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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of continuous energy restriction (CER) and intermittent energy restriction (IER) in bodyweight loss plan in sedentary individuals with normal bodyweight and explore the influence factors of effect and individual retention. METHODS: 26 participants were recruited in this randomized controlled and double-blinded trial and allocated to CER and IER groups. Bodyweight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) would be collected before and after a 4-week (28 days) plan which included energy restriction (CER or IER) and moderate-intensity exercise. Daily intake of three major nutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat) and calories were recorded. RESULTS: A significant decrease in BW and BMI were reported within each group. No statistically significant difference in the change of RMR in CERG. No statistically significant difference was reported in the effect between groups, neither as well the intake of total calories, three major nutrients, and individual plan retention. The influence factors of IER and CER are different. CONCLUSION: Both CER and IER are effective and safe energy restriction strategies in the short term. Daily energy intake and physical exercise are important to both IER and CER.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Redutora , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Perda de Peso
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639544

RESUMO

Weight-loss after gestational diabetes (GDM) lowers the risk of type-2 diabetes (T2DM). Intermittent energy restriction (IER) produces comparable weight-loss to continuous energy restriction (CER), but long-term adherence remains difficult in this population. This exploratory secondary analysis of a 12-month trial comparing IER to CER following GDM examined weight-loss and dietary quality associated with barriers to weight-loss or T2DM risk perception as assessed in a Likert scale questionnaire at baseline. The participants had a median (IQR) BMI of 32.6 (9.4) kg/m2 and 3 (4) years postpartum (n = 121). Forty-five percent (n = 54) of the participants thought they were at a high risk of developing T2DM. Greater affordability of healthy food was related with greater weight-loss at 3 months (p = 0.044, n = 85). At 12 months, there was no significant relationship between weight-loss and the barriers to weight-loss (p > 0.05). CER had superior improvement in dietary quality at 12 months (CER 11 ± 10, IER 6 ± 5.6, n = 42, p = 0.05). Under the Theoretical Domains Framework, the barriers were predominantly related to behavioral regulation (n = 83, 69%; n = 76, 63%) and environmental context and resources (n = 67, 56%). Interventions for diabetes prevention in this population should include behavioral regulation strategies, consider the family home environment, and ensure that the risk of T2DM is conveyed. Women choosing IER may benefit from education to improve their dietary quality.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Restrição Calórica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Perda de Peso
3.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 155-169, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: A high intake of whole grain foods is inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) and body fat in observational studies, but mixed results have been found in interventional studies. Among whole grains, rye is the richest source of dietary fiber and meals containing high-fiber rye foods have shown increased satiety up to 8 h, compared to meals containing refined wheat products. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of consuming high fiber rye products, compared to refined wheat products, on body weight and body fat loss in the context of an energy restricted diet. METHODS: After a 2-week run-in period, 242 males and females with overweight or obesity (BMI 27-35 kg/m2), aged 30-70 years, were randomized (1:1) to consume high fiber rye products or refined wheat products for 12 weeks, while adhering to a hypocaloric diet. At week 0, week 6 and week 12 body weight and body composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) was measured and fasting blood samples were collected. Subjective appetite was evaluated for 14 h at week 0, 6 and 12. RESULTS: After 12 weeks the participants in the rye group had lost 1.08 kg body weight and 0.54% body fat more than the wheat group (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36; 1.80, p < 0.01 and 0.05; 1.03, p = 0.03, respectively). C-reactive protein was 28% lower in the rye vs wheat group after 12 weeks of intervention (CI: 7; 53, p < 0.01). There were no consistent group differences on subjective appetite or on other cardiometabolic risk markers. CONCLUSION: Consumption of high fiber rye products as part of a hypocaloric diet for 12 weeks caused a greater weight loss and body fat loss, as well as reduction in C-reactive protein, compared to refined wheat. The difference in weight loss could not be linked to differences in appetite response. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03097237.


Assuntos
Secale , Triticum , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Dieta Redutora , Humanos , Obesidade , Sobrepeso
4.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(8): 874-879, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a food toy on owner-perceived quality of life (QOL) of overweight cats during a weight loss plan. ANIMALS: 44 adult cats, 1 to 10 years of age with a body condition score (BCS) ≥ 7/9. PROCEDURES: Cats were randomly assigned to the food toy or food bowl group. Cat owners completed an initial questionnaire and received a prescribed weight loss plan, bag of dry veterinary therapeutic cat food formulated for weight loss, measuring cup, and food bowl or ball-type food toy. Body weight and BCS were checked monthly. Owners completed a monthly questionnaire to assess their cat's QOL. Low-calorie vegetables were offered to 32 cats whose owners reported disruptive food-seeking behavior. RESULTS: Of the 44 cats in the final analysis, 29 cats either lost ≥ 2 BCS points or achieved an ideal BCS. Owner-perceived QOL was higher at the final weigh-in, compared with that at the initial weigh-in. An effect of food toy versus food bowl on owner-perceived QOL was not detected. Of the cats offered vegetables, 28 cats would eat the vegetables with a palatability additive; 4 cats ate vegetables plain. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Owner-perceived QOL was higher at the end of the study. Feeding overweight cats by use of a ball-type food toy did not influence owner-perceived QOL. Low-calorie vegetables can successfully be added to the weight loss diet to promote satiety; albeit, a palatability additive is likely needed. Further studies regarding feeding management for cats during a weight loss plan should be explored.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Perda de Peso , Animais , Peso Corporal , Gatos , Dieta Redutora/veterinária , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 23(12): 21, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654976

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. There is strong clinical evidence that reduction in at least 5-7% total body weight is associated with improvement in hepatic steatosis and regression of fibrosis, with weight loss representing the primary approach to treatment. This guide reviews recent data on dietary approaches studied in NAFLD management. The strongest evidence currently supports a hypocaloric diet to induce weight loss and subsequent improvement in liver enzymes and histology, as well as a Mediterranean diet, which can lead to improvement in steatosis even in the absence of weight reduction. The purpose of this paper is to provide clinicians with tools to engage patients in conversations about nutrition in the setting of NAFLD, ultimately guiding suitable personalized dietary recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Dieta Redutora , Humanos , Fígado , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade , Perda de Peso
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684474

RESUMO

Scalable, effective interventions are needed to address poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and obesity amongst rising numbers of cancer survivors. Interventions targeting survivors and their friends and family may promote both tertiary and primary prevention. The design, rationale, and enrollment of an ongoing randomized controlled trial (RCT) (NCT04132219) to test a web-based lifestyle intervention for cancer survivors and their supportive partners are described, along with the characteristics of the sample recruited. This two-arm, single-blinded RCT randomly assigns 56 dyads (cancer survivor and partner, both with obesity, poor diets, and physical inactivity) to the six-month DUET intervention vs. wait-list control. Intervention delivery and assessment are remotely performed with 0-6 month, between-arm tests comparing body weight status (primary outcome), and secondary outcomes (waist circumference, health indices, and biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, lipid regulation and inflammation). Despite COVID-19, targeted accrual was achieved within 9 months. Not having Internet access was a rare exclusion (<2%). Inability to identify a support partner precluded enrollment of 42% of interested/eligible survivors. The enrolled sample is diverse: ages 23-81 and 38% racial/ethnic minorities. Results support the accessibility and appeal of web-based lifestyle interventions for cancer survivors, though some cancer survivors struggled to enlist support partners and may require alternative strategies.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Cônjuges , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684626

RESUMO

The daily intake of dietary fiber is well below the recommended levels in the US. The effect of adopting a low-fat vs. a low-carbohydrate weight loss diet on fiber intake is of interest but not well-documented, especially when both approaches promote high-quality food choices. The objective of this paper is to compare the quantity and sources of dietary fiber between a healthy low-fat (HLF) vs. healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet group when consumed over 12 months in a weight loss diet study. In this secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) study, the amount and sources of dietary fiber were examined in generally healthy adults, 18-50 years of age, Body Mass Index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m2, randomized to HLF or HLC for 12 months, who had available 24-h recalls at 0 (n = 609), 3 (n = 549), 6 (n = 491), and 12 (n = 449) months. The dietary intake was estimated by the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). The sources of fiber were determined for the major food groups. Significantly more total dietary fiber was consumed by HLF at every post-randomization time point, and, at 12 m, was 23.04 ± 9.43 g vs. 18.61 ± 8.12 g for HLF vs. HLC, respectively, p < 0.0001. In both diet groups at 12 months, the highest amount of dietary fiber came from non-starchy vegetables (4.13 ± 3.05 g and 5.13 ± 3.59 g). The other primary sources of fiber at 12 months for the HLF group were from whole grains (3.90 ± 3.13 g) and fruits (3.40 ± 2.87 g), and, for the HLC group, were from plant protein and fat sources, such as nuts and seeds, their butters, and avocados (2.64 ± 2.64 g). In the DIETFITS study, the difference in the total fiber intake for the HLF vs. HLC groups was more modest than expected. The HLC group consumed reasonably high amounts of fiber from high-protein and high fat plant-based sources.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Verduras , Perda de Peso , Grãos Integrais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578999

RESUMO

The number of people suffering from being overweight or obese has risen steadily in recent years. Consequently, new forms of nutrition and diets were developed as potential solutions. In the last years, the time-restricted feeding and continuous energy restriction via macronutrient-based diets were increasingly popular. Both diets were exclusively studied separately. A comparison of the two diets for people with a high body mass index despite regular physical activity has not yet been studied in detail. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two diets on body composition and adherence. For this study, a total of 42 subjects (m = 21, f = 21) with a BMI above 25 were recruited from a local fitness gym. After a two-week familiarisation period, one of the two diets was followed over 14 weeks. Dietary behaviour was monitored throughout the period with a food diary. The primary measurement parameters were body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference. In addition, adherence was assessed and calculated by food diary and questionnaire. In total, the data of 35 participants (m = 14, f = 21) were analysed. Significant reductions in body weight, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference were observed in both groups (p < 0.05). No significant change could be observed in lean body mass in either category. No group and gender differences were detected in any of the primary parameters. For the secondary parameters, a significantly higher adherence was observed in the time-restricted feeding group (p < 0.05). In addition, it can be assumed that an adherence of 60-70% cannot lead to positive changes in body composition. In conclusion, there were no differences between the two diets on the primary parameters. However, it seemed that time-restricted feeding can be better implemented in everyday life, and an adherence of more than 70% is required for both diets to prove effective.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Jejum , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579099

RESUMO

Parents substantially influence children's diet and physical activity behaviors, which consequently impact childhood obesity risk. Given this influence of parents, the objective of this umbrella review was to synthesize evidence on effects of parent involvement in diet and physical activity treatment and prevention interventions on obesity risk among children aged 3-12 years old. Ovid/MEDLINE, Elsevier/Embase, Wiley/Cochrane Library, Clarivate/Web of Science, EBSCO/CINAHL, EBSCO/PsycInfo, and Epistemonikos.org were searched from their inception through January 2020. Abstract screening, full-text review, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted independently by at least two authors. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diet and physical activity interventions that described parent involvement, included a comparator/control, and measured child weight/weight status as a primary outcome among children aged 3-12 years old were included. Data were extracted at the level of the systematic review/meta-analysis, and findings were narratively synthesized. Of 4158 references identified, 14 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses (eight treatment focused and six prevention focused) were included and ranged in quality from very low to very high. Our findings support the inclusion of a parent component in both treatment and prevention interventions to improve child weight/weight status outcomes. Of note, all prevention-focused reviews included a school-based component. Evidence to define optimal parent involvement type and duration and to define the best methods of involving parents across multiple environments (e.g., home, preschool, school) was inadequate and warrants further research. PROSPERO registration: CRD42018095360.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Exercício Físico , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579125

RESUMO

Altered gut microbiota has been linked to obesity and may influence weight loss. We are conducting an ongoing weight loss trial, comparing daily caloric restriction (DCR) to intermittent fasting (IMF) in adults who are overweight or obese. We report here an ancillary study of the gut microbiota and selected obesity-related parameters at the baseline and after the first three months of interventions. During this time, participants experienced significant improvements in clinical health measures, along with altered composition and diversity of fecal microbiota. We observed significant associations between the gut microbiota features and clinical measures, including weight and waist circumference, as well as changes in these clinical measures over time. Analysis by intervention group found between-group differences in the relative abundance of Akkermansia in response to the interventions. Our results provide insight into the impact of baseline gut microbiota on weight loss responsiveness as well as the early effects of DCR and IMF on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Jejum , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Circunferência da Cintura
14.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 892-896, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Behavioural modification through increasing nutritional awareness, along with customised dietary changes and education about physical inactivity, for obese snorers and mildly sleep apnoeic patients would help improve their quality of life. METHODS: A one-year prospective interventional study enrolled snorers and/or mild obstructive sleep apnoea sufferers, with 36 patients each in the test group and control group. Nutritional information and tailor-made diet charts were given to the 36 test subjects. The severity of snoring and daytime sleepiness after 6 and 12 months was compared using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Thornton Snoring Scale as measures of quality of life. RESULTS: Subjective scores on both scales showed highly significant improvement (p ≤ 0.001) in the test group. No significant improvement was seen in the control group. CONCLUSION: Awareness of basic nutrition and customised diet plans help to achieve behavioural modification in the long term, resulting in a better quality of life.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Ronco/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Polissonografia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Ronco/fisiopatologia
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1546-1559, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions are the first-line treatment for obesity, but participant weight loss is typically low. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of an alternative lifestyle intervention [Healthy Weight for Living (HWL)] compared with a modified Diabetes Prevention Program (m-DPP). HWL was based on a revised health behavior change model emphasizing hunger management and the development of healthy food preferences. m-DPP was a standard Diabetes Prevention Program implemented with counselor time matched to HWL. Participants were adult dependents of military personnel and had overweight or obesity. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to HWL (n = 121) or m-DPP (n = 117), delivered primarily by group videoconference with additional midweek emails. The primary outcome was 12-mo weight change. Secondary outcomes included 6-mo changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and diet. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and complete case (CC) analyses were performed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Retention did not differ between groups (72% and 66% for HWL and m-DPP at 12 mo, respectively; P = 0.30). Mean ± SE adjusted 12-mo weight loss in the ITT cohort was 7.46 ± 0.85 kg for HWL and 7.32 ± 0.87 kg for m-DPP (P = 0.91); in the CC cohort, it was 7.83 ± 0.82 kg for HWL and 6.86 ± 0.88 kg for m-DPP (P = 0.43). Thirty-eight percent of HWL and 30% of m-DPP completers achieved ≥10% weight loss (P = 0.32). Improvements in systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, general health, sleep, and mood were similar across groups; improvements in diastolic blood pressure were greater in m-DPP. Adjusted group mean reductions in energy intake were not significantly different between groups, but HWL participants were more adherent to their dietary prescription for lower glycemic index and high fiber and protein (P = 0.05 to <0.001 for ITT). CONCLUSIONS: HWL and m-DPP showed equivalent and clinically impactful mean weight loss with cardiometabolic benefits. These results identify an alternative approach for behavioral treatment of overweight and obesity.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02348853.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Redutora , Estilo de Vida , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Glicemia , Família , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3502325, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423033

RESUMO

Obesity, as the most common metabolic disorder in the world, is characterized by excess body fat. This study is aimed at determining the effects of melatonin supplementation on body weight, nody mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat mass percentage (BFMP) in people with overweight or obesity. Thirty eight overweight or class-I obese adult individuals were recruited in the study (8 men and 30 women). Participants prescribed a weight-loss diet and then randomly were allocated to melatonin or placebo groups. Participants received either a 3-milligram melatonin or placebo tablet per day for 12 weeks. In order to assess differences at the significance level of 0.05, repeated measure ANOVA and paired t-test were used. According to the results, a significant reduction was found in participants' body weight, WC, and BMI in both groups (p = 0.001). However, for the last six weeks, significant reductions of these parameters were observed only in the melatonin group (p = 0.01). The BFMP of participants in the melatonin group showed a significant reduction at the end of the study compared to the initial measurements (p = 0.008). Nevertheless, the results of the present study alone are not sufficient to conclude on the effects of melatonin consumption on anthropometric indices, and it seems that further studies are required in this regard.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Circunferência da Cintura/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antropometria , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Redutora , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360293

RESUMO

Ectopic fat leads to metabolic health problems. This research aimed to assess the effectiveness of a hypocaloric diet intervention together with an unsupervised exercise training program in comparison with a hypocaloric diet alone to reduce ectