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1.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 10(1): 1-13, 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229132

RESUMO

El modo de nacimiento –parto normal frente a cesárea– podría afectar el desarrollo y a la salud futura. La comprensión de estos posibles vínculos podría servir de base para las intervenciones venideras. El objetivo es describir y correlacionar las dimensiones del desarrollo infantil en relación con la motricidad gruesa, fina y el lenguaje en función de la segmentación por el tipo de nacimiento de parto normal y parto por cesárea. La muestra incluía 300 preescolares de entre 4 y 5 años del municipio de Soledad, Colombia. El instrumento utilizado es el TEPSI. Para determinar la correlación entre el tipo de nacimiento y los ámbitos se realizó la prueba de correlación Bivariada de Pearson con p £ 0,01 usando el software SPPS V25.0. El modo de nacimiento por segmentación de cesárea tiene correlación positiva significativa entre coordinación y lenguaje (r = .401; p =.000); coordinación y motricidad (r = .577; p = .000); y entre lenguaje y motricidad (r = .484; p = .000). El modo de nacimiento por segmentación de parto natural tiene una correlación positiva significativa entre lenguaje y motricidad (r = .410; p = .000). El estudio apoya la importancia de conocer el modo de parto y su vinculación con el desarrollo psicomotor, atendiendo a las evidencias de investigaciones previas que alertan de la existencia de efectos negativos para preescolares nacidos por cesárea (AU)


The mode of birth –normal labor versus caesarean– could affect development and future health. Understanding these possible links could inform future interventions. The aim is to describe and correlate child developmental dimensions of gross and fine motor skills and language, as a function of segmentation by the birth type of normal and caesarean labor. The sample included 300 preschoolers aged 4 to 5 years in the municipality of Soledad, Colombia. The instrument used was the TEPSI. To determine the correlation between type of birth and domains, Pearson's bivariate correlation test with p 0.01 was performed using SPPS V25.0 software. This study found that caesarean has significant positive correlations between coordination and language (r = .401; p = .000); coordination and motor (r = .577; p = .000); and between language and motor (r = .484; p = .000). Natural birth segmentation has a significant positive correlation between language and motor skills (r = .410; p = .000). The study supports the importance of knowing the mode of labor and its link with psychomotor development, owing to evidence from previous research that warns about the existence of negative effects on preschoolers born by cesarean section (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Cesárea , Parto Normal , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Correlação de Dados , Incidência
2.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 10(1): 158-187, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229140

RESUMO

Con el pasar del tiempo y especialmente en los últimos años el entrenamiento de la fuerza en niños y adolescentes ha venido tomando fuerza, convirtiéndose en uno de los componentes más importantes en el desarrollo de las capacidades físicas y motrices. El objetivo es Identificar las tendencias más recientes en lo referente a la prescripción del entrenamiento de la fuerza en niños y adolescentes la metodología: se desarrollo una revisión sistemática en la que fueron analizados 648 artículos de los cuales sólo 10 fueron seleccionados dada su relevancia y relación con el tema, además dichos artículos fueron extraídos de las bases de datos: Google Académico, Redalyc, Dialnet, y Scielo. En los resultados se pudo identificar en la revisión, (N=11) investigaciones experimentales cuantitativas y (N=15) estudios de revisión (cualitativas), así como un total de (n=234) participantes de ambos sexos en las intervenciones experimentales y un total de (n=139) estudios consultados en los artículos de revisión sistemática. En las conclusiones se logró identificar que el entrenamiento con pesos libres, y peso corporal son la tendencia más usada a la hora de prescribir entrenamiento de la fuerza. Consigo, se destaca que son los métodos de entrenamiento con pesas y bandas elásticas los implementos más utilizados para llevar a cabo su realización. La frecuencia recomendada es de 2 a 3 días por semana. El volumen que se destaca es de 2 a 3 series y 6 a 15 repeticiones por ejercicio donde la intensidad que prevalece son los porcentajes del 60% al 85% por ciento de 1RM o una intensidad moderada en la escala del esfuerzo percibido (AU)


