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1.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 155-157, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763555

RESUMO

A 34-year-old male with a 9+ year history of right sided abdominal pain, associated diarrhea and a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was referred for physical therapy and chiropractic care at a multidisciplinary primary care clinic. Multiple evaluations by various providers resulted in multiple tests and numerous medications without substantial relief in symptoms. Five physical therapy visits and three sessions of chiropractic care resulted in 90% improvement in subjective pain report and 60-70% reduction in diarrhea frequency. At a 6 month follow up phone visit, his symptoms had continued to decrease. While limited as a case study, this report may illustrate a potential somatovisceral relationship and subsequent reduction in gastrointestinal symptoms that can be addressed with conservative care.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal , Diarreia , Terapia por Exercício , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Diarreia/terapia , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Manipulação Quiroprática/métodos , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Doença Crônica
2.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 472-479, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of Peitu Yimu(strengthening spleen and soothing liver) acupuncture on intestinal mucosal barrier function and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)/CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) pathway in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), so as to explore its underlying mechanism in alleviating IBS-D. METHODS: Forty female SD rats were randomly divided into blank, model, electroacupuncture (EA), and agonist groups, with 10 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, rats in the other groups were given folium sennae infusion by gavage combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to establish IBS-D model. Rats in the EA group received acupuncture at "Tianshu"(ST25) and EA at "Zusanli"(ST36) and "Taichong"(LR3) (2 Hz/15 Hz) on one side for 20 min, with the side chosen alternately every other day, for 14 days after modeling. Rats in the agonist group received acupuncture 30 min after intravenous injection of CRFR1 agonist urocortin, with the same manipulation method and time as the EA group. Before and after intervention, visceral pain threshold and stool Bristol scores were measured. Elevated plus maze test and open field test were used to detect anxiety and depression like behavior of rats. ELISA was used to detect the contents of CRF and CRFR1 in rats serum. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the positive expressions of CRF, CRFR1, zonula occludens protein 1(ZO-1), occlusal protein(Occludin), and closure protein 1 (Claudin-1) in colon tissue. RESULTS: Compared with the blank group, the visceral pain threshold, open arm time percentage (OT%), total distance of movement in the open field test, and positive expression of ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1 in colon were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), while Bristol stool scores, serum CRF and CRFR1 contents, and positive expressions of CRF and CRFR1 in colon were increased (P<0.01) in the model group. After intervention and compared with the model group, the visceral pain threshold, OT%, total distance of movement in the open field test, and positive expressions of ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1 in colon were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), while Bristol stool scores, serum CRF and CRFR1 contents, and positive expressions of CRF and CRFR1 in colon were decreased (P<0.01) in the EA group;the Bristol stool scores, serum CRF content, and CRF positive expression in colon were significantly decreased in the agonist group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Peitu Yimu acupuncture can significantly improve visceral hypersensitivity and anxiety-depression state in IBS-D rats. Its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of CRF/CRFR1 pathway and restoration of intestinal tight junction protein expressions.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Diarreia , Mucosa Intestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina , Animais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Ratos , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/genética , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Pontos de Acupuntura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Claudina-1/genética
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 322, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common public health problem and the third leading cause of death in the world among children under the age of five years. An estimated 2 billion cases and 1.9 million deaths are recorded among children under the age of five years every year. It causes body fluid loss and electrolyte imbalance. Even though, early initiation of recommended homemade fluid is a simple and effective approach to prevent diarrhea-related complications and mortality of children, recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea is still low in sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea and associated factors among children under five in sub-Saharan African countries. METHOD: The most recent Demographic and Health Survey dataset of 21 sub-Saharan African countries from 2015 to 2022 was used for data analysis. A total of 33,341 participants were included in this study as a weighted sample. Associated factors were determined using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Significant factors in the multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model were declared significant at p-values < 0.05. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (CI) were used to interpret the results. RESULT: The overall recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea among children under five in sub-Saharan African countries was 19.08% (95% CI = 18.66, 19.51), which ranged from 4.34% in Burundi to 72.53% in South Africa. In the multivariable analysis, being an educated mother/caregiver (primary and secondary level) (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27) and (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.1.47), the primary and secondary level of fathers education (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.71) and (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.1.68), having antenatal care follow-up (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.33), having multiple children (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28), and being an urban dweller (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27) were factors associated with recommended homemade fluid utilization. CONCLUSION: The overall recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea was low. Individual and community-level variables were associated with recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, special consideration should be given to rural dwellers and caregivers who have three and below children. Furthermore, better to strengthen the antenatal care service, mother/caregiver education, and father's education to enhance recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hidratação , Humanos , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Hidratação/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Análise Multinível , Modelos Logísticos , Recém-Nascido
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 160, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) refers to symptoms of diarrhea that cannot be explained by other causes after the use of antibiotics. AAD is thought to be caused by a disruption of intestinal ecology due to antibiotics. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is a treatment method that involves transferring microbial communities from the feces of healthy individuals into the patient's gut. METHOD: We selected 23 AAD patients who received FMT treatment in our department. Before FMT, we documented patients' bowel movement frequency, abdominal symptoms, routine blood tests, and inflammatory markers, and collected fecal samples for 16S rRNA sequencing to observe changes in the intestinal microbiota. Patients' treatment outcomes were followed up 1 month and 3 months after FMT. RESULTS: Out of the 23 AAD patients, 19 showed a clinical response to FMT with alleviation of abdominal symptoms. Among them, 82.61% (19/23) experienced relief from diarrhea, 65% (13/20) from abdominal pain, 77.78% (14/18) from abdominal distension, and 57.14% (4/7) from bloody stools within 1 month after FMT. Inflammatory markers IL-8 and CRP significantly decreased after FMT, but there were no noticeable changes in WBC, IL-6, and TNF-α before and after transplantation. After FMT, the abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium increased in patients' fecal samples, while the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella and Veillonella decreased. CONCLUSION: FMT has a certain therapeutic effect on AAD, and can alleviate abdominal symptoms and change the intestinal microbiota of patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Diarreia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Adulto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idoso , Resultado do Tratamento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 505, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the advantages of probiotics has attracted increasing interest based on the number of publications, products, and public awareness of their benefits. This review evaluated the role of probiotics (single and multiple regimens) as an additional regimen to treat common infectious diseases, including Helicobacter. pylori, diarrheal infections, urinary tract infections (UTIs), upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and HIV infections. METHODS: We searched randomized controlled trials from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane and identified 6,950 studies. Duplicates were removed, and titles and abstracts were filtered. Bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for Randomized Trials (ROB 1.0 and 2.0). The certainty of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Data were extracted and meta-analysis was performed using RevMan. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies were included in this study (22 H. pylori studies, 2 diarrheal infection studies, 6 UTI studies, and 2 HIV infection studies). There was no study on URTI. Probiotics, in addition to primary treatment, could improve the eradication of H. pylori versus the control (RR: 1.09; 95% CI:1.04 - 1.13, p value = 0.001) and achieve a cure range of Nugent score in UTI patients (RR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.89, p value = 0.04). For eradicating H. pylori infection, subgroup analysis based on the therapy regimen showed that standard triple therapy was slightly superior compared to quadruple therapy in eradicating H. pylori (RR: 1.14 vs. 1.01, respectively). Single strain probiotics showed a similar effect to multiple strain probiotic regimens (both had an RR of 1.09). The effect estimates of the use of single strain probiotics as adjuvant therapy in eradicating H. pylori and the use of probiotics in UTI had a high certainty of evidence. Meta-analysis was not performed for infectious diarrheal because there were only two eligible studies with different probiotic supplementations and outcome parameters. Nonetheless, they showed that the diarrheal incidence was lower and complete remission of diarrheal was higher after the regimen of probiotics. Similarly, a meta-analysis was not performed for HIV infection because the two eligible studies used different designs and comparators with contradicting findings. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed beneficial use of single strain probiotics as adjuvant therapy in eradicating H. pylori and the use of probiotics in UTI. Probiotic supplementation might not be beneficial for patients given a quadruple therapy. Single-strain and multi-strain probiotic regimens had similar effects in increasing the eradication rate of H. pylori. Our study also suggested that the benefits of probiotics as an additional regimen in infectious diarrheal and HIV infections remain unclear; more studies are needed to confirm the benefits.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Probióticos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(18): e38075, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701274

