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1.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 58688, Jan.-Jun. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550244

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: El control y la evaluación de los niveles glucémicos de pacientes en estado críticos es un desafío y una competencia del equipo de enfermería. Por lo que, determinar las consecuencias de esta durante la hospitalización es clave para evidenciar la importancia del oportuno manejo. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre la glucemia inestable (hiperglucemia e hipoglucemia), el resultado de la hospitalización y la duración de la estancia de los pacientes en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Metodología: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo realizado con 62 pacientes a conveniencia en estado crítico entre marzo y julio de 2017. Se recogieron muestras diarias de sangre para medir la glucemia. Se evaluó la asociación de la glucemia inestable con la duración de la estancia y el resultado de la hospitalización mediante ji al cuadrado de Pearson. El valor de p<0.05 fue considerado significativo. Resultados: De las 62 personas participantes, 50 % eran hombres y 50 % mujeres. La edad media fue de 63.3 años (±21.4 años). La incidencia de glucemia inestable fue del 45.2 % y se asoció con una mayor duración de la estancia en la UCI (p<0.001) y una progresión a la muerte como resultado de la hospitalización (p=0.03). Conclusión: Entre quienes participaron, la glucemia inestable se asoció con una mayor duración de la estancia más prolongada y con progresión hacia la muerte, lo que refuerza la importancia de la actuación de enfermería para prevenir su aparición.


Resumo Introdução: O controle e avaliação dos níveis glicêmicos em pacientes críticos é um desafio e uma competência da equipe de enfermagem. Portanto, determinar as consequências da glicemia instável durante a hospitalização é chave para evidenciar a importância da gestão oportuna. Objetivo: Determinar a associação entre glicemia instável (hiperglicemia e hipoglicemia), os desfechos hospitalares e o tempo de permanência dos pacientes em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo realizado com 62 pacientes a conveniência em estado crítico entre março e julho de 2017. Foram coletadas amostras diariamente de sangue para medir a glicemia. A associação entre a glicemia instável com o tempo de permanência e o desfecho da hospitalização foi avaliada pelo teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. O valor de p <0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Das 62 pessoas participantes, 50% eram homens e 50% mulheres. A idade média foi de 63,3 anos (±21,4 anos). A incidência de glicemia instável foi de 45,2% e se associou a um tempo de permanência mais prolongado na UTI (p <0,001) e uma progressão para óbito como desfecho da hospitalização (p = 0,03). Conclusão: Entre os participantes, a glicemia instável se associou a um tempo mais longo de permanência e com progressão para óbito, enfatizando a importância da actuação da equipe de enfermagem para prevenir sua ocorrência.


Abstract Introduction: The control and evaluation of glycemic levels in critically ill patients is a challenge and a responsibility of the nursing team; therefore, determining the consequences of this during hospitalization is key to demonstrate the importance of timely management. Objective: To determine the relationship between unstable glycemia (hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia), hospital length of stay, and the hospitalization outcome of patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: A prospective cohort study conducted with 62 critically ill patients by convenience sampling between March and July 2017. Daily blood samples were collected to measure glycemia. The correlation of unstable glycemia with the hospital length of stay and the hospitalization outcome was assessed using Pearson's chi-square. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among the 62 patients, 50% were male and 50% were female. The mean age was 63.3 years (±21.4 years). The incidence of unstable glycemia was 45.2% and was associated with a longer ICU stay (p<0.001) and a progression to death as a hospitalization outcome (p=0.03). Conclusion: Among critically ill patients, unstable glycemia was associated with an extended hospital length of stay and a progression to death, emphasizing the importance of nursing intervention to prevent its occurrence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/enfermagem , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperglicemia/enfermagem
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249548, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717774