With the passing of time and especially in recent years, strength training in children and adolescents has been gaining strength, becoming one of the most important components in physical and motor development. The objective is to identify the most recent trends regarding the prescription of strength training in children and adolescents. The methodology: a systematic review was developed in which 648 articles were analyzed, of which only 10 were selected given their relevance and relationship. with the subject, in addition said articles were extracted from the databases: Google Scholar, Redalyc, Dialnet, and Scielo. In the results it was possible to identify in the review, (N=11) quantitative experimental investigations and (N=15) review studies (qualitative), as well as a total of (n=234) participants of both sexes in the experimental interruptions and a total of (n=139) studies consulted in the systematic review articles. In the conclusions it will be identified that training with free weights and body weight are the most used trend when prescribing strength training. With it, it stands out that the methods of training with weights and elastic bands are the most used implements to carry out their realization. The recommended frequency is 2 to 3 days per week weeks. The volume that stands out is 2 to 3 sets and 6 to 15 repetitions per exercise where the prevailing intensity is 60% to 85% percent of 1RM or moderate intensity on the perceived exertion scale (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Muscular/fisiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2418, 2023 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38053131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite major improvements in child survival over the past decade, many children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain at risk of not reaching their developmental potential due to malnutrition, poor health, and a lack of stimulation. Maternal engagement and stimulation have been identified as some of the most critical inputs for healthy development of children. However, relatively little evidence exists on the links between maternal stimulation and child development exists in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This current paper aims to identify the associations between maternal stimulation and child development in Kenya and Zambia, as well as the activities that are most predictive of developmental outcomes in these settings. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study using data from a prospective study in Kenya and Zambia. The study included three rounds of data collection. Children were on average 10 months old in round one, 25 months old in round two, and 36 months old in round three. The primary exposure variable of interest was maternal stimulation activities, which we grouped into cognitive, language, motor, and socio-emotional activities. The outcome of interest was child development measured through the Third Edition of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3). Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between overall maternal stimulation and domain-specific maternal stimulation and child development across the three rounds of the survey. RESULTS: Higher maternal stimulation scores were associated with higher ASQ scores (effect size = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.31) after adjusting for other confounders. For domain specific and child development (ASQ scores), the largest effect size (ES) was found for language stimulation (ES = 0.15) while weakest associations were found for socio-emotional domain activities (ES= -0.05). Overall maternal stimulation was most strongly associated with gross motor development (ES = 0.21) and the least associated with problem-solving (ES = 0.16). CONCLUSION: Our study findings suggest a strong positive link between maternal stimulation activities and children's developmental outcomes among communities in poor rural settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NA (not a clinical trial).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Família , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0296051, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive early development is critical in shaping children's lifelong health and wellbeing. Identifying children at risk of poor development is important in targeting early interventions to children and families most in need of support. We aimed to develop a predictive model that could inform early support for vulnerable children. METHODS: We analysed linked administrative records for a birth cohort of 2,380 Northern Territory children (including 1,222 Aboriginal children) who were in their first year of school in 2015 and had a completed record from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC). The AEDC measures early child development (school readiness) across five domains of development. We fitted prediction models, for AEDC weighted summary scores, using a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) considering four groups of factors-pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, known at birth, and child-related factors. We first assessed the models' internal validity and then the out-of-sample predictive power (external validity) using the PLSpredict procedure. RESULT: We identified separate predictive models, with a good fit, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. For Aboriginal children, a significant pre-pregnancy predictor of better outcomes was higher socioeconomic status (direct, ß = 0.22 and indirect, ß = 0.16). Pregnancy factors (gestational diabetes and maternal smoking (indirect, ß = -0.09) and child-related factors (English as a second language and not attending preschool (direct, ß = -0.28) predicted poorer