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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371799

RESUMO

Enteral feeding is the preferred method of nutrient provision for preterm infants. Though parenteral nutrition remains an alternative to provide critical nutrition after preterm delivery, the literature suggests that enteral feeding still confers significant nutritional and non-nutritional benefits. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to summarize health and clinical benefits of early enteral feeding within the first month of life in preterm infants. Likewise, this review also proposes methods to improve enteral delivery in clinical care, including a proposal for decision-making of initiation and advancement of enteral feeding. An extensive literature review assessed enteral studies in preterm infants with subsequent outcomes. The findings support the early initiation and advancement of enteral feeding impact preterm infant health by enhancing micronutrient delivery, promoting intestinal development and maturation, stimulating microbiome development, reducing inflammation, and enhancing brain growth and neurodevelopment. Clinicians must consider these short- and long-term implications when caring for preterm infants.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia
2.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(10): 1991-2001, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maternal lifestyle during pregnancy may affect the development of overweight and obesity in the child. We examined whether maternal exercise during pregnancy is associated with offspring overweight and obesity in childhood. A secondary aim was to examine whether the association is affected by the child's physical activity level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is based on data from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), including 44 352 pregnancies and children (n = 32 304 in week 17 and n = 32 419 in week 30 in the final adjusted model). Maternal exercise during pregnancy was self-reported in gestational weeks 17 and 30. We conducted linear and logistic regression separately for girls and boys, and outcomes were the child's body mass index (BMI) and weight status (overweight/obese) at age 7 years. We further examined the additive joint association between maternal exercise during pregnancy and the child's leisure time physical activity on weight status at age 7 years. RESULTS: In total, 12.4% of the children were classified as overweight or obese, and 1.7% as obese. The results suggest no association between maternal exercise in both gestational weeks 17 and 30 and the weight status of the child at age 7 years. The association between maternal exercise and the child's weight status at age 7 years appears not to be affected by the child's physical activity level. CONCLUSION: Maternal exercise level during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with the child's BMI or odds of being overweight or obese in childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Mães , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4216, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244490

RESUMO

The formation of large-scale brain networks, and their continual refinement, represent crucial developmental processes that can drive individual differences in cognition and which are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental conditions. But how does this organization arise, and what mechanisms drive diversity in organization? We use generative network modeling to provide a computational framework for understanding neurodevelopmental diversity. Within this framework macroscopic brain organization, complete with spatial embedding of its organization, is an emergent property of a generative wiring equation that optimizes its connectivity by renegotiating its biological costs and topological values continuously over time. The rules that govern these iterative wiring properties are controlled by a set of tightly framed parameters, with subtle differences in these parameters steering network growth towards different neurodiverse outcomes. Regional expression of genes associated with the simulations converge on biological processes and cellular components predominantly involved in synaptic signaling, neuronal projection, catabolic intracellular processes and protein transport. Together, this provides a unifying computational framework for conceptualizing the mechanisms and diversity in neurodevelopment, capable of integrating different levels of analysis-from genes to cognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072910

RESUMO

Maternal diet has the potential to affect human milk (HM) composition, but very few studies have directly assessed the effect of maternal diets on HM composition. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of improving dietary quality in lactating women over 2 weeks on the concentrations of macronutrients and metabolic hormones in HM. The secondary aims were to assess the impact of the dietary intervention on 24 h milk production, maternal body composition and infant growth. Fifteen women completed a 1-week baseline period followed by a 2-week dietary intervention phase targeted towards reducing fat and sugar intake. Maternal anthropometric and body composition and infant growth measurements were performed weekly. Total 24 h milk production was measured before and after the dietary intervention, and HM samples were collected daily. Maternal intakes of energy (-33%), carbohydrate (-22%), sugar (-29%), fat (-54%) and saturated fat (-63%) were significantly reduced during the dietary intervention. HM insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations were 10-25% lower at the end of the dietary intervention, but HM concentrations of macronutrients were unaffected. Maternal body weight (-1.8%) and fat mass (-6.3%) were significantly reduced at the end of the dietary intervention, but there were no effects on 24 h milk production or infant growth. These results suggest that reducing maternal energy, carbohydrate, fat and sugar intake over a 2-week period is associated with significant reductions in HM insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations. These changes may be secondary to decreases in maternal weight and fat mass. The limited studies to date that have investigated the association between metabolic hormone concentrations in HM and infant growth raise the possibility that the changes in HM composition observed in the current study could impact infant growth and adiposity, but further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Mães
5.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31 Suppl 1: 35-46, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871084

