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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364499

RESUMO

Due to the severe side effects revealed by most of the currently used antidiabetic medicines, search for finding new and safe drugs to manage diabetes is continued. Naphthoquinones possessing strong antioxidant properties have been employed as candidates for diabetes therapy. Present study is aimed at finding the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of some novel derivatives of 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones (PAN) including chloro, nitro, methyl and bromo (5a-d) derivatives synthesized by single pot experiment. Product crystals were purified by TLC and characterized by FT-IR. The antioxidant potential of the compounds was assayed through DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities noted as UV-vis. absorbance. The DPPH assay has showed the powerful antioxidant activity of nitro and bromo derivatives, while the nitro derivative showed the significant reduction potential towards FRAP assay. Hypoglycaemic potential of the compounds was studied in rat animal model. All synthesized compounds revealed better hypoglycaemic activity; however, the chloro-derivative exhibited the more potent hypoglycaemic activity showing about 43% reduction in the mean blood glucose levels of the treated animals. As the bioreduction of naphthoquinones may be influenced by changing its redox properties, it has been noticed that the e-donating resonance effect (+R) of 'chloro' group has shown the significant effects on biological activity through stabalization of its imine form which limits the potential of generation of free radicals during bioreduction of quinones and thus has been proposed as the reason of its hypoglycaemic activity. Future studies employing the properties of e-donating groups of PAN may optimize the drug-receptor interaction for better drug designing and drug development strategies against diabetes and also for the clinical trials.


Em razão dos graves efeitos colaterais causados pela maioria dos medicamentos antidiabéticos atualmente utilizados, continua a busca por novos medicamentos seguros para o controle do diabetes. As naftoquinonas, que possuem fortes propriedades antioxidantes, têm sido empregadas como candidatas à terapia do diabetes. O presente estudo visa encontrar o potencial antioxidante e hipoglicemiante de alguns novos derivados de 2-fenilamino-1,4-naftoquinonas (PAN), incluindo derivados de cloro, nitro, metil e bromo (5a-d) sintetizados por experimento em pote único. Os cristais do produto foram purificados por TLC e caracterizados por FT-IR. O potencial antioxidante dos compostos foi testado por meio de atividades de sequestro de radicais DPPH e redução de energia observada como absorção no UV-vis. O ensaio DPPH mostrou a poderosa atividade antioxidante dos derivados nitro e bromo, enquanto o derivado nitro mostrou o potencial de redução significativo para o ensaio FRAP. O potencial hipoglicêmico dos compostos foi estudado em modelo animal de rato. Todos os compostos sintetizados revelaram melhor atividade hipoglicemiante; no entanto, o derivado cloro apresentou atividade hipoglicêmica mais potente, com redução de 43% nos níveis médios de glicose no sangue dos animais tratados. Como a biorredução de naftoquinonas pode ser influenciada pela alteração de suas propriedades redox, notou-se que o efeito da doação eletrônica por ressonância (+R) do grupo "cloro" tem sido significativo na atividade biológica por meio da estabilização de sua forma imina, que limita o potencial de geração de radicais livres durante a biorredução de quinonas, e, portanto, tem sido proposto como a razão de sua atividade hipoglicemiante. Estudos futuros empregando as propriedades de grupos de doação eletrônica de PAN podem otimizar a interação droga-receptor para melhor planejamento de medicamentos e estratégias de desenvolvimento de medicamentos contra o diabetes e também para os ensaios clínicos.


