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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 114, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418710

RESUMO

Six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Algerian sheep's milk, traditional butter, date palm sap and barley, which produce dextran, mannitol, oligosaccharides and vitamin B2 have been characterized. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides (A4X, Z36P, B12 and O9) and Liquorilactobacillus mali (BR201 and FR123). Their exopolysaccharides synthesized from sucrose by dextransucrase (Dsr) were characterized as dextrans with (1,6)-D-glucopyranose units in the main backbone and branched at positions O-4, O-2 and/or O-3, with D-glucopyranose units in the side chain. A4X was the best dextran producer (4.5 g/L), while the other strains synthesized 2.1-2.7 g/L. Zymograms revealed that L. mali strains have a single Dsr with a molecular weight (Mw) of ~ 145 kDa, while the Lc. mesenteroides possess one or two enzymes with 170-211 kDa Mw. As far as we know, this is the first detection of L. mali Dsr. Analysis of metabolic fluxes from sucrose revealed that the six LAB produced mannitol (~ 12 g/L). The co-addition of maltose-sucrose resulted in the production of panose (up to 37.53 mM), an oligosaccharide known for its prebiotic effect. A4X, Z36P and B12 showed dextranase hydrolytic enzymatic activity and were able to produce another trisaccharide, maltotriose, which is the first instance of a dextranase activity encoded by Lc. mesenteroides strains. Furthermore, B12 and O9 grew in the absence of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and synthesized this vitamin, in a defined medium at the level of ~ 220 µg/L. Therefore, these LAB, especially Lc. mesenteroides B12, are good candidates for the development of new fermented food biofortified with functional compounds.


Assuntos
Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Animais , Ovinos , Dextranos/metabolismo , Dextranase/química , Dextranase/metabolismo , Manitol/metabolismo , Mali , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/metabolismo
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 1249-1272, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348177

RESUMO

Background: The anti-Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (termed aPD-L1) immune checkpoint blockade therapy has emerged as a promising treatment approach for various advanced solid tumors. However, the effect of aPD-L1 inhibitors limited by the tumor microenvironment makes most patients exhibit immunotherapy resistance. Methods: We conjugated the Sialyl Lewis X with a polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO-PEG) to form UPS nanoparticles (USPIO-PEG-SLex, termed UPS). The physicochemical properties of UPS were tested and characterized. Transmission electron microscopy and ICP-OES were used to observe the cellular uptake and targeting ability of UPS. Flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane potential staining, live-dead staining and scratch assay were used to verify the in vitro photothermal effect of UPS, and the stimulation of UPS on immune-related pathways at the gene level was analyzed by sequencing. Biological safety analysis and pharmacokinetic analysis of UPS were performed. Finally, the amplification effect of UPS-mediated photothermal therapy on aPD-L1-mediated immunotherapy and the corresponding mechanism were studied. Results: In vitro experiments showed that UPS had strong photothermal therapy ability and was able to stimulate 5 immune-related pathways. In vivo, when the PTT assisted aPD-L1 treatment, it exhibited a significant increase in CD4+ T cell infiltration by 14.46-fold and CD8+ T cell infiltration by 14.79-fold, along with elevated secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, comparing with alone aPD-L1. This PTT assisted aPD-L1 therapy achieved a significant inhibition of both primary tumors and distant tumors compared to the alone aPD-L1, demonstrating a significant difference. Conclusion: The nanotheranostic agent UPS has been introduced into immunotherapy, which has effectively broadened its application in biomedicine. This photothermal therapeutic approach of the UPS nanotheranostic agent enhancing the efficacy of aPD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade therapy, can be instructive to address the challenges associated with immunotherapy resistance, thereby offering potential for clinical translation.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Neoplasias , Humanos , Terapia Fototérmica , Antígeno Sialil Lewis X , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral , Antígeno B7-H1 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338941

