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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

RESUMO

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Cidades
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

RESUMO

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Assuntos
Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Diabetes Mellitus , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Glucose , Homeostase
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Linho , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biofilmes , Metanol
4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 3873420, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320979

RESUMO

The main pathological hallmark of diabetes is the loss of functional ß-cells. Among several types of ß-cell death in diabetes, the involvement of ferroptosis remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the potential of diabetes-mimicking factors: high glucose (HG), proinflammatory cytokines, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or diabetogenic agent streptozotocin (STZ) to induce ferroptosis of ß-cells in vitro. Furthermore, we tested the contribution of ferroptosis to injury of pancreatic islets in an STZ-induced in vivo diabetic model. All in vitro treatments increased loss of Rin-5F cells along with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxides and iron, inactivation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and decrease in glutathione peroxidase 4 expression and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Ferrostatin 1 (Fer-1), ferroptosis inhibitor, diminished the above-stated effects and rescued cells from death in case of HG, STZ, and H2O2 treatments, while failed to increase MMP and to attenuate cell death after the cytokines' treatment. Moreover, Fer-1 protected pancreatic islets from STZ-induced injury in diabetic in vivo model, since it decreased infiltration of macrophages and accumulation of lipid peroxides and increased the population of insulin-positive cells. Such results revealed differences between diabetogenic stimuli in determining the destiny of ß-cells, emerging HG, H2O2, and STZ, but not cytokines, as contributing factors to ferroptosis and shed new light on an antidiabetic strategy based on Nrf2 activation. Thus, targeting ferroptosis in diabetes might be a promising new approach for preservation of the ß-cell population. Our results obtained from in vivo study strongly justify this approach.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Ferroptose , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Morte Celular , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
5.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-12, 01/jan./2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367660

RESUMO

Objetivos: contribuir para a geração de dados de avaliação econômica de estratégias de empoderamento farmacoterapêutico para pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM tipo 2). Métodos: este estudo farmacoeconômico é aninhado a um ensaio clínico com controle não randomizado que incluiu pacientes ≥18 anos de idade, cadastrados no HIPERDIA. Os pacientes foram alocados em um modelo de Markov conforme valores de hemoglobina glicada do acompanhamento. As probabilidades do surgimento de complicações relativas ao DM, incluindo-se óbito, foram estimadas por dez anos. Cada complicação do DM tipo 2 teve seu custo estabelecido para determinação do custo anual. Resultados: entre os participantes da intervenção, não ocorrem óbitos ocasionados por DM tipo 2, e a progressão de complicações mantém-se estável durante os anos simulados, enquanto, no grupo controle, 60% dos pacientes podem evoluir para óbito nos dez anos, e a probabilidade de serem acometidos por complicações relacionadas ao DM tipo 2 é crescente. Com relação aos custos, ao final de dez anos, os pacientes que participaram da Estratégia Individual de Empoderamento Farmacoterapêutico (EIEF) tiveram um custo médio de UU$134,45 poupando a vida de 100% dos pacientes, e os pacientes do atendimento convencional um custo médio de UU$237,12 e 40% dos pacientes acompanhados chegariam ao final do ciclo com vida. Conclusão: a EIEF parece ser uma alternativa economicamente viável em longo prazo, bem como para a promoção do controle glicêmico.


Objectives: contribute to the data generation for the economic evaluation of pharmacotherapeutic empowerment strategies for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (type 2 DM). Method: This pharmacoeconomic study is nested in a clinical trial with non-randomized control that included patients ≥18 years old, registered in HIPERDIA. The patients were allocated to a Markov model according to the follow-up glycated hemoglobin values. The probabilities of the appearance of complications related to DM, including death, have been estimated for ten years. Each complication of type 2 DM had its cost established to determine the annual cost. Results: Among the participants in the intervention, there are no deaths caused by type 2 DM, and the progression of complications remains stable during the simulated years, whereas in the control group, 60% of the patients can progress to death in ten years and the probability of being affected by complications related to type 2 DM is increasing. Regarding costs, at the end of ten years, patients who participated in Individual Pharmacotherapeutic Empowerment Strategy (IPES) had an average cost of US$ 134.45, saving 100% of patient's lives, and conventional care patients cost an average of US$ 237.12 and 40% of the patients followed would reach the end of the life cycle. Conclusion: The IPES seems like an economically viable and long-term economic alternative and promotes glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Empoderamento , Controle Glicêmico
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361637

