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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1294638, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590820

RESUMO

As the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly and its consequences are severe, effective intervention and prevention, including sleep-related interventions, are urgently needed. As a component of sleep architecture, naps, alone or in combination with nocturnal sleep, may influence the onset and progression of T2DM. Overall, napping is associated with an increased risk of T2DM in women, especially in postmenopausal White women. Our study showed that napping >30 minutes (min) increased the risk of T2DM by 8-21%. In addition, non-optimal nighttime sleep increases T2DM risk, and this effect combines with the effect of napping. For nondiabetic patients, napping >30 min could increase the risks of high HbA1c levels and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), which would increase the risk of developing T2DM later on. For diabetic patients, prolonged napping may further impair glycemic control and increase the risk of developing diabetic complications (e.g., diabetic nephropathy) in the distant future. The following three mechanisms are suggested as interpretations for the association between napping and T2DM. First, napping >30 min increases the levels of important inflammatory factors, including interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein, elevating the risks of inflammation, associated adiposity and T2DM. Second, the interaction between postmenopausal hormonal changes and napping further increases insulin resistance. Third, prolonged napping may also affect melatonin secretion by interfering with nighttime sleep, leading to circadian rhythm disruption and further increasing the risk of T2DM. This review summarizes the existing evidence on the effect of napping on T2DM and provides detailed information for future T2DM intervention and prevention strategies that address napping.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Sono , Ritmo Circadiano , Inflamação
2.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 40(4): e3803, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581399

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to examine the longitudinal associations of birth weight with plasma metabolites in adulthood, and further quantify the proportions of the links between birth weight and incident adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) that were mediated by plasma metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 62,033 participants with complete nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and birth weight data from the UK Biobank were included in this study. Linear regression was used to assess the associations between birth weight and metabolites. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for T2D associated with metabolites. We further performed mediation analyses to estimate the extent to which metabolites might mediate the association between birth weight and T2D risk. RESULTS: Low birth weight was associated with the adverse metabolic responses across multiple metabolic pathways, including lipoprotein subclasses, amino acids, fatty acids (FA), and inflammation. Metabolites associated with higher birth weight tended to be associated with a lower risk of T2D (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.85). A total of 62 metabolites showed statistically significant mediation effects in the protective association of higher birth weight and T2D risk, including large-sized very low-density lipoprotein particles and triglyceride concentrations as well as saturated, and monounsaturated FA and glycoprotein acetyls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a range of metabolites that reflect the adult metabolic response to birth weight, some of which might lie on the pathway between birth weight and adult T2D risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Biomarcadores , Metaboloma , Metabolômica
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612885

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a condition preceded by prediabetes, is documented to compromise skeletal muscle health, consequently affecting skeletal muscle structure, strength, and glucose homeostasis. A disturbance in skeletal muscle functional capacity has been demonstrated to induce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. However, the modifications in skeletal muscle function in the prediabetic state are not well elucidated. Hence, this study investigated the effects of diet-induced prediabetes on skeletal muscle strength in a prediabetic model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the two groups (n = 6 per group; six prediabetic (PD) and six non-pre-diabetic (NPD)). The PD group (n = 6) was induced with prediabetes for 20 weeks. The diet that was used to induce prediabetes consisted of fats (30% Kcal/g), proteins (15% Kcal/g), and carbohydrates (55% Kcal/g). In addition to the diet, the experimental animals (n = 6) were supplied with drinking water that was supplemented with 15% fructose. The control group (n = 6) was allowed access to normal rat chow, consisting of 35% carbohydrates, 30% protein, 15% fats, and 20% other components, as well as ordinary tap water. At the end of week 20, the experimental animals were diagnosed with prediabetes using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) prediabetes impaired fasting blood glucose criteria (5.6-6.9 mmol/L). Upon prediabetes diagnosis, the animals were subjected to a four-limb grip strength test to assess skeletal muscle strength at week 20. After the grip strength test was conducted, the animals were euthanized for blood and tissue collection to analyze glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma insulin, and insulin resistance using the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Correlation analysis was performed to examine the associations of skeletal muscle strength with HOMA-IR, plasma glucose, HbA1c, and MDA concentration. The results demonstrated increased HbA1c, FBG, insulin, HOMA-IR, and MDA concentrations in the PD group compared to the NPD group. Grip strength was reduced in the PD group compared to the NPD group. Grip strength was negatively correlated with HbA1c, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, and MDA concentration in the PD group. These observations suggest that diet-induced prediabetes compromises muscle function, which may contribute to increased levels of sedentary behavior during prediabetes progression, and this may contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético , Insulina , Insulina Regular Humana
4.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612986