RESUMO

A polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) is known for its excellent bioactivities. However, its impact on small intestinal barrier function is still largely unexplored. The study aimed to examine the protection effect of JFP-Ps against dextran sodium sulfate-induced enteritis and its underlying mechanism. This research revealed that JFP-Ps mitigated small intestinal tissue damage by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in the small intestine. JFP-Ps diminished oxidative stress by bolstering the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the concentration of malondialdehyde in the small intestine. In addition, JFP-Ps may restore the mechanical barrier and inhibit intestinal structure damage by augmenting the expression of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) receptors (GPR41/43) and up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin). In conclusion, JFP-Ps may positively influence intestinal health by relieving oxidative stress in the small intestine, improving mechanical barrier function, activating the SCFA-GPR41/GPR43 axis, and inhibiting TLR4/MAPK pathway activation. The results augment our comprehension of the bioactivities of JFP-Ps, corroborating its great potential as a functional food.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Enterite , Sulfatos , Ratos , Animais , Artocarpus/química , Dextranos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/química , Citocinas , Enterite/induzido quimicamente , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade
4.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(2): 1260-1270, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315019

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common retinal disorder, developed in 35% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Lower serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with the increased risk of developing DR. High doses of the active form of vitamin D (VD), on the contrary, for a long period of time may lead to hypercalcemia and an imbalance in the regulation of bone metabolism. Herein, we studied the efficacy of dextran-gated carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA)-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for glucose-sensitive delivery of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to modulate cellular oxidative stress and inflammation for managing DR. The physical adsorption technique was employed to load VD onto nanoparticles (263.63 µg/mg (w/w)). In the presence of glucose, the dextran molecules detach from pores, allowing VD to release since glucose has 1,2-cis diol groups which have very high affinity to CPBA. Approximately 75% of VD was released upon exposure to 25 mM glucose at a time point of 10 h, demonstrating glucose-responsive delivery. Furthermore, MSN-CPBA was able to deliver VD in a glucose-dependent manner and improve the bioavailability of VD. In high-glucose-supplemented human retinal cells, MSN-CPBA increased the bioavailability of VD and reduced cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. The results suggested that the VD-loaded nanocarrier exerted remarkable therapeutic capacity in reducing the risk of developing DR. By using MSN-CPBA as a delivery platform with dextran gating, the research proposes an effective treatment approach for improving the bioavailability and effectiveness of a hydrophobic molecule in the treatment of DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Dextranos , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Dióxido de Silício/química , Glucose , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Inflamação
5.
Food Chem ; 443: 138537, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309027

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) can accumulate in different organs or tissues and seriously harm humans. Traditional magnetic relaxation switching (MRS) sensors have relatively low sensitivity, but are complex to use. Rapid small-trace molecule analysis in complex samples is challenging. In this study, we used a gadolinium-based metal-organic framework (Gd-MOF) and ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) assembly to develop a magnetic resonance tuning-magnetic relaxation switching (MRET-MRS) sensor to improve conventional MRS sensor sensitivity and simplify operational steps in complex samples. Importantly, the local magnetic field generated by USPIO interfered with Gd-MOF electron spin fluctuation and directly affected dipole-dipole interactions between Gd electrons and water molecules, thus rendering relaxation signal changes more sensitive. The sensitivity (0.54 pg mL-1) was 833 times more sensitive than that of a conventional MRS sensor (0.45 ng mL-1). Finally, a convenient one-step detection approach can be achieved by mixing antigen/antibody functionalized Gd-MOF/USPIO and target samples.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Humanos , Gadolínio , Aflatoxina B1 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
6.
Mar Drugs ; 22(2)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393040