Assuntos
Ratos , Modelos Animais , Diabetes Mellitus , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Hipoglicemiantes , Antioxidantes
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2552: 219-235, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346594

RESUMO

A great effort to avoid known developability risks is now more often being made earlier during the lead candidate discovery and optimization phase of biotherapeutic drug development. Predictive computational strategies, used in the early stages of antibody discovery and development, to mitigate the risk of late-stage failure of antibody candidates, are highly valuable. Various structure-based methods exist for accurately predicting properties critical to developability, and, in this chapter, we discuss the history of their development and demonstrate how they can be used to filter large sets of candidates arising from target affinity screening and to optimize lead candidates for developability. Methods for modeling antibody structures from sequence and detecting post-translational modifications and chemical degradation liabilities are also discussed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 459, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-target interactions (DTIs) prediction becomes more and more important for accelerating drug research and drug repositioning. Drug-target interaction network is a typical model for DTIs prediction. As many different types of relationships exist between drug and target, drug-target interaction network can be used for modeling drug-target interaction relationship. Recent works on drug-target interaction network are mostly concentrate on drug node or target node and neglecting the relationships between drug-target. RESULTS: We propose a novel prediction method for modeling the relationship between drug and target independently. Firstly, we use different level relationships of drugs and targets to construct feature of drug-target interaction. Then, we use line graph to model drug-target interaction. After that, we introduce graph transformer network to predict drug-target interaction. CONCLUSIONS: This method introduces a line graph to model the relationship between drug and target. After transforming drug-target interactions from links to nodes, a graph transformer network is used to accomplish the task of predicting drug-target interactions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_4): S490-S497, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410386

RESUMO

Lack of predictive preclinical models is a key contributor to the steep attrition rate in drug development. Successful clinical translation may be higher for new chemical entities or existing approved drugs reformulated for long-acting (LA) administration if preclinical studies designed to identify any new uncertainties are predictive of human exposure and response. In this review, we present an overview of standard preclinical assessments deployed for LA formulations and delivery systems, using human immunodeficiency virus LA therapeutics preclinical development as a paradigm. Key progress in the preclinical development of novel LA antiretrovirals formulations and delivery systems are summarized, including bispecific broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody and small molecule technologies for codelivery of multiple drugs with disparate solubility properties. There are new opportunities to take advantage of recent developments in tissue engineering and 3-dimensional in vitro modeling to advance preclinical modeling of anti-infective activity, developmental and reproductive toxicity assessment, and to apply quantitative modeling and simulation strategies. These developments are likely to drive the progression of more LA anti-infective drugs and multipurpose technologies into clinical development in the coming years.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Simulação por Computador
5.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(12): 1603-1614, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global health requiring continuous development of new antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial research and development (R&D) should be promoted in the pharmaceutical industry and academia to ensure sustainable patient access to new treatment options and reduce the global AMR burden. AREAS COVERED: This review describes the historical challenges in novel antimicrobial drug development in Japan, current national efforts to promote the development, and proposals to effectively manage future AMR pandemics. Literature searches were performed in the PubMed database (from inception to January 2022). EXPERT OPINION: R&D activities in the antimicrobial space in Japan have been insufficient due to multiple factors, including unfavorable cost-profit balance and differences in regulatory requirements between Japan and Western countries. However, the situation is improving with the implementation of the Japanese AMR action plan, drug R&D programs led by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, and efforts of regulatory agencies in the United States, Europe, and Japan in aligning and expediting the clinical development process. Further actions during the interpandemic period will strengthen antimicrobial R&D, including international and interdisciplinary collaboration, continued funding and investment with the national government's leadership, and fostering of new-generation academic research leaders.PLAINLANGUAGE SUMMARYEvery year, many people suffer and die of antimicrobial-resistant infections worldwide. New treatment options are required to tackle antimicrobial-resistant infections; however, pharmaceutical companies have not been very active in developing antimicrobial agents in the last two decades. This was mainly due to the difficulty in discovering new and effective compounds and insufficient funds being spent on drug discovery. In addition, differences in drug development requirements between the United States (US), Europe, and Japan have made it difficult for Japanese pharmaceutical companies to develop antimicrobial agents that can be used in all regions in a timely manner. In the last decade, several measures have been taken to re-activate antimicrobial research and development in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in academia, in Japan. These measures include a national action plan to combat antimicrobial-resistant infections and research support programs led by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development. Regulatory authorities in the US, Europe, and Japan have initiated efforts to expedite the development of drugs to treat infections. Moreover, pathways for accelerated regulatory review have been established to reduce the time taken for new drugs to be approved, and this has already been applied to several new anti-infective drugs. To combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the development of novel vaccines and antiviral drugs has been accelerated with unprecedented speed. Additional actions, such as international research collaboration programs and investment in new antimicrobial development, may help promote antimicrobial research and development activities in Japan.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Japão , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
6.
J Bioinform Comput Biol ; 20(5): 2250023, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350601