RESUMO

Longitudinal designs enhance our understanding of children's development and its influence on movement behaviors and health. This three-year follow-up study aimed to develop profiles according to perceived and actual motor competence (MC) (locomotion, object control, and overall) and physical fitness in boys and girls longitudinally including children's temporal migrations among clusters in terms of profiling trends. A secondary aim was to compare physical activity participation and weight status at each time point according to these profiles. One hundred and four typically developing Spanish children (45.8% girls) between 4 and 9 years old at baseline participated in this study. Data were collected at three time points one year apart, between January 2016 and May 2018. A self-organizing map and K-means cluster analysis were used to classify and visualize the values and temporal trajectories longitudinally. The study of the profiles in three consecutive years revealed five profiles, three for boys [ie, profile 1 (aligned-high), profile 2 (aligned-partially-low perception-medium actual MC and fitness), and profile 3 (non-aligned-medium perception-low actual MC and fitness)]; and two for girls [ie, profile 4 (aligned-high) and profile 5 (aligned-low)]. For highly perceived and capable children, boys (profile 1) and girls (profile 4), there was a tendency for higher physical activity participation and lower body mass index and waist circumference over time compared to their counterparts who had medium and/or low levels in perception and actual MC and fitness (P < .05). As children age, those with low values in perceived and actual MC and fitness in object control skills will present a higher probability of maintaining unhealthy lifestyles. So, prior intervention, children's profiles identification should be analyzed according to the type of MC.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Percepção , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31 Suppl 1: 47-55, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871086

RESUMO

This study aimed to (1) estimate age-at-mid-growth spurt (age-at-MGS) in Portuguese boys from two different regions-the Azores islands and Viana do Castelo, and (2) identify spurts in a variety of physical fitness (PF) components aligned by age-at-MGS in the two samples. A total of 176 (Azores, n = 91; Viana do Castelo, n = 85) boys aged 6 years old were followed annually to 10 years of age. Age-at-MGS and spurts in PF components (speed, explosive muscular strength, abdominal muscular strength, agility, and flexibility) were identified for each sample. The timing and intensities of the spurts were estimated using a non-smooth mathematical procedure. In Azorean boys, age-at-MGS occurred at 7.8 years (6.99 cm y-1 ), whereas in Viana do Castelo it occurred at 7.9 years (6.20 cm y-1 ). Spurt in speed was attained 12 months after the MGS in both samples (0.53 and 0.35 cm y-1 in Azores and Viana do Castelo, respectively), whereas spurts in explosive muscular strength and flexibility occurred 12 months before the MGS and at the MGS (Azores: 21.59 and 5.52 cm y-1 and Viana do Castelo: 14.12 and 2.5 cm y-1 , respectively). Agility and abdominal muscular strength peaked between 0 and 12 months after the MGS (Viana do Castelo: 0.37 m s-1  y-1 and 6.71 reps y-1 and Azores: 0.28 m s-1  y-1 and 19.36 reps y-1 , respectively). Results indicate that developmental spurts in explosive strength and flexibility occur before, or are coincident with, the mid-growth spurt in height, whereas spurts in speed, agility, and abdominal muscular strength occur after, or coincident with, the mid-growth spurt in height.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Estatura , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Força Muscular , Portugal
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25421, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasonic grading in determining brain injury in very premature infants and analyze the affecting factors of these neonatal morbidity and mortality, and to investigate the relationship between serial cranial ultrasound (cUS) classification and Mental Developmental Index (MDI)/Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) in premature infants. METHODS: A total of 129 very preterm infants (Gestational Age ≤ 28 weeks) were subjected to serial cUS until 6 months or older and classified into 3 degrees in accordance with classification standards. The MDI and PDI (Bayley test) of the infants were measured until the infants reached the age of 24 months or older. The consistency between Term Equivalent Age (TEA)-cUS and TEA- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was calculated. Ordinal regression was performed to analyze the relationship among severe disease, early cUS classifications, psychomotor and mental development, and death. Operating characteristic curve were used to analyze the relationship between serial cUS grades and MDI/PDI scores. RESULTS: The mortality and survival rates of 129 very preterm infants were 32.8% and 67.3%, respectively. Among the 86 surviving infants, 20.9% developed mild cerebral palsy (CP) and 5.8% to 6.9% developed severe CP. The consistency between TEA-cUS and TEA-MRI was 88%. Grades 2 and 3 at first ultrasound were associated with adverse mental (OR = 3.2, OR = 3.78) and motor (OR = 2.25, OR = 2.59) development. cUS classification demonstrated high sensitivity (79%-96%). Among all cUS classifications, the specificity of the first cUS was the lowest and that of TEA-cUS was the highest (57% for PDI and 48% for MDI). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe brain injury at first ultrasound is the most important factor affecting the survival rate and brain development of very premature infants. The cUS classification had high sensitivity and high specificity for the prediction of CP, especially in TEA-cUS.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos Psicomotores/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801634