RESUMO

Aim: to identify which complications and prognosis of diabetic patients, hospitalized, who acquired COVID-19, through a systematic review. Methods: a systematic review based on the PRISMA flowchart, including cohort studies, available in Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, and Mandarin, published from 2019 to 2020, using the PICOS strategy, in the databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Science Direct, which in addition to the inclusion criteria after questionnaires to assess methodological quality and risk of bias. Results: of the 811 articles researched, 6 were included in this research. These studies showed that patients with COVID-19 and higher DM with worse prognosis, spent more time in the ICU, constantly needed indifference, greater complications when related to other comorbidities, high mortality rate, and glycemic control associated with advanced age directly affected patients. Outcomes even of non-diabetic subjects. Conclusion: this review identified the severity of the pathophysiological association is related to older age and biochemical and inflammatory factors linked to the two pathogens and that these subjects are more prone to specialized hospital care, which, however, result in high rates of hospital mortality.


Objetivo: identificar quais complicações e prognósticos dos pacientes diabéticos, internados, que adquiriram COVID-19, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: foi realizada uma revisão sistemática baseada no fluxograma PRISMA, incluindo estudos de coorte, disponíveis em português, inglês, espanhol, francês e mandarim, publicados de 2019 a 2020, utilizando a estratégia PICOS, nas bases de dados: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus e Sciece Direct. Além dos critérios de inclusão passam por questionários para avaliar a qualidade metodológica e risco de viés. Resultados: dos 811 artigos pesquisados, 6 foram incluídos nesta pesquisa. Esses estudos mostraram que pacientes com COVID-19 e DM apresentam pior prognóstico, maior permanência em UTI, necessidade constante de ventilação invasiva, maiores complicações quando relacionadas a outras comorbidades, elevado índice de mortalidade, e o controle glicêmico associado à idade avançada afetavam diretamente os desfechos inclusive de pacientes não diabéticos. Conclusão: esta revisão identificou que a gravidade da associação fisiopatológica está relacionada à idade mais avançada e aos fatores bioquímicos e inflamatórios ligados aos dois patógenos e que esses sujeitos são mais propensos ao atendimento hospitalar especializado, o que, no entanto, resulta em altas taxas de mortalidade hospitalar.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estratégias de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Diabetes Mellitus , Controle Glicêmico
7.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225337, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1366230

RESUMO

Aim: To elaborate and validate an instrument for Brazilian Portuguese speakers, to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes mellitus (Dental-Diabetes). Methods: Methodological study comprising four stages: a) Elaboration of instrument; b) Content validation (computing Content Validity Index - CVI) based on Expert Committee assessment; c) Pre-test with 30 dentists, followed by assessment of suggestions by Expert Committee; d) Psychometric validation through instrument application in a sample of 127 dentists by means of the web tool e-Surv. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate, respectively, internal consistency and reproducibility. Results: The final version of the instrument consists of 22 questions (7 on sociodemographic data and 15 querying dentists' knowledge) and those submitted for validation attained a CVI of 0.95 [95% CI 0.916-0,981], showing satisfactory internal consistency, with 0.794 Cronbach's alpha [95% CI 0.741-0.842] and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.799 [95% CI: 0.746-0.846] between the test and retest scores. Conclusions: Dental-Diabetes is a comprehensive instrument, culturally adequate and validated to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontólogos , Diabetes Mellitus , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48814

RESUMO

Considerada um problema de saúde pública complexa no mundo, a obesidade infantil pode ser a porta de entrada para diversas doenças crônicas, como câncer, hipertensão, diabetes, colesterol alto e doenças cardiovasculares, além de contribuir no agravamento de doenças respiratórias


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Hipercolesterolemia , Doenças Respiratórias , Obesidade Pediátrica
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684870

