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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105534, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030640

RESUMO

There is a lack of research on the development of prosocial behavior in middle childhood. The current study addressed this gap through the application of attachment theory; attachment security has been shown to promote prosocial behavior in early childhood, and emotion regulation may be an important intervening variable in this association. A sample of 199 children (aged 6-12 years) reported on their attachment internal working models for the mother-child and father-child relationships, parents reported on child emotion regulation and emotional lability/dysregulation, and children completed a sticker donation task to assess their prosocial behavior. Child emotional lability/dysregulation served as an intervening variable in the association between father-child attachment security (communication and trust) and greater sticker donation. Mother-child and father-child attachment security was also associated with child emotion regulation, but emotion regulation was not associated with sticker donation. Findings suggest that secure attachment may foster prosocial behavior toward peers in middle childhood primarily by reducing dysregulated responses to the distress of others.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Regulação Emocional , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Humanos , Apego ao Objeto
2.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 47(5): 233-246, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786101

RESUMO

Four- to seven-year-old children participated in a battery of tasks assessing their theory of mind, conflict inhibition, and delay at time 1, and theory of mind and delay one year later at time 2. Cross-lagged analysis revealed that earlier theory of mind predicted later delay after controlling for earlier conflict inhibition and theory of mind, child age, and family socioeconomic status. The findings highlighted the dynamic nature of the association between theory of mind and delay during the school transition years in its strength and direction, and the increasing specificity in the structure of executive function with age.


Assuntos
Teoria da Mente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Virtudes
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 223: 105492, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779285

RESUMO

Motor skills are an important aspect of development during infancy and have been found to predict development in other domains. Therefore, fast and reliable assessments of infant motor skills are needed. The current study revisited a time and cost-effective parent-report measure of infants' motor skills-the Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ)-and aimed to improve the utility of the EMQ as a tool to examine variability, stability, and individual differences in early motor development. A sample of 446 parents of infants provided a total of 775 EMQ responses for analyses. Using this large sample, regression was used to create age-independent scores for global, gross motor, fine motor, and perception-action scores on the EMQ. Age-adjusted scores were then converted to t-scores to facilitate score interpretation for past and future studies using the EMQ. Finally, starting flags for different age groups were created to decrease the time it takes parents to complete the EMQ. Together, these changes to the EMQ will improve the utility and interpretability of the measure. The EMQ is free to use and available in the supplemental materials or via www.onlinebabylab.com/emq.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Pais , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 34(3): 425-431, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703307

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This case series documents developmental changes over time and in response to a novel intervention, Sitting Together and Reaching to Play (START-Play), in children with early-life seizures. METHODS: Thirteen children with early-life seizures were included from a subset of participants in the START-Play multisite, randomized controlled trial. Seven received 3 months of twice weekly START-Play intervention; 6 continued with usual care early intervention. Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (Cognitive Composite), Gross Motor Function Measure-66 Item Set, Assessment of Problem-Solving in Play, and reaching assessments were administered at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months postbaseline. Change scores are reported at 3 and 12 months postbaseline. RESULTS: Over time, plateau or decline was noted in standardized cognition measures; motor development improved or was stable. Children receiving START-Play showed positive trends in problem-solving (71.4%) and reaching behaviors (57.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions such as START-Play that combine motor and cognitive constructs may benefit children with early-life seizures.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas , Convulsões
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 66, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene, exposure to household air pollution and low cognitive and socio-emotional stimulation are risk factors affecting children in low- and middle-income countries. We implemented an integrated home-environmental intervention package (IHIP), comprising a kitchen sink, hygiene education and a certified improved biomass cookstove, and an early child development (ECD) programme to improve children´s health and developmental outcomes in the rural high-altitude Andes of Peru. METHODS: We conducted a one-year cluster-randomised controlled trial among 317 children < 36 months divided into 4 arms (IHIP + ECD, IHIP, ECD, and Control) and 40 clusters (10 clusters per arm). ECD status (socio-emotional, fine and gross motor, communication, cognitive skills, and an overall performance) measured with the Peruvian Infant Development Scale and the occurrence of self-reported child diarrhoea from caretakers were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of acute respiratory infections and the presence of thermo-tolerant faecal bacteria in drinking water. The trial was powered to compare each intervention against its control arm but it did not allow pairwise comparisons among the four arms. Primary analysis followed the intention-to-treat principle. For the statistical analysis, we employed generalised estimating equation models with robust standard errors and an independent correlation structure. RESULTS: We obtained ECD information from 101 children who received the ECD intervention (individually and combined with IHIP) and 102 controls. Children who received the ECD intervention performed better in all the domains compared to controls. We found differences in the overall performance (64 vs. 39%, odd ratio (OR): 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-4.9) and the cognitive domain (62 vs 46%, OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5). Data analysis of child morbidity included 154 children who received the IHIP intervention (individually and combined with ECD) and 156 controls. We recorded 110,666 child-days of information on diarrhoea morbidity and observed 1.3 mean episodes per child-year in the children who received the IHIP intervention and 1.1 episodes in the controls. This corresponded to an incidence risk ratio of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Child stimulation improved developmental status in children, but there was no health benefit associated with the home-environmental intervention. Limited year-round access to running water at home and the possible contamination of drinking water after boiling were two potential factors linked to the lack of effect of the home-environmental intervention. Potential interactions between ECD and home-environmental interventions need to be further investigated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN-26548981. Registered 15 January 2018-Retrospectively registered, https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN26548981 .


