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1.
Brain Res ; 1822: 148670, 2024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that retinol-binding protein (RBP) is linked to diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. However, no studies have elucidated the relationship between RBP and diabetic cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the change characteristics of serum RBP are associated with alterations in cognitive functioning in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this study, 252 patients with T2DM and 34 people as healthy controls were included. According to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the diabetic subjects were divided into the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group and the Non-MCI group. Demographic characteristics and clinical indicators as well as serum RBP levels were analyzed. RESULTS: The serum RBP levels in the MCI group were lower compared with the Non-MCI group (P = 0.02). The level of RBP was higher in the diabetes without MCI group than in the healthy control (P < 0.001). Serum RBP levels were positively correlated with MoCA scores (r = 0.178, P = 0.003). Binary Logistic regression model analysis showed that low RBP [odds ratio (OR) = 0.936], old age (OR = 1.074), high fasting blood glucose (OR = 1.164), and low fasting C-peptide (OR = 0.722) may be independent risk factors for diabetic MCI. The ROC curve of serum RBP for predicting diabetic MCI showed that the area under the curve was 0.630. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed an association between serum RBP and diabetic MCI. Serum RBP levels in diabetic MCI are lower and correlated with cognitive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol , Humanos , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/análise , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nature ; 624(7990): 138-144, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968391

RESUMO

Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and cost of illness1,2. Health behaviours, particularly those related to nutrition and physical activity, play a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus3. Whereas behaviour change programmes (also known as lifestyle interventions or similar) have been found efficacious in controlled clinical trials4,5, there remains controversy about whether targeting health behaviours at the individual level is an effective preventive strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus6 and doubt among clinicians that lifestyle advice and counselling provided in the routine health system can achieve improvements in health7-9. Here we show that being referred to the largest behaviour change programme for prediabetes globally (the English Diabetes Prevention Programme) is effective in improving key cardiovascular risk factors, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), excess body weight and serum lipid levels. We do so by using a regression discontinuity design10, which uses the eligibility threshold in HbA1c for referral to the behaviour change programme, in electronic health data from about one-fifth of all primary care practices in England. We confirm our main finding, the improvement of HbA1c, using two other quasi-experimental approaches: difference-in-differences analysis exploiting the phased roll-out of the programme and instrumental variable estimation exploiting regional variation in programme coverage. This analysis provides causal, rather than associational, evidence that lifestyle advice and counselling implemented at scale in a national health system can achieve important health improvements.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inglaterra , Exercício Físico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1248614, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37854188

RESUMO

Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing globally and has become a global and national public health problem that cannot be ignored as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events, cancer and all-cause mortality. γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. This study was designed to explore the relationship and predictive performance between γ-glutamyl transferase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (GGT/HDL-C) and MetS. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. MetS was diagnosed from biochemical and anthropometric data in subjects with T2DM. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyses the relationship between GGT/HDL-C ratio, TyG index and HOMA-IR and MetS in subjects with T2DM. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and the areas under the curve (AUC) were used to assess the ability of these indexes in screening MetS in subjects with T2DM. Statistical differences between the AUC values of these indexes were compared. In addition, we performed subgroup analyses and interactions. Results: 769 (70.55%) patients with T2DM were defined as having MetS. patients with MetS had higher anthropometric values and biochemical indicators compared to those without MetS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of GGT/HDL-C ratio was an independent risk factor for MetS (Per 1 SD increase, OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.51, 4.10). According to ROC curve analysis, the value of GGT/HDL-C ratio in predicting MetS in subjects with T2DM was superior to that of TyG index and HOMA-IR. The best cut-off value for GGT/HDL-C prediction was 19.94. Conclusions: GGT/HDL-C ratio may be an important predictor of MetS in subjects with T2DM, and its predictive power is stronger than that of TyG index and HOMA-IR. The risk of MetS in subjects with T2DM is increased in the presence of a higher GGT/HDL-C ratio.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , gama-Glutamiltransferase , Humanos , Glicemia/análise , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Resistência à Insulina
7.
Diabetes Care ; 46(12): 2249-2257, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37878528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To uncover novel targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) by investigating rare variants with large effects in monogenic forms of the disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in a family with diabetes. We validated the identified gene using Sanger sequencing in additional families and diabetes- and community-based cohorts. Wild-type and variant gene transgenic mouse models were used to study the gene function. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed a rare variant of the metallothionein 1E (MT1E) gene, p.C36Y, in a three-generation family with diabetes. This risk allele was associated with T2D or prediabetes in a community-based cohort. MT1E p.C36 carriers had higher HbA1c levels and greater BMI than those carrying the wild-type allele. Mice with forced expression of MT1E p.C36Y demonstrated increased weight gain, elevated postchallenge serum glucose and liver enzyme levels, and hepatic steatosis, similar to the phenotypes observed in human carriers of MT1E p.C36Y. In contrast, mice with forced expression of MT1E p.C36C displayed reduced weight and lower serum glucose and serum triglyceride levels. Forced expression of wild-type and variant MT1E demonstrated differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that MT1E could be a promising target for drug development, because forced expression of MT1E p.C36C stabilized glucose metabolism and reduced body weight, whereas MT1E p.C36Y expression had the opposite effect. These findings highlight the importance of considering the impact of rare variants in the development of new T2D treatments.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metalotioneína , Estado Pré-Diabético , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Glicemia/análise , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , População do Leste Asiático , Glucose , Metalotioneína/genética , Camundongos Transgênicos/genética , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética
8.
JAMA ; 330(17): 1631-1640, 2023 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37786396