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, and is correlated to a high index of mortality. One of its major complications is diabetic foot, leading to plantar ulcers, amputation, and death. Several studies report that a thermogram helps to detect changes in the plantar temperature of the foot, which may lead to a higher risk of ulceration. However, in diabetic patients, the distribution of plantar temperature does not follow a standard pattern, thereby making it difficult to quantify the changes. The abnormal temperature distribution in infrared (IR) foot thermogram images can be used for the early detection of diabetic foot before ulceration to avoid complications. There is no machine learning-based technique reported in the literature to classify these thermograms based on the severity of diabetic foot complications. This paper uses an available labeled diabetic thermogram dataset and uses the k-mean clustering technique to cluster the severity risk of diabetic foot ulcers using an unsupervised approach. Using the plantar foot temperature, the new clustered dataset is verified by expert medical doctors in terms of risk for the development of foot ulcers. The newly labeled dataset is then investigated in terms of robustness to be classified by any machine learning network. Classical machine learning algorithms with feature engineering and a convolutional neural network (CNN) with image-enhancement techniques are investigated to provide the best-performing network in classifying thermograms based on severity. It is found that the popular VGG 19 CNN model shows an accuracy, precision, sensitivity, F1-score, and specificity of 95.08%, 95.08%, 95.09%, 95.08%, and 97.2%, respectively, in the stratification of severity. A stacking classifier is proposed using extracted features of the thermogram, which is created using the trained gradient boost classifier, XGBoost classifier, and random forest classifier. This provides a comparable performance of 94.47%, 94.45%, 94.47%, 94.43%, and 93.25% for accuracy, precision, sensitivity, F1-score, and specificity, respectively.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Algoritmos , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Termografia/métodos
10.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 5766494, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685512

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multisystemic, chronic disease that affects many organs. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in patients with DM. The electrocardiogram's new ventricular repolarization parameters can predict mortality and morbidity. The ventricular repolarization indices were examined in diabetic patients with a CAD diagnosis in this study. Methods: The study group consisted of 84 DM patients (51 males; mean age 58.8 ± 6.6) with noncritical CAD. The control group consisted of 84 DM patients (47 males; mean age 58.7 ± 8.8) with a normal coronary artery. The intervals of QT, QRS, JT, and Tp-e were all measured. Tp-e/QT, Tp-e/QTc, Tp-e/JT, and Tp-e/JTc ratios were determined with QTc, QTd, QTdc, and JTc intervals. Results: Heart rate (74.4 ± 13.1 vs. 70.0 ± 13.6 bpm, p: 0.036), QT (381.0 ± 30.3 vs. 368.6 ± 29.1 ms, p: 0.008), QTc (407.5 (359-450) vs. 389 (339-430) ms, p < 0.001), QTd (25.1 ± 6.2 vs. 21.9 ± 9.9 ms, p: 0.013), QTdc (26.7 ± 6.1 vs. 23.1 ± 10.8 ms, p: 0.010), Tp-e (95.7 ± 12.2 vs. 73.6 ± 9.8 ms, p < 0.001), JT (293.8 ± 22.0 vs. 283.5 ± 30.9 ms, p: 0.014), and JTc (313.6 ± 12.3 vs. 302.4 ± 33.7 ms, p=0.005) intervals, and Tp-e/QT (0.25 ± 0.03 vs. 0.20 ± 0.03 ms, p < 0.001), Tp-e/QTc [0.23 (0.19-2.33) vs. 0.19 (0.14-0.25) ms, p=0.007], Tp-e/JT (0.33 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04 ms, p < 0.001), and Tp-e/JTc (0.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.24 ± 0.03 ms, p < 0.001) ratios were all found to be significantly higher in diabetic patients with noncritical CAD. Conclusion: In this study, ventricular repolarization markers on the surface ECG were found to be elevated in diabetic CAD patients. These variables may be related to fatal arrhythmic events. To be sure, large-scale, randomized controlled trials are required.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 5745297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685521