RESUMO

Identification of potential drug-target interactions (DTIs) plays a pivotal role in the development of drug and target discovery in the public healthcare sector. However, biological experiments for predicting interactions between drugs and targets are still expensive, complicated, and time-consuming. Thus, computational methods are widely applied for aiding drug-target interaction prediction. In this paper, we propose a novel model, named GCMCDTI, for DTIs prediction which adopts a graph convolutional network based on matrix completion. We regard the association prediction between drugs and targets as link prediction and treat the process as matrix completion, and then a graph convolutional auto-encoder framework is employed to construct the drug and target embeddings. Then, a bilinear decoder is applied to reconstruct the DTI matrix. We conduct our experiments on four benchmark datasets consisting of enzymes, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, and nuclear receptors. The five-fold cross-validation results achieve the high average AUC values of 95.78%, 95.31%, 93.90%, and 91.77%, respectively. To further evaluate our method, we compare our proposed method with other state-of-the-art approaches. The comparison results illustrate that our proposed method obtains improvement in performance on DTI prediction. The proposed method will be a good choice in the field of DTI prediction.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Interações Medicamentosas
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 408, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extremely high prices facilitate drug development for ultra-rare diseases (ultra-orphan drugs). However, various problems arise in terms of healthcare financing and fairness, and the status of ultra-orphan drug pricing remains ambiguous. In this study, we investigated ultra-orphan drug prices in Japan relative to that of other drugs. We examined the relationship between annual expected drug prices and expected sales, and the expected number of patients, for 393 drugs containing new active ingredients for therapeutic use that were listed on the National Health Insurance drug price list in Japan between April 16, 2010 and August 26, 2020. In addition, we compared prices, the drug price calculation method, and price calculation adjustment factors for ultra-orphan and other drugs. RESULTS: Drug prices tended to increase as the expected number of patients to whom the drug was administered decreased; however, this trend diminished when the expected number of patients was less than 1000. On the other hand, the expected sales tended to decrease as the number of expected patients decreased, and this tendency was reinforced when the expected number of patients was less than 1000. The cost accounting method tended to be used for the price calculation of ultra-orphan drugs, but there were no price differences based on the drug price calculation method. Regarding the price calculation adjustment factors, the premium for usefulness tended to be higher for ultra-orphan drugs. The premium for marketability was higher for non-orphan drugs but did not differ from that for orphan drugs, except for ultra-orphan drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The status of drug prices and expected sales differed beyond a threshold of 1000 expected patients, indicating that recovering the development cost for ultra-orphan drugs is difficult. In addition, the higher premium for usefulness for ultra-orphan drugs reflects the largely unmet need of the associated diseases. Scarcity among orphan drugs is not considered for marketability, highlighting the need for a new framework to promote the development of ultra-orphan drugs.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Produção de Droga sem Interesse Comercial , Doenças Raras , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/economia , Japão , Produção de Droga sem Interesse Comercial/economia , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Raras/economia , Comércio , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362434