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Diabetes is associated with poorer prognosis of patients with breast cancer. The association between diabetes and adjuvant therapies for breast cancer remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively examine the associations of preexisting diabetes with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and endocrine therapy in low-income women with breast cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This population-based cohort study included women younger than 65 years diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer from 2007 through 2015, followed up through 2016, continuously enrolled in Medicaid, and identified from the linked Missouri Cancer Registry and Medicaid claims data set. Data were analyzed from January 2022 to October 2023. EXPOSURE: Preexisting diabetes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of utilization (yes/no), timely initiation (≤90 days postsurgery), and completion of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as adherence (medication possession ratio ≥80%) and persistence (<90-consecutive day gap) of endocrine therapy in the first year of treatment for women with diabetes compared with women without diabetes. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic and tumor factors. RESULTS: Among 3704 women undergoing definitive surgery, the mean (SD) age was 51.4 (8.6) years, 1038 (28.1%) were non-Hispanic Black, 2598 (70.1%) were non-Hispanic White, 765 (20.7%) had a diabetes history, 2369 (64.0%) received radiotherapy, 2237 (60.4%) had chemotherapy, and 2505 (67.6%) took endocrine therapy. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes were less likely to utilize radiotherapy (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86), receive chemotherapy (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.93), complete chemotherapy (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-0.99), and be adherent to endocrine therapy (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91). There were no significant associations of diabetes with utilization (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71-1.28) and persistence (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88-1.36) of endocrine therapy, timely initiation of radiotherapy (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.86-1.38) and chemotherapy (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.77-1.55), or completion of radiotherapy (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.91-1.71). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, preexisting diabetes was associated with subpar adjuvant therapies for breast cancer among low-income women. Improving diabetes management during cancer treatment is particularly important for low-income women with breast cancer who may have been disproportionately affected by diabetes and are likely to experience disparities in cancer treatment and outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Diabetes Mellitus , Pobreza , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Missouri/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 83(1): 2341988, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718274

RESUMO

Many people with diabetes mellitus experience minimal or no complications. Our objective was to determine the proportion of Alaska Native people who experienced four major complications or mortality and to identify factors that may be associated with these outcomes. We used records in a diabetes registry and clinical and demographic variables in our analyses. We used logistic regression and Cox Proportional Hazards models to evaluate associations of these parameters with death and complications that occurred prior to 2013. The study included 591 Alaska Native people with non-type 1 diabetes mellitus, diagnosed between 1986 and 1992. Over 60% of people in this study remained free of four major diabetes-related complications for the remainder of life or throughout the approximately 20-year study period. Lower BMI, higher age at diagnosis of diabetes, and use of at least one diabetes medication were associated with death and a composite of four complications. A majority of Alaska Native people with DM had none of four major complications over a 20-year period. Lower BMI and use of diabetes medications were associated with higher hazard for some deleterious outcomes. This suggests that goals in care of elders should be carefully individualised. In addition, we discuss several programme factors that we believe contributed to favourable outcomes.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Alaska/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nativos do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/etnologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores Etários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 435, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720379