outcomes. Further, pregnancy and child-related factors partially mediated the effects of pre-pregnancy factors; and child-related factors fully mediated the effects of pregnancy factors on AEDC weighted scores. For non-Aboriginal children, pre-pregnancy factors (increasing maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, and occupation of the primary carer) directly predicted better outcomes (ß = 0.29). A technical observation was that variance in AEDC weighted scores was not equally captured across all five AEDC domains; for Aboriginal children results were based on only three domains (emotional maturity; social competence, and language and cognitive skills (school-based)) and for non-Aboriginal children, on a single domain (language and cognitive skills (school-based)). CONCLUSION: The models give insight into the interplay of multiple factors at different stages of a child's development and inform service and policy responses. Recruiting children and their families for early support programs should consider both the direct effects of the predictors and their interactions. The content and application of the AEDC measurement need to be strengthened to ensure all domains of a child's development are captured equally.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Povos Indígenas , Gravidez , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 11(5)2023 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37903571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant brain development in children occurs from birth to 2 years, with environment playing an important role. Stimulation interventions are widely known to be effective in enhancing early childhood development (ECD). This study aims to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of integrating ECD care delivered by lady health visitors (LHVs) at public health facilities in rural Pakistan. METHOD: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted through public health facilities in 2 districts of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 22 clusters (rural health centers and subdistrict hospitals) were randomly allocated to receive routine care (control: n=11 clusters, 406 mother-child pairs) or counseling (intervention: n=11 clusters, 398 mother-child pairs). All children aged 11-12 months without any congenital abnormality were eligible for enrollment. The intervention was delivered by the LHVs to mothers with children aged 12-24 months in 3 quarterly sessions. RESULTS: The primary outcome was the prevention of ECD delays in children aged 24 months (assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3). Analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis. A total of 804 mother-child pairs were registered in the study, of which 26 (3.3%) pairs were lost to follow-up at the endpoint. The proportion of children with 2 or more developmental delays was significantly less in the intervention arm (13%) as compared to the control arm (41%) at an endpoint (odds ratio=0.21; 95% confidence interval=0.11, 0.42). Children in the intervention arm also had significantly better anthropometric measurements when aged 24 months than the children in the control arm. CONCLUSION: The integrated ECD care intervention for children aged 12-24 months at public health facilities was found to be effective in enhancing ECD and reducing the proportion of children with global development delays.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Paquistão , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Aconselhamento , Instalações de Saúde
6.
Pediatrics ; 152(4)2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37777643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The majority of the evidence about the effectiveness of early parenting and nutrition interventions pertains to 1 targeted index child in a given household. We evaluated whether nontargeted sibling children benefited from a bundled parenting and nutrition intervention. METHODS: We designed a sub-study within a broader cluster-randomized trial that evaluated the effects of engaging both mothers and fathers and bundling parenting and nutrition interventions in Mara, Tanzania. Trained community health workers delivered interventions to parents through peer groups and home visits. Interventions encompassed various content including responsive parenting, infant and young child feeding, and positive couples' relationships. The main trial enrolled mothers and fathers and 1-index children <18 months of age in 80 clusters. Between June and July 2021, in 32 clusters (16 intervention, 16 control), we reenrolled 222 households (118 intervention, 104 control) from the main trial that had another child <6 years of age (ie, sibling to the index child). We compared caregiving practices and child development and nutrition outcomes among siblings in intervention versus control households. RESULTS: Compared with control siblings, intervention siblings had improved expressive language development (ß = 0.33 [95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.62]) and dietary intake (ß = 0.52 [0.10 to 0.93]) and reduced internalizing behaviors (ß = -0.56 [-1.07 to -0.06]). Intervention caregivers reported greater maternal stimulation (ß = 0.31 [0.00 to 0.61]) and paternal stimulation (ß = 0.33 [0.02 to 0.65]) and displayed more responsive caregiving behaviors (ß = 0.40 [0.09 to 0.72]) with sibling children. CONCLUSIONS: A father-inclusive, bundled parenting and nutrition intervention can achieve positive spillover effects on sibling children's developmental and nutritional outcomes.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Irmãos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mães , Pai
7.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 63: 101283, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37586147