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Água Potável , Altitude , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Água Potável/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Peru/epidemiologia , População Rural
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564545

RESUMO

Objectives: Stunting remains a prevalent issue in Tanzania. The consequences of stunting include reduced height, greater susceptibility to disease, and diminished cognitive ability throughout the lifespan. Lack of psychosocial stimulation is associated with increased stunting, particularly in terms of its cognitive impact. The Addressing Stunting in Tanzania Early (ASTUTE) program was a large social and behavior change communication (SBCC) intervention that aimed to reduce childhood stunting in the region by targeting early childhood development (ECD) behaviors. The purpose of this study is to report on the extent to which exposure to ASTUTE might be related to ECD behaviors. Methods: ASTUTE disseminated program messages via a mass media campaign and interpersonal communication (IPC). Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between exposure to TV, radio, IPC messages, and key ECD behaviors of female primary caregivers and male heads of household. Results: Among primary caregivers, IPC was positively associated with all ECD behaviors measured. Radio was associated with all behaviors except drawing with their child. TV was associated with all behaviors except playing with their child. Among heads of household, only the radio was positively associated with the ECD behaviors measured. Conclusions for practice: Findings indicate that SBCC interventions that include mass media and IPC components may be effective at promoting parental engagement in ECD behaviors. Significance: We know that ECD is important for a child's development. We know that parents play a critical role in promoting ECD behaviors. We are still exploring ways to influence parents so that they are more involved in ECD behaviors. The results presented here provide evidence for successful mass media and IPC efforts to improve parents' ECD behaviors. We hope this study will add more evidence for large interventions such as these to the literature, and we are very hopeful that governments and large international NGOs will prioritize SBCC approaches in the future, especially in locations where face-to-face interventions may be challenging.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , Tanzânia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268548, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parents' tracking of developmental milestones can assist healthcare providers with early detection of developmental delays and appropriate referrals to early intervention. Crowdsourcing is one way to update the content and age data distribution of developmental checklists for parents and providers. This feasibility study examined which developmental milestones parents chose to track and what they added beyond traditional milestones, using the babyTRACKS crowd-based mobile app. METHOD: We analyzed the developmental diaries of 3,832 children, registered in the babyTRACKS app at an average age of 9.3 months. Their parents recorded a median of 5 milestones per diary, selecting from the accumulating lists of age-appropriate milestones or authoring new milestones. The final database included 645 types of milestones; 89.15% were developmental, of which 43.6% were comparable to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) milestones while the rest were crowd-authored. Milestones were categorized into developmental domains: Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Oral Motor, Self-Care, Cognitive, Language Comprehension, Speech, Non-Verbal Communication, Social, Emotional, and Regulation. RESULTS: On average, the milestone domains of Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Cognitive and Social were the most added to diaries (20%-30% of a diary). Within the Cognitive, Speech and Language Comprehension domains there were significantly more CDC comparable versus crowd-authored milestones (29% versus 21%, 22% versus 10%, 8% versus 4%). In contrast, within the Regulation and Oral Motor domains there were more crowd versus CDC milestones (17% versus 3%, 9% versus 3%). Crowd-authored Speech milestones were significantly older by 7 months than CDC milestones. CONCLUSION: Tracking daily observations of child development provides a window into personally relevant milestones for the child and parent. The crowd of parents can independently track and add new milestones across main developmental domains. Regulation and Oral Motor development especially interest parents. Parents may be less aware of early progress in Language Comprehension and Speech; thus, these domains require more structured screening. Designing mobile early screening which is crowd-based engages parents as proactive partners in developmental tracking.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pais , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Lactente , Fala
8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 220: 105429, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421629