RESUMO

Among all the body fluids, breast milk is one of the richest sources of microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs packaged within the milk exosomes are bioavailable to breastfeeding infants. The role of miRNAs in determining infant growth and the impact of maternal overweight/obesity on human milk (HM) miRNAs is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of maternal overweight/obesity on select miRNAs (miR-148a, miR-30b, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-let-7a and miR-32) involved in adipogenesis and glucose metabolism and to examine the relationship of these miRNAs with measures of infant body composition in the first 6 months of life. Milk samples were collected from a cohort of 60 mothers (30 normal-weight [NW] and 30 overweight [OW]/obese [OB]) at 1-month and a subset of 48 of these at 3 months of lactation. Relative abundance of miRNA was determined using real-time PCR. The associations between the miRNAs of interest and infant weight and body composition at one, three, and six months were examined after adjusting for infant gestational age, birth weight, and sex. The abundance of miR-148a and miR-30b was lower by 30% and 42%, respectively, in the OW/OB group than in the NW group at 1 month. miR-148a was negatively associated with infant weight, fat mass, and fat free mass, while miR-30b was positively associated with infant weight, percent body fat, and fat mass at 1 month. Maternal obesity is negatively associated with the content of select miRNAs in human milk. An association of specific miRNAs with infant body composition was observed during the first month of life, suggesting a potential role in the infant's adaptation to enteral nutrition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Exossomos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
9.
Metabolism ; 119: 154772, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838145

RESUMO

By making it possible for women with diabetes to achieve their family planning goals, the discovery of insulin ushered in the field of diabetes in pregnancy. The ensuing century has witnessed tremendous advances, with clinical focus on preconception planning and maternal glycemic control making successful pregnancy an achievable goal. Currently, the global epidemic of overweight/obesity has led to maternal hyperglycemia now affecting one in every six pregnancies worldwide, prompting intense research interest. Topics of particular interest include (i) the optimal approach to diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); (ii) the emergence of GDM as a chronic metabolic disorder identifying future risk of non-communicable disease; (iii) the transgenerational impact of maternal glycemia as per the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease; and (iv) the application of new technology for optimizing clinical management. These topics have raised exciting questions such as (i) whether the treatment of diabetes in pregnancy can impact growth/development in childhood, (ii) whether GDM can be prevented, and (iii) whether the diagnosis of GDM could facilitate the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Indeed, this field may be on the precipice of a golden era of new concepts and evidence to optimize the health of mother and child.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Insulina , Adulto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/história , Descoberta de Drogas/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/história , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917366

