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1.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 271-282, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192064

RESUMO

Un número considerable de estudiantes presenta dificultades de aprendizaje y bajo rendimiento académico, sin embargo su evaluación no siempre deriva en un diagnóstico concreto. Son categorizados como inmaduros, pero no se determinan ni la naturaleza ni las características de sus dificultades. El objetivo fue identificar los dominios evolutivos afectados en niños con retraso del desarrollo (RD) y valorar el concepto de dificultades neuroevolutivas como constructo comprensivo de las dificultades generalizadas de aprendizaje. Para ello, se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases electrónicas Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet y CSIC y, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión, se seleccionaron 18 artículos. Los resultados confirman que RD se utiliza como etiqueta diagnóstica para caracterizar a niños con retrasos significativos en uno o varios ámbitos del desarrollo, pero no existe una definición de consenso ni criterios específicos para su diagnóstico, y solo sería de aplicación a niños de corta edad. Los dominios afectados coinciden con funciones neuroevolutivas y, en su etiología, destacan factores de riesgo biológico y ambiental. Se constata la persistencia en la niñez de las dificultades neuroevolutivas y su asociación con las dificultades generalizas en el aprendizaje de años escolares, apuntando a las primeras como constructo explicativo de las segundas


A considerable number of students have learning difficulties and low academic performance, yet their evaluation does not always lead to a concrete diagnosis. They are categorized as immature, but neither the nature nor the characteristics of their difficulties are determined. The aim of this study was to identify the developmental domains which are affected in children with developmental delay (DD) in order to assess the concept of neurodevelopmental difficulties as a comprehensive category and profile of generalized learning difficulties. To this end, a systematic review was carried out on the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet and CSIC and, after applying the inclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected. The results confirm that DD is used as a diagnostic label to characterize children with significant delays in one or more developmental domains, but there is no definition of consensus nor specific criteria for its diagnosis, and it would only be applicable to young children. The affected domains coincide with neurodevelopmental functions, and biological and environmental risk factors stand out in their aetiology. Neurodevelopmental difficulties would encompass a wide spectrum of deficits with different levels of severity that, on interacting with each other, give rise to a variety of profiles


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4523, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908125

RESUMO

Thousands of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided important insight into the human brain. However, only a handful of these studies tested infants while they were awake, because of the significant and unique methodological challenges involved. We report our efforts to address these challenges, with the goal of creating methods for awake infant fMRI that can reveal the inner workings of the developing, preverbal mind. We use these methods to collect and analyze two fMRI datasets obtained from infants during cognitive tasks, released publicly with this paper. In these datasets, we explore and evaluate data quantity and quality, task-evoked activity, and preprocessing decisions. We disseminate these methods by sharing two software packages that integrate infant-friendly cognitive tasks and eye-gaze monitoring with fMRI acquisition and analysis. These resources make fMRI a feasible and accessible technique for cognitive neuroscience in awake and behaving human infants.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vigília/fisiologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 818-826, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early adversity is correlated with increased risk for negative outcomes, including psychopathology and atypical neurodevelopment. The authors aimed to test the causal impact of an early parenting intervention (Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up; ABC) on children's neural processing of parent cues and on psychosocial functioning in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Participants (N=68, mean age, 10.0 years [SD=0.8 years]) were 46 high-risk children whose parents were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC intervention (N=22) or a control intervention (N=24) while the children were infants, in addition to a comparison sample of low-risk children (N=22). During functional MRI scanning, children viewed pictures of their own mothers and of a stranger. RESULTS: Children in the ABC condition showed greater maternal cue-related activation than children in the control condition in clusters of brain regions, including the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus, regions commonly associated with social cognition. Additionally, greater activity in these regions was associated with fewer total behavior problems. There was an indirect effect of early intervention on middle childhood psychosocial functioning mediated through increased activity in brain regions in response to maternal cues. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that early parenting intervention (in this case the ABC intervention) can enhance brain regions supporting children's social cognitive development. In addition, the findings highlight these brain effects as a possible neural pathway through which ABC may prevent future behavior problems among high-risk children, yielding psychosocial benefits that endure through at least middle childhood without the need to intervene with the child directly.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Apego ao Objeto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Medição de Risco
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797080