RESUMO

High-fat diets (HFDs) have pervaded modern dietary habits, characterized by their excessive saturated fat content and low nutritional value. Epidemiological studies have compellingly linked HFD consumption to obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the synergistic interplay of HFD, obesity, and diabetes expedites the aging process and prematurely fosters age-related diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms driving these associations remain enigmatic. One of the most conspicuous hallmarks of aging is the accumulation of highly inflammatory senescent cells, with mounting evidence implicating increased cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Our hypothesis posits that HFD consumption amplifies senescence burden across multiple organs. To scrutinize this hypothesis, we subjected mice to a 6-month HFD regimen, assessing senescence biomarker expression in the liver, white adipose tissue, and the brain. Aging is intrinsically linked to impaired cellular stress resilience, driven by dysfunction in Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective pathways that safeguard cells against oxidative stress-induced senescence. To ascertain whether Nrf2-mediated pathways shield against senescence induction in response to HFD consumption, we explored senescence burden in a novel model of aging: Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2+/-) mice, emulating the aging phenotype. Our initial findings unveiled significant Nrf2 dysfunction in Nrf2+/- mice, mirroring aging-related alterations. HFD led to substantial obesity, hyperglycemia, and impaired insulin sensitivity in both Nrf2+/- and Nrf2+/+ mice. In control mice, HFD primarily heightened senescence burden in white adipose tissue, evidenced by increased Cdkn2a senescence biomarker expression. In Nrf2+/- mice, HFD elicited a significant surge in senescence burden across the liver, white adipose tissue, and the brain. We postulate that HFD-induced augmentation of senescence burden may be a pivotal contributor to accelerated organismal aging and the premature onset of age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resiliência Psicológica , Animais , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Senescência Celular , Envelhecimento , Obesidade/etiologia , Biomarcadores
5.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613048

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance in various tissues. Though conventionally associated with obesity, current research indicates that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is the leading determining factor, wielding more influence regardless of individual body mass. The heightened metabolic activity of VAT encourages the circulation of free fatty acid (FFA) molecules, which induce insulin resistance in surrounding tissues. Individuals most vulnerable to this preferential fat deposition are older males with ancestral ties to Asian countries because genetics and sex hormones are pivotal factors for VAT accumulation. However, interventions in one's diet and lifestyle have the potential to strategically discourage the growth of VAT. This illuminates the possibility that the expansion of VAT and, subsequently, the risk of T2D development are preventable. Therefore, by reducing the amount of VAT accumulated in an individual and preventing it from building up, one can effectively control and prevent the development of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Obesidade , Ásia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Agitação Psicomotora
6.
Nutr Diabetes ; 14(1): 15, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the possible effect of usual dairy consumption on pre-diabetes (Pre-DM) remission or progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Pre-DM adults (n = 334, mean age of 49.4 years, and 51.5% men) were assessed for dairy intakes (2006-2008) and followed up to 9 years for incidence of T2D or normal glycemia (NG). All biochemical measurements were done at baseline and all subsequent examinations with 3-y follow-up intervals. Multinomial regression models with adjustment of confounding variables were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident T2D and NG for each serving/d dairy consumption. RESULTS: The odds of NG was significantly elevated by 69% (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.00-2.86, P = 0.05) per 200 g/d increased high-fat dairy intake, while the amount of total dairy or low-fat dairy was not related to the outcomes. Higher intakes of yogurt were more likely to be associated with an increased odds of NG (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.20-2.74, P = 0.01). Usual intakes of milk, cheese, or cream-butter were not associated to Pre-DM remission or progression to T2D. CONCLUSION: Regular dairy consumption may increase the chance of Pre-DM regression to NG.