RESUMO

Recent research revealed that infants attend to agents' intentions when they evaluate helping actions. The current study investigated whether infants also consider agents' intentions when they evaluate distributive actions. In Experiment 1, 9-month-old infants were first shown two failed attempts to perform a distribution. In the "failed equal distribution," the distributor first tried to reach one of the recipients to deliver an apple, failed, and then attempted to reach the other possible recipient to deliver a different apple and also failed. In the "failed unequal distribution," a different distributor always tried unsuccessfully to reach the same beneficiary. Then, in the test phase, infants were presented with the two distributors side by side, and infants' spontaneous preferential looking and reaching actions were recorded. We found a reliable preference for the equal distributor in both the visual and manual responses. Experiments 2 and 3 helped to rule out alternative explanations based on perceptual cues and affiliative biases. Overall, these findings suggest that infants' ability to evaluate distributive actions relies not only on the outcomes but also on the distributors' intentions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Intenção , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente
9.
Percept Mot Skills ; 129(4): 977-1000, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473471

RESUMO

Contact with water, even from birth, may be an important experience for child development. In this work, we aimed to investigate if baby swimming might influence infant development in motor and cognitive domains. We assigned infants to either a 10-week baby swimming intervention (n = 12; M age = 13 months (SD) = 7) or a control group (n = 15; M age = 22 months (SD) = 6). We assessed motor development with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (2nd edition, PDMS-2) and cognitive development with core tests of executive functions: delayed response for working memory, object retrieval for inhibition, and A-not-B for response shifting. Non-parametric analyses revealed that infants in the baby-swimming group improved in gross, fine, and total motor skills, and showed marginally better inhibition speed and shifting accuracy, with associated gains of shifting accuracy and fine and total motor skills. Even with in this small-sized convenience sample, this pilot study revealed promising benefits from baby swimming on motor development that warrant further study. This preliminary work paves the way for replication and illustrates what effect sizes may be expected in sufficiently powered well-designed follow-up research targeted to aid the joint development of motor and cognitive skills as early as infancy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Destreza Motora , Natação , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Natação/fisiologia
10.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(1): 23-32, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202826

RESUMO

Estudiar la emergencia y secuencia deerupción es indispensable para establecer protocolos de prevención y tratamientos a nivel odontopediátrico, ortodóncicoy forense. En 1933 se estableció el iniciode la erupción definitiva a los 6 años y sutérmino a los 13 a excepción de los cordales. Sin embargo, posteriormente se hanobservado variaciones determinadas porfactores raciales, hormonales, mejoras enla alimentación y parámetros corporales.Con el objetivo de conocer posibles cambios en la cronología y secuencia de erupción en dentición permanente y poblaciónespañola se ha llevado a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en los buscadoresPubmed, Scielo, Dentistry y Oral Science.Empleando una estrategia avanzada conoperadores boleanos “AND” y “OR”. Losresultados obtenidos advierten de unaemergencia de la dentición permanentemás precoz en el sexo femenino. Los autores coinciden en que el primer diente enerupcionar es el incisivo central inferior yel último el segundo molar superior. Sinembargo, en cuanto a la edad media dela emergencia del primer diente no hayconsenso.Los dientes permanentes mandibulareserupcionaban antes que los maxilares.La secuencia de erupción más prevalente en la Arcada superior es: primer molar, incisivo central, incisivo lateral, primerpremolar, segundo premolar, canino ysegundo molar. Y en la inferior: incisivocentral, primer molar, incisivo lateral, canino, primer premolar, segundo premolary molar. Se concluyó que existía una correlación directa entre el tiempo de erupción de los dientes temporales y la de los permanentes canine, first premolar, second premolar and second molar.To conclude, we noticed an extremely direct relation between the eruption time of the temporal teeth and thepermanent teeth (AU)