RESUMO

Sickle cell anemia (SCA), a hereditary hemoglobinopathy, is characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin and has long been associated with a wide range of complications. While much attention has been given to the condition hematological aspects, gastrointestinal complications, particularly diarrhea, have been relatively understudied and often overlooked. This publication delves into the management of gastrointestinal challenges, with a focus on diarrhea, in individuals living with SCA. The pathophysiology of SCA is intrinsically linked to gastrointestinal complications, and diarrhea is a common manifestation of this condition. This abstract publication outlines the key elements discussed in the full-length work, which includes the clinical presentation of diarrhea in these patients, the diagnostic tools used to evaluate the condition, and various management strategies to alleviate symptoms and enhance the overall quality of life for affected individuals. The paper emphasizes the importance of patient education, offering healthcare professionals valuable insights into how to inform and support patients in managing their conditions effectively. It also highlights the need for continued research to further our understanding of gastrointestinal challenges in SCA and to identify potential areas for future therapeutic interventions. Ultimately, the comprehensive management of diarrhea in individuals with SCA is vital for their overall well-being. This publication serves as a valuable resource for healthcare providers, researchers, and caregivers in addressing the gastrointestinal challenges that accompany SCA, ultimately working toward a better quality of life for those affected by this condition.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Diarreia , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
7.
Malar J ; 23(1): 147, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Uganda, village health workers (VHWs) manage childhood illness under the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy. Care is provided for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in a community setting. Currently, there is limited evidence on the cost-effectiveness of iCCM in comparison to health facility-based management for childhood illnesses. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of the management of childhood illness using the VHW-led iCCM against health facility-based services in rural south-western Uganda. METHODS: Data on the costs and effectiveness of VHW-led iCCM versus health facility-based services for the management of childhood illness was collected in one sub-county in rural southwestern Uganda. Costing was performed using the ingredients approach. Effectiveness was measured as the number of under-five children appropriately treated. The Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was calculated from the provider perspective. RESULTS: Based on the decision model for this study, the cost for 100 children treated was US$628.27 under the VHW led iCCM and US$87.19 for the health facility based services, while the effectiveness was 77 and 71 children treated for VHW led iCCM and health facility-based services, respectively. An ICER of US$6.67 per under five-year child treated appropriately for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea was derived for the provider perspective. CONCLUSION: The health facility based services are less costly when compared to the VHW led iCCM per child treated appropriately. The VHW led iCCM was however more effective with regard to the number of children treated appropriately for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea. Considering the public health expenditure per capita for Uganda as the willingness to pay threshold, VHW led iCCM is a cost-effective strategy. VHW led iCCM should, therefore, be enhanced and sustained as an option to complement the health facility-based services for treatment of childhood illness in rural contexts.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , População Rural , Uganda , Humanos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Administração de Caso/economia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Malária/economia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/economia , Pneumonia/economia , Pneumonia/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303193, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the second leading cause of under-five deaths claiming half a million children every year. Most of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) has been described as the most effective treatment of diarrhea. However, only 36% of children with diarrhea received ORS in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the factors associated with ORS use for children with diarrhea in the sub-region. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data sets of 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used in this study. The data involved 30,102 under-five children with diarrhea. The multivariable analysis involved binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Prevalence of ORS use was 38% in sub-Saharan Africa with countries such as Namibia (71.8%), Zambia (66.4%) and Malawi (63.8%) having the highest rates. Use of ORS was most common among children whose mothers had secondary or higher education (45%), were exposed to media (41%) and attended antenatal care (41%). ORS use was significantly associated with secondary or higher education (OR = 1.63; 95%CI: [1.47-1.81]; p<0.001), exposure to media (OR = 1.17; 95%CI: [1.07-1.27]; p<0.001), antenatal care attendance (OR = 2.33; 95%CI: [1.08-1.27]; p<0.001), child's age (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: [1.35-1.59]; p<0.001), child's size at birth (OR = 1.08; 95%CI: [1.00-1.17]; p<0.05), household size (OR = 1.28; 95%CI:[1.06-1.54]; p<0.05) and source of drinking water (OR = 1.18; 95%CI: [1.09-1.29]; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study revealed a 38% prevalence of ORS use during diarrhea episodes in sub-Saharan Africa. This is low as it is less than the 44% recorded for developing countries as a whole. While this study emphasises the need for a further study on effects of severity of diarrhea on ORS use and factors determining differences in ORS use among countries, it also calls for interventions that will increase use of ORS is sub-Saharan Africa. Such interventions should include increase in literacy rate among girls and women, increase in the proportion of women with access to media, involvement of health workers in programmes that would promote antenatal care utilization among women at community level and provision of social amenities like pipe-borne water.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hidratação , Soluções para Reidratação , Humanos , Feminino , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Lactente , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Soluções para Reidratação/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1329, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Even though childhood diarrhea is treated with a simple treatment solution, it continues to be one of the leading causes of under-five child mortality and malnutrition globally. In resource-limited settings such as Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the combination of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc is regarded as an effective treatment for diarrhea; however, its utilization is very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion and associated factors of co-utilization of ORS and zinc among under-five children with diarrhea in SSA. METHODS: The proportion and associated factors of co-utilization of ORS and zinc among under-five children with diarrhea in SSA were determined using secondary data analysis of recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 35 SSA countries. The study included a total of 44,341 under-five children with diarrhea in weighted samples. A generalized linear mixed-effects model with robust error variance was used. For the variables included in the final model, adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. A model with the lowest deviance value were considered as the best-fitted model. RESULT: The pooled proportion of co-utilization of ORS and zinc for the treatment of diarrhea among under five children in SSA countries was 43.58% with a 95% CI (43.15%, 44.01%). Sex of the child, maternal age, residence, maternal educational and employment status, wealth index, media exposure, perceived distance to health facility and insurance coverage were statistically significant determinants of ORS and Zinc co-utilization for treating diarrhea among under five children in SSA. CONCLUSION: Only less than half of under-five children with diarrhea in SSA were treated with a combination of ORS and zinc. Thus, strengthening information dissemination through mass media, and community-level health education programs are important to scale up the utilization of the recommended combination treatment. Furthermore, increasing health insurance coverage, and establishing strategies to address the community with difficulty in accessing health facilities is also crucial in improving the use of the treatment.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hidratação , Zinco , Humanos , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Lactente , África Subsaariana , Feminino , Masculino , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Soluções para Reidratação/uso terapêutico , Modelos Lineares , Recém-Nascido
10.
Andes Pediatr ; 95(1): 24-33, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587341