RESUMO

Importance: Tirzepatide is a glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Efficacy and safety of adding tirzepatide vs prandial insulin to treatment in patients with inadequate glycemic control with basal insulin have not been described. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide vs insulin lispro as an adjunctive therapy to insulin glargine. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, phase 3b clinical trial was conducted at 135 sites in 15 countries (participants enrolled from October 19, 2020, to November 1, 2022) in 1428 adults with type 2 diabetes taking basal insulin. Interventions: Participants were randomized (in a 1:1:1:3 ratio) to receive once-weekly subcutaneous injections of tirzepatide (5 mg [n = 243], 10 mg [n = 238], or 15 mg [n = 236]) or prandial thrice-daily insulin lispro (n = 708). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included noninferiority of tirzepatide (pooled cohort) vs insulin lispro, both in addition to insulin glargine, in HbA1c change from baseline at week 52 (noninferiority margin, 0.3%). Key secondary end points included change in body weight and percentage of participants achieving hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) target of less than 7.0%. Results: Among 1428 randomized participants (824 [57.7%] women; mean [SD] age, 58.8 [9.7] years; mean [SD] HbA1c, 8.8% [1.0%]), 1304 (91.3%) completed the trial. At week 52, estimated mean change from baseline in HbA1c with tirzepatide (pooled cohort) was -2.1% vs -1.1% with insulin lispro, resulting in mean HbA1c levels of 6.7% vs 7.7% (estimated treatment difference, -0.98% [95% CI, -1.17% to -0.79%]; P < .001); results met noninferiority criteria and statistical superiority was achieved. Estimated mean change from baseline in body weight was -9.0 kg with tirzepatide and 3.2 kg with insulin lispro (estimated treatment difference, -12.2 kg [95% CI, -13.4 to -10.9]). The percentage of participants reaching HbA1c less than 7.0% was 68% (483 of 716) with tirzepatide and 36% (256 of 708) with insulin lispro (odds ratio, 4.2 [95% CI, 3.2-5.5]). The most common adverse events with tirzepatide were mild to moderate gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea: 14%-26%; diarrhea: 11%-15%; vomiting: 5%-13%). Hypoglycemia event rates (blood glucose level <54 mg/dL or severe hypoglycemia) were 0.4 events per patient-year with tirzepatide (pooled) and 4.4 events per patient-year with insulin lispro. Conclusions and Relevance: In people with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin, weekly tirzepatide compared with prandial insulin as an additional treatment with insulin glargine demonstrated reductions in HbA1c and body weight with less hypoglycemia. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04537923.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina Glargina , Insulina Lispro , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Lispro/administração & dosagem , Insulina Lispro/efeitos adversos , Insulina Lispro/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Internacionalidade , Idoso
9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1201818, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37744474