RESUMO

The role of white matter in reading has been established by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), but DTI cannot identify specific microstructural features driving these relationships. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) and multicomponent driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1/T2 (mcDESPOT) can be used to link more specific aspects of white matter microstructure and reading due to their sensitivity to axonal packing and fiber coherence (NODDI) and myelin (ihMT and mcDESPOT). We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to combine DTI, NODDI, ihMT and mcDESPOT measures (10 in total), identify major features of white matter structure, and link these features to both reading and age. Analysis was performed for nine reading-related tracts in 46 neurotypical 6-16 year olds. We identified three principal components (PCs) which explained 79.5% of variance in our dataset. PC1 probed tissue complexity, PC2 described myelin and axonal packing, while PC3 was related to axonal diameter. Mixed effects regression models did not identify any significant relationships between principal components and reading skill. Bayes factor analysis revealed that the absence of relationships was not due to low power. Increasing PC1 in the left arcuate fasciculus with age suggest increases in tissue complexity, while increases of PC2 in the bilateral arcuate, inferior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and splenium suggest increases in myelin and axonal packing with age. Multimodal white matter imaging and PCA provide microstructurally informative, powerful principal components which can be used by future studies of development and cognition. Our findings suggest major features of white matter undergo development during childhood and adolescence, but changes are not linked to reading during this period in our typically-developing sample.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/métodos , Leitura , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Neurológicos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Análise de Regressão , Substância Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substância Branca/fisiologia
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple factors constrain the trajectories of child cognitive development, but the drivers that differentiate the trajectories are unknown. We examine how multiple early life experiences differentiate patterns of cognitive development over the first 5 years of life in low-and middle-income settings. METHODS: Cognitive development of 835 children from the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) multisite observational cohort study was assessed at 6, 15, 24 (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development), and 60 months (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence). Markers of socioeconomic status, infection, illness, dietary intake and status, anthropometry, and maternal factors were also assessed. Trajectories of development were determined by latent class-mixed models, and factors associated with class membership were examined by discriminant analysis. RESULTS: Five trajectory groups of cognitive development are described. The variables that best discriminated between trajectories included presence of stimulating and learning resources in the home, emotional or verbal responsivity of caregiver and the safety of the home environment (especially at 24 and 60 months), proportion of days (0-24 months) for which the child had diarrhea, acute lower respiratory infection, fever or vomiting, maternal reasoning ability, mean nutrient densities of zinc and phytate, and total energy from complementary foods (9-24 months). CONCLUSIONS: A supporting and nurturing environment was the variable most strongly differentiating the most and least preferable trajectories of cognitive development. In addition, a higher quality diet promoted cognitive development while prolonged illness was indicative of less favorable patterns of development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of overweight during early childhood seems promising. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the parenting-based BBOFT+ overweight prevention program on child BMI, child health behavior and parenting behavior among 0-36 month old children. BBOFT+ is an acronym for the key healthy lifestyle behaviors that are targeted in the BBOFT+ intervention: breastfeeding (B), daily breakfast (B), daily going outdoors (O), limiting sweet beverages (in Dutch, F) and minimal TV or computer time (T), complemented with healthy sleep behavior and improvement of parenting skills (+). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial in newborn children visiting well-baby clinics, comparing the BBOFT+ intervention (N = 901) with care as usual (CAU) (N = 1094). In both groups, parents received regular well-child visits (±11 visits in the first 3 years). In the intervention group, care was supplemented with the BBOFT+ program, which focuses on improving parenting skills from birth onwards to increase healthy behavior. Questionnaires were filled in at child's age 2-4 weeks, 6, 14 and 36 months. In multivariate analyses we corrected for child's birthweight, age, ethnic background, mother's educational level and BMI. RESULTS: No differences were found in weight status at 36 months between intervention and control group children. At 6 months, BBOFT+ parents reported their child drinking less sweet beverages than control parents (48% vs 54%;p = .027), and going outdoors daily with their child less often (57% vs 62%;p = .03). At 14 months, more BBOFT+ parents than control parents reported to have breastfed for six months or longer (32% vs 29%;p = .022). At 36 months, more BBOFT+ parents than control parents reported their child going outside daily (78% vs 72%;p = .011) and having less TV/computer time on week- (38% vs 46%;p = .001) and weekend days (48% vs 56%;p = .002). Also, BBOFT+ parents reported having more parental control than control parents (3.92 vs 3.89;p = .02). No significant differences were found for daily breakfast, sleep duration and parenting practices in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: The BBOFT+ overweight prevention program showed small improvements in parent-reported child health behaviors, compared to care as usual; no effect was observed on child BMI. The identified modifiable elements are potentially relevant for interventions that aim to prevent overweight.