RESUMO

Attention following (AF) is a cornerstone of social cognitive development and a longstanding topic of infancy research. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the development of AF. One reason for discrepant findings could be that infants' AF responses do not generalize across settings, and are influenced by situational factors. Theories of AF development based on data collected in laboratory paradigms might skew our understanding of infants' everyday AF. To reveal more generalizable patterns of infant AF development, we compared healthy, North American infants' (N = 48) AF developmental trajectories between a controlled laboratory paradigm and a naturalistic, home-based, parent-directed paradigm. Longitudinal micro-behavioral coding was analyzed to compare individual infants' AF between the two settings every month from 6 to 9 months of age. We aimed to (1) examine longitudinal development of infant AF in two settings; (2) compare AF development between settings, and (3) explore differences in adult cueing behaviors that influence AF. We found that longitudinal trajectories of AF differed between home and lab, with more AF at home in earlier months. Additionally, AF at home was related to maternal cueing variables including bid duration and frequency. These results have implications for the assessment of infants' developing social attention behaviors.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Pais , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia
8.
PeerJ ; 11: e15460, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37334124

RESUMO

Background: Proper motor development can be influenced by a range of risk factors. The resulting motor performance can be assessed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of posture and movement patterns. Methods: This study was designed as the cohort follow-up of the motor assessment and aimed to demonstrate, in a mathematical way, the impact of particular risk factors on elements of motor performance in the 3rd month and the final motor performance in the 9th month of life. Four hundred nineteen children were assessed (236 male and 183 female), including 129 born preterm. Each child aged 3 month underwent a physiotherapeutic assessment of the quantitative and qualitative development, in the prone and supine positions. The neurologist examined each child aged 9 month, referring to the Denver Development Screening Test II and assessing reflexes, muscle tone and symmetry. The following risk factors were analyzed after the neurological consultation: condition at birth (5th min Apgar score), week of gestation at birth, intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, and the incidence of intrauterine hypotrophy and hyperbilirubinemia determined based on medical records. Results: A combination of several risk factors affected motor development stronger than any one of them solely, with Apgar score, hyperbilirubinemia, and intraventricular hemorrhage exhibiting the most significant impact. Conclusions: Premature birth on its own did not cause a substantial delay in motor development. Nonetheless, its co-occurrence with other risk factors, namely intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, and hyperbilirubinemia, notably worsened motor development prognosis. Moreover, improper position of the vertebral column, scapulae, shoulders, and pelvis in the third month of life may predict disturbances in further motor development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Postura , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragia Cerebral
9.
Dev Psychobiol ; 65(5): e22393, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37338255