RESUMO

Aim: In the current study, we examined the association of dietary diabetes risk reduction score (DDRRS) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) among an Iranian adult population. Methods: We followed up 2076 ≥20-year-old participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008), who were initially free of CKD for 5.98 years. The dietary diabetes risk reduction score was calculated based on scoring eight components, including cereal fiber, nuts, coffee, polyunsaturated fatty acids-to-saturated fatty acids ratio, glycemic index, sugar-sweetened beverages, trans fatty acids, and red and processed meat using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess the association between the quartiles of DDRRS and CKD incidence. Results: Mean ± SD age of the study population (53% women) was 37.6 ± 12.61 years. During 5.98 years of follow-up, 357 incident cases of CKD were reported. The median (25-75 interquartile range) of DDRRS was 20 (18-22). After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, eGFR, and physical activity, individuals in the highest versus lowest quartile of DDRRS were 33% less likely to have CKD (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.48-0.96, P for trend: 0.043). Conclusion: The present study's findings suggest that greater adherence to a dietary pattern with a higher score of DDRRS may be associated with a lower risk of CKD incident.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 8349160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685557

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in Bangladesh from ∼5% in 2001 to ∼13% in 2017/18 (∼8.4 million cases). The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was also found to be higher at 6% in 2017/18. However, very little is known about the management of diabetes assessed by diabetes awareness, treatment, and control. We aimed to estimate the age-standardised prevalence of awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes and its associated factors. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 1,174 Bangladeshi adults aged 18 years and older available from the most recent nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2017-18 were analysed. Outcomes were age-standardised prevalence of awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes, estimated using the direct standardisation. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes. Results: Of the respondents we analysed, 30.9% (95% CI, 28.2-33.6) were aware that they had the condition, and 28.2% (95% CI, 25.6-30.7) were receiving treatment. Among those treated for diabetes, 26.5% (95% CI, 19.5-33.5) had controlled diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes awareness, treatment, and control was lower in men than women. Factors positively associated with awareness and treatment were increasing age and hypertension, while factors negatively associated with awareness and treatment were being men and lower education. Factors associated with poor control were secondary education and residing in Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of poor management of diabetes in Bangladesh, especially in men. Less than one-third of the people with diabetes were aware of their condition. Just over one-fourth of the people with diabetes were on treatment, and among those who were treated only one-fourth had controlled diabetes. Interventions targeting younger people, in particular men and those with lower education, are urgently needed. Government policies that address structural factors including the cost of diabetes care and that strengthen diabetes management programmes within primary healthcare in Bangladesh are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino
13.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 9592969, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685604

RESUMO

Background: Previous observational studies and meta-analysis suggested a possible association between metformin use and reduced mortality in women with ovarian cancer (OC). However, clinical factors that may influence the relationship remain poorly evaluated. We performed an updated meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the above association and to observe the potential influences of study characteristics on the association. Methods: Relevant studies reporting the association between metformin use and mortality in women with OC in the multivariate adjusted model were identified by search of electronic databases that included PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The random-effects model was adopted to combine the results. Results: Nine studies including 10030 women with OC were included. Overall, metformin use was independently associated with reduced overall mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.93, P=0.01; I 2 = 62%). Consistent results were observed for studies comparing metformin users with nondiabetic women and studies comparing metformin users with diabetic women who did not use metformin (P for subgroup analysis = 0.70). Further subgroup analyses showed consistent results in studies with metformin use before or after the diagnosis of OC, with or without adjustment of body mass index (BMI) and with or without adjustment of concurrent medications (P for subgroup analyses all >0.10). Conclusion: Metformin use is associated with reduced mortality in women with OC, which may be independent of the diabetic status of the controls, timing of metformin use, or adjustment of BMI and concurrent medications. Clinical trials are needed to validate the potential benefits of metformin on survival of OC.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Metformina , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 8775641, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685609