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Países Baixos , Visita a Consultório Médico , Relações Pais-Filho , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI) is a commonly used standardized test of visual-motor integration. Performance on the test is related to academic achievement, but the effect of reduced visual acuity on test results is unknown. This study determined the visual acuity demand and the spacing of the test forms for the Beery VMI and its supplemental tests and investigated the effect of induced optical blur on test results in both adults and children. METHODS: The overall size and critical detail size of each form and the distance between the center of each form and its adjacent crowding source were measured. The visual acuity demand and angular separation of forms were calculated. Two groups of participants (adults aged ≥18 years [n = 19] and children aged 7-12 years [n = 20]) completed four sessions in which they performed the Beery VMI and the supplemental tests under different blur conditions (habitual near correction, monocular spherical blur, binocular spherical blur and binocular astigmatic blur) in a randomized order. RESULTS: Stroke width, overall form size and box size remained constant throughout the Beery VMI, whereas these reduced with increasing difficulty for the supplemental tests. Reduced near visual acuity from simulated blur resulted in reduced mean scores for the Beery VMI and its supplemental tests, compared with habitual near vision in both adults and children. Binocular spherical blur had the most detrimental effect (p<0.001), followed by binocular astigmatic blur (p<0.001) then monocular spherical blur (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with uncorrected spherical or astigmatic ametropia, reduced scores on the Beery VMI and its supplemental tests may be due to impaired near visual acuity and not reflect reduced visual-motor abilities. This highlights the importance of excluding reduced near visual acuity as a cause of reduced performance before diagnosing impairment and initiating treatment strategies for visual-motor integration.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the prevalence and predictors of non-right-handedness and its link to long-term neurodevelopmental outcome and early neuroimaging in a cohort of children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation). METHODS: 179 children born extremely preterm admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of our tertiary centre from 2006-2013 were included in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Collected data included perinatal data, demographic characteristics, neurodevelopmental outcome measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development at 2 years and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years, and handedness measured at school age (4-8 years). Magnetic resonance imaging performed at term-equivalent age was used to study overt brain injury. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were analysed using tract-based spatial statistics to assess white matter microstructure in relation to handedness and neurodevelopmental outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-right-handedness in our cohort was 22.9%, compared to 12% in the general population. Weaker fine motor skills at 2 years and paternal non-right-handedness were significantly associated with non-right-handedness. Both overt brain injury and fractional anisotropy of white matter structures on diffusion tensor images were not related to handedness. Fractional anisotropy measurements showed significant associations with neurodevelopmental outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that non-right-handedness in children born extremely preterm occurs almost twice as frequently as in the general population. In the studied population, non-right-handedness is associated with weaker fine motor skills and paternal non-right-handedness, but not with overt brain injury or microstructural brain development on early magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Noise in the neonatal intensive care unit can be detrimental to the health of the hospitalized infant. Means of reducing that noise include staff training, warning lights, and ear coverings, all of which have had limited success. Single family rooms, while an improvement, also expose the hospitalized infant to the same device alarms and mechanical noises found in open bay units. METHODS: We evaluated a non-contact incubator-based active noise control device (Neoasis™, Invictus Medical, San Antonio, Texas) in a simulated neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting to determine whether it could effectively reduce the noise exposure of infants within an incubator. In the NICU simulation center, we generated a series of clinically appropriate sound sequences with bedside medical devices such as a patient monitor and fluid infusion devices, hospital air handling systems, and device mechanical sounds. A microphone-equipped infant mannequin was oriented within an incubator. Measurements were made with the microphones with the Neoasis™ deactivated and activated. RESULTS: The active noise control device decreased sound pressure levels for certain alarm sounds by as much as 14.4 dB (a 5.2-fold reduction in sound pressure) at the alarm tone's primary frequency. Frequencies below the 2 kHz octave band were more effectively attenuated than frequencies at or above the 2 kHz octave band. Background noise levels below 40 dBA were essentially not impacted by the active noise control device. CONCLUSIONS: The active noise control device further reduces noise inside infant incubators. Device safety and potential health benefits of the quieter environment should be verified in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Incubadoras para Lactentes , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Segurança de Equipamentos , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Manequins , Texas
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3761, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724101