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically estimate and compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) approved in China and to quantify the relationship between the burden of diabetic comorbidities and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or body mass index (BMI). Methods: To estimate the costs (US dollars, USD) and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for six GLP-1RAs (exenatide, loxenatide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, semaglutide, and liraglutide) combined with metformin in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which is inadequately controlled on metformin from the Chinese healthcare system perspective, a discrete event microsimulation cost-effectiveness model based on the Chinese Hong Kong Integrated Modeling and Evaluation (CHIME) simulation model was developed. A cohort of 30,000 Chinese patients was established, and one-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) with 50,000 iterations were conducted considering parameter uncertainty. Scenario analysis was conducted considering the impacts of research time limits. A network meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of six GLP-1RAs on HbA1c, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. The incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) between therapies was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness. China's per capita GDP in 2021 was used as the willingness-to-pay threshold. A generalized linear model was used to quantify the relationship between the burden of diabetic comorbidities and HbA1c or BMI. Results: During a lifetime, the cost for a patient ranged from USD 42,092 with loxenatide to USD 47,026 with liraglutide, while the QALY gained ranged from 12.50 with dulaglutide to 12.65 with loxenatide. Compared to exenatide, the INMB of each drug from highest to lowest were: loxenatide (USD 1,124), dulaglutide (USD -1,418), lixisenatide (USD -1,713), semaglutide (USD -4,298), and liraglutide (USD -4,672). Loxenatide was better than the other GLP-1RAs in the base-case analysis. Sensitivity and scenario analysis results were consistent with the base-case analysis. Overall, the price of GLP-1RAs most affected the results. Medications with effective control of HbA1c or BMI were associated with a significantly smaller disease burden (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Loxenatide combined with metformin was identified as the most economical choice, while the long-term health benefits of patients taking the six GLP-1RAs are approximate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hipoglicemiantes , Metformina , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , População do Leste Asiático , Exenatida , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Simulação por Computador , Controle Glicêmico/métodos
10.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(7): 748-753, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37401214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse mitochondrial hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) variations in Pakistani type 2 diabetic subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. Place and Duration of the Study: National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan, between January 2019 to January 2021. METHODOLOGY: DNA from whole blood was isolated, and mitochondrial HVS-I region (16024-16370) of 92 individuals, including 47 controls and 45 diabetics, was amplified, sequenced, and analysed. RESULTS: Ninety-two variable sites in the sequenced region were identified and individuals were classified into 56 different haplotypes according to phylotree 17.0 classifications, where major haplotype M5 was nearly 2-fold higher in diabetes. Fischer's exact test revealed variant 16189T>C significantly associated with diabetes (Odds ratio = 12.9, 95% CI = 0.6917 - 2400248) as compared to controls. The authors further analysed 1000 Genomes Project data of Pakistani Control subjects (i.e. PJL, n=96) and found that besides 16189T>C (Odds ratio = 5.875, 95% CI = 1.093 - 31.57, p <0.0339), 16264C>T (Odds ratio = 16, 95% CI = 0.8026 - 314.7, p <0.0310) also showed significant association with diabetic subjects. Comparing diabetic subject data with global control population data of the 1000 Genomes Project, significant associations of eight variants in the studied region were found. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this case-control study, it can be concluded that specific variations in the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) region are significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Pakistani population. The major haplotype M5 was found to be higher in diabetic subjects and variants 16189T>C and 16264C>T were significantly associated with diabetes. These findings suggest that mitochondrial DNA variations may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes in the Pakistani population. KEY WORDS: Diabetes Mellitus, HVS-1 region, Diabetic subjects, Mitochondrial genomics, Pakistani population.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População do Sul da Ásia/etnologia , População do Sul da Ásia/genética , População do Sul da Ásia/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 25(S3): S5-S13, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37306448

RESUMO

Randomized controlled trials, which are considered the highest level of scientific evidence, have shown significant glycemic benefits associated with use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in individuals with diabetes who are treated with intensive insulin regimens. However, numerous prospective, retrospective, and observational studies have investigated the impact of CGM in various diabetes populations treated with nonintensive therapies. Results from these studies have contributed to changes in payer coverage, prescriber behaviors, and expanding use of CGM. This article reviews findings from recent real-world studies, highlights the key lessons learned from these studies, and discusses how we need to move forward in increasing utilization of and access to CGM among all diabetes patients who would benefit from this technology.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/uso terapêutico
13.
JAMA ; 330(3): 228-237, 2023 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37354562