RESUMO

Objective: We describe the clinical manifestations of supra-large range nonperfusion area (SLRNPA) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study. A total of 260 eyes of 236 patients with DR who underwent pars plana vitrectomy in the Department of Ophthalmology of Qingdao Municipal Hospital from February 2016 to June 2019 were enrolled. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed after surgery to determine whether SLRNPA or non-SLRNPA in DR was present. All demographic and clinical data were carefully collected. Results: Forty-one eyes of 22 patients were diagnosed with SLRNPA in DR (15.77% of all eyes). Compared to non-SLRNPA, SLRNPA patients were more likely to be male and younger with earlier DR onset, a smoking history, other comorbidities, and a higher HbA1c level. SLRNPA in DR eyes exhibited more neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and diabetic keratopathy (DK) than did other eyes. Such eyes were more likely to require anti-VEGF therapy before surgery or a silicone oil or a gas tamponade during surgery and to suffer from persistent corneal epithelial erosion and NVG recurrence after surgery. Conclusions: SLRNPA in DR is a severe status of DR. Treatment for DR patients with SLRNPA is difficult, and the prognosis is poor, so clinicians must thus pay more attention to SLRNPA in DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitrectomia
15.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 6962654, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685896

RESUMO

Objective: This study explores the effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) on the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients. Methods: Literatures were searched in PubMed, Embase, Medline, CENTRAL, and CNKI databases. These literatures included a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of ACEI and ARB among patients with DN. The endpoint event included the occurrence of ERSD. Risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to represent the combined effect size. A fixed-effect model was used to analyze if heterogeneity did not exist between literatures. If heterogeneity exists between literatures, a random-effect model was used to analyze. The source of heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. Results: A total of 11 literatures were included in the study. The RR of ESRD was 0.79 (95% CI (0.79, 0.90), Z = 3.58, P = 0.0003) in the patients treated with RAS blockers compared with placebo, and there was no heterogeneity between studies (Chi2 = 5.09, P = 0.88, I 2 = 0%). The funnel plot showed that the scatter point was biased to the left with publication bias. The RR of ESRD was 0.63 (95% CI (0.41, 0.95), Z = 2.18, P = 0.03) in the patients treated with ACEI compared with placebo. There was no heterogeneity between studies (Chi2 = 2.23, P = 0.95, I 2 = 0%). Compared with placebo, RR of ESRD among patients with ARB intervention was 0.81 (95% CI (0.71, 0.93), Z = 3.00, P = 0.003). There was no heterogeneity between studies (Chi2 = 1.49, P = 0.48, I 2 = 0%). Conclusion: ACEI and ARB can reduce the risk of ESRD among diabetic nephropathy patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Falência Renal Crônica , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(6): 697-700, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the changes of serum copeptin and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in patients with restenosis after stent implantation of symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Changyi people's Hospital, China, from February 2016 to November 2019. METHODOLOGY: A total of 76 patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis and stent implantation were divided into the restenosis group (n = 16) and the non-restenosis group (n=60) according to the intracranial artery restenosis occurred after the follow-up of 1 year. Levels of serum copeptin and S1P were compared between the groups. RESULT: There were significant differences in diabetes mellitus and hypertension between the two groups (p<0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). There were no significant differences in serum copeptin and S1P levels between the two groups before and 3 days after the operation (p = 0.927, 0.792, 0.776, and 0.906, respectively). Postoperative follow-up of one year, levels of serum copeptin in the restenosis group were higher than those in the non-restenosis group (p<0.001), and levels of serum S1P in the restenosis group were lower than those in the non-restenosis group (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: High serum copeptin level, low serum S1P level, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors promoting restenosis after stent implantation in patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis. KEY WORDS: Copeptin, Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), Symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis, Stent implantation, Restenosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Artérias , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Seguimentos , Glicopeptídeos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Lisofosfolipídeos , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Stents/efeitos adversos
17.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(6): 758-762, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anatomical and functional results of macular hole surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) without retinopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive comparative study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Ophthalmology, Health Sciences University Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey between January 2016 and December 2020. METHODOLOGY: This study included 141 eyes of 139 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for macular holes. The patients were divided into two groups according to the anatomic closure after surgery. Group 1 (cases) were patients with macular hole closure, and group 2 (controls) were patients whose macular hole was not closed. The patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension (HT) were compared. All patients did not have retinopathy. After surgery, the anatomical closure rate of the macular hole and the amount of increase in visual acuity were measured. Significance of the difference between the groups was evaluated using chi-square test. RESULTS: The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.30 logMAR before surgery and 0.7 logMAR after surgery (p<0.001). While BCVA was 1.3 logMAR before surgery in the group with DM, it was 0.7 logMAR after surgery (p<0.001). In the group with HT, BCVA was 1.3 logMAR before surgery and 0.7 logMAR after surgery (p<0.001). The anatomic success rate after surgery in patients with DM was similar to the group without DM (p=0.93). The anatomic success rate after surgery in patients with HT was similar to the group without HT (p=0.46). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of retinopathy there is no difference between the success rates of the macular hole surgery in patients with or without DM and HT. KEY WORDS: Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Vitrectomy, Macular hole.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Perfurações Retinianas , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Perfurações Retinianas/complicações , Perfurações Retinianas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitrectomia/métodos
18.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7887908, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694596