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal symptoms and problems (GI- SP) frequently cause discomfort and suffering in pediatric patients with life-threatening and/or life-limiting illnesses (LTI/LLI). Pediatric palliative care (PPC) professionals should be aware of them and perform a comprehensive approach. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of GI- SP in patients treated in PPC units and to describe the pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures prescribed. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Observational, prospective, multicenter, prospective study in patients with LTI/LLI, seen by PPC teams in Uruguay. The variables analyzed included age, sex, origin, type of LTI/LLI, presence of mucositis, vomiting, swallowing disorders, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, digestive bleeding, problems with digestive prosthesis, and prescribed pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: 10 out of 16 PPC teams participated. 96 out of 436 patients seen presented GI- SP (22%). Median age was 4.2 years (1 month-18 years). LTI/LLI: 65% neurological and 7% oncological. The 96 patients had 114 consultations; 50% had 2 or more GI- SP per consultation. GI- SP observed: swallowing disorders (57%), constipation (53%), nausea and/or vomiting (24%), gastrostomy problems (17%), abdominal pain (10%), digestive bleeding (3%), and diarrhea (2%). There were variable prescriptions of pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures; only 50% of those with swallowing disorder received speech and hearing therapy. CONCLUSIONS: GI- SP motivated consultations in all PPC settings, frequently due to 2 or more GI- SP. Swallowing disorders and gastrostomy complications are frequent but not very visible problems in PPC. According to the comprehensive approach, pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures were implemented.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Gastroenteropatias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Constipação Intestinal , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Prospectivos , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Adolescente
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1446: 39-53, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625524