Assuntos
Queijo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Leite , Dieta , Fatores de Risco
7.
Clin Transplant ; 38(4): e15257, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials demonstrate benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in patients with chronic kidney disease, but data on use in kidney transplant (KTx) recipients are limited. METHODS: We examined a novel database linking SRTR registry data for KTx recipients (2000-2021) with outpatient fill records from a large pharmaceutical claims warehouse (2015-2021). Adult (≥18 years) KTx recipients treated with SGLT2i were compared to those who received other noninsulin diabetes medications without SGLT2i. Characteristics associated with SGLT2i use were quantified by multivariable logistic regression (adjusted odds ratio, 95%LCLaOR95%UCL). RESULTS: Among 18 988 KTx recipients treated with noninsulin diabetes agents in the study period, 2224 filled an SGLT2i. Mean time from KTx to prescription was 6.7 years for SGLT2i versus 4.7 years for non-SGLT2i medications. SGLT2i use was more common in Asian adults (aOR, 1.091.311.58) and those aged > 30-59 years (compared with 18-30 years) or with BMI > 35 kg/m2 (aOR, 1.191.411.67), and trended higher with self-pay status. SGLT2i use was lower among KTx recipients who were women (aOR, .79.87.96), Black (aOR, .77.881.00) and other (aOR, .52.751.07) race, publicly insured (aOR, .82.921.03), or with less than college education (aOR, .78.87.96), and trended lower in those age 75 years and older. SGLT2i use in KTx patients increased dramatically in 2019-2021 (aOR, 5.015.636.33 vs. prior years). CONCLUSION: SGLT2i use is increasing in KTx recipients but varies with factors including race, education, and insurance. While ongoing study is needed to define risks and benefits of SGLT2i use in KTx patients, attention should also focus on reducing treatment disparities related to sociodemographic traits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transplante de Rim , Farmácia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Glucose , Sódio/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(11): e37508, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489697

RESUMO

To analyze the effects of high ligation plus endovenous laser therapy on intraoperative blood loss, postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and complications in patients with varicosis of great saphenous vein and type 2 diabetes. About 61 patients with varicosis of great saphenous vein and type 2 diabetes treated at our hospital were included. About 32 patients (37 affected limbs) receiving conventional surgery were included in control group, while 29 patients (34 affected limbs) receiving high ligation plus endovenous laser therapy were included in study group. The intraoperative blood loss, operation time, length of postoperative hospital stay, postoperative VAS scores, blood glucose levels, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and incidence of complications were compared between the two groups. Compared with the control group, there were less intraoperative blood loss (P < .05), shorter operation time (P < .05), and shorter length of postoperative hospital stay in the study group (P < .05). Besides, there was also lower VAS scores at different time points after surgery in the study group than in the control group (P < .05). Blood glucose levels were decreased in both groups after surgery (P < .05). Moreover, VCSS was decreased in either group at 3 months after surgery (P < .05). Blood glucose levels of patients in the study group were lower than those of the control group after surgery (P < .05). The VCSS was also lower in the study group at 3 months after surgery than in the control group (P < .05). High ligation with endovenous laser therapy for varicosis of great saphenous vein in patients with type 2 diabetes was safe and feasible.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Terapia a Laser , Varizes , Humanos , Varizes/terapia , Veia Safena/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Glicemia , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ligadura/efeitos adversos
9.
Adv Nutr ; 15(1): 100138, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436220