RESUMO

In this study, an actinomycete was isolated from sea mud. The strain K1 was identified as Saccharomonospora sp. by 16S rDNA. The optimal enzyme production temperature, initial pH, time, and concentration of the inducer of this actinomycete strain K1 were 37 °C, pH 8.5, 72 h, and 2% dextran T20 of medium, respectively. Dextranase from strain K1 exhibited maximum activity at 8.5 pH and 50 °C. The molecular weight of the enzyme was <10 kDa. The metal ions Sr2+ and K+ enhanced its activity, whereas Fe3+ and Co2+ had an opposite effect. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography showed that dextran was mainly hydrolyzed to isomaltoheptose and isomaltopentaose. Also, it could effectively remove biofilms of Streptococcus mutans. Furthermore, it could be used to prepare porous sweet potato starch. This is the first time a dextranase-producing actinomycete strain was screened from marine samples.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Dextranos , Dextranos/química , Dextranase/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Biofilmes
7.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(2): e3958, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396357

RESUMO

Iron accumulation in the brain causes oxidative stress, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neurodegeneration. We examined the preventive effects of acetylated oligopeptides (AOP) from whey protein on iron-induced hippocampal damage compared to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). This 5-week study used 40 male albino rats. At the start, all rats received 150 mg/kg/day of oral NAC for a week. The 40 animals were then randomly divided into four groups: Group I (control) received a normal diet; Group II (iron overload) received 60 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal iron dextran 5 days a week for 4 weeks; Group III (NAC group) received 150 mg/kg/day NAC and iron dextran; and Group IV (AOP group) received 150 mg/kg/day AOP and iron dextran. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometry, and qRT-PCR were used to measure MMP-9, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression. Histopathological and immunohistochemical detection of nestin, claudin, caspase, and GFAP was also done. MMP-9, TIMP-1, MDA, caspase, and GFAP rose in the iron overload group, while GSH, Nrf2, HO-1, nestin, and claudin decreased. The NAC and AOP administrations improved iron overload-induced biochemical and histological alterations. We found that AOP and NAC can protect the brain hippocampus from iron overload, improve BBB disruption, and provide neuroprotection with mostly no significant difference from healthy controls.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Regulação para Baixo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/farmacologia , Nestina/genética , Nestina/metabolismo , Nestina/farmacologia , Dextranos/metabolismo , Dextranos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Claudinas/genética , Giro Denteado/metabolismo
8.
Biomolecules ; 14(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254677

RESUMO

GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, stimulates GABAA receptors (GABAARs) to increase the chloride conductance of the cytosolic membrane. The driving forces for membrane chloride currents are determined by the local differences between intracellular and extracellular chloride concentrations (Cli and Clo, respectively). While several strategies exist for the measurement of Cli, the field lacks tools for non-invasive measurement of Clo. We present the design and development of a fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM)-compatible small molecule, N(4-aminobutyl)phenanthridiunium (ABP) with the brightness, spectral features, sensitivity to chloride, and selectivity versus other anions to serve as a useful probe of Clo. ABP can be conjugated to dextran to ensure extracellular compartmentalization, and a second chloride-insensitive counter-label can be added for ratiometric imaging. We validate the utility of this novel sensor series in two sensor concentration-independent modes: FLIM or ratiometric intensity-based imaging.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Dextranos , Corantes , Citosol , Halogênios
9.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 73(1): 214-222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185644