RESUMO

The conventional treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) is based on the "one molecule-one target" paradigm. To combat the multifactorial nature of NDDs, the focus is now shifted toward the development of small-molecule-based compounds that can modulate more than one protein target, known as "multi-target-directed ligands" (MTDLs), while having low affinity for proteins that are irrelevant for the therapy. The in silico approaches have demonstrated a potential to be a suitable tool for the identification of MTDLs as promising drug candidates with reduction in cost and time for research and development. In this study more than 650,000 compounds were screened by a series of in silico approaches to identify drug-like compounds with predicted activity simultaneously towards three important proteins in the NDDs symptomatic treatment: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). The compounds with affinities below 5.0 µM for all studied targets were additionally filtered to remove known non-specifically binding or unstable compounds. The selected four hits underwent subsequent refinement through in silico blood-brain barrier penetration estimation, safety evaluation, and molecular dynamics simulations resulting in two hit compounds that constitute a rational basis for further development of multi-target active compounds against NDDs.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Ligantes , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Arch Pharm Res ; 45(11): 761-794, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318445

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the important liver diseases currently attracting attention in liver research and drug development. Appropriate mouse models should be used to identify the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and progression of NASH in humans and to evaluate the efficacy of anti-NASH agents under development to treat this disease. In this review, we first summarised recent histopathology and pathogenesis of NASH in humans, including the concept of resolution of inflammation. We also examined whether these characteristics of NASH in humans are adequately reflected in mouse models. Through this review, we identified the usefulness and limitations of mouse models widely used in research on NASH. Mouse models can be divided into three main types: diet models, chemical models using toxic compounds, and genetic models using genetically transgenic mice. Genotype models are likely suitable for evaluating anti-NASH compounds because fibrosis, which is considered an important index to determine the drug efficacy of NASH inhibitors, is rapidly induced in genetic models. Using these models, we introduced some selected cases of NASH inhibitor development. This review aims to enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of NASH and provide a basis for successfully selecting and utilising appropriate animal models of NASH in the development of effective inhibitors.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Fígado , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2239884, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326764

RESUMO

Importance: Despite federal initiatives encouraging the enrollment of individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups in US clinical trials, no studies to date have specifically examined demographic disparities among participants in phase 1 drug development trials for patients with metastatic cancer. Objective: To assess trends in the enrollment of patients from racial and ethnic minority groups in US phase 1 therapeutic drug trials for metastatic cancer from 2000 to 2018. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, ClinicalTrials.gov was queried in July 2021 to identify completed phase 1 drug trials for metastatic cancer in the US from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2018, with published results, yielding 221 phase 1 trials with 8309 participants aged 18 years or older with metastatic solid tumors. Proportions of each racial and ethnic group of trial participants were compared with that from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries' Cancer in North America (CiNA) database. Statistical analysis was performed from July 12, 2021, to March 15, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: For each racial and ethnic group, the difference between trial and CiNA proportions was examined using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions with continuity correction. Results: The 8309 phase 1 trial participants (4198 men [50.5%]; median age, 59 years) included 23 American Indian or Alaska Native participants (0.3%), 371 Asian or Pacific Islander participants (4.5%), 514 Black participants (6.2%), 401 of 5076 Hispanic or Latinx participants (7.9%), and 7154 White participants (86.1%). Industry funded 165 of the 221 trials (74.7%). White patients were overrepresented overall compared with the corresponding CiNA cohort (7154 of 8309 [86.1%] vs 4 113 096 of 4 891 486 [84.1%]; difference, 2.0 percentage points; P < .001). There was an increase in overrepresentation of White patients from 2000 to 2011 (trials, 2780 of 3245 [85.7%]; CiNA, 2 378 019 of 2 800 711 [84.9%]; difference, 0.8 percentage points; P = .23) to 2012-2018 (trials, 4374 of 5063 [86.4%]; CiNA, 1 735 077 of 2 090 775 [82.9%]; difference, 3.5 percentage points; P < .001) and corresponding worsening representation of American Indian or Alaska Native patients (2000-2011: trials, 10 of 3245 [0.3%]; CiNA, 10 905 of 2 800 711 [0.4%]; difference, -0.08 percentage points; 2012-2018: trials, 13 of 5063 [0.3%]; CiNA, 9484 of 2 090 775 [0.5%]; difference, -0.20 percentage points), Asian or Pacific Islander patients (2000-2011: trials, 121 of 3245 [3.7%]; CiNA, 75 033 of 2 800 711 [2.7%]; difference, 1.1 percentage points; 2012-2018: trials, 151 of 5063 [3.0%]; CiNA 70 535 of 2 090 775 [3.4%]; difference, -0.75 percentage points), Black patients (2000-2011: trials, 244 of 3245 [7.5%]; CiNA, 322 701 of 2 800 711 [11.5%]; difference, -4.0 percentage points; 2012-2018: trials, 270 of 5063 [5.3%]; CiNA, 255 625 of 2 090 775 [12.2%]; difference, -6.9 percentage points), and Hispanic or Latinx patients (2000-2011: trials, 161 of 1792 [9.0%]; CiNA, 169 297 of 2 800 711 [6.0%]; difference, 3.0 percentage points; 2012-2018: trials, 240 of 3295 [7.3%]; CiNA, 156 118 of 2 090 775 [7.5%]; difference, -0.2 percentage points). Similar disparities were observed when comparing industry-funded and academic center-sponsored trials. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of participants in phase 1 clinical trials of drugs for metastatic cancer, worsening disparities were observed over time in the accrual of patients from racial and ethnic minority groups. These findings may represent widening inequalities in access to trial sites and worsening systemic biases. More efforts are needed to diversify phase 1 cancer drug trials to improve equity in access to new treatments and to ensure that safety and efficacy findings from early drug trials are generalizable across populations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Etnicidade , Grupos Minoritários , Estudos Transversais , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
12.
Pharmaceut Med ; 36(6): 387-400, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357543