RESUMO

Chronic immune-mediated diseases of adulthood often originate in early childhood. To investigate genetic associations between neonatal immunity and disease, we map expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in resting myeloid cells and CD4+ T cells from cord blood samples, as well as in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, respectively. Cis-eQTLs are largely specific to cell type or stimulation, and 31% and 52% of genes with cis-eQTLs have response eQTLs (reQTLs) in myeloid cells and T cells, respectively. We identified cis regulatory factors acting as mediators of trans effects. There is extensive colocalisation between condition-specific neonatal cis-eQTLs and variants associated with immune-mediated diseases, in particular CTSH had widespread colocalisation across diseases. Mendelian randomisation shows causal neonatal gene expression effects on disease risk for BTN3A2, HLA-C and others. Our study elucidates the genetics of gene expression in neonatal immune cells, and aetiological origins of autoimmune and allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Butirofilinas/genética , Butirofilinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Catepsina H/genética , Catepsina H/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Antígenos HLA-C/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Neurology ; 95(3): e226-e238, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the developmental and behavioral outcomes of children experiencing an initial vaccine-proximate (VP) febrile seizure (FS) to those having a non-VP-FS (NVP-FS) and controls who have not had a seizure. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter cohort study, children with their first FS before 30 months of age between May 2013 and April 2016 were recruited from 4 Australian pediatric hospitals and classified as having VP-FS or NVP-FS. Similar-aged children with no seizure history were recruited as controls. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) was administered to participants with FS 12 to 24 months after their initial FS and to controls 12 to 42 months of age at the time of assessment. The primary outcome was the Bayley-III cognitive score. Children's preacademic skills were assessed with the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement, Third Edition, and their behavior and executive functioning were obtained from parent questionnaires. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in cognitive function between children with VP-FS (n = 62), those with NVP-FS (n = 70), and controls (n = 90) (F 2,219 = 2.645, p = 0.07). There were no differences between the groups for all other measures and no increased risk of borderline/significant impairment or behavior in the clinical range in children with VP-FS compared to those with NVP-FS or controls. CONCLUSION: VP-FS was not associated with an increased risk of developmental or behavioral problems in young children compared to children with NVP-FS or controls. Parents and providers should be reassured by the absence of adverse effects of VP-FS on the development of children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Convulsões Febris/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687510

RESUMO

Dietary and physical activity behaviors formed early in life can increase risk for childhood obesity and have continued negative consequences for lifelong health. Previous research has highlighted the importance of both genetic and environmental (e.g., cultural environment or parental lifestyle) contributions to obesity risk, although these studies typically involve genetically-related individuals residing in the same household, where genetic similarity and rearing environment are inextricably linked. Here we utilize a sibling-adoption design to independently estimate genetic and environmental contributions to obesity risk in childhood and describe how these influences might vary as children age. As part of a prospective adoption study, the current investigation used data from biological siblings reared either apart or together, and nonbiological siblings reared together to estimate the contributions of genetics and environment to body mass indices (BMI) in a large cohort of children (N = 711). We used a variance partitioning model to allocate variation in BMI to that which is due to shared genetics, common environment, or unique environment in this cohort during middle childhood and adolescence. We found 63% of the total variance in BMI could be attributed to heritable factors in middle childhood sibling pairs (age 5-11.99; 95% CI [0.41,0.85]). Additionally, we observed that common environment explained 31% of variation in BMI in this group (95% CI [0.11,0.5]), with unique environment and error explaining the remaining variance. We failed to detect an influence of genetics or common environment in older sibling pairs (12-18) or pairs spanning childhood and adolescence (large sibling age difference), but home type (adoptive versus birth) was an important predictor of BMI in adolescence. The presence of strong common environment effects during childhood suggests that early interventions at the family level in middle childhood could be effective in mitigating obesity risk in later childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Adoção , Índice de Massa Corporal , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Irmãos , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 443-449, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193850

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: los hábitos alimentarios y los patrones de actividad física (AF) juegan un papel crucial en el desarrollo integral de niños y adolescentes. OBJETIVO: comparar según frecuencia de AF (es decir, 0, 1, 2, 3 o 4 veces/semana) y estatus corporal (es decir, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad) la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea (DM), la insatisfacción por la imagen corporal y la condición física relacionada con la salud (CF), y, como segundo objetivo, determinar la asociación entre estas variables. MÉTODOS: participaron 481 escolares, 166 mujeres y 315 hombres, de entre 8 y 15 años (12,10 ± 1,10 años) pertenecientes a escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Temuco (Chile). Se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la frecuencia de AF: grupo 1, no realiza AF; grupo 2, AF 1-2 veces/semana, y grupo 3: AF 3-4 veces/semana. Se midió la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (CRF), el salto de longitud a pies juntos (SJT), la fuerza prensil, la adherencia a la DM y la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal. RESULTADOS: los escolares con más días de AF/semana reportaron mayor adherencia a la DM (p = 0,020), VO2MAX (p < 0,001) y mayor SJT (p < 0,001). Asimismo, los escolares con normopeso presentaron más adherencia a la DM (p < 0,001) y menor grado de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal (p < 0,001). Se aprecia una asociación positiva entre la AF y la CRF (B; 1,28, p < 01001). El género presentó asociación con la insatisfacción de la imagen corporal (B; 25,51, p = 01019). CONCLUSIÓN: los escolares con mayor frecuencia de AF/semana presentaron mayor adherencia a la DM y mejor CF relacionada a la salud