RESUMO

The nutritional health of dogs and cats is important to pet owners around the world. Nutrition is inextricably linked to the health of the gastrointestinal system and vice versa. Gastrointestinal signs, such as vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, or weight loss, are one of the most common reasons that dog and cat owners make non-routine appointments with veterinarians. Those patients are evaluated systematically to identify and/or rule out the causes of the symptoms. Some causes of chronic diarrhea are within the gastrointestinal tract while others are secondary to pathogenic factors outside the digestive system. Some useful biomarkers of chronic intestinal disease (enteropathy) exist in serum and feces. After determination that the clinical signs are due to primary gastrointestinal disease and that there is no parasitism, specific diets are used for at least two weeks. There are several types of diets for pets with chronic enteropathies. There are limited ingredient diets and hydrolyzed protein diets with reduced levels of allergens. There are also highly digestible and fiber-enhanced diets. Some diets contain probiotics and/or prebiotics. If symptoms do not improve and the patient is stable, a diet from a different class may be tried. For chronic enteropathies, the prognosis is generally good for symptom resolution or at least improvement. However, if interventions with novel diets do not ameliorate the symptoms of chronic enteropathy, then antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, or immunosuppressant therapy or further, more invasive diagnostics such as taking an intestinal biopsy, may be indicated. Pancreatitis is a common gastrointestinal disease in dogs and cats and patients may present with mild to severe disease. Many patients with mild to moderate disease can be successfully treated with early supportive care, including feeding a low-fat diet. A novel pharmaceutical, fuzapladib (Panoquell-CA1) looks very promising for treating more severe forms of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Maintenance on a low-fat diet may prevent pancreatitis in at-risk dogs. Future advances in medicine will allow pet owners and veterinarians to use dietary management to maximize the health of their dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Gastroenteropatias , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Pancreatite , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Doença Aguda , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Dieta , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária
12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 57: e13205, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656071

RESUMO

Acute diarrhea is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality attributed to infections in children under five years of age worldwide, with 1.7 million annual estimated cases and more than 500,000 deaths. Although hydroelectrolytic replacement is the gold standard in treating diarrhea, it does not interfere with the restoration of the intestinal microbiota. Several studies have searched for an adequate alternative in restructuring intestinal homeostasis, finding that treatments based on probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are effective, which made such treatments increasingly present in clinical practice by reducing illness duration with minimal side effects. However, there are still controversies regarding some unwanted reactions in patients. The diversity of strains and the peculiarities of the pathogens that cause diarrhea require further studies to develop effective protocols for prevention and treatment. Here, we provide a descriptive review of childhood diarrhea, emphasizing treatment with probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Criança , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 89, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal impaction is a digestive system disease, that is most common in the elderly population and becomes more prevalent with increasing age. Manual removal can successfully remove the impaction in 80% of fecal impaction cases. In severe cases, endoscopy and surgery may be necessary. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old Han Chinese man living in a nursing home was diagnosed with fecal impaction; his initial symptom was overflow diarrhea, which is a rare occurrence with regard to fecal impaction. Nevertheless, we were able to effectively treat this situation by employing a new medical device that presents a novel method for addressing fecal impaction. CONCLUSION: Early identification of fecal impaction with atypical symptoms is crucial to provide proper emergency management. A safe and noninvasive treatment method, especially for elderly patients with fecal impaction, should be chosen.


Assuntos
Impacção Fecal , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Impacção Fecal/complicações , Impacção Fecal/diagnóstico por imagem , Impacção Fecal/terapia , Povo Asiático , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/terapia
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 183(5): 2311-2324, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427038