RESUMO

Importance: Once-weekly insulin icodec could provide a simpler dosing alternative to daily basal insulin in people with type 2 diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly icodec vs once-daily insulin degludec in people with insulin-naive type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-masked, noninferiority, treat-to-target, phase 3a trial conducted from March 2021 to June 2022 at 92 sites in 11 countries in adults with type 2 diabetes treated with any noninsulin glucose-lowering agents with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7%-11% (53-97 mmol/mol). Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either once-weekly icodec and once-daily placebo (icodec group; n = 294) or once-daily degludec and once-weekly placebo (degludec group; n = 294). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26 (noninferiority margin, 0.3% percentage points). Secondary end points included change in fasting plasma glucose from baseline to week 26, mean weekly insulin dose during the last 2 weeks of treatment, body weight change from baseline to week 26, and number of level 2 (clinically significant; glucose level <54 mg/dL) and level 3 (severe; requiring external assistance for recovery) hypoglycemic episodes. Results: Among 588 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 58 [10] years; 219 [37%] women), 564 (96%) completed the trial. Mean HbA1c level decreased from 8.6% (observed) to 7.0% (estimated) at 26 weeks in the icodec group and from 8.5% (observed) to 7.2% (estimated) in the degludec group (estimated treatment difference [ETD], -0.2 [95% CI, -0.3 to -0.1] percentage points), confirming noninferiority (P < .001) and superiority (P = .002). There were no significant differences between the icodec and degludec groups for fasting plasma glucose change from baseline to week 26 (ETD, 0 [95% CI, -6 to 5] mg/dL; P = .90), mean weekly insulin dose during the last 2 weeks of treatment, or body weight change from baseline to week 26 (2.8 kg vs 2.3 kg; ETD, 0.46 [95% CI, -0.19 to 1.10] kg; P = .17). Combined level 2 or 3 hypoglycemia rates were numerically higher in the icodec group than the degludec group from week 0 to 31 (0.31 vs 0.15 events per patient-year exposure; P = .11) and statistically higher in the icodec group from week 0 to 26 (0.35 vs 0.12 events per patient-year exposure; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: Among people with insulin-naive type 2 diabetes, once-weekly icodec demonstrated superior HbA1c reduction to once-daily degludec after 26 weeks of treatment, with no difference in weight change and a higher rate of combined level 2 or 3 hypoglycemic events in the context of less than 1 event per patient-year exposure in both groups. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04795531.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/administração & dosagem , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Idoso
14.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 25(8): 2290-2299, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37337366

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the safety/tolerability, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of once-daily, 600-µg cotadutide in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients with a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or higher. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT04208620) enrolled patients to receive subcutaneous cotadutide at an escalating dose to determine the highest tolerated clinical dose (Cohort 1), then applied in Cohort 2. The primary endpoint was safety, including treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); secondary endpoints included glycaemic control and body weight. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were randomly allocated to receive cotadutide or placebo in a 3:1 ratio. All patients were Asian, 62.5% were male, and the median age and body mass index were 60 years and 27.2 kg/m2 , respectively. Through the follow-up period of the study, 11/12 (91.7%) patients in the cotadutide group experienced a TEAE versus 1/4 (25.0%) patients in the placebo group. All TEAEs were mild, except for one moderate event. There were no deaths, serious TEAEs or TEAEs leading to study discontinuation. Gastrointestinal-related events were the most common TEAEs. Cotadutide-treated patients achieved significantly improved 7-day mean glucose measured by continuous glucose monitoring; the 7-day mean (standard deviation) at the end of treatment (day 70) was 112.23 (20.79) versus 206.85 (3.62) mg/dL for placebo. Mean respective changes in HbA1c were -1.13% (0.64%) and -0.17% (0.65%); and mean percentage changes in body weight were -6.93% (3.44%) and -1.23% (1.20%). CONCLUSIONS: Cotadutide was well tolerated at doses up to 600 µg; efficacy versus placebo for weight loss and glycaemic control was shown.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , População do Leste Asiático , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Injeções Subcutâneas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
15.
N Engl J Med ; 389(4): 297-308, 2023 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37356066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin icodec is an investigational once-weekly basal insulin analogue for diabetes management. METHODS: We conducted a 78-week randomized, open-label, treat-to-target phase 3a trial (including a 52-week main phase and a 26-week extension phase, plus a 5-week follow-up period) involving adults with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin level, 7 to 11%) who had not previously received insulin. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive once-weekly insulin icodec or once-daily insulin glargine U100. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to week 52; the confirmatory secondary end point was the percentage of time spent in the glycemic range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter (3.9 to 10.0 mmol per liter) in weeks 48 to 52. Hypoglycemic episodes (from baseline to weeks 52 and 83) were recorded. RESULTS: Each group included 492 participants. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The mean reduction in the glycated hemoglobin level at 52 weeks was greater with icodec than with glargine U100 (from 8.50% to 6.93% with icodec [mean change, -1.55 percentage points] and from 8.44% to 7.12% with glargine U100 [mean change, -1.35 percentage points]); the estimated between-group difference (-0.19 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.36 to -0.03) confirmed the noninferiority (P<0.001) and superiority (P = 0.02) of icodec. The percentage of time spent in the glycemic range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter was significantly higher with icodec than with glargine U100 (71.9% vs. 66.9%; estimated between-group difference, 4.27 percentage points [95% CI, 1.92 to 6.62]; P<0.001), which confirmed superiority. Rates of combined clinically significant or severe hypoglycemia were 0.30 events per person-year of exposure with icodec and 0.16 events per person-year of exposure with glargine U100 at week 52 (estimated rate ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.75) and 0.30 and 0.16 events per person-year of exposure, respectively, at week 83 (estimated rate ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.61). No new safety signals were identified, and incidences of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic control was significantly better with once-weekly insulin icodec than with once-daily insulin glargine U100. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; ONWARDS 1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04460885.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina Glargina , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , Adulto , Humanos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/análogos & derivados , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/administração & dosagem , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/efeitos adversos , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Esquema de Medicação
17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 30(12): 1255-1262, 2023 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37172216

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify a group of metabolites associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with type 2 diabetes and assess its predictive performance over-and-above a current CVD risk score (QRISK3). METHODS AND RESULTS: A panel of 228 serum metabolites was measured at baseline in 1066 individuals with type 2 diabetes (Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study) who were then followed up for CVD over the subsequent 10 years. We applied 100 repeats of Cox least absolute shrinkage and selection operator to select metabolites with frequency >90% as components for a metabolites-based risk score (MRS). The predictive performance of the MRS was assessed in relation to a reference model that was based on QRISK3 plus prevalent CVD and statin use at baseline. Of 1021 available individuals, 255 (25.0%) developed CVD (median follow-up: 10.6 years). Twelve metabolites relating to fluid balance, ketone bodies, amino acids, fatty acids, glycolysis, and lipoproteins were selected to construct the MRS that showed positive association with 10-year cardiovascular risk following adjustment for traditional risk factors [hazard ratio (HR) 2.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96, 3.64]. The c-statistic was 0.709 (95%CI 0.679, 0.739) for the reference model alone, increasing slightly to 0.728 (95%CI 0.700, 0.757) following addition of the MRS. Compared with the reference model, the net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index for the reference model plus the MRS were 0.362 (95%CI 0.179, 0.506) and 0.041 (95%CI 0.020, 0.071), respectively. CONCLUSION: Metabolomics data might improve predictive performance of current CVD risk scores based on traditional risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes. External validation is warranted to assess the generalizability of improved CVD risk prediction using the MRS.


This study looked at whether combining a group of new markers found in the blood (called metabolites) with traditional risk factors (such as high blood pressure and obesity) could more accurately predict how likely people with type 2 diabetes are to develop cardiovascular diseases in the next 10 years. Key findingsTwelve metabolites (including amino acids and lipids) showed strong association with 10-year cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes, and a metabolites-based risk score (MRS) was created by integrating these metabolites.Combining the MRS with traditional risk factors was better at predicting the risk of a person with T2D for developing cardiovascular diseases within the next 10 years than using traditional risk factors alone.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Metabolômica , Medição de Risco/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
18.
Ren Fail ; 45(1): 2215880, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37246753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels and renal function impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: PCSK9 levels were measured in T2DM patients, streptozotocin plus high-fat diet (STZ + HFD) mice, human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells treated with high glucose plus palmitic acid (HGPA) and the corresponding control groups. The T2DM patients were further divided into three groups according to serum PCSK9 levels. An analysis of clinical data was conducted, and a binary logistic regression model was used to test the relationship between potential predictors and urine albumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: PCSK9 levels were higher in the DM group than in the control group in humans, mice and HK-2 cells. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), triglyceride (TG), and urine α1-MG/urine creatinine ratio (UαCR) values in PCSK9 tertile 3 were significantly higher than those in PCSK9 tertile 1 (p < 0.05). The DBP and UACR values were significantly higher in PCSK9 tertile 3 than in PCSK9 tertile 1 and PCSK9 tertile 2 (both p < 0.05). In addition, URCR values were significantly higher in PCSK9 tertile 3 and PCSK9 tertile 2 than in PCSK9 tertile 1 (both p < 0.05). Serum PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with SBP, Scr, BUN, TG, URCR, UαCR and UACR but inversely correlated with eGFR. In STZ + HFD mice, serum PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with Scr, BUN and UACR, which was consistent with the findings in the patients. A logistic regression model revealed that serum PCSK9 is an independent risk factor for UACR ≥30 mg/g and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The ROC curve showed that 170.53 ng/mL and 337.26 ng/mL PCSK9 were the best cutoff values for UACR ≥30 mg/g and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Serum PCSK9 levels are associated with renal function impairment in T2DM patients and in some patients lower PCSK9 may be helpful to decrease chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/sangue , Animais , Camundongos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Albuminas , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular
19.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37049552

RESUMO

(1) Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major global health concern. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD has been related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, the relationship between short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and NAFLD severity is ambiguous in T2D subjects. This study aimed to explore the association of SCFAs with the severity of NAFLD in T2D patients. (2) Methods: We employed echography to examine the severity of hepatic steatosis. The serum levels of nine SCFAs, namely, formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, methylbutyrate, valerate, isovalerate, and methylvalerate, were measured using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. (3) Results: A total of 259 T2D patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Of these participants, 117 with moderate to severe NAFLD had lower levels of formate, isobutyrate, and methylbutyrate than the 142 without NAFLD or with mild NAFLD. Lower circulating levels of isobutyrate and methylbutyrate were associated with an increased severity of NAFLD. A relationship between NAFLD severity and circulating isobutyrate and methylbutyrate levels was found independently of a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level of 7.0%. (4) Conclusion: Circulating levels of isobutyrate and methylbutyrate were significantly and negatively correlated with NAFLD severity in the enrolled T2D patients. SCFAs may be related to NAFLD severity in T2D patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fígado Gorduroso , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ultrassonografia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Isobutiratos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1081520, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36909319

RESUMO

Purpose: The hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) quantifies the mismatch between glycated hemoglobin A1c and average glycemia among individuals. Currently, it is unknown the potential role of HGI in exhaustively evaluating the progression of glucose metabolism/the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between HGI and the risk of incident diabetes. Methods: A total of 7,345 participants aged at least 40 years and without diabetes were divided into three groups according to the tertile of their baseline HGI level and followed for a median of 3.24 years to track new-onset diabetes. Using multivariate Cox regression analyses, we explored the association between the HGI, both categorized and continuous, and incident diabetes. Results: During follow-up, 742 subjects (263 males and 479 females) developed diabetes mellitus. Higher HGI was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, even when adjusted for confounding factors, and every standard deviation increase in HGI was associated with a significant risk increase of 30.6% for diabetes (hazard ratio 1.306, 95% confidence interval 1.232-1.384). Conclusions: Participants with a higher HGI were at a higher risk of future diabetes, irrespective of their glycemic conditions. Consequently, HGI may be employed to identify individuals at high risk for diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Hemoglobina C , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hemoglobina C/análogos & derivados , Reação de Maillard , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
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