RESUMO

The formulation of microparticles composed of a mixture of carriers represents an innovative approach for lung drug delivery of dry powder. The carriers used can significantly influence the properties of the microparticles, such as size, shape, surface area, hygroscopicity, or aggregation, thus improving the aerosolization of the drugs after inhalation. The properties mentioned above are crucial for effective  pulmonary  therapy. The  combination of carriers of a carbohydrate nature and gelling agents is advantageous for controlled drug release. The experimental work aimed to prepare by spray drying and subsequently evaluate ten batches of microparticles composed of sugar-based carriers (mannitol, maltodextrin, dextran) and gelling polymers (chitosan, chondroitin sulfate) and to select a suitable combination for follow-up experimental work aimed at drug incorporation into the microparticle matrix. The most suitable parameters were exhibited by batches whose aerodynamic diameter was close to 5 µm, particles prepared from a combination of mannitol and dextran, chitosan and chondroitin, or maltodextrin and chondroitin. These batches also showed the highest fine particle fraction value (> 43%). From a processability point of view, the batch with maltodextrin and chondroitin is preferable due to the lower viscosity of the dispersion and the more regular shape of the final microparticles.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Dextranos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Condroitina , Manitol
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 126, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sichuan pepper [Zanthoxylum bungeanum; huajiao (HJ)] is a widely used spice in China and has better antioxidative, anti-glycation, and bile acid-lowering properties than cumin and coriander seeds. HJ affects inflammation-related cytokines and caecal microbiota in mice fed a low-fibre and high-sucrose diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the ameliorative effect of HJ on inflammatory bowel disease, C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups and fed distilled water (control) or 3% (w/v) dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water with normal chow containing 0% or 5% (w/w) HJ powder for seven days. After 6 days of feeding, diarrhoea, decreased body weight, and blood in faeces were observed in the DSS group. DSS treatment increased the spleen weight and damaged the colon tissue. These inflammatory indices were inhibited by HJ treatment. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rDNA (V4) gene of the caecal content revealed a decrease in the alpha diversity (Simpson index D) in the DSS treatment group compared to the control group. The abundance of caecal Desulfovibrio, an inflammation-related genus, was higher and the caecal Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides levels were lower in the DSS-treated mice than those in the control mice. However, HJ suppressed the DSS-induced changes in the caecal microbiota. CONCLUSION: HJ intake contributes to the reduction in inflammation and maintenance of the gut microbiota. However, the strong antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds and fermentability of water-soluble dietary fibres in HJ and their relationship with other functional properties warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Microbiota , Sulfatos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dextranos , Pós , Inflamação , Antioxidantes , Água
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2773: 51-58, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236535

RESUMO

Recent progress in developing new vaccination strategies against cancer requires the production of complex and reliable animal models reflecting the complexity of the tumors with their microenvironment. Mice can be considered a good source due to low cost and ease of being genetically modified, inoculated with tumor cell lines or treated by chemicals to induce different cancers. Despite significant limitations in modeling human cancer complexity, preclinical trials conducted in mice can efficiently contribute to understand molecular mechanisms of cancer, to closely resemble and follow carcinogenesis steps impossible to study into humans, and to test new anticancer therapies. In this chapter, we generally describe the different mouse models developed for cancer vaccines' preclinical trials. A particular focus is dedicated to a chemically-induced colorectal cancer model in use in our laboratories.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dextranos , Sulfatos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Azoximetano/toxicidade , Carcinogênese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(2): 1274-1286, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38164921

RESUMO

Water-soluble polymers (WSPs) are used in diverse applications, including agricultural formulations, that can result in the release of WSPs to soils. WSP biodegradability in soils is desirable to prevent long-term accumulation and potential associated adverse effects. In this work, we assessed adsorption of five candidate biodegradable WSPs with varying chemistry, charge, and polarity characteristics (i.e., dextran, diethylaminoethyl dextran, carboxymethyl dextran, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and poly-l-lysine) and of one nonbiodegradable WSP (poly(acrylic acid)) to sand and iron oxide-coated sand particles that represent important soil minerals. Combined adsorption studies using solution-depletion measurements, direct surface adsorption techniques, and column transport experiments over varying solution pH and ionic strengths revealed electrostatics dominating interactions of charged WSPs with the sorbents as well as WSP conformations and packing densities in the adsorbed states. Hydrogen bonding controls adsorption of noncharged WSPs. Under transport in columns, WSP adsorption exhibited fast and slow kinetic adsorption regimes with time scales of minutes to hours. Slow adsorption kinetics in soil may lead to enhanced transport but also shorter lifetimes of biodegradable WSPs, assuming more rapid biodegradation when dissolved than adsorbed. This work establishes a basis for understanding the coupled adsorption and biodegradation dynamics of biodegradable WSPs in agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Solo , Solo/química , Estrutura Molecular , Adsorção , Areia , Água , Minerais
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 328: 121700, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220337

RESUMO

Soybean tempeh contains bioactive carbohydrate that can reduce the severity of diarrhea by inhibiting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion to mammalian epithelial cells. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to be present abundantly in soybean tempeh. Some LAB species can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) with anti-adhesion bioactivity against ETEC but there has been no report of anti-adhesion bioactive EPS from tempeh-associated LAB. We isolated EPS-producing LAB from tempeh-related sources, identified them, unambiguously elucidated their EPS structure and assessed the bioactivity of their EPS against ETEC. Pediococcus pentosaceus TL, Leuconostoc mesenteroides WA and L. mesenteroides WN produced both dextran (α-1,6 linked glucan; >1000 kDa) and levan (ß-2,6 linked fructan; 650-760 kDa) in varying amounts and Leuconostoc citreum TR produced gel-forming α-1,6-mixed linkage dextran (829 kDa). All four isolates produced EPS that could adhere to ETEC cells and inhibit auto-aggregation of ETEC. EPS-PpTL, EPS-LmWA and EPS-LmWN were more bioactive towards pig-associated ETEC K88 while EPS-LcTR was more bioactive against human-associated ETEC H10407. Our finding is the first to report on the bioactivity of dextran against ETEC. Tempeh is a promising source of LAB isolates that can produce bioactive EPS against ETEC adhesion and aggregation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Lactobacillales , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , Suínos , Humanos , Dextranos/farmacologia , Frutanos/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Mamíferos
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 128: 111499, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: S100a10 is a member of the S100 family of proteins, which plays a key role in the depression and tumor metastasis. However, the role of S100a10 is unclear in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: The effect of S100a10 was assessed using a murine ulcerative colitis model which was accompanied by parameters including body weight loss, disease activity index, histological score, colon weight and length. The quantity and role of immune cells was determined by flow cytometry and bone marrow chimeric mice. Neutrophils depletion, adoptive cell transfer and conditional knockout mice were used to ascertain which cells played the key role in ulcerative colitis. The function of neutrophils was evaluated by migration assay, phagocytosis assay, multiplex immunoassay and real-time PCR. RESULTS: In this study, our data showed that S100a10-/- mice were prone to ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate. Neutrophils number increased in colon of S100a10-/- mice after dextran sodium sulfate treatment significantly. Meanwhile, adoptive transfer of neutrophils from wild type mice partially decreased the susceptibility of S100a10-/- mice to dextran sodium sulfate. There was no difference in ulcerative colitis between the groups of S100a10-/- mice without neutrophils and wild type mice. Finally, we found that S100a10-/- neutrophils had stronger function in secretion and synthesis of inflammatory factor. CONCLUSIONS: In one word, these results suggest that S100a10 has a role in inhibiting the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis through regulation of neutrophils function.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Sulfatos , Animais , Camundongos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Dextranos/efeitos adversos , Dextranos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/metabolismo
15.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 21(1): 1, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178155

RESUMO

It has been proposed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can enter and leave the retina and optic nerve along perivascular spaces surrounding the central retinal vessels as part of an aquaporin-4 (AQP4) dependent ocular 'glymphatic' system. Here, we injected fluorescent dextrans and antibodies into the CSF of mice at the cisterna magna and measured their distribution in the optic nerve and retina. We found that uptake of dextrans in the perivascular spaces and parenchyma of the optic nerve is highly sensitive to the cisternal injection rate, where high injection rates, in which dextran disperses fully in the sub-arachnoid space, led to uptake along the full length of the optic nerve. Accumulation of dextrans in the optic nerve did not differ significantly in wild-type and AQP4 knockout mice. Dextrans did not enter the retina, even when intracranial pressure was greatly increased over intraocular pressure. However, elevation of intraocular pressure reduced accumulation of fluorescent dextrans in the optic nerve head, and intravitreally injected dextrans left the retina via perivascular spaces surrounding the central retinal vessels. Human IgG distributed throughout the perivascular and parenchymal areas of the optic nerve to a similar extent as dextran following cisternal injection. However, uptake of a cisternally injected AQP4-IgG antibody, derived from a seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder subject, was limited by AQP4 binding. We conclude that large molecules injected in the CSF can accumulate along the length of the optic nerve if they are fully dispersed in the optic nerve sub-arachnoid space but that they do not enter the retina.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Neuromielite Óptica , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Dextranos/metabolismo , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Neuromielite Óptica/metabolismo , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 327: 121666, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171658