RESUMO

Infantile functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as colic, constipation, diarrhea, and gastroesophageal reflux (regurgitation), often occur in early infancy and, representing one of the causes of significant parental anxiety, lead to a significant strain on the healthcare resources. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri drops (L. reuteri NCIMB 30351) on the symptoms of infantile colic, constipation, diarrhea, and gastroesophageal reflux, as well as on the levels of intestinal microbiota in full-term newborns during the first months of life. A randomized, placebo-controlled, single-masked (blinded), post-marketing clinical study was conducted in two clinical units-Children's City Clinical Hospital of Moscow and Medical Center "St. Andrew's Hospitals-NEBOLIT" from March 2020 to May 2022 in 90 infants aged from 1 to 4 months (mean age (± SD) 12.3 ± 5.09 weeks; 53.3% females, 46.7% males). Patients with colic, regurgitation (single symptom or combination of several symptoms), and constipation or diarrhea were randomly allocated in two parallel arms to receive either 5 drops (2 × 108 colony forming unit) of L. reuteri NCIMB 30351 (n = 60) or masked placebo (n = 30) for 25 consecutive days. Two treatment arms had equal numbers of patients with constipation and diarrhea (n = 30 each). Daily crying times and their duration, evacuations, and regurgitations were recorded in a structured diary. The levels of gut microbiota were analyzed by deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Infants with colic receiving supplementary L. reuteri NCIMB 30351 for 25 days had significant reduction in the numbers of colic (change from baseline - 6.3 (7.34) vs - 3.0 (7.29) in placebo, P < 0.05) and numbers of crying cases and mean duration of crying (decrease from baseline - 144 (70.7) minutes, lower in the diarrhea subgroup than in constipation infants, compared with - 80 (58.9) in placebo, P < 0.0001), as well as regurgitation numbers (decreased by - 4.8 (2.49) with L. reuteri vs - 3 (7.74) with placebo). We also observed increased numbers of evacuations in infants with constipation (L. reuteri 2.2 (2.4) vs 0.9 (1.06) in placebo, P < 0.05). There was a remarkable reduction of evacuations in infants with diarrhea, while not statistically significant. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the collected samples showed that L. reuteri positively influences the proportions of prevalent species, while it negatively affects both conditionally pathogenic and commensal microbes. Additional in vitro test for formation of Clostridium colonies in the presence of the probiotic demonstrated that L. reuteri effectively inhibits the growth of pathogenic Clostridium species. No adverse events were reported in this study.   Conclusion: The uptake of L. reuteri NCIMB 30351 leads to a significant reduction in the number of regurgitations, feeding-induced constipations, and diarrhea as well as mean daily numbers of crying and crying duration in infants during the first months of life. Our results suggest that L. reuteri NCIMB 30351 represents a safe and effective treatment for colic in newborns.  Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT04262648. What is Known: • Infantile functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as colic, constipation, diarrhea, and gastroesophageal reflux (regurgitation), often occur in early infancy and, represent one of the causes of significant parental anxiety. • A number of studies have shown that both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota play important roles in the development and function of the gastrointestinal tract. What is New: • The uptake of L. reuteri NCIMB 30351 leads to a significant reduction in the number of regurgitations, feeding-induced constipations, and diarrhea as well as mean daily numbers of crying and crying duration in infants during the first months of life. • L. reuteri positively influences the proportions of prevalent species, while it negatively affects both conditionally pathogenic and commensal microbes in gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Probióticos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cólica/terapia , Cólica/microbiologia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Constipação Intestinal/microbiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/microbiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 149(7): 353-360, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479419

RESUMO

Patients who come to clinical consultation for chronic diarrhoea (i.e., diarrhoea lasting for more than four weeks) may suffer from a wide range of clinical conditions. The possible diagnoses range from a misunderstanding of what can be considered normal and what pathological in terms of daily bowel movements, to a severe malabsorption syndrome. Since the list of possible causes of chronic diarrhoea can be puzzling, the physician's approach needs to be systematic and structured in order to allow the correct diagnosis and treatment. This article proposes an algorithm for the diagnosis of chronic diarrhoea and discusses in detail the key clinical aspects of celiac disease, which is considered a paradigmatic disease as regards chronic malabsorptive diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Síndromes de Malabsorção , Humanos , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Síndromes de Malabsorção/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Malabsorção/terapia , Doença Crônica
16.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(3): 283-294, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of moxibustion on colonic mast cell degranulation and inflammatory factor expression in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and explore the potential mechanism of moxibustion in treating IBS-D. METHODS: Forty-five rat pups born from 5 healthy SPF-grade pregnant SD rats, with 8 rats were randomly selected as the normal group. The remaining 37 rats were intervened with maternal separation, acetic acid enema, and chronic restraint stress to establish the IBS-D model. The successfully modeled 32 rats were then randomly assigned to a model group, a ketotifen group, a moxibustion group, and a moxibustion-medication group, with 8 rats in each group. The rats in the ketotifen group were intervened with intragastric administration of ketotifen solution (10 mL/kg); the rats in the moxibustion group were intervened with suspended moxibustion on bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37); the rats in the moxibustion-medication group were intervened with suspended moxibustion combined with intragastric administration of ketotifen solution. All interventions were administered once daily for 7 consecutive days. The diarrhea rate and minimum volume threshold of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) were calculated before and after modeling, as well as after intervention. After intervention, colonic tissue morphology was observed using HE staining; colonic mucosal ultrastructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy; colonic mast cell ultrastructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy; mast cell degranulation was assessed by toluidine blue staining; serum and colonic levels of histamine, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) were measured by ELISA; the Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR were employed to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression of colonic IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2; the immunofluorescence was used to detect the positive expression of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 in the colonic tissue. RESULTS: Compared to the normal group, the rats in the model group exhibited extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells in colonic tissue, severe damage to the colonic mucosa, disordered arrangement of villi, reduced electron density, and a significant decrease in granule quantity within mast cells. The diarrhea rate and mast cell degranulation rate were increased (P<0.01), AWR minimum volume threshold was decreased (P<0.01); the serum and colonic levels of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 were elevated (P<0.01); the positive expression of histamine, as well as protein, mRNA and positive expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 in the colon were all elevated (P<0.01). Compared to the model group, the rats in the ketotifen group, the moxibustion group, and the moxibustion-medication group exhibited significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in colonic tissue, relatively intact colonic mucosa, orderly arranged villi, increased electron density, and an augmented number of mast cell granules; the diarrhea rate and mast cell degranulation rate were decreased (P<0.01), and AWR minimum volume threshold was increased (P<0.01); the serum and colonic levels of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 were reduced (P<0.01); the positive expression of histamine, as well as protein, mRNA and positive expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 in the colon were all decreased (P<0.01). Compared to the ketotifen group, the moxibustion group showed decreased serum levels of histamine, IL-6, and trypsin-like enzyme (P<0.01, P<0.05), as well as reduced colonic levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 (P<0.01, P<0.05); the protein expression of colonic IL-1ß, IL-1α, and PAR-2 was reduced (P<0.05), and the positive expression of colonic IL-1ß and trypsin-like enzyme was reduced (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared to both the ketotifen group and the moxibustion group, the moxibustion-medication group exhibited decreased diarrhea rate and mast cell degranulation rate (P<0.01), an increased AWR minimum volume threshold (P<0.01), reduced serum and colonic levels of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 (P<0.01), decreased protein expression of colonic IL-1ß, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 (P<0.01, P<0.05), reduced mRNA and positive expression of colonic IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 (P<0.01, P<0.05), and decreased positive expression of colonic histamine (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Moxibustion on "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) might inhibit low-grade inflammatory reactions in the colon of IBS-D model rats. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of histamine and trypsin-like enzyme secreted by mast cell, thereby reducing the expression of related inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Moxibustão , Ratos , Animais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Tripsina , Degranulação Celular , Histamina , Interleucina-6 , Cetotifeno , Privação Materna , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/terapia , RNA Mensageiro
17.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e078404, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of guideline non-adherence for common childhood illnesses in low-resource settings. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used secondary cross-sectional data from eight healthcare facilities in six Asian and African countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2796 children aged 2-23 months hospitalised between November 2016 and January 2019 with pneumonia, diarrhoea or severe malnutrition (SM) and without HIV infection were included in this study. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We identified children treated with full, partial or non-adherent initial inpatient care according to site-specific standard-of-care guidelines for pneumonia, diarrhoea and SM within the first 24 hours of admission. Correlates of guideline non-adherence were identified using generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: Fully adherent care was delivered to 32% of children admitted with diarrhoea, 34% of children with pneumonia and 28% of children with SM when a strict definition of adherence was applied. Non-adherence to recommendations was most common for oxygen and antibiotics for pneumonia; fluid, zinc and antibiotics for diarrhoea; and vitamin A and zinc for SM. Non-adherence varied by site. Pneumonia guideline non-adherence was more likely among patients with severe disease (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.38, 2.34) compared with non-severe disease. Diarrhoea guideline non-adherence was more likely among lower asset quintile groups (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.01, 1.35), older children (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06, 1.13) and children presenting with wasting (OR 6.44; 95% CI 4.33, 9.57) compared with those with higher assets, younger age and not wasted. CONCLUSIONS: Non-adherence to paediatric guidelines was common and associated with older age, disease severity, and comorbidities, and lower household economic status. These findings highlight opportunities to improve guidelines by adding clarity to specific recommendations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pneumonia , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Países em Desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/terapia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco
18.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e079618, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the coutilisation of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc for treating diarrhoea and its associated factors among under-5 children in East Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design. Multilevel Poisson regression analysis with robust variance was fitted to identify predictors of zinc and ORS coutilisation. An adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) with a 95% CI was reported to declare the statistical significance. SETTING: Twelve East African countries. PARTICIPANTS: 16 850 under-5 children who had diarrhoea were included in the study. RESULT: In East African nations, the coutilisation of ORS and zinc for the treatment of diarrhoea in children under 5 was 53.27% with a 95% CI (52.54% to 54.01%). Children of mothers with primary education (aPR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.20), secondary education (aPR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14), higer education (aPR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.29), those from maternal age category of 20-24 (aPR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.21), age category of 25-29 (aPR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.21), age category of 30-34 (aPR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16), those from wealthy households (aPR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.09) and those who have a media exposure (aPR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08) were more likely to receive combination. CONCLUSION: Only half of the under-5 children with diarrhoea in East Africa were treated with a combination of ORS and zinc. To increase the use of the suggested combination therapy of ORS with zinc, it is important to empower women through education and prevent teen pregnancy.