BACKGROUND: dietary habits and physical activity (PA) patterns play a crucial role in the integral development of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: to compare according PA frequency (i.e., 0,1,2,3 or 4 times / week) and weight status (i.e., normal weight, overweight and obesity), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), body image dissatisfaction and the physical fitness related to health, and as second objective to determine the association between these variables. METHODS: 481 schoolchildren, 166 women and 315 men aged between 8 and 15 years (12.10 ± 1.10 years) belonging to public schools of Temuco, Chile participated. They were classified in three groups according PA frequency: group 1, without PA; group 2, PA 1-2 times/week, and group 3, PA 3-4 times/week. Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), standing jump long test (SJT), handgrip strength, adherence to MD and body image dissatisfaction were measured. RESULTS: Schoolchildren with more days of PA / week reported higher adherence to MD (p = 0.020), VO2max (p < 0.001) and SJT (p < 0.001) than peers. Likewise, schoolchildren with normal weight show more adherence to MD (P <0.001) and lower body image dissatisfaction (p < 0.001). There is a positive association between PA with VO2MAX (B, 1.28, p < 0.001). The gender presented association with body image dissatisfaction (B, 25.51, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: the schoolchildren with greater frequency of PA/week, presenting greater adherence to MD and better physical fitness related to health


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar , Imagem Corporal , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Chile , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484833

RESUMO

Identifying children who are at-risk for developmental delay, so that these children can have access to interventions as early as possible, is an important and challenging problem in developmental research. This research aimed to identify latent subgroups of children with developmental delay, by modelling and clustering developmental milestones. The main objectives were to (a) create a developmental profile for each child by modelling milestone achievements, from birth to three years of age, across multiple domains of development, and (b) cluster the profiles to identify groups of children who show similar deviations from typical development. The ensemble methodology used in this research consisted of three components: (1) Bayesian sequential updating was used to model the achievement of milestones, which allows for updated predictions of development to be made in real time; (2) a measure was created that indicated how far away each child deviated from typical development for each functional domain, by calculating the area between each child's obtained sequence of posterior means and a sequence of posterior means representing typical development; and (3) Dirichlet process mixture modelling was used to cluster the obtained areas. The data used were 348 binary developmental milestone measurements, collected from birth to three years of age, from a small community sample of young children (N = 79). The model identified nine latent groups of children with similar features, ranging from no delays in all functional domains, to large delays in all domains. The performance of the Dirichlet process mixture model was validated with two simulation studies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/classificação , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/classificação , Logro , Algoritmos , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233949, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition leads to impaired psychosocial and cognitive development. This study explored the developmental status of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and correlated it with various risk factors for SAM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recruited 100 children with SAM and no other associated significant health issues during the recovery phase of treatment using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III prior to discharge from the nutritional rehabilitation unit in R D Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, Central India. We also assessed composite developmental scores, developmental age equivalents, and average differences in developmental age. Risk factors for developmental delay were identified in children with complicated SAM. The results revealed that 75%, 75%, and 63% of children with SAM exhibited delay in motor (mean score: 78.22), language (mean score: 83.97), and cognitive (mean score: 78.06) domains, respectively. A total of 63% children exhibited delay by an average of 4-7 months in the total developmental age. The proportion of children with delay in motor, language, and cognitive domains was determined. An increased risk of global developmental delay was observedin children with a low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 18.06, 95%CI: 2.08-156.56; P = 0.009), having working mothers (aOR: 17.54, 95%CI: 3.02-102.59; P = 0.001), weight-for-age less than three standard deviations (aOR: 6.09, 95%CI: 1.08-34.10; P = 0.04), and presence of severe anemia (aOR: 16.34, 95%CI: 2.94-90.73; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that children with SAM exhibit developmental delay across all domains. Identifying multiple modifiable risk factors for developmental delay in children with SAM will be helpful in devising early interventional strategies in low-middle income countries; however, the exact timing of such interventions should be investigated.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Idioma , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/reabilitação
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584881