RESUMO

Although peer-led education and support may improve breastfeeding practices, there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of such interventions in the Ethiopian context. We designed a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a breastfeeding education and support intervention (BFESI) on infant growth, early initiation (EI), and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices. We randomly assigned 36 clusters into either an intervention group (n = 249) receiving BFESI by trained Women's Development Army (WDA) leaders or a control group (n = 219) receiving routine care. The intervention was provided from the third trimester of pregnancy until five months postpartum. Primary study outcomes were EI, EBF, and infant growth; secondary outcomes included maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitude, and child morbidity. The intervention effect was analysed using linear regression models for the continuous outcomes, and linear probability or logistic regression models for the categorical outcomes. Compared to the control, BFESI significantly increased EI by 25.9% (95% CI: 14.5, 37.3%; p = 0.001) and EBF by 14.6% (95% CI: 3.77, 25.5%; p = 0.010). Similarly, the intervention gave higher breastfeeding attitude scores (Effect size (ES): 0.85SD; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.99SD; p < 0.001), but not higher knowledge scores (ES: 0.15SD; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.41SD; p = 0.173). From the several growth and morbidity outcomes evaluated, the only outcomes with significant intervention effect were a higher mid-upper arm circumference (ES: 0.25cm; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.49cm; p = 0.041) and a lower prevalence of respiratory infection (ES: -6.90%; 95% CI: -13.3, -0.61%; p = 0.033). Training WDA leaders to provide BFESI substantially improves EI and EBF practices and attitude towards breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mães/educação , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Grupo Associado , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 144(1): 51-57, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizure is a common childhood disorder that affects 2-5% of all children, and is associated with later development of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. This study determines how the incidence of febrile seizures correlates with birth characteristics, age, sex and brain development. METHODS: This is a cohort study of all children born Denmark between 1977 and 2011 who were alive at 3 months of age (N = 2,103,232). The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify children with febrile seizures up to 5 years of age. Follow-up ended on 31 December 2016 when all cohort members had potentially reached 5 years of age. RESULTS: In total, 75,593 (3.59%, 95% CI: 3.57-3.62%) were diagnosed with febrile seizures. Incidence peaked at 16.7 months of age (median: 16.7 months, interquartile range: 12.5-24.0). The 5-year cumulative incidence of febrile seizures increased with decreasing birth weight (<1500 g; 5.42% (95% CI: 4.98-5.88% vs. 3,000-4,000 g; 3.53% (95% CI: 3.50-3.56%)) and with decreasing gestational age at birth (31-32 weeks; 5.90% (95% CI: 5.40-6.44%) vs. 39-40 weeks; 3.56% (95% CI: 3.53-3.60)). Lower gestational age at birth was associated with higher age at onset of a first febrile seizure; an association that essentially disappeared when correcting for age from conception. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of febrile seizures increased with decreasing birth weight and gestational age at birth. The association between low gestational age at birth and age at first febrile seizure suggests that onset of febrile seizures is associated with the stage of brain development.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões Febris/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(2): 410-417, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201886

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: in children with cleft lip and/or palate nutritional status and growth may be impaired due to early life feeding difficulties. OBJECTIVE: to review the existing literature on the nutritional prognosis during childhood of patients undergoing surgery for cleft lip and/or palate (CLP), their body composition and growth patterns from 2 to 10 years of age, and the possible effects of their early nutritional status on the long-term onset of overweight. METHODS: a systematic search of growth and body composition parameters in 2-10 year-old CLP children, including cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and using the Pubmed and Scopus databases. From the 2,983 retrieved articles, 6 were finally included. RESULTS: two studies out of 6 were longitudinal and the other 4 were cross-sectional, including very heterogeneous samples. Weight and height were used as growth parameters in 2 studies; 2 studies used body mass index (BMI); and the remaining 2 used indexes of nutritional status derived from anthropometric measures. The studies showed discrepancies among results: 3 of them found growth differences between children with CLP and their counterparts, whereas the other 3 did not. The two longitudinal studies did not show any significant differences between the mean BMI z-scores or growth curves of cleft patients and their counterparts. When differences existed, the most affected group was that under 5 years, syndromic children, and adopted children with CL/P. CONCLUSIONS: the literature is scarce comparing growth patterns between children with CLP and controls, and results cannot confirm that children with CLP aged 2-10 years, excluding those with syndromes or belonging to vulnerable populations, have different growth patterns or a worse nutritional status than their counterparts