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a significant global public health challenge, with a rising prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality. Cell therapy has evolved over time and holds great potential in diabetes treatment. In the present review, we discussed the recent progresses in cell-based therapies for diabetes that provides an overview of islet and stem cell transplantation technologies used in clinical settings, highlighting their strengths and limitations. We also discussed immunomodulatory strategies employed in cell therapies. Therefore, this review highlights key progresses that pave the way to design transformative treatments to improve the life quality among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Diabetes Mellitus , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Animais
5.
J Diabetes ; 16(5): e13555, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between macronutrient intake and diabetes is unclear. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey to explore the association between macronutrient intake trajectories and diabetes risk in this study. METHODS: We included 6755 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline and participated in at least three surveys. The energy supply ratio of carbohydrate, protein, and fat was further calculated from dietary data; different macronutrient trajectories were determined using multitrajectory models; and multiple Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between these trajectories and diabetes. RESULTS: We found three multitrajectories: decreased low carbohydrate-increased moderate protein-increased high fat (DLC-IMP-IHF), decreased high carbohydrate-moderate protein-increased low fat (DHC-MP-ILF), and balanced-macronutrients (BM). Compared to the BM trajectory, DHC-MP-ILF trajectories were significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.228, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.571-6.632), whereas no association between DLC-IMP-IHF trajectories and diabetes was found in our study (HR: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.351-1.392). CONCLUSIONS: The downward trend of high carbohydrate and the increasing trend of low fat increased the risk of diabetes in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Nutrientes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Nutrientes/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , População do Leste Asiático
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302858, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes has been increasing steadily over the past decade in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with about three-quarters of people living with the disease globally residing in these countries. Patient satisfaction can be used as a proxy measure of overall facility performance, and its use has been recommended for determining the quality of services provided by healthcare centres and organizations. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators towards satisfaction with diabetes care among patients attending public diabetic clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was carried out among people with diabetes attending public diabetic clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Using a purposeful sampling technique, 35 people with diabetes were interviewed from May 2023 to July 2023 with the principles of saturation guiding sample size determination. A semi-structured face-to-face interview guide was employed in data collection. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a conventional content analysis approach after translation. NVivo 12.0 computer software was employed to organize and code the data. RESULTS: A total of 35 participants were enrolled in this study with a mean (±SD) age of 58.5 (±13.76) years. Four predominant themes and 12 categories were identified after data analysis including two barriers and two facilitators toward patients' satisfaction with diabetes care. Financial constraints and unfavourable clinic environments were identified as barriers. Furthermore, good provider-patient relationships and continuity of care emerged as facilitators. CONCLUSION: Barriers and facilitators to patients' satisfaction with diabetes identified in this study are greatly determined by socio-economic and cultural conditions, highlighting the role of the healthcare delivery systems and allied stakeholders in regulatory and policy development to address the existing barriers and consolidate the proven facilitators.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Satisfação do Paciente , Humanos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Idoso , Adulto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302422, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last three decades, much effort has been invested in measuring and improving the quality of diabetes care. We assessed the association between adherence to diabetes quality indicators and all-cause mortality in the primary care setting. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based, historical cohort study of all people aged 45-80 with pharmacologically-treated diabetes in 2005 (n = 222,235). Data on annual performance of quality indicators (including indicators for metabolic risk factor management and glycemic control) and vital status were retrieved from electronic medical records of the four Israeli health maintenance organizations. Cox proportional hazards and time-dependent models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality by degree of adherence to quality indicators. RESULTS: During 2,000,052 person-years of follow-up, 35.8% of participants died. An inverse dose-response association between the degree of adherence and mortality was shown for most of the quality indicators. Participants who were not tested for proteinuria or did not visit an ophthalmologist during the first-5-years of follow-up had HRs of 2.60 (95%CI:2.49-2.69) and 2.09 (95%CI:2.01-2.16), respectively, compared with those who were fully adherent. In time-dependent analyses, not measuring LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, HbA1c, or HbA1c>9% were similarly associated with mortality (HRs ≈1.5). The association of uncontrolled blood pressure with mortality was modified by age, with increased mortality shown for those with controlled blood pressure at older ages (≥65 years). CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal adherence to diabetes quality indicators is associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Primary care professionals need to be supported by health care systems to perform quality indicators.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Idoso , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Masculino , Feminino , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Israel/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078431, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the time course of medication adherence and some of the factors involved in this process in undocumented migrants with chronic diseases. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A big non-governmental organisation in Milano, Italy, giving medical assistance to undocumented migrants. PARTICIPANTS: 1918 patients, 998 females and 920 males, with at least one chronic condition (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mental health disorders) seen over a period of 10 years (2011-2020). Their mean age was 49.2±13 years. RESULTS: Adherence to medications decreased over 1 year in all patients. This was more evident during the first 2 months of treatment. Patients on only one medication were less adherent than those on more than one medication; at 6 months the percentage of patients with high adherence was 33% vs 57% (p<0.0001) for diabetes, 15% vs 46% (p<0.0001) for mental disorders and 35% vs 59% (p<0.0001) for CVDs. Patients with mental disorders had the lowest adherence: 25% at 6 months and 3% at 1 year. Mental disorders, when present as comorbidities, greatly reduced the probability of being highly adherent: risk ratio (RR) 0.72 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.91; p=0.006) at 3 months, RR 0.77, (95% CI 0.59 to 1.01; p=0.06) at 6 months, RR 0.35 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.94; p=0.04) at 1 year. This was especially evident for patients with CVDs, whose percentage of high adherents decreased to 30% (p=0.0008) at 6 months and to 3% (p=0.01) at 1 year. We also noted that highly adherent patients usually were those most frequently seen by a doctor. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase medication adherence of undocumented migrants with chronic diseases are necessary, particularly in the first 2 months after beginning treatment. These should be aimed at people-centred care and include more outpatient consultations. Educational interventions should especially be taken into consideration for patients on monotherapy.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Transtornos Mentais , Migrantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Adulto , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1274, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demographic and epidemiological dynamics characterized by lower fertility rates and longer life expectancy, as well as higher prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, represent important challenges for policy makers around the World. We investigate the risk factors that influence the diagnosis of diabetes in the Mexican population aged 50 years and over, including childhood poverty. RESULTS: This work employs a probabilistic regression model with information from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of 2012 and 2018. Our results are consistent with the existing literature and should raise strong concerns. The findings suggest that risk factors that favor the diagnosis of diabetes in adulthood are: age, family antecedents of diabetes, obesity, and socioeconomic conditions during both adulthood and childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty conditions before the age 10, with inter-temporal poverty implications, are associated with a higher probability of being diagnosed with diabetes when older and pose extraordinary policy challenges.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Criança , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
10.
Otol Neurotol ; 45(5): 572-579, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies on incidence and prevalence of vestibular disorders tend to focus on small pockets of patients recruited from specialized clinics and often exclude measures of vestibular function. The objectives of the study were to characterize patients with common vestibular disorders, estimate the prevalence of common vestibular disorders, and ascertain whether patients with vestibular disorders experience increased risks of falls and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study includes both inpatient and outpatient routine clinical care data culled from a nationally representative, population-based sample. Patients were included if their record in the TriNetX Diamond Cohort comprised at least one vestibular function test or vestibular diagnosis. The main outcome measures were diagnosis with a vestibular disorder, a fall, or a common medical comorbidity (e.g., diabetes, cerebrovascular disease). RESULTS: The cohort includes n = 4,575,724 patients, of which 55% (n = 2,497,136) had a minimum of one vestibular diagnosis. Patients with vestibular diagnoses were 61.3 ± 16.6 years old (mean ± standard deviation), 67% women, 28% White race (69% unknown race), and 30% of non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (66% unknown ethnicity). The prevalence of vestibular disorders was estimated at 2.98% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.98-2.98%). Patients with vestibular diagnoses experienced a significantly greater odds of falls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.05), cerebrovascular disease (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.40-1.43), ischemic heart disease (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.16-1.19), and diabetes (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.13-1.15), among others. DISCUSSION: Vestibular disorders affect an estimated 3% of the U.S. population, after weighting. Patients with these disorders are at greater risk for many common, consequential medical conditions.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Comorbidade , Doenças Vestibulares , Humanos , Doenças Vestibulares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Adulto , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2024: 2935795, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712311