RESUMO

Maternal stress is known to be an important factor in shaping child development, yet the complex pattern of associations between stress and infant brain development remains understudied. To better understand the nuanced relations between maternal stress and infant neurodevelopment, research investigating longitudinal relations between maternal chronic physiological stress and infant brain function is warranted. In this study, we leveraged longitudinal data to disentangle between- from within-person associations of maternal hair cortisol and frontal electroencephalography (EEG) power at three time points across infancy at 3, 9, and 15 months. We analyzed both aperiodic power spectral density (PSD) slope and traditional periodic frequency band activity. On the within-person level, maternal hair cortisol was associated with a flattening of frontal PSD slope and an increase in relative frontal beta. However, on the between-person level, higher maternal hair cortisol was associated with steeper frontal PSD slope, increased relative frontal theta, and decreased relative frontal beta. The within-person findings may reflect an adaptive neural response to relative shifts in maternal stress levels, while the between-person results demonstrate the potentially detrimental effects of chronically elevated maternal stress. This analysis offers a novel, quantitative insight into the relations between maternal physiological stress and infant cortical function.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Hidrocortisona , Humanos , Lactente , Encéfalo , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Feminino
10.
J Commun Disord ; 104: 106337, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37253298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examines longitudinal changes in communicative behavior of young children with significant cognitive and motor developmental delays (SDD) and determines their individual communicative trajectories. A second focus of this study is the relation of changes in communicative behavior with motor skills. METHODS: Data consists of codes resulting from a self-developed coding scheme used on observations of 23 children in three different settings and responses on a questionnaire. First, group trends were determined to find out whether communication-related variables tend to significantly change over the course of two years. Furthermore, these findings were contrasted with the individual trajectories of the children. Next, the association of initial communicative skills and (the acquisition of) specific motor skills with the change in their communicative functioning was studied. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks and correlational analyses were used to answer the research questions. RESULTS: Out of sixteen different variables related to communicative behavior, ten changed significantly over the course of two years. Children with more focus on prompt on the first datapoint showed a significantly larger increase of signs of functionality. Still, all children showed highly individual trajectories. Children with better motor skills on the first datapoint showed a significantly larger increase in communication rate. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that if a myriad of detailed variables are taken into account children with significant cognitive and motor developmental disabilities do change regarding their communicative functioning, but that they tend to all show unique developmental trajectories. Children with stronger skills in some aspects of communication and motor functioning, can be considered advantaged regarding their communicative development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Destreza Motora , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Comunicação , Cognição
11.
Pediatrics ; 151(Suppl 2)2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37125887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate an integrated, low-cost, facility-based group intervention designed to promote child care, boost maternal mental-wellbeing, reduce harsh discipline, and improve children's health, nutrition, and early development. METHODS: In Dhaka, 30 neighborhood clusters of a low-income urban community were randomized to intervention or control groups. Mothers with children between 6 and 24 months (n = 300) who self-reported negative discipline were identified and enrolled. A 1-year group intervention included integration of responsive caregiving, nutritional supplementation, caregivers' mental health, child protection, and health advice. Child outcomes were cognition (primary) and language, motor and behavioral development, growth, and hemoglobin and iron status (secondary). Maternal outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-esteem, negative discipline, and child care knowledge and practices. RESULTS: Overall, 222 (74%) mother-child dyads participated in the 1-year follow-up. Intervention and control groups differed on wealth, with no other significant differences. The intervention resulted in a 0.75 SD effect on cognition, 0.77 SD on language, 0.41 SD on motor, and 0.43 to 0.66 SDs on behavior during testing (emotion, cooperation, and vocalization) in the intervention arm. Mothers in the intervention group had fewer depressive symptoms (effect size: -0.72 SD), higher self-esteem (0.62 SD), better child care knowledge (2.02 SD), fewer harsh discipline practices (0.25 SD), and better home stimulation (0.73 SD). The intervention showed no effect on child growth or hemoglobin, but significantly improved serum iron status (-0.36 SD). CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive intervention, delivered through group sessions in health facilities, was effective in promoting child development and reducing maternal depressive symptoms among mothers who reported using negative or harsh discipline.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde Mental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Bangladesh , Mães/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho
12.
Pediatrics ; 151(Suppl 2)2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37125886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impacts of 2 interventions, early stimulation (ES) for children aged <3 years and enhanced preschool (EP) for children aged 3+ years, and their interactions. METHODS: In Odisha, India, 192 villages were randomly assigned to ES or to no ES. Within each village, about 8 mothers with children initially aged 7 to 16 months were enrolled, receiving ES or no ES accordingly (n = 1449). Subsequently, when children were aged ∼3 years, the villages were rerandomized to either EP at Anganwadi centers or no EP. This yielded 4 groups: (1) ES and EP, (2) only ES, (3) only EP, and (4) no intervention. Trained Anganwadi workers ran the EP. Primary outcomes, measured at baseline and follow-up after ∼1 year, were children's IQ (summarizing cognition, language, and executive functioning) and school readiness (SR). Secondary outcomes were home environments, caregivers' child-development knowledge. and preschool quality. RESULTS: Fifteen months after ES ended, onlyES had a sustained benefit on IQ (0.18 SD, P <.04) and on SR (0.13 SD, P <.08). Only EP improved IQ (0.17 SD, P <.04) and SR (0.24 SD, P <.01). Receiving both interventions improved IQ (0.24 SD, P <.01) and SR (0.21 SD, P <.01). No statistically significant interactions between the 2 interventions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Both ES and EP increased IQ and SR. Only ES impacts were sustained for 15 months. Only EP resulted in considerable catch-up for children who did not receive only ES. The absence of significant complementarities should be investigated further because of its profound policy implications.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Função Executiva , Cognição
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 232: 105676, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37018972

RESUMO

The timing of the developmental emergence of holistic face processing and its sensitivity to experience in early childhood are somewhat controversial topics. To investigate holistic face perception in early childhood, we used an online testing platform and administered a two-alternative forced-choice task to 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children. The children saw pairs of composite faces and needed to decide whether the faces were the same or different. To determine whether experience with masked faces may have negatively affected holistic processing, we also administered a parental questionnaire to assess the children's exposure to masked faces during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that all three age groups performed holistic face processing when the faces were upright (Experiment 1) but not when the faces were inverted (Experiment 2), that response accuracy increased with age, and that response accuracy was not related to degree of exposure to masked faces. These results indicate that holistic face processing is relatively robust in early childhood and that short-term exposure to partially visible faces does not negatively affect young children's holistic face perception.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Reconhecimento Facial , Pandemias , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pais , Máscaras
14.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 64: 1-37, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37080665