RESUMO

Potatoes have long been a staple food in many cultures and cuisines, but they have gained a reputation as a low-quality carbohydrate source that should be avoided in the diet. Historically, this view has been justified by citing the glycemic index of potatoes as the main indicator of their quality. However, their nutrient composition should also be considered. The association of potatoes with energy-dense Western dietary patterns has also contributed to a perception that potatoes are inherently unhealthy. Although some studies have suggested an association between potato consumption and increased risk of health problems, such as type 2 diabetes, these associations may be confounded by fried potato intake and are strongest at intake levels higher than average consumption rates. Epidemiologic data suggest total potato intake is not a health risk in Eastern populations and can be consumed as part of a healthy diet. Furthermore, clinical trial data demonstrate that potatoes' health impact, irrespective of preparation, is similar to legumes and comparable with refined grains, with few deleterious effects found. These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond the glycemic index and adopting a more nuanced evaluation of the epidemiologic data to better understand the health impact of potato intake. Ultimately, the negative reputation of potatoes stems from an overinterpretation of their glycemic index and association with unhealthy Western dietary patterns, as well as oversimplification of the epidemiologic data. By considering carbohydrate quality, it becomes clear that potatoes can be part of a healthy diet given the proper consideration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Solanum tuberosum , Humanos , 60408 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Verduras , Carboidratos
10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 12(4): 267-276, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The multicentre randomised trial YOMEGA (NCT02139813) comparing the one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) confirmed the non-inferiority of OAGB on weight loss outcomes at 24 months. We aimed to report weight loss, metabolic, and safety outcomes at 5 years. METHODS: YOMEGA is a prospective, open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial conducted at nine centres in France. Inclusion criteria were BMI of 40 kg/m2 or more, or 35 kg/m2 or more with comorbidities. Key exclusion criteria were severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or Barrett's oesophagus and previous bariatric surgery. Patients were randomly assigned (1 :1) to OAGB (one gastrojejunal anastomosis with a 200 cm biliopancreatic limb) or RYGB (with a 150 cm alimentary limb and a 50 cm biliary limb), stratified by centre, with blocks of variable size. The primary endpoint of this extension study was percentage excess BMI loss and was analysed in the per-protocol population, including patients with data who were operated on with the technique randomly assigned to them and excluding patients with major deviations from the protocol during the follow-up (change of surgical technique, death, or withdrawal of consent). Non-inferiority was concluded for the primary endpoint if the upper bound of the CI was less than the non-inferiority limit (7 percentage points). YOMEGA is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02139813, and the 5-year follow-up of YOMEGA is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05549271. FINDINGS: Between May 13, 2014, and March 2, 2016, 253 patients were randomly assigned to OAGB (n=129) or RYGB (n=124), and from these patients 114 in the OAGB group and 118 in the RYGB group were included in the per-protocol analysis. In the per-protocol population, at baseline, mean age was 43·0 years (SD 10·8), mean BMI was 44·0 kg/m2 (5·6), 54 (23%) patients were male and 178 (77%) were female; 55 (27%) of 207 patients had type 2 diabetes. After 5 years, mean percentage excess BMI loss was -75·6% (SD 28·1) in the OAGB group versus -71·4% (SD 29·8) in the RYGB group, confirming non-inferiority (mean difference -4·1% [90% CI -12·0 to 3·7], p=0·0099). Remission of type 2 diabetes was similar in both groups. Nutritional status did not differ; the most common adverse event was clinical gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, occurring in 27 (41%) of 66 patients in the OAGB group versus 14 (18%) of 76 patients in the RYGB group (p=0·0030). Among serious adverse events, ten (8%) of 127 patients converted from OAGB to RYGB. 171 (68%) of 253 patients were followed up. INTERPRETATION: OAGB was not inferior to RYGB regarding percentage excess BMI loss at 5 years with similar metabolic outcomes. The high rate of clinical gastro-oesophageal reflux disease after OAGB raises questions about its long-term consequences, which need to be further investigated. FUNDING: Medtronic.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Derivação Gástrica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Redução de Peso
11.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 80, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention policies against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) focus solely on individual healthy lifestyle behaviours, while an increasing body of research recognises the involvement of environmental determinants (ED) (cultural norms of land management and planning, local foodscape, built environment, pollution, and neighbourhood deprivation). Precise knowledge of this relationship is essential to proposing a prevention strategy integrating public health and spatial planning. Unfortunately, issues related to the consistency and synthesis of methods, and results in this field of research limit the development of preventive strategies. This systematic review aims to improve knowledge about the relationship between the risk of developing T2DM in adulthood and long-term exposure to its ED during childhood or teenage years. METHODS: This protocol is presented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) tools. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, EBSCO, and grey literature from the Laval University Libraries databases will be used for data collection on main concepts such as 'type 2 diabetes mellitus', 'zoning' or 'regional, urban, or rural areas land uses', 'local food landscape', 'built environment', 'pollution', and 'deprivation'. The Covidence application will store the collected data for selection and extraction based on the Population Exposure Comparator Outcome and Study design approach (PECOS). Studies published until December 31, 2023, in English or French, used quantitative data about individuals aged 18 and over that report on T2DM, ED (cultural norms of land management and planning, local foodscape, built environment, and neighbourhood deprivation), and their association (involving only risk estimators) will be included. Then, study quality and risk of bias will be conducted according to the combined criteria and ratings from the ROBINS-E (Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies-of Exposures) tools and the 'Effective Public Health Practice Project' (EPHPP). Finally, the analytical synthesis will be produced using the 'Synthesis Without Meta-analysis' (SWiM) guidelines. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will summarise available evidence on ED associated with T2DM. The results will contribute to improving current knowledge and developing more efficient cross-sectoral interventions in land management and public health in this field of research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42023392073.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e241147, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441893