RESUMO

Microvascular problems of diabetes, such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema, can be seen in the eye's retina, and the retinal images are being used to screen for and diagnose the illness manually. Using deep learning to automate this time-consuming process might be quite beneficial. In this paper, a deep neural network, i.e., convolutional neural network, has been proposed for predicting diabetes through retinal images. Before applying the deep neural network, the dataset is preprocessed and normalised for classification. Deep neural network is constructed by using 7 layers, 5 kernels, and ReLU activation function, and MaxPooling is implemented to combine important features. Finally, the model is implemented to classify whether the retinal image belongs to a diabetic or nondiabetic class. The parameters used for evaluating the model are accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. The implemented model has achieved a training accuracy of more than 95%, which is much better than the other states of the art algorithms.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Algoritmos , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e7, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Diabetes remains a public health concern and the second cause of mortality in South Africa. Family history of diabetes increases risk of developing diabetes. Obesity amongst patients is associated with comorbidity, whilst amongst non-diabetic family members it is associated with developing diabetes. This study aimed at determining prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst patients with diabetes and non-diabetic family members. METHODS:  A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 200 patients and 200 non-diabetic family members were selected using systematic random sampling from rural clinics of Senwabarwana. Data were collected using close-ended questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured and interpreted according to World Health Organization guidelines. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Chi-square test was used to calculate associations at 95% confidence interval where a p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:  Most patients (75.5%) had comorbidities and hypertension was most prevalent (89.0%). Over half of the patients (57.0%) and 38.0% of family members were obese. Most patients (75.0%) and 58.0% of family members had abdominal obesity. CONCLUSION:  Patients with diabetes suffer from comorbidities are overweight and obese whilst evidence from various studies suggest that non-diabetic family members are at added risk of developing diabetes because of higher BMI and abdominal obesity. There is an urgent need to create a conducive environment that discourages sedentary behaviours through lifestyle modifications using the family centred approach, and involve family members in the care of patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Sobrepeso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Família , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
20.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but little is known regarding the association between CVD and specific types of pregnancy losses. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of pregnancy loss on the risk of subsequent CVD of any type. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study examines medical records between 1999 and 2014 for Medicaid beneficiaries born after 1982 who lived in a state that funds all reproductive health services, including induced abortion. Unique pregnancy outcomes, history of diabetes, hyperlipidaemia or CVD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9): 401-459) prior to their first pregnancy outcome for each woman. Cumulative incidence rates of a first CVD diagnosis following a first pregnancy were calculated for the observed period, exceeding 12 years. RESULTS: A history of pregnancy loss was associated with 38% (OR=1.38; 95% CI=1.37 to 1.40) higher risk of a CVD diagnosis in the period observed. After controlling for history of diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, age, year of first pregnancy, race, state of residence, months of eligibility, number of pregnancies, births, number of losses before and after the first live birth, exposure to any pregnancy loss was associated with an 18% (adjusted OR=1.18; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.21) increased risk of CVD. Our analyses also reveal an important temporal relationship between the CVD and pregnancy loss. Immediate and short-term increased CVD risk is more characteristic for women whose first pregnancy ended in live birth while a delayed and more prolonged increased risk of CVD is associated with a first pregnancy loss. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings corroborate previous research showing that pregnancy loss is an independent risk factor for CVD, especially for diseases more chronic in nature. Our research contributes to understanding the specific needs for cardiovascular health monitoring for pregnant women and developing a consistent, evidence-based screening tools for both short-term and long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
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