RESUMO

Visual attention develops rapidly and significantly during the first postnatal years. At birth, infants have poor visual acuity, poor head and neck control, and as a result have little autonomy over where and how long they look. Across the first year, the neural systems that support alerting, orienting, and endogenous attention develop, allowing infants to more effectively focus their attention on information in the environment important for processing. However, visual attention is a system that develops in the context of the whole child, and fully understanding this development requires understanding how attentional systems interact and how these systems interact with other systems across wide domains. By adopting a cascades framework we can better position the development of visual attention in the context of the whole developing child. Specifically, development builds, with previous achievements setting the stage for current development, and current development having cascading consequences on future development. In addition, development reflects changes in multiple domains, and those domains influence each other across development. Finally, development reflects and produces changes in the input that the visual system receives; understanding the changing input is key to fully understand the development of visual attention. The development of visual attention is described in this context.


Assuntos
Atenção , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cabeça , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Pescoço , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
15.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 64: 69-107, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37080675

RESUMO

The first 5 years of life are characterized by incredible growth across domains of child development. Drawing from over 50 years of seminal research, this chapter contextualizes recent advances in language sciences through the lens of developmental cascades to explore complexities and connections in acquisition. Converging evidence-both classic and contemporary-points to the many ways in which advances in one learning system can pose significant and lasting impacts on the advances in other learning systems. This chapter reviews evidence in developmental literature from multiple domains and disciplines (i.e., cognitive, social, motor, bilingual language learning, and communication sciences and disorders) to examine the phenomenon of developmental cascades in language acquisition.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Modelos Lineares , Multilinguismo , Linguagem Infantil
16.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37111184

RESUMO

Preterm infants have low circulating levels of leptin, a key trophic hormone that influences growth and development. While the clinical importance of prematurity-associated leptin deficiency is undefined, recent preclinical and clinical investigations have shown that targeted enteral leptin supplementation can normalize neonatal leptin levels. We tested the hypothesis that, independent of growth velocity, prematurity-related neonatal leptin deficiency predicts adverse cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental outcomes. In a planned 2-year longitudinal follow-up of 83 preterm infants born at 22 to 32 weeks' gestation, we obtained blood pressures from 58 children and the Ages & Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) for 66 children. Based on univariate analysis, blood pressures correlated with gestational age at birth (R = 0.30, p < 0.05) and weight gain since discharge (R = 0.34, p < 0.01). ASQ-3 scores were significantly higher in female than male children. Utilizing best subset regression with Mallows' Cp as the criterion for model selection, higher systolic blood pressure was predicted by rapid postnatal weight gain, later gestation at delivery and male sex (Cp = 3.0, R = 0.48). Lower ASQ-3 was predicted by lower leptin levels at 35 weeks postmenstrual age, earlier gestation at delivery and male sex (Cp = 2.9, R = 0.45). Children that had leptin levels above 1500 pg/mL at 35 weeks postmenstrual age had the highest ASQ-3 scores at 2 years. In conclusion, independent of growth velocity, higher leptin levels at 35 weeks' gestation are associated with better developmental assessment scores in early childhood. While longer-term follow-up of a larger cohort is needed, these findings support investigations that have suggested that targeted neonatal leptin supplementation could improve the neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leptina , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Aumento de Peso
17.
Dev Sci ; 26(5): e13378, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876849

RESUMO

This study investigates infants' enculturation to music in a bicultural musical environment. We tested 49 12- to 30-month-old Korean infants on their preference for Korean or Western traditional songs played by haegeum and cello. Korean infants have access to both Korean and Western music in their environment as captured on a survey of infants' daily exposure to music at home. Our results show that infants with less daily exposure to any kind of music at home listened longer to all music types. The infants' overall listening time did not differ between Korean and Western music and instruments. Rather, those with high exposure to Western music listened longer to Korean music played with haegeum. Moreover, older toddlers (aged 24-30 months) maintained a longer interest in songs of an origin with which they are less familiar, indicating an emerging orientation towards novelty. Early orientation of Korean infants toward the novel experience of music listening is likely driven by perceptual curiosity, which drives exploratory behavior that diminishes with continued exposure. On the other hand, older infants' orientation towards novel stimuli is led by epistemic curiosity, which motivates an infant to acquire new knowledge. Korean infants' lack of differential listening likely reflects their protracted period of enculturation to ambient music due to complex input. Further, older infants' novelty-orientation is consistent with findings in bilingual infants' orientation towards novel information. Additional analysis showed a long-term effect of music exposure on infants' vocabulary development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kllt0KA1tJk RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Korean infants showed novelty-oriented attention to music such that infants with less daily exposure to music at home showed longer listening times to music. 12- to 30-month-old Korean infants did not show differential listening to Korean versus Western music or instruments, suggesting a protracted period of perceptual openness. 24- to 30-month-old Korean toddlers' listening behavior indicated emerging novelty-preference, exhibiting delayed enculturation to ambient music compared to Western infants reported in earlier research. 18-month-old Korean infants with a greater weekly exposure to music had higher CDI scores a year later, consistent with the well-known music-to-language transfer effect.