Assuntos
Soluções para Reidratação , Zinco , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Soluções para Reidratação/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , África Oriental
19.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 204: 295-309, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458741

RESUMO

Diarrhea is caused by a variety of bacterial and viral agents, inflammatory conditions, medications, and hereditary conditions. Secretory diarrhea involves several ion and solute transporters, activation of the cyclic nucleotide and Ca2+ signaling pathways, as well as intestinal epithelial secretion. In many cases of secretory diarrhea, activation of Cl- channels, such as the cystic transmembrane conduction regulator and the Ca2+stimulated Cl- channel fibrosis, promote secretion while concurrently inhibiting Na+ transport expressing fluid absorption. Current diarrhea therapies include rehydration and electrolyte replacement via oral rehydration solutions, as well as medications that target peristalsis or fluid secretion. The rising understanding of RNA function and its importance in illness has encouraged the use of various RNAs to operate selectively on "untreatable" proteins, transcripts, and genes. Some RNA-based medications have received clinical approval, while others are currently in research or preclinical studies. Despite major obstacles in the development of RNA-based therapies, many approaches have been investigated to improve intracellular RNA trafficking and metabolic stability.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística , RNA , Humanos , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Transporte Biológico
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6422, 2024 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494525

RESUMO

Persistent diarrhea is a severe gastroenteric disease with relatively high risk of pediatric mortality in developing countries. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of liquid-form Bacillus clausii spore probiotics (LiveSpo CLAUSY; 2 billion CFU/5 mL ampoule) at high dosages of 4-6 ampoules a day in supporting treatment of children with persistent diarrhea. Our findings showed that B. clausii spores significantly improved treatment outcomes, resulting in a 2-day shorter recovery period (p < 0.05) and a 1.5-1.6 folds greater efficacy in reducing diarrhea symptoms, such as high frequency of bowel movement of ≥ 3 stools a day, presence of fecal mucus, and diapered infant stool scale types 4-5B. LiveSpo CLAUSY supportive treatment achieved 3 days (p < 0.0001) faster recovery from diarrhea disease, with 1.6-fold improved treatment efficacy. At day 5 of treatment, a significant decrease in blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-23 by 3.24% (p = 0.0409), 29.76% (p = 0.0001), and 10.87% (p = 0.0036), respectively, was observed in the Clausy group. Simultaneously, there was a significant 37.97% decrease (p = 0.0326) in the excreted IgA in stool at day 5 in the Clausy group. Overall, the clinical study demonstrates the efficacy of B. clausii spores (LiveSpo CLAUSY) as an effective symptomatic treatment and immunomodulatory agent for persistent diarrhea in children.Trial registration: NCT05812820.


Assuntos
Bacillus clausii , Probióticos , Lactente , Humanos , Criança , Esporos Bacterianos , Diarreia/terapia , Citocinas , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
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