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients and healthcare practitioners are increasingly interested in using cannabis and cannabinoids to address unmet clinical needs. Although we have clinical evidence on the medical use of cannabinoids, a significant portion of the data is not based on randomized clinical trials, which are considered the gold standard in clinical research. We have reviewed the registered clinical trials on cannabis and cannabinoids for therapeutic or drug development purposes to underline the past and current attempts to generate robust clinical evidence and identify existing knowledge gaps. METHODS: We reviewed four clinical trial registries (International Clinical Trials Registry Program [ICTRP], ClinicalTrials.gov, European Clinical Trial Registry [EUCTR], Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry [ANZCTR]) to identify clinical trials on cannabinoids (phyto- or synthetic) or cannabis-based medications between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2021. All interventional clinical trials on cannabinoids and other compounds interacting with the endocannabinoid system, regardless of the investigated medical condition, assessed health outcomes, or choice of comparator, were included, provided they had a therapeutic or drug development purpose. Data on the primary sponsor, type of sponsor, date of registration, recruitment status, number of participants, study design, the phase of the study, country, medical conditions, investigated cannabinoids, and the route of administration were extracted. The therapeutic area and class of cannabinoids were identified based on the details of each trial. RESULTS: We included 834 out of 2966 reviewed clinical trials. The number of registered clinical trials has constantly increased from 30 in 2013 to 103 in 2021. More than 40% of registered clinical trials in 2021 were phase II and phase III clinical trials. The mean number of trial enrollments for completed, ongoing, and terminated studies were 128, 156, and 542, respectively. Clinical research on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and the oral routes of administration dominate the field. Approximately two-thirds of clinical trials were conducted in five therapeutic areas (i.e., 'Chronic pain,' 'Mental, behavioral or neurodevelopmental disorders,' 'Nervous system diseases,' 'Endocrine, nutritional or metabolic diseases,' and 'Neoplasms'). Pharmaceutical companies sponsored 39% of all clinical trials. However, trial sponsorships vary noticeably in different jurisdictions, likely due to, in part, different regulatory frameworks. CONCLUSION: Our review highlights the diversification of clinical trials on cannabinoid-based medications in the past 21 years. This review underlines the increased interest in conducting clinical studies on new cannabinoid administration methods such as topical applications and on the investigation of emerging phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids. Moreover, more clinical trials have been designed to explore the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids in areas such as mental, behavioral, or neurodevelopmental disorders and skin diseases. There is a need for granular analyses of clinical trials on more commonly studied therapeutic areas such as chronic pain, nervous system diseases, and mental and behavioral disorders to generate more actionable information and insight for all stakeholders.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Dor Crônica , Alucinógenos , Humanos , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Austrália , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
13.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431829