In order, to develop prevention andtreatment protocols in pediatric,orthodontic and forensic dentistry, it isvitally needed to study the sequence andchronology of eruption of the permanentteeth. Logan and Kronfield establishedthat the eruption of permanent teethstarted at the age of six and finished atthe age of 13, except the third permanentmolars. Nevertheless, in later studies thisrange of age has been modified due toan early puberty, an improvement in thenutrition and due to other factors, suchas, race, weight, and heigh. Our objectiveis to get to know the current situationabout the chronology and sequence ofpermanent dentition.We did a bibliographic review in differentweb browsers, such as, PubMed, Scieloand Dentistry and Oral Science. Weapplied an advanced strategy searchingwith “AND” and “OR”. The results warn usthat the permanent teeth erupted earlieralways in the female sex. All the authorsagree that the first tooth to erupt is thelower central incisor and the last one isthe upper second molar. Despite this fact,regarding the media age of eruption therewas not agreement between the authors.Therefore, we can conclude thatpermanent teeth erupt before in themandible than in the maxilar. The mostprevalent sequence in the maxilar was:first molar, central incisor, lateral incisor,first premolar, second premolar, canineand second molar. In the mandible was:central incisor, first molar, lateral incisor(AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Erupção Dentária/fisiologia , Dentição Permanente , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Espanha , Fatores Etários , Odontologia Legal
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 762, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children in low- and middle-income countries fail to reach their cognitive potential, with experiences before age 3 critical in shaping long-term development. Zanzibar's Jamii ni Afya program is the first national, digitally enabled community health volunteer (CHV) program promoting early childhood development (ECD) following the Nurturing Care Framework within an integrated maternal and child healthcare package. Using program baseline data, we explored home environment, caregivers' parenting, health and nutrition knowledge and practices, and ECD outcomes in Zanzibar. METHODS: We conducted a national household survey among 499 children aged 18-29 months using two-stage cluster sampling in February 2019. The primary outcome was child development score measured using the Caregiver Reported Early Developmental Index (CREDI), with higher scores representing higher levels of child development. We analyzed CREDI scores, along with MICS questions on parenting knowledge, practices, and characteristics of the home environment. We developed multivariate regression models to assess associations between caregiver-child interactions, knowledge of dietary diversity, and ECD. RESULTS: Ten percent of children had overall CREDI z-scores 2 standard deviations [SD] or more below the global reference population mean, with 28% of children at risk of developmental delay with z-scores 1 SD or more below the mean. Cognitive and language domains were of highest concern (10.2 and 12.7% with z-score < - 2 SD). In 3-day recall, 75% of children engaged in ≥4 early stimulating activities with all caregivers averaging 3 total hours of play. CREDI scores were positively associated with greater frequency of caregivers' engagement (ß = 0.036, p = 0.002, 95%CI = [0.014, 0.058]), and dietary diversity knowledge (ß = 0.564, p < 0.001, 95%CI = [0.281, 0.846]). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a positive association between both the frequency of caregiver child interactions and knowledge of adequate dietary diversity, and ECD outcomes. This aligns with global evidence that promoting early stimulation, play and learning opportunities, and dietary diversity can improve developmental outcomes. Further study is needed to establish causal relationships and assess the impact of ECD programming in Zanzibar.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Poder Familiar , Tanzânia
12.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 58(3): 237-245, March 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-205833