Assuntos
Música , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Idioma , República da Coreia
18.
Cognition ; 236: 105433, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37001438

RESUMO

The ability to shift from current to future perspective is pivotal to future-oriented cognition. With two distinct cultural groups, UK (N = 92) and China (N = 90), we investigated 3 to 5-year-olds' understanding of preference changes occurring within themselves and their peers (another child). We administered a battery of representative tasks of executive function and theory of mind to examine their underlying relationships with children's ability to predict future preferences. British 3-year-olds outperformed Chinese children in predicting future preferences, while no country differences were observed between the 4- and 5-year-olds. Across the UK and China, children were more accurate when predicting for their peers than for themselves. They were also more accurate when their current preferences were identified first, i.e. before answering questions about the future. Chinese children outperformed their British counterparts on inhibition and cognitive flexibility tasks whereas there were no Eastern and Western differences in their theory of mind abilities. After controlling for age and children's knowledge of generic adult preferences, children's performance in the inhibition and cognitive flexibility tasks were significantly correlated with the prediction of their own future preferences, but they were not significantly correlated when predicting for a peer. These results are discussed in relation to the conflicts between multiple perspectives and the cognitive correlates of future-oriented cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , População do Leste Asiático , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Previsões
19.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 147: 105090, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36787871

RESUMO

Humans are the only species that engages in sustained, complex pretend play. As pretend play is practically ubiquitous across cultures, it might support or afford a context for developmental advances during the juvenile period that have implications for functioning in adulthood. Early in development, learning to separate our thoughts from reality is practiced in pretend play and is associated with changes not just in cognition, but in emotional and social domains as well. Specifically, pretend play affords opportunities to engage in abstractions that could support abilities such as perspective-taking, emotion recognition and regulation, and cooperation and negotiation in childhood. In turn, the abstraction skills promoted by early pretend play might underlie creativity, innovation, and our capacity to feel empathy and moral obligation to others in later childhood and adulthood. In fact, because pretend play affords sharing our abstractions with others, it might be an early context for behaviors that ultimately promote the shared abstractions of human culture itself.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Jogos e Brinquedos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição , Criatividade , Comportamento Social
20.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 48(3): 283-292, 2023 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Children born very preterm (VPT; gestational age [GA] <31 weeks) have robust school readiness difficulties relative to children born full-term (FT; GA ≥37 weeks). This study examined whether four aspects of parental well-being and behavior-distress, harshness, responsiveness and positive control, and cognitive stimulation-were linked to school readiness in a sample of children born VPT <31 weeks GA and whether these characteristics similarly impact VPT and FT children. METHODS: Parents of 4-year-olds born VPT (n = 55) and FT (n = 38) reported on parental distress, behavior, and cognitive stimulation. Children's cognition, executive function, motor skills, preacademic abilities, and behavior were assessed via neuropsychological tests and parent-report questionnaires. RESULTS: For both groups of children, higher psychological distress and harshness were associated with more behavior problems, and more cognitive stimulation was associated with higher scores on tests of cognitive, motor, and preacademic abilities. More parental distress was associated with lower cognitive ability only for children born VPT and more harshness was associated with lower preacademic skills only for children born FT. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying modifiable family factors associated with school readiness in children born VPT is essential for informing family-based interventions to improve school readiness in this population. Findings suggest that distress, harshness, and cognitive stimulation may be reasonable targets for interventions to improve school readiness in children born VPT.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas
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