RESUMO

Self-healing coatings have shown promise in controlling the degradation of scaffolds and addressing coating detachment issues. However, developing a self-healing coating for magnesium (Mg) possessing multiple biological functions in infectious environments remains a significant challenge. In this study, a self-healing coating was developed for magnesium scaffolds using oxidized dextran (OD), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) doped micro-arc oxidation (MHA), named OD-MHA/Mg. The results demonstrated that the OD-MHA coating effectively addresses coating detachment issues and controls the degradation of Mg in an infectious environment through self-healing mechanisms. Furthermore, the OD-MHA/Mg scaffold exhibits antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties, it also promotes bone repair by upregulating the expression of osteogenesis genes and proteins. The findings of this study indicate that the OD-MHA coated Mg scaffold possessing multiple biological functions presents a promising approach for addressing infectious bone defects. Additionally, the study showcases the potential of polysaccharides with multiple biological functions in facilitating tissue healing even in challenging environments.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Magnésio , Magnésio/farmacologia , Dextranos/farmacologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea , Osteogênese , Durapatita/farmacologia , Apoptose , Tecidos Suporte
17.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 72(5): 214-222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195429

RESUMO

The formulation of microparticles composed of a mixture of carriers represents an innovative approach for lung drug delivery of dry powder. The carriers used can significantly influence the properties of the microparticles, such as size, shape, surface area, hygroscopicity, or aggregation, thus improving the aerosolization of the drugs after inhalation. The properties mentioned above are crucial for effective  pulmonary  therapy. The  combination of carriers of a carbohydrate nature and gelling agents is advantageous for controlled drug release. The experimental work aimed to prepare by spray drying and subsequently evaluate ten batches of microparticles composed of sugar-based carriers (mannitol, maltodextrin, dextran) and gelling polymers (chitosan, chondroitin sulfate) and to select a suitable combination for follow-up experimental work aimed at drug incorporation into the microparticle matrix. The most suitable parameters were exhibited by batches whose aerodynamic diameter was close to 5 µm, particles prepared from a combination of mannitol and dextran, chitosan and chondroitin, or maltodextrin and chondroitin. These batches also showed the highest fine particle fraction value (> 43%). From a processability point of view, the batch with maltodextrin and chondroitin is preferable due to the lower viscosity of the dispersion and the more regular shape of the final microparticles.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Dextranos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Condroitina , Manitol
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(3): e032533, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory cytokines in the periphery have been identified as active contributors to neuroinflammation and sympathetic overactivity in heart failure (HF). Yet, the exact mechanisms by which these cytokines breach the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to exert their effects on the brain remain elusive. Interleukin 17A has been linked to BBB disruption in various neurologic disorders, and its levels were significantly augmented in circulation and the brain in HF. The present study aimed to determine whether the BBB integrity was compromised within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and if so, whether interleukin 17A contributes to BBB disruption in myocardial infarction-induced HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent coronary artery ligation to induce HF or sham surgery. Some HF rats received bilateral PVN microinjections of an interleukin 17 receptor A small interfering RNA or a scrambled small interfering RNA adeno-associated virus. Four weeks after coronary artery ligation, the permeability of the BBB was evaluated by intracarotid injection of fluorescent dyes (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 10 kDa+rhodamine-dextran 70 kDa). Compared with sham-operated rats, HF rats exhibited an elevated extravasation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 10 kDa within the PVN but not in the brain cortex. The plasma interleukin 17A levels were positively correlated with fluorescein isothiocyanate 10 kDa extravasation in the PVN. The expression of caveolin-1, a transcytosis marker, was augmented, whereas the expression of tight junction proteins was diminished in HF rats. Interleukin 17 receptor A was identified within the endothelium of PVN microvessels. Treatment with interleukin 17 receptor A small interfering RNA led to a significant attenuation of fluorescein isothiocyanate 10 kDa extravasation in the PVN and reversed expression of caveolin-1 and tight junction-associated proteins in the PVN. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate that BBB permeability within the PVN is enhanced in HF and is likely attributable to increased interleukin 17A/interleukin 17 receptor A signaling in the BBB endothelium, by promoting caveolar transcytosis and degradation of tight junction complexes.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Interleucina-17 , Infarto do Miocárdio , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dextranos/metabolismo , Dextranos/farmacologia , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/análogos & derivados , Fluoresceínas/metabolismo , Fluoresceínas/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Interleucina-17/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
19.
J Biotechnol ; 381: 57-66, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185430