RESUMO

Introduction: It remains unclear if prematurity itself can influence post delivery lung development and particularly, the bronchial size.AimTo assess lung function during the first two years of life in healthy preterm infants and compare the measurements to those obtained in healthy term infants during the same time period.MethodsThis observational longitudinal study assessed lung function in 74 preterm (30+0 to 35+6 weeks’ gestational age) and 76 healthy term control infants who were recruited between 2011 and 2013. Measurements of tidal breathing, passive respiratory mechanics, tidal and raised volume forced expirations (V’maxFRC and FEF25–75, respectively) were undertaken following administration of oral chloral hydrate sedation according to ATS/ERS recommendations at 6- and 18-months corrected age.ResultsLung function measurements were obtained from the preterm infants and full term controls initially at 6 months of age. Preterm infants had lower absolute and adjusted values (for gestational age, postnatal age, sex, body size, and confounding factors) for respiratory compliance and V’maxFRC. At 18 months corrected postnatal age, similar measurements were repeated in 57 preterm infants and 61 term controls. A catch-up in tidal volume, respiratory mechanics parameters, FEV0.5 and forced expiratory flows was seen in preterm infants.ConclusionWhen compared with term controls, the lower forced expiratory flows observed in the healthy preterm group at 6 months was no longer evident at 18 months corrected age, suggesting a catch-up growth of airway function. (AU)


Introducción: Todavía no está claro si la prematuridad por sí sola puede tener influencia en el desarrollo pulmonar tras el parto y, en particular, en el tamaño bronquial.ObjetivoValorar la función pulmonar durante los 2 primeros años de vida en lactantes pretérmino sanos y comparar las medidas con las obtenidas en lactantes nacidos a término sanos durante el mismo periodo de tiempo.MétodosEste ensayo longitudinal observacional valoró la función pulmonar en 74 lactantes pretérmino (30+0 a 35+6 semanas de edad gestacional) y 76 lactantes nacidos a término sanos como controles, que se seleccionaron entre 2011 y 2013. Se llevaron a cabo las mediciones de la respiración corriente, la mecánica respiratoria pasiva, los flujos espiratorios forzados a volumen corriente y con insuflación previa (V’maxFRC y FEF25-75, respectivamente) tras la sedación con hidrato de cloral siguiendo las recomendaciones de las ATS/ERS a la edad corregida de 6 y 18 meses.ResultadosInicialmente se obtuvieron las medidas de función pulmonar de los lactantes pretérmino y los controles a término a los 6 meses de edad. Los lactantes pretérmino presentaron unos valores absolutos y ajustados (a la edad gestacional, la edad posnatal, el sexo, el tamaño corporal y los factores de confusión) menores para la distensibilidad pulmonar y la V’maxFRC. A los 18 meses de edad posnatal corregida, se repitieron las mismas mediciones en 57 lactantes pretérmino y 61 controles a término. Se observó una recuperación del volumen corriente, los parámetros de mecánica respiratoria, el FEV0,5 y los flujos espiratorios forzados en los lactantes pretérmino.ConclusiónEn comparación con los controles a término, los flujos espiratorios forzados más bajos observados en el grupo de pretérminos sanos a los 6 meses no se observaron a los 18 meses de edad corregida, lo que evidencia un crecimiento de recuperación de la función de la vía respiratoria. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Pneumopatias
13.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 1991138, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295201

RESUMO

With the continuous development of science and technology, people can apply more and more technology to the cultivation of children's abilities. In the process of cultivating children's ability, the most fancy is the study of executive function, and this is the research topic of this article. In the past, training methods such as music, mindfulness, and exercise have been used in the study of children's executive abilities to promote the development of preschool children's executive functions. While various approaches have had some effect, researchers have been exploring more comprehensive approaches to effective training. This article is aimed at studying how to use image recognition technology to conduct an intervention analysis of breakdancing in promoting the executive function of preschool children. For this reason, this paper proposes image recognition technology based on deep learning neural network and conducts research, analysis, and improvement on related technologies obtained from deep learning. This makes it more suitable for the research topic of this article and design-related experiments and analysis to explore its related performance. The experimental results in this paper show that the improved image recognition technology has improved accuracy by 31.2%. And the performance of its algorithm is also improved by 21%, which can be very effective in monitoring preschool children during breakdancing.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Dança/fisiologia , Dança/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Pré-Escolar , Biologia Computacional , Aprendizado Profundo , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131849