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding the interplay between sleep duration, dietary habits, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is crucial for public health and diabetes prevention strategies. Objective: To investigate the associations of type of diet and duration of sleep with the development of T2D. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data derived from the UK Biobank baseline investigation (2006-2010) were analyzed for this cohort study between May 1 and September 30, 2023. The association between sleep duration and healthy dietary patterns with the risk of T2D was investigated during a median (IQR) follow-up of 12.5 (11.8-13.2) years (end of follow-up, September 30, 2021). Exposure: For the analysis, 247 867 participants were categorized into 4 sleep duration groups: normal (7-8 hours per day), mild short (6 hours per day), moderate short (5 hours per day), and extreme short (3-4 hours per day). Their dietary habits were evaluated based on population-specific consumption of red meat, processed meat, fruits, vegetables, and fish, resulting in a healthy diet score ranging from 0 (unhealthiest) to 5 (healthiest). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the development of T2D across various sleep duration groups and healthy diet scores. Results: The cohort comprised 247 867 participants with a mean [SD] age of 55.9 [8.1] years, of whom 52.3% were female. During the follow-up, 3.2% of participants were diagnosed with T2D based on hospital registry data. Cox regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, indicated a significant increase in the risk of T2D among participants with 5 hours or less of daily sleep. Individuals sleeping 5 hours per day exhibited a 1.16 adjusted HR (95% CI, 1.05-1.28), and individuals sleeping 3 to 4 hours per day exhibited a 1.41 adjusted HR (95% CI, 1.19-1.68) compared with individuals with normal sleep duration. Furthermore, individuals with the healthiest dietary patterns had a reduced risk of T2D (HR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.88]). The association between short sleep duration and increased risk of T2D persisted even for individuals following a healthy diet, but there was no multiplicative interaction between sleep duration and healthy diet score. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study involving UK residents, habitual short sleep duration was associated with increased risk of developing T2D. This association persisted even among participants who maintained a healthy diet. To validate these findings, further longitudinal studies are needed, incorporating repeated measures of sleep (including objective assessments) and dietary habits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Duração do Sono , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Sono
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e080018, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that pulse pressure (PP) has a significant role in the start and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is little proof that PP and pre-diabetes mellitus (Pre-DM) are related. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between PP and incident pre-DM in a substantial cohort of Chinese participants. DESIGN: The 'DATADRYAD' database (www.Datadryad.org) was used to retrieve the data for this secondary retrospective cohort analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 182 672 Chinese individuals who participated in the medical examination programme were recorded in this retrospective cohort study between 2010 and 2016 across 32 sites and 11 cities in China. SETTING: PP assessed at baseline and incident pre-DM during follow-up were the target-independent and dependent variables. The association between PP and pre-DM was investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome was incident pre-DM. Impaired fasting glucose levels (fasting blood glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L) were used to define pre-DM. RESULTS: After controlling for confounding variables, PP was positively correlated with incident pre-DM among Chinese adults (HR 1.009, 95% CI 1.007 to 1.010). Additionally, at a PP inflection point of 29 mm Hg, a non-linear connection between the PP and incident pre-DM was discovered. Increased PP was an independent risk factor for developing pre-DM when PP was greater than 29 mm Hg. However, their association was not significant when PP was less than 29 mm Hg. According to subgroup analyses, females, never-smokers and non-obesity correlated more significantly with PP and pre-DM. CONCLUSION: We discovered that higher PP independently correlated with pre-DM risk in this study of Chinese participants. The connection between PP and incident pre-DM was also non-linear. High PP levels were related to a higher risk of pre-DM when PP was above 29 mm Hg. ARTICLE FOCUS: Our study investigated the relationship between PP and incident pre-DM in a secondary retrospective cohort of Chinese participants.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Glicemia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia
14.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e91, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether habitual intake of total dairy (TD) or different dairy types (liquid, solid, fermented, non-fermented, low-fat, high-fat, low-sugar and high-sugar dairy) during adolescence is associated with biomarkers of low-grade inflammation as well as risk factors of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. DESIGN: Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to investigate prospective associations between estimated TD intake as well as intake of different types of dairy and a pro-inflammatory score, based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-18, leptin and adiponectin, and insulin resistance assessed as Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance in an open-cohort study. SETTING: Dortmund, Germany. PARTICIPANTS: Data from participants (n 375) of the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were included, for whom at least two 3-d weighed dietary records during adolescence (median age: 11 years) and one blood sample in young adulthood (>18 years) were available. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant association between TD intake or intake of any dairy type and the pro-inflammatory score (all P > 0·05). TD intake as well as each dairy type intake and insulin resistance also showed no association (all P > 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: The habitual intake of dairy or individual types of dairy during adolescence does not seem to have a major impact on low-grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in the long term. There was no indication regarding a restriction of dairy intake for healthy children and adolescents in terms of diabetes risk reduction.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Inflamação , Laticínios , Açúcares
15.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 752, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interactions between risk factors may influence disease severity. Knowing this relationship is important for preventive interventions and disease control. The purpose of this study was to determine the interactions effects of obesity and hypertension on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The data of 9,283 adults 35 to 65 years were examined from the cohort study of Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD). Waist circumference (WC) was used to identify both general and abdominal obesity based on body mass index (BMI). To assess the interaction between hypertension and obesity (general/abdominal) and the risk of T2DM, the additive interaction was calculated. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios for T2DM were 2.38 (1.67, 3.41) in men and 4.02 (2.47, 6.47) in women for the combinations of hypertension and abdominal obesity. The adjusted odds ratios for T2DM were 2.53 (1.63, 3.82) in men and 2.66 (1.92, 3.70) in women for the combinations of hypertension and general obesity. The results of the additive interaction indicators were inconsistent with gender. The relative excess risk due to interaction (interaction between hypertension and central obesity) (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (SI) were0.27 (-1.01, 1.54), 0.11 (-0.41, 0.63) and 1.23 (0.41, 3.68) in male and were 0.61 (-1.12, 2.33), 0.23 (0.08, 0.37) and 1.26 (0.60, 2.61) in female, respectively. CONCLUSION: General/abdominal obesity and hypertension have a synergistic effect on the risk of T2DM. The recommendation for preventing T2DM is lifestyle modification. Large longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate causal relationships.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura , Índice de Massa Corporal
16.
J Med Primatol ; 53(2): e12695, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a chronic disease with a high prevalence worldwide. Human literature suggests factors beyond well-known risk factors (e.g., age, body mass index) for T2D: cytomegalovirus serostatus, season of birth, maternal age, birth weight, and depression. Nothing is known, however, about whether these variables are influential in primate models of T2D. METHODS: Using a retrospective methodology, we identified 22 cases of spontaneously occurring T2D among rhesus monkeys at our facility. A control sample of n = 1199 was identified. RESULTS: Animals born to mothers that were ≤5.5 years of age, and animals that showed heightened Activity and Emotionality in response to brief separation in infancy, had a greater risk for development of T2D in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of additional risk factors for T2D could help colony managers better identify at-risk animals and enable diabetes researchers to select animals that might be more responsive to their manipulations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Animais , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3814, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360842

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in middle- and low-income countries, and this disease is a burden on public health systems. Notably, dietary components are crucial regulatory factors in T2DM. Plant-based dietary patterns and certain food groups, such as whole grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits, are inversely correlated with diabetes incidence. We conducted the present study to determine the association between adherence to a plant-based diet and the risk of diabetes among adults. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based RaNCD cohort study involving 3401 men and 3699 women. The plant-based diet index (PDI) was developed using a 118-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the PDI score and the risk of T2DM. A total of 7100 participants with a mean age of 45.96 ± 7.78 years were analysed. The mean PDI scores in the first, second, and third tertiles (T) were 47.13 ± 3.41, 54.44 ± 1.69, and 61.57 ± 3.24, respectively. A lower PDI was significantly correlated with a greater incidence of T2DM (T1 = 7.50%, T2 = 4.85%, T3 = 4.63%; P value < 0.001). Higher PDI scores were associated with significantly increased intakes of fibre, vegetables, fruits, olives, olive oil, legumes, soy products, tea/coffee, whole grains, nuts, vitamin E, vitamin C, and omega-6 fatty acids (P value < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, the odds of having T2DM were significantly lower (by 30%) at T3 of the PDI than at T1 (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.96; P value < 0.001). Our data suggest that adhering to plant-based diets comprising whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, and tea/coffee can be recommended today to reduce the risk of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fabaceae , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , 60408 , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Café , Dieta , Verduras , Plantas , Chá
18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 12(3): 196-208, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310921

RESUMO

The Global Burden of Disease assessment estimates that 20% of global type 2 diabetes cases are related to chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 2·5 µm or less (PM2·5). With 99% of the global population residing in areas where air pollution levels are above current WHO air quality guidelines, and increasing concern in regard to the common drivers of air pollution and climate change, there is a compelling need to understand the connection between air pollution and cardiometabolic disease, and pathways to address this preventable risk factor. This Review provides an up to date summary of the epidemiological evidence and mechanistic underpinnings linking air pollution with cardiometabolic risk. We also outline approaches to improve awareness, and discuss personal-level, community, governmental, and policy interventions to help mitigate the growing global public health risk of air pollution exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mudança Climática , Saúde Pública , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia
19.
Transplant Proc ; 56(2): 281-284, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368133

RESUMO

The increasing age of patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Turkey, coupled with a shortage of kidney donors, has led to longer waiting times for transplants and an escalation in mortality rates. This retrospective study aimed to assess the effect on transplant outcomes of accepting kidneys from donors ≥70 years of age, given the rising number of older patients in the population. In all, 1400 patients were transplanted with kidneys from donors >50 years, with patient and graft survival as primary endpoints. Our results demonstrated that the most significant risk factors for graft function were recipient age >65 years, male sex, and presence of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, kidneys from donors ≥75 years of age achieved a half-life of 5 years. These findings suggest that donor age does not necessarily correlate with graft failure and that transplantation from older donors could help alleviate the organ shortage. Further research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transplante de Rim , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Doadores Vivos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Fatores Etários
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399612

RESUMO

Obesity and obesity-related conditions today constitute a public health problem worldwide. Obesity is an "epidemic" chronic disorder, which is defined by the WHO as normal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. It is also defined for adults as a BMI that is greater than or equal to 30. The most common obesity-related diseases are type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain types of cancer. It has been also proven that obesity can have a negative effect on hair. It can lead to hair thinning. Patients with obesity can undergo bariatric surgery if they meet the inclusion criteria. The four common types of weight loss surgery include a duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy. Bariatric surgery can affect skin and hair and is associated with telogen effluvium due to weight loss, microelement deficiency, anesthesia, low calorie intake, and low protein intake. Patients who undergo bariatric surgery can experience post-bariatric surgery depression. Hair loss can have a major impact on self-esteem, negatively affecting one's self-image. The purpose of this narrative review is to critically review how obesity, obesity-related diseases, and bariatric surgery affect hair health in general and the hair development cycle, and how they influence hair loss.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Derivação Gástrica , Laparoscopia , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Alopecia em Áreas/etiologia , Alopecia em Áreas/cirurgia , Cabelo
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