INTRODUCCIÓN: en niños con fisura labial y/o palatina, el estado nutricional y el crecimiento pueden verse afectados debido a dificultades en la alimentación. OBJETIVOS: revisar el pronóstico nutricional de pacientes sometidos a cirugía de fisura labiopalatina (FLP), su composición corporal y sus patrones de crecimiento de los 2 a los 10 años, así como los posibles efectos del estado nutricional durante la primera infancia sobre la aparición posterior de sobrepeso. MÉTODOS: búsqueda sistemática de parámetros de crecimiento y composición corporal en niños con CLP de 2 a 10 años, incluyendo estudios transversales y longitudinales en las bases de datos Pubmed y Scopus. De los 2983 artículos potencialmente relevantes, 6 fueron finalmente incluidos. RESULTADOS: dos estudios de 6 fueron longitudinales y los otros 4, transversales, con muestras muy heterogéneas. El peso y la altura se utilizaron como parámetros de crecimiento en 2 estudios; 2 estudios utilizaron el índice de masa corporal (IMC), y los otros 2, índices del estado nutricional a partir de medidas antropométricas. Los estudios mostraron discrepancias entre los resultados: 3 de ellos encontraron diferencias de crecimiento entre los niños con CLP y sus coetáneos, mientras que los otros 3, no las encontraron. Los dos estudios longitudinales no mostraron diferencias significativas entre el IMC (z-score) ni entre las curvas de crecimiento de los pacientes con FLP y sus coetáneos. Cuando existían diferencias, el grupo más afectado fue el de los menores de 5 años, niños sindrómicos y niños adoptados con CL/P. CONCLUSIONES: la literatura sobre los patrones de crecimiento de los niños con CLP es escasa y los resultados no pueden confirmar que los niños con CLP de 2 a 10 años, excluyendo aquellos con síndromes o pertenecientes a poblaciones vulnerables, tengan patrones de crecimiento diferentes o un peor estado nutricional que sus coetáneos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Fissura Palatina/dietoterapia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Peso-Estatura
13.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202158

RESUMO

El presente tra­bajo centra su interés en aquellos aspectos del periodo perinatal que permiten poner en marcha la prevención primaria y secundaria en un intento de reducir al máximo la aparición de psicopatología temprana, tanto en el bebé (problemas en el acceso a la intersubjetividad, en la adquisición de la capacidad de autorregulación, y en el desarrollo del sistema de apego) como en sus padres (1) (establecimiento del vínculo, fragilidad narcisista, de­presión perinatal, dificultades en la crianza; en resumen, conflictos relacionados con el acceso a la parentalidad). Señalaremos cuatro momentos clave tomados desde la experiencia de la consulta perinatal, que van a poder ayudar a detectar riesgos en el camino del desarrollo emocional del bebé


This paper focuses on those aspects of the perinatal period that allow the implementation of primary and secondary prevention trying to minimize the appearance of early psychopathology, both in the baby (problems in accessing intersubjectivity, in acquiring the capacity for self-regulation, and in the development of the bonding system) and in the parents (1) (bonding, narcissistic fragility, perinatal depression, parenting difficulties; in short, conflicts related to the access to parenthood). We will point out four key moments taken from the experience of the perinatal consultation, which will help to detect risks in the baby's emotional development


El present treball centra l'interès en aquells aspectes del període perinatal que permeten posar en marxa la prevenció primària I secundària en un intent de reduir al màxim l'aparició de psicopatologia primerenca, tant en el nadó (problemes d'accés a la intersubjectivitat, en l'adquisició de la capacitat d'autoregulació, I en el desenvolupament del sistema d'aferrament) així com en els seus pares (establiment del vincle, fragilitat narcisista, depressió perinatal, dificul­tats en la criança; en resum, conflictes relacionats amb l'accés a la parentalitat). Assenyalarem quatre moments clau presos des de l'experiència de la consulta perinatal que podran ajudar a detectar riscos en el camí del des­envolupament emocional del nadó


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Marcha , Fatores Etários , Apego ao Objeto , Psicologia da Criança
14.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673254

RESUMO

The gut is a pivotal organ in health and disease. The events that take place in the gut during early life contribute to the programming, shaping and tuning of distant organs, having lifelong consequences. In this context, the maternal gut plays a quintessence in programming the mammary gland to face the nutritional, microbiological, immunological, and neuroendocrine requirements of the growing infant. Subsequently, human colostrum and milk provides the infant with an impressive array of nutrients and bioactive components, including microbes, immune cells, and stem cells. Therefore, the axis linking the maternal gut, the breast, and the infant gut seems crucial for a correct infant growth and development. The aim of this article is not to perform a systematic review of the human milk components but to provide an insight of their extremely complex interactions, which render human milk a unique functional food and explain why this biological fluid still truly remains as a scientific enigma.


Assuntos
Mama/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/fisiologia
15.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(7): 1450-1460, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730432

RESUMO

This study investigated whether the timing of infant motor development is associated with self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in midlife. This population-based study consisted of 4098 people born in 1966 in Northern Finland (NFBC 1966). Data on nine infant motor developmental milestones included making sounds, holding up the head, grabbing objects, turning from back to tummy, sitting without support, standing with support, walking with support, standing without support, and walking without support. At the age of 46, PA at leisure time and sitting time was self-reported. PA and ST were also measured with a wrist-worn Polar Active accelerometer that was instructed to be worn on the non-dominant hand 24 h/d for 14 days. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between infant motor development and PA and ST in midlife. Later infant motor development was weakly associated with higher accelerometer-measured light PA, but not with moderate-to-vigorous PA. Later infant locomotor development was associated with lower accelerometer-measured ST (ß -0.07, p = 0.012) and lower self-reported sitting time at work (ß -0.06, p = 0.004) in women. In conclusion, later infant motor development was associated with higher light PA and lower sedentary time at middle age. PA is a multifactorial behavior influenced by various factors from early childhood to midlife. Further research is required before more general conclusions can be drawn.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Acelerometria , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Lineares , Locomoção/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Posição Ortostática , Fatores de Tempo , Caminhada
16.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(1): 10-24, Mar 19, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284006

RESUMO

A prematuridade é caracterizada pelo nascimento entre 22 e 37 semanas de gestação, podendo implicar em disfunções de diversos sistemas do organismo, dentre eles, o sistema neurológico, devido à imaturidade dos órgãos. Alterações no sistema neurológico comumente afetam o desenvolvimento motor da criança, que é determinado pela habilidade motora grossa. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a habilidade motora grossa em lactentes prematuros, segundo a Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Trata-se de um estudo descritivo-exploratório, de abordagem quantitativa, associado a um delineamento transversal, no qual aplicou-se dois instrumentos para coleta de dados de 122 lactentes que nasceram com idade gestacional entre 28 e 36 semanas, que são atendidos pelo Projeto de Extensão "Acompanhamento do desenvolvimento motor de recémnascidos de alto risco (Follow-up)", realizado no Núcleo de Estudos de Fisioterapia de uma faculdade privada. Um instrumento estruturado com perguntas sobre características sociodemográficas da mãe, história obstétrica desta e perfil do recém-nascido, e outro, a escala validada AIMS, aplicada mensalmente, por quatro meses, para avaliar o desenvolvimento motor do lactente. Os resultados mostraram aumento gradual da presença de alterações do desenvolvimento motor dos lactentes com o passar dos meses. (AU)


Prematurity is characterized by birth between 22 and 37 weeks of gestation, which may imply dysfunctions in several systems of the organism, among them, the neurological system, due to the immaturity of the organs. Changes in the neurological system commonly affect the child's motor development, which is determined by gross motor skills. The purpose of this study is to assess gross motor skills in premature infants, according to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). This is a descriptive-exploratory study, with a quantitative approach, associated with a cross-sectional design, in which two instruments were applied for data collection of 122 infants born with gestational age between 28 and 36 weeks, assisted by the Project entitled "Monitoring the motor development of high-risk newborns (Follow-up)", carried out at the Physiotherapy Studies Center of a private college. A structured instrument with questions about the mother's sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history and profile of the newborn, and another, the validated AIMS scale, applied monthly, for four months, to assess the infant's motor development. The results showed a gradual increase in the presence of changes in the motor development of infants over the months. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Transversais
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657109

