographic factors and maternal depression on responsive caregiving were tested. Analyses utilized hierarchical linear regressions to examine cross-sectional associations between responsive caregiving and child development outcomes at 24 months. Additional analyses controlled for the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), a common measure in low-income contexts of caregiving, to assess whether OMCI was uniquely predictive of child outcomes. RESULTS: Higher maternal education attainment, lower number of children, greater socioeconomic assets, and lack of maternal depression were associated with higher levels of observed responsive caregiving behaviors. Higher total OMCI scores were associated with positive child socioemotional outcomes in adjusted models (ß: -0.84, 95% CI [- 1.40, - 0.29]). The finding was statistically significant, even after controlling for HOME score (ß: -0.83, 95% CI [- 1.38, - 0.27]). There was no association between OMCI scores and child linear growth. CONCLUSIONS: Responsive caregiving is linked to positive child socioemotional development in rural Pakistan. Our findings suggest that incorporating responsive caregiving into child health interventions in LMIC may have valuable impacts on child socioemotional development. The OMCI may be useful in identifying important pathways for change to responsive caregiving behaviors and may be of service for future interventions that optimize child development through responsive caregiving. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02111915 (09/18/2015); NCT02658994 (01/22/2016). Trials were prospectively registered.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Paquistão , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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