RESUMO

Diabetes is considered a public health problem worldwide, fostered by population growth, an increase in the overall quality of life, changes in dietary patterns, modifications in lifestyle habits, and the natural process of getting older. To properly control diabetes, the transtheoretical model (TTM) may be useful. This scoping review is aimed at identifying TTM interventions for diabetes. The study followed Arksey and O'Malley's six steps in conducting the scoping review. Four main databases (PubMed, Central, JSTOR, and ScienceDirect), Google Scholar, Google, and a reference list of identified articles were searched for literature. The study included peer-reviewed articles published online from 2000 to 2023 and published in the English language. At the end of the search, 3,514 entries were found in the four main databases, and 23 records were identified through Google, Google Scholar searches, and reference lists. After a thorough screening, 22 records were used for this review. The study found that the primary interventions based on the TTM for managing diabetes and prediabetes were educational materials to promote physical activity among diabetes and prediabetes individuals, health education, exercise, motivational interviews, self-tracking, and dietary changes. Further interventions on diabetes and prediabetes management could adopt the identified transtheoretical interventions to improve the health of their patients.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 160, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) represents a major challenge for public health, with hypertension and diabetes being the main causes of its occurrence. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Peruvian patients with CKD. METHODS: A systematic search for studies about CKD in Peru was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Virtual Health Library (VHL), and Scielo from 2011 to December 2023. The protocol of this research was registered in the international registry of systematic reviews, the Prospective International Registry of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), with registration number CRD42023425118. Study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed independently by two authors. Study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Statistical Meta-Analysis Assessment and Review Instrument. A random-effects model with inverse variance weighting was used to estimate the combined prevalence of HTN and DM in Peruvian patients with CKD. To analyze data heterogeneity, the I2 statistical test was used. Statistical analysis was performed with R version 4.2.3. RESULTS: A total of 1425 studies were retrieved, of which 23 were included in the final meta-analysis. A total of 43,321 patients with CKD were evaluated, of whom 52.22% were male and 47.78% were female. The combined prevalence of HTN in Peruvian patients with CKD was 38% (95% CI: 30-46%; 41,131 participants; 21 studies, I2 = 99%, p = 0), while the combined prevalence of DM in Peruvian patients with CKD was 33% (95% CI: 26-40%; 43,321 participants; 23 studies, I2 = 99%, p = 0). CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of Peruvian patients with CKD have HTN and DM. These findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention and control measures for these chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Peruvian population, such as promoting healthy lifestyles, encouraging early detection and proper management of hypertension and diabetes, and improving access to medical care and health services.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 66, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and lipid disorders are both known to be strongly associated with the development of diabetes, however, the indirect effect of lipid parameters in the BMI-related diabetes risk is currently unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of lipid parameters in the association of BMI with diabetes risk. METHODS: We assessed the association of diabetes risk with BMI, as well as lipid parameters including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-CF and LDL-CS), triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol(TC), remnant cholesterol(RC), non-HDL-C, and combined indices of lipid parameters with HDL-C (RC/HDL-C ratio, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio, non-HDL/HDL-C ratio, LDL/HDL-C ratio) using data from 15,453 subjects in the NAGALA project. Mediation models were used to explore the mediating role of lipid parameters in the association of BMI with diabetes risk, and mediation percentages were calculated for quantifying the strength of the indirect effects. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare the accuracy of BMI and BMI combined with lipid parameters in predicting incident diabetes. RESULTS: Multivariate regression models, adjusted for confounding factors, demonstrated robust associations of lipid parameters, BMI, with diabetes risk, with the exception of TC, LDL-CF, LDL-CS, and non-HDL-C. Mediation analysis showed that lipid parameters except TC, LDL-CF, LDL-CS, and Non-HDL-C were involved in and mediated the association of BMI with diabetes risk, with the largest mediation percentage being the RC/HDL-C ratio, which was as high as 40%; it is worth mentioning that HDL-C and HDL-C-related lipid ratio parameters also play an important mediating role in the association between BMI and diabetes, with the mediator proportion being greater than 30%. Finally, based on the ROC results, we found that the prediction performance of all lipid parameters in the current study except TC was significantly improved when combined with BMI. CONCLUSION: Our fresh findings suggested that lipid parameters partially mediated the association of BMI with diabetes risk; this result indicated that in the context of diabetes risk screening and disease management, it is important to not only monitor BMI but also pay attention to lipid parameters, particularly HDL-C and HDL-C-related lipid ratio parameters.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Lipídeos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lipídeos/sangue , Análise de Mediação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Seguimentos , Prognóstico