RESUMO

Visual-motor integration (VMI) is related to children's academic performance and school readiness. VMI scores measured using the Beery-Bucktenicka Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery-VMI) can differ due to differences in cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. This study compared the VMI scores of Malaysian preschoolers with the corresponding US norms and determined the association between their VMI scores and socioeconomic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 435 preschoolers (mean age: 5.95±0.47 years; age range: 5.08-6.83 years) from randomly selected public and private preschools. VMI scores were measured using Beery-VMI in the preschools' classrooms. Information on the socioeconomic characteristics of the preschoolers was obtained using a parent-report questionnaire. One sample t-test was used to compare their VMI scores with the corresponding US norms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the influence of socioeconomic factors on the preschoolers' VMI scores. Overall, Malaysian preschoolers' VMI performance was similar to the US standardized norms (p>0.05). Children from low-income families were twice likely to obtain lower than average VMI scores than those from higher-income families (OR = 2.47, 95%CI 1.05, 5.86). Children enrolled at public preschools were more likely to obtain a lower than average VMI score than those who enrolled at private preschools (OR = 2.60, 95%CI 1.12, 6.06). Children who started preschool at the age of six were more likely to obtain lower than average VMI scores than those who started at an earlier age (OR = 4.66, 95%CI 1.97, 11.04). Low maternal education level was also associated with lower than average VMI score (OR = 2.60, 95%CI 1.12, 6.06). Malaysian preschoolers' Beery-VMI performance compared well to their US counterparts. Some socioeconomic factors were associated with reduced VMI scores. Those from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have reduced VMI performance, potentially adversely affecting their school readiness, cognitive performance, and future academic achievements.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705442

RESUMO

Recent evidence reveals a precocious link between language and cognition in human infants: listening to their native language supports infants' core cognitive processes, including object categorization, and does so in a way that other acoustic signals (e.g., time-reversed speech; sine-wave tone sequences) do not. Moreover, language is not the only signal that confers this cognitive advantage: listening to vocalizations of non-human primates also supports object categorization in 3- and 4-month-olds. Here, we move beyond primate vocalizations to clarify the breadth of acoustic signals that promote infant cognition. We ask whether listening to birdsong, another naturally produced animal vocalization, also supports object categorization in 3- and 4-month-old infants. We report that listening to zebra finch song failed to confer a cognitive advantage. This outcome brings us closer to identifying a boundary condition on the range of non-linguistic acoustic signals that initially support infant cognition.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Aves Canoras , Fala/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
19.
Child Dev ; 92(2): 715-730, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713424

RESUMO

Four-, 5-, and 6-year olds (N = 102) observed agents perform a reasoning task that required gathering hidden evidence. An agent who made sound inferences was contrasted with an agent who made either unsound inferences (UI; failed to base conclusion on gathered evidence) or guesses (failed to gather evidence). Four-year olds attributed knowledge to all agents and endorsed their conclusions widely. However, 5- and 6-year olds' knowledge attributions were mitigated by UI, and 6-year olds neither attributed knowledge to a guesser nor endorsed his conclusions. Notably, parents' tendency to make evaluativist epistemological judgments-which place value in evidence as a basis for belief-predicted children's reluctance to learn from and credit knowledge to poor reasoners. Parents' evaluativist judgments also predicted children's selective learning about object functions.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Individualidade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Pais/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Resolução de Problemas
20.
J Sports Sci ; 39(14): 1615-1620, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661083

RESUMO

The purpose of the current article was to use allometric models to identify the best body size descriptors and other anthropometric variables, body composition, and offset maturity that might be associated with the youngsters' 50m personal-best (PB) swim speeds (m·s-1). Eighty-five competitive swimmers (male, n=50; 13.5±1.8 y; female, n=35; 12.6±1.8 y) participated in this study. Height, body mass, sitting height, arm span, skinfolds, arm muscle area (AMA), and maturity offset were assessed. Swimming performance was taken as the PB time recorded in competition, and the propulsive force of their arm (PFA) was assessed by the tied swimming test. The multiplicative allometric model relating 50m PB swim speeds (m·s-1) to all the predictor variables found percentage body fat as a negative [(BF%) ß= -.121±.036; P=0.001], and PFA (PFA ß=.108±.033; P=0.001) and the girl's arm span (ß=.850±.301; P=0.006), all log-transformed, as positive significant predictors of log-transformed swim speed. The adjusted coefficient of determination, Radj2 was 54.8% with the log-transformed error ratio being 0.094 or 9.8%, having taken antilogs. The study revealed, using an allometric approach, that body fatness and PFA were significant contributors to 50m freestyle swim performance in young swimmers.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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