RESUMO

Cysteine is one of the least abundant amino acids in proteins of many organisms, which plays a crucial role in catalysis, signal transduction, and redox regulation of gene expression. The thiol group of cysteine possesses the ability to perform nucleophilic and redox-active functions that are not feasible for other natural amino acids. Cysteine is the most common covalent amino acid residue and has been shown to react with a variety of warheads, especially Michael receptors. These unique properties have led to widespread interest in this nucleophile, leading to the development of a variety of cysteine-targeting warheads with different chemical compositions. Herein, we summarized the various covalent warheads targeting cysteine residue and their application in drug development.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Cisteína/química , Aminoácidos/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Oxirredução
14.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429060

RESUMO

The central nervous system (CNS) has, among all organ systems in the human body, the highest failure rate of traditional small-molecule drug development, ranging from 80-100% depending on the area of disease research. This has led to widespread abandonment by the pharmaceutical industry of research and development for CNS disorders, despite increased diagnoses of neurodegenerative disorders and the continued lack of adequate treatment options for brain injuries, stroke, neurodevelopmental disorders, and neuropsychiatric illness. However, new approaches, concurrent with the development of sophisticated bioinformatic and genomic tools, are being used to explore peptide-based therapeutics to manipulate endogenous pathways and targets, including "undruggable" intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The development of peptide-based therapeutics was previously rejected due to systemic off-target effects and poor bioavailability arising from traditional oral and systemic delivery methods. However, targeted nose-to-brain, or intranasal (IN), approaches have begun to emerge that allow CNS-specific delivery of therapeutics via the trigeminal and olfactory nerve pathways, laying the foundation for improved alternatives to systemic drug delivery. Here we review a dozen promising IN peptide therapeutics in preclinical and clinical development for neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's), neuropsychiatric (depression, PTSD, schizophrenia), and neurodevelopmental disorders (autism), with insulin, NAP (davunetide), IGF-1, PACAP, NPY, oxytocin, and GLP-1 agonists prominent among them.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Peptídeos , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Administração Intranasal , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
15.
Circulation ; 146(22): 1712-1727, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441819

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of adult mortality globally. Targeting known modifiable risk factors has had substantial benefit, but there remains a need for new approaches. Improvements in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled an increasing recognition of distinct quantitative phenotypes of coronary atherosclerosis that are prognostically relevant. There are marked differences in plaque phenotype, from the high-risk, lipid-rich, thin-capped atheroma to the low-risk, quiescent, eccentric, nonobstructive calcified plaque. Such distinct phenotypes reflect different pathophysiologic pathways and are associated with different risks for acute ischemic events. Noninvasive coronary imaging techniques, such as computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and coronary magnetic resonance imaging, have major potential to accelerate cardiovascular drug development, which has been affected by the high costs and protracted timelines of cardiovascular outcome trials. This may be achieved through enrichment of high-risk phenotypes with higher event rates or as primary end points of drug efficacy, at least in phase 2 trials, in a manner historically performed through intravascular coronary imaging studies. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the current technology available and its application in clinical trials, including implications for sample size requirements, as well as potential limitations. In its effort to accelerate drug development, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved surrogate end points for 120 conditions, but not for CAD. There are robust data showing the beneficial effects of drugs, including statins, on CAD progression and plaque stabilization in a manner that correlates with established clinical end points of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events. This, together with a clear mechanistic rationale for using imaging as a surrogate CAD end point, makes it timely for CAD imaging end points to be considered. We discuss the importance of global consensus on these imaging end points and protocols and partnership with regulatory bodies to build a more informed, sustainable staged pathway for novel therapies.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Placa Aterosclerótica , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Coração , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
16.
Curr Protoc ; 2(11): e596, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342311