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 525, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many health professions education programs involve people with lived experience as expert speakers. Such presentations may help learners better understand the realities of living with chronic illness or experiencing an acute health problem. However, lectures from only one or a small number of people may not adequately illustrate the perspectives and experiences of a diverse patient cohort. Additionally, logistical constraints such as public health restrictions or travel barriers may impede in-person presentations, particularly among people who have more restrictions on their time. Health professions education programs may benefit from understanding the potential effects of online patient-led presentations with a diverse set of speakers. We aimed to explore whether patient-led online learning modules about diabetes care would influence learners' responses to clinical scenarios and to collect learners' feedback about the modules. METHOD: This within-subjects randomized experiment involved 26 third-year medical students at Université Laval in Quebec, Canada. Participation in the experiment was an optional component within a required course. Prior to the intervention, participating learners responded to three clinical scenarios randomly selected from a set of six such scenarios. Each participant responded to the other three scenarios after the intervention. The intervention consisted of patient-led online learning modules incorporating segments of narratives from 21 patient partners (11 racialized or Indigenous) describing why and how clinicians could provide patient-centered care. Working with clinical teachers and psychometric experts, we developed a scoring grid based on the biopsychosocial model and set 0.6 as a passing score. Independent evaluators, blinded to whether each response was collected before or after the intervention, then scored learners' responses to scenarios using the grid. We used Fisher's Exact test to compare proportions of passing scores before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Learners' overall percentage of passing scores prior to the intervention was 66%. Following the intervention, the percentage of passing scores was 76% (p = 0.002). Overall, learners expressed appreciation and other positive feedback regarding the patient-led online learning modules. DISCUSSION: Findings from this experiment suggest that learners can learn to provide better patient-centered care by watching patient-led online learning modules created in collaboration with a diversity of patient partners.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Quebeque , Adulto , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Participação do Paciente , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos
15.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 64, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a novel hematological parameter to assess systemic inflammation. Prior investigations have indicated that an increased NLR may serve as a potential marker for pathological states such as cancer and atherosclerosis. However, there exists a dearth of research investigating the correlation between NLR levels and mortality in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes. Consequently, this study aims to examine the connection between NLR and all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality in the population of the United States (US) with hyperglycemia status. METHODS: Data were collected from a total of 20,270 eligible individuals enrolled for analysis, spanning ten cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2018. The subjects were categorized into three groups based on tertiles of NLR levels. The association of NLR with both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Restricted cubic splines were used to visualize the nonlinear relationship between NLR levels and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in subjects with diabetes after accounting for all relevant factors. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 8.6 years, a total of 1909 subjects with diabetes died, with 671 deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). And over a period of 8.46 years, 1974 subjects with prediabetes died, with 616 cases due to CVD. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing high to low tertile of NLR in diabetes subjects were found to be 1.37 (95% CI, 1.19-1.58) for all-cause mortality and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.29-2.05) for CVD mortality. And the correlation between high to low NLR tertile and heightened susceptibility to mortality from any cause (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03-1.43) and CVD mortality (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.04) remained statistically significant (both p-values for trend < 0.05) in prediabetes subjects. The 10-year cumulative survival probability was determined to be 70.34%, 84.65% for all-cause events, and 86.21%, 94.54% for cardiovascular events in top NLR tertile of diabetes and prediabetes individuals, respectively. Furthermore, each incremental unit in the absolute value of NLR was associated with a 16%, 12% increase in all-cause mortality and a 25%, 24% increase in cardiovascular mortality among diabetes and prediabetes individuals, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this prospective cohort study conducted in the US indicate a positive association of elevated NLR levels with heightened risks of overall and cardiovascular mortality among adults with diabetes and prediabetes. However, potential confounding factors for NLR and the challenge of monitoring NLR's fluctuations over time should be further focused.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Estado Pré-Diabético/mortalidade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Feminino , Neutrófilos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Prognóstico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Causas de Morte , Idoso , Contagem de Leucócitos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731797