RESUMO

Dextranases are hydrolases that exclusively catalyze the disruption of α-1,6 glycosidic bonds. A series of variant enzymes were obtained by comparing the sequences of dextranases from different sources and introducing sequence substitutions. A correlation was found between the number of amino acids in the 397-401 region and the hydrolytic process. When there were no more than 5 amino acids in the 397-401 region, the enzyme first hydrolyzed the dextran T70 to a low molecular weight dextran with a molecular weight of about 5000, then IMOs1 appeared in the system if the degradation continued, showing a clear sequential relationship. And when there are more than 5 amino acids in the 397-401 region, IMOs were produced at the beginning of hydrolysis and continue to increase throughout the hydrolytic process. At the same time, we investigated the enzymatic properties of the variants and found that the hydrolytic rate of A-Ca was 11 times higher than that of the original enzyme. The proportion of IMOs produced by A-Ca was 80.68%, which was nearly10% higher than the original enzyme, providing a new enzyme for the industrial preparation of IMOs.


Assuntos
Dextranase , Dextranos , Hidrólise , Dextranase/genética , Dextranase/química , Dextranos/química , Peso Molecular , Aminoácidos
20.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 44(1): 70-77, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38213241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the potential feature and mechanism of the caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester (CADPE) molecule, which can prevent colorectal cancer (CRC) in the 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH)/dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced mouse model. METHODS: Institute of cancer research (ICR) male mice were injected with 20 mg/kg DMH for a week. After that, 2% DSS was administered in the drinking water for another 7 d. The CADPE treatment was given to the DMH/DSS induced male mice at three different periods until their sacrifice. Histopathological examination was used for observing the CRC development at colonic mucosa. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), blood cells smearing and crypt damage scoring methods were used for investigating the anti-inflammation feature of CADPE related to CRC. The reversing targets searching method was applied with artificial intelligence (AI), computer-aided drug designing (CADD) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) techniques for predicting the potential targets and mechanism of CADPE highly related to CRC. RESULTS: The data indicated that CADPE inhibited CRC tumor development in the colitis-associated DMH/DSS induced mouse model after giving the early treatment. CADPE also impeded the acute inflammation by decreasing the infiltration of neutrophils significantly during the initial stage of CRC development. Finally, our data showed that CADPE prevented CRC by blocking active sites of three pivotal protein targets including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in two major cancer development pathways. CONCLUSIONS: CADPE effectively prevented CRC at early stage of tumor germination in the DMH/DSS mouse model highly likely due to its anti-acute inflammation characteristic and the ability of blocking EGFR, ERK and mTOR activities in two highly related CRC developing pathways.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cafeicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Dextranos , Sulfatos , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , 1,2-Dimetilidrazina/farmacologia , Dextranos/farmacologia , Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação , Receptores ErbB/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Mamíferos
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