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a major source of pain and disability in the adult population. There is a significant unmet medical need for the development of effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of OA. In addition to spontaneously occurring animal models of OA, many experimental animal models have been developed to provide insights into mechanisms of pathogenesis and progression. Many of these animal models are also being used in the drug development pipeline. Here, we provide an overview of commonly used and emerging preclinical small animal models of OA and highlight the strengths and limitations of small animal models in the context of translational drug development. There is limited information in the published literature regarding the technical reliability of these small animal models and their ability to accurately predict clinical drug development outcomes. The cost and complexity of the available models however is an important consideration for pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology startups, and contract research organizations wishing to incorporate preclinical models in target validation, discovery, and development pipelines. Further considerations relevant to industry include timelines, methods of induction, the key issue of reproducibility, and appropriate outcome measures needed to objectively assess outcomes of experimental therapeutics. Preclinical small animal models are indispensable tools that will shine some light on the pathogenesis of OA and its molecular endotypes in the context of drug development. This paper will focus on small animal models used in preclinical OA research. © 2022 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Osteoartrite , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Modelos Animais de Doenças
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 177: 25-29, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory decisions on paediatric investigation plans (PIPs) aim at making effective and safe medicines timely available for children with high unmet medical need. At the same time, scientific knowledge progresses continuously leading frequently to the identification of new molecular targets in the therapeutic area of oncology. This, together with further efforts to optimise next generation medicines, results in novel innovative products in development pipelines. In the context of global regulatory development requirements for these growing pipelines of innovative products (e.g. US RACE for children Act), it is an increasing challenge to complete development efforts in paediatric oncology, a therapeutic area of rare and life-threatening diseases with high unmet needs. OBJECTIVE: Regulators recognise feasibility challenges of the regulatory obligations in this context. Here, we explain the EU regulatory decision making strategy applied to paediatric oncology, which aims fostering evidence generation to support developments based on needs and robust science. Because there is a plethora of products under development within given classes of or within cancer types, priorities need to be identified and updated as evidence evolves. This also includes identifying the need for third or fourth generation products to secure focused and accelerated drug development. CONCLUSION: An agreed PIP, as a plan, is a living document which can be modified in light of new evidence. For this to be successful, input from the various relevant stakeholders, i.e. patients/parents, clinicians and investigators is required. To efficiently obtain this input, the EMA is co-organising with ACCELERATE oncology stakeholder engagement platform meetings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Criança , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Oncologia/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232434

RESUMO

The prediction of the strengths of drug-target interactions, also called drug-target binding affinities (DTA), plays a fundamental role in facilitating drug discovery, where the goal is to find prospective drug candidates. With the increase in the number of drug-protein interactions, machine learning techniques, especially deep learning methods, have become applicable for drug-target interaction discovery because they significantly reduce the required experimental workload. In this paper, we present a spontaneous formulation of the DTA prediction problem as an instance of multi-instance learning. We address the problem in three stages, first organizing given drug and target sequences into instances via a private-public mechanism, then identifying the predicted scores of all instances in the same bag, and finally combining all the predicted scores as the output prediction. A comprehensive evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark datasets.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Proteínas
19.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234971

RESUMO

This review provides an overview of the properties of cyclotides and their potential for developing novel peptide-based therapeutics. The selective disruption of protein-protein interactions remains challenging, as the interacting surfaces are relatively large and flat. However, highly constrained polypeptide-based molecular frameworks with cell-permeability properties, such as the cyclotide scaffold, have shown great promise for targeting those biomolecular interactions. The use of molecular techniques, such as epitope grafting and molecular evolution employing the cyclotide scaffold, has shown to be highly effective for selecting bioactive cyclotides.


Assuntos
Ciclotídeos , Desenho de Fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Epitopos , Evolução Molecular
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36295535

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by gradual progressive neuronal loss in the central nervous system [...].


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos
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