RESUMO

Adipocyte P2 (aP2), also known as FABP4, is an adipokine that adipose tissue produces and expresses in macrophages. Its primary role is to facilitate the transportation of fatty acids across cell membranes. Numerous studies have reported associations between FABP4 and the development of metabolic disorders. However, there is limited knowledge regarding FABP4 expression in diabetes and obesity, especially about different age groups, genders, and ethnicities. This study aims to investigate the association between FABP4 levels, diabetes mellitus, and obesity within various ethnic groups. We measured plasma FABP4 concentrations in a cohort of 2083 patients from the KDEP study and gathered anthropometric data. Additionally, we collected and analyzed clinical, biochemical, and glycemic markers using multivariate regression analysis. The average FABP4 concentration was significantly higher in female participants than in males (18.8 ng/mL vs. 14.4 ng/mL, p < 0.001, respectively), and in those over 50 years old compared to those under 50 years of age (19.3 ng/mL vs. 16.2 ng/mL, p < 0.001, respectively). In this study, significant positive associations were found between the plasma level of FABP4 and obesity markers: BMI (r = 0.496, p < 0.001), hip circumference (r = 0.463, p < 0.001), and waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.436, p < 0.001). Similar observations were also seen with glycemic markers, which included HbA1c (r = 0.126, p < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (r = 0.184, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (r = 0.326, p < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.333, p < 0.001). Importantly, these associations remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Furthermore, FABP4 levels were negatively associated with male gender (ß: -3.85, 95% CI: -4.92, -2.77, p < 0.001), and positively associated with age (ß: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.183, p < 0.001), BMI (ß: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.644, 0.836, p < 0.001), and fasting insulin (ß: 0.115, 95% CI: 0.091, 0.138, p < 0.001). In this study, plasma FABP4 levels were significantly higher in diabetic and obese participants, and they were strongly influenced by age, gender, and ethnicity. These findings suggest that FABP4 may serve as a valuable prognostic and diagnostic marker for obesity and diabetes, particularly among female patients, individuals over 50 years old, and specific ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo , Obesidade , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Etnicidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo
17.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1381319, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742118