RESUMO

Growth faltering among children during the first five years of life is a common problem among low and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a nutrient-rich, food-based supplement given to Vietnamese rural women prior to and/or during pregnancy on the growth of their infants during first 24 months of life and to identify maternal and newborn factors associated with the infant's growth. This prospective cohort study included 236 infants born to mothers who had received nutritional advice or a food supplement from pre-conception to term or from mid-gestation to term as part of a prior randomized controlled trial. Infant anthropometry and feeding information were monitored monthly and the infant weight for age Z-score (WAZ), length for age Z-score (LAZ), and weight for length Z-score (WLZ) were assessed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age using mixed-effects regression modeling. Compared to the non-supplemented mothers, infants born to mothers receiving food supplementation from mid-gestation to term had significantly higher WLZ only at 18 months (p = 0.03) and did not differ in other outcomes. Supplementation from pre-conception to term did not affect infant growth at any time point during the first 24 months. In the entire study cohort, maternal height and gestational weight gain were positively associated with the infant's WAZ and LAZ from 6 to 24 months of age. Programs designed to improve gestational weight gain among women performing demanding physical work throughout a reproductive cycle may improve postnatal infant growth. Trial registration: Registered Clinical Trials.Gov: NCT01235767.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Exposição Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 128: 1-4, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474140

RESUMO

Prenatal COVID-19 infection is anticipated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control to affect fetal development similarly to other common respiratory coronaviruses through effects of the maternal inflammatory response on the fetus and placenta. Plasma choline levels were measured at 16 weeks gestation in 43 mothers who had contracted common respiratory viruses during the first 6-16 weeks of pregnancy and 53 mothers who had not. When their infants reached 3 months of age, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), which assesses their infants' level of activity (Surgency), their fearfulness and sadness (Negativity), and their ability to maintain attention and bond to their parents and caretakers (Regulation). Infants of mothers who had contracted a moderately severe respiratory virus infection and had higher gestational choline serum levels (≥7.5 mM consistent with U.S. Food and Drug Administration dietary recommendations) had significantly increased development of their ability to maintain attention and to bond with their parents (Regulation), compared to infants whose mothers had contracted an infection but had lower choline levels (<7.5 mM). For infants of mothers with choline levels ≥7.5 µM, there was no effect of viral infection on infant IBQ-R Regulation, compared to infants of mothers who were not infected. Higher choline levels obtained through diet or supplements may protect fetal development and support infant early behavioral development even if the mother contracts a viral infection in early gestation when the brain is first being formed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encéfalo , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Colina , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Comportamento do Lactente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Atenção , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Colina/administração & dosagem , Colina/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Nootrópicos/sangue , Apego ao Objeto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify the Brazilian cohorts that started either in the prenatal period or at birth, to describe their characteristics and the explored variables, and to map the cohorts with potential for studies on early determinants on health and the risk of falling ill on later stages of the life cycle. METHODS A scoping review was carried out. The articles were searched in the electronic databases PubMed and Virtual Health Library (VHL). The descriptors used were [((("Child" OR "Child, Preschool" OR "Infant" OR "Infant, Newborn") AND (Cohort Studies" OR "Longitudinal Studies")) AND "Brazil")]. The inclusion criteria were Brazilian cohorts that started the baseline in the prenatal period or at birth and with at least two follow-ups with the participants. In order to meet the concept of LCE, we excluded those cohorts whose follow-ups were restricted to the first year of life, as well as those that did not address biological, behavioral and psychosocial aspects, and cohorts with data collection of a single stage of the life cycle. RESULTS The search step identified 5,010 articles. Eighteen cohorts were selected for descriptive synthesis. The median number of baseline participants was 2,000 individuals and the median age at the last follow-up was 9 years. Sample loss at the last follow-up ranged from 9.2 to 87.5%. Most cohorts monitored two phases of the life cycle (the perinatal period and childhood). The Southern region had the highest number of cohorts. The main variables collected were sociodemographic and environmental aspects of the family, morbidity aspects, nutritional practices and lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS We recommend the continuity of these cohorts, the approach to different social contexts and the performance of follow-ups with participants in different phases of the life cycle for the strengthening and expansion of life course epidemiology analyses in Brazil.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
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