RESUMO

Children's noncognitive or socioemotional skills (e.g., persistence and self-control) are typically measured using surveys in which either children rate their own skills or adults rate the skills of children. For many purposes-including program evaluation and monitoring school systems-ratings are often collected from multiple perspectives about a single child (e.g., from both the child and an adult). Collecting data from multiple perspectives is costly, and there is limited evidence on the benefits of this approach. Using a longitudinal survey, this study compares children's noncognitive skills as reported by themselves, their guardians, and their teachers. Although reports from all three types of respondents are correlated with each other, teacher reports have the highest internal consistency and are the most predictive of children's later cognitive outcomes and behavior in school. The teacher reports add predictive power beyond baseline measures of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) for most outcomes in schools. Measures collected from children and guardians add minimal predictive power beyond the teacher reports.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Tutores Legais/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autocontrole
15.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 36(3): 435-445, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current knowledge about parental reasons for allowing child participation in research comes mainly from clinical trials. Fewer data exist on parents' motivations to enrol children in observational studies. OBJECTIVES: Describe reasons parents of preschoolers gave for participating in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a US multi-site study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental delays or disorders (DD), and explore reasons given by child diagnostic and behavioural characteristics at enrolment. METHODS: We included families of children, age 2-5 years, participating in SEED (n = 5696) during 2007-2016. We assigned children to groups based on characteristics at enrolment: previously diagnosed ASD; suspected ASD; non-ASD DD; and population controls (POP). During a study interview, we asked parents their reasons for participating. Two coders independently coded responses and resolved discrepancies via consensus. We fit binary mixed-effects models to evaluate associations of each reason with group and demographics, using POP as reference. RESULTS: Participants gave 1-5 reasons for participation (mean = 1.7, SD = 0.7). Altruism (48.3%), ASD research interest (47.4%) and perceived personal benefit (26.9%) were most common. Two novel reasons were knowing someone outside the household with the study conditions (peripheral relationship; 14.1%) and desire to contribute to a specified result (1.4%). Odds of reporting interest in ASD research were higher among diagnosed ASD participants (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.49-3.35). Perceived personal benefit had higher odds among diagnosed (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.61-2.29) or suspected ASD (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.99-4.50) and non-ASD DD (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.50-2.16) participants. Peripheral relationship with ASD/DD had lower odds among all case groups. CONCLUSIONS: We identified meaningful differences between groups in parent-reported reasons for participation. Differences demonstrate an opportunity for future studies to tailor recruitment materials and increase the perceived benefit for specific prospective participants.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 265, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hundreds of millions of children living in poverty worldwide are not reaching their full, developmental potential. Programs to promote nurturing and responsive caregiving, such as those in which community health workers (CHWs) conduct home visits to support optimal early childhood development (ECD), have been effective in small trials, but have not achieved similar success at scale. This study will explore two approaches to scale-up: converting a home-visiting model to a group-based model; and integrating the ECD curriculum into an existing government program. The objectives of the study are to: 1) Measure how the integration of ECD activities affects time and task allocation of CHWs and CHW psychosocial wellbeing; 2) Examine how the integration of ECD activities affects caregiver-child dyad participation in standard health and nutrition activities; and 3) Explore how the availability of age-appropriate play materials at home affects caregiver-child dyad participation rates in a group-based ECD program. METHODS: We will randomize 75 communities in rural Madagascar into three arms: 1) [C], which is the status quo (community-based health and nutrition program); 2) [T], which is C + ECD group sessions [T]; and 3) [T +], which is T with the addition of an enhanced play materials package for home use. All children between 6-30 months old at the time of the intervention launch will be eligible to participate in group activities. The intervention will last 12 months and is comprised of fortnightly group sessions in which the CHWs provide caregiver-child dyads with information relating to ECD; CHWs will also include structured time for caregivers to practice the play and child stimulation activities they have learned. We will administer monthly surveys to measure CHW time use and task allocation, and we will leverage administrative data to measure caregiver-child dyad participation in the group sessions. DISCUSSION: The results from the trial will provide the evidence base required to implement an integrated package of nutrition, health and ECD promotion activities at scale in Madagascar, and findings may be relevant in other low-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered on the AEA Social Science Registry (AEARCTR-0004704) on November 15, 2019 and on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05129696) on November 22, 2021.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Lactente , Pobreza , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1832, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115625

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between random capillary glucose levels in healthy pregnant women and infant size at birth and childhood growth to the age of five years. This population-based cohort study comprised 10,937 healthy mother-child dyads. Data on highest maternal random capillary glucose level during pregnancy and sequential anthropometric data on their children during the first five years of life were gathered from the Uppsala County Mother and Child Cohort. Statistical analyses were performed with linear regression and linear mixed effect regression models. We found that higher glucose level during pregnancy was associated with higher weight z-score (ß 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.11), length z-score (ß 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07) and BMI z-score (ß 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12) at birth, adjusted for maternal BMI and country of birth, smoking during pregnancy and parity. The association did not remain at 1½, 3, 4 and 5 years of age. There was a positive relationship between higher glucose level during pregnancy and a decrease in weight z-score, height z-score and BMI z-score from birth to 5 years of age. In conclusion, higher random capillary glucose levels in pregnant healthy women were associated with greater infant size at birth, as well as decreased growth velocity in early childhood.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Antropometria , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paridade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/fisiopatologia
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134090

RESUMO

Childhood stunting remains a major public health issue in many low- and middle-income countries. In Ghana, the progress made is insufficient to reach the targets set by the 2025 World Health Assembly and the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Although studies have examined the socio-demographic determinants of childhood stunting, there has not been any systematic study to examine the spatial associative effects of the socio-demographic and socio-ecological factors at the district level, where health programmes are implemented and monitored. Bayesian geo-additive semiparametric regression technique was used to analyse five conservative rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana, with socio-ecological covariates derived from the Demographic and Health Survey Program Geospatial Covariate datasets to examine the temporal trends in childhood stunting, the extent of geospatial clustering at the district level and their associative relationships with socio-demographic and socio-ecological factors. The findings show that childhood stunting in Ghana is not spatially randomly distributed but clustered. Clustering of high childhood stunting was observed amongst districts in the Upper West, Upper East, Northern, North East, Savannah, and Western North regions, whilst clustering of low childhood stunting was observed in districts in the Greater Accra, Volta, Bono and the Eastern regions. Whist socio-demographic factors were predominantly associated with clustering of districts with high childhood stunting, the socio-ecological factors were mainly associated with clustering of districts with low childhood stunting. The socio-ecological factors identified to have a nonlinear associative effect with childhood stunting were Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) coverage, nightlight composite, travel time to a main settlement and population density. The findings suggest that targeted interventions at the district level are essential to reducing childhood stunting in Ghana.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262607, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081147

RESUMO

Despite advancements in the study of brain maturation at different developmental epochs, no work has linked the significant neural changes occurring just after birth to the subtler refinements in the brain occurring in childhood and adolescence. We aimed to provide a comprehensive picture regarding foundational neurodevelopment and examine systematic differences by family income. Using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 486 infants, children, and adolescents (age 5 months to 20 years) from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development and leveraging advances in statistical modeling, we mapped developmental trajectories for the four major cortical lobes and constructed charts that show the statistical distribution of gray matter and reveal the considerable variability in regional volumes and structural change, even among healthy, typically developing children. Further, the data reveal that significant structural differences in gray matter development for children living in or near poverty, first detected during childhood (age 2.5-6.5 years), evolve throughout adolescence.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pobreza , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Neurológicos
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