RESUMO

Introduction: Inflammation of the pancreas contributes to the development of diabetes mellitus. Although it is well-accepted that local inflammation leads to a progressive loss of functional beta cell mass that eventually causes the onset of the disease, the development of islet inflammation remains unclear. Methods: Here, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to explore the cell type-specific molecular response of primary human pancreatic cells exposed to an inflammatory environment. Results: We identified a duct subpopulation presenting a unique proinflammatory signature among all pancreatic cell types. Discussion: Overall, the findings of this study point towards a role for duct cells in the propagation of islet inflammation, and in immune cell recruitment and activation, which are key steps in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Ductos Pancreáticos , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Ductos Pancreáticos/metabolismo , Ductos Pancreáticos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo
18.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 33, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding resets insulin resistance caused by pregnancy however, studies on the association between breastfeeding and diabetes mellitus (DM) have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the risk of DM according to breastfeeding duration in large-scale population-based retrospective study. In addition, machine-learning prediction models for DM and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were developed to further evaluate this association. METHODS: We used the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys database, a nationwide and population-based health survey from 2010 to 2020. We included 15,946 postmenopausal women with a history of delivery, whom we divided into three groups according to the average breastfeeding duration: (1) no breastfeeding, (2) < 12 months breastfeeding, and (3) ≥ 12 months breastfeeding. Prediction models for DM and HbA1c were developed using an artificial neural network, decision tree, logistic regression, Naïve Bayes, random forest, and support vector machine. RESULTS: In total, 2248 (14.1%) women had DM and 14,402 (90.3%) had a history of breastfeeding. The prevalence of DM was the lowest in the < 12 breastfeeding group (no breastfeeding vs. < 12 months breastfeeding vs. ≥ 12 months breastfeeding; 161 [10.4%] vs. 362 [9.0%] vs. 1,725 [16.7%], p < 0.001). HbA1c levels were also the lowest in the < 12 breastfeeding group (HbA1c: no breastfeeding vs. < 12 months breastfeeding vs. ≥ 12 months breastfeeding; 5.9% vs. 5.9% vs. 6.1%, respectively, p < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, the risk of DM was significantly increased in both, the no breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.29; 95% CI 1.29, 1.62]) and ≥ 12 months of breastfeeding groups (aOR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01, 1.37) compared to that in the < 12 months breastfeeding group. The accuracy and the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of the DM prediction model were 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. The average breastfeeding duration was ranked among the top 15 determinants of DM, which supported the strong association between breastfeeding duration and DM. This association was also observed in a prediction model for HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Women who did not breasted had a higher risk of developing DM than those who breastfed for up to 12 months.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Diabetes Mellitus , Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Idoso , Menopausa , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência
20.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 12(3)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719509

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the causal relationship between diabetes and frozen shoulder by investigating the target proteins associated with diabetes and frozen shoulder in the human plasma proteome through Mendelian randomization (MR) and to reveal the corresponding pathological mechanisms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We employed the MR approach for the purposes of establishing: (1) the causal link between diabetes and frozen shoulder; (2) the plasma causal proteins associated with frozen shoulder; (3) the plasma target proteins associated with diabetes; and (4) the causal relationship between diabetes target proteins and frozen shoulder causal proteins. The MR results were validated and consolidated through colocalization analysis and protein-protein interaction network. RESULTS: Our MR analysis demonstrated a significant causal relationship between diabetes and frozen shoulder. We found that the plasma levels of four proteins were correlated with frozen shoulder at the Bonferroni significance level (p<3.03E-5). According to colocalization analysis, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHLH) was moderately correlated with the genetic variance of frozen shoulder (posterior probability=0.68), while secreted frizzled-related protein 4 was highly correlated with the genetic variance of frozen shoulder (posterior probability=0.97). Additionally, nine plasma proteins were activated during diabetes-associated pathologies. Subsequent MR analysis of nine diabetic target proteins with four frozen shoulder causal proteins indicated that insulin receptor subunit alpha, interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha, interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein, glutathione peroxidase 7, and PTHLH might contribute to the onset and progression of frozen shoulder induced by diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a causal relationship between diabetes and frozen shoulder, highlighting the pathological pathways through which diabetes influences frozen shoulder.


Assuntos
Bursite , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteoma , Humanos , Proteoma/análise , Bursite/sangue , Bursite/genética , Bursite/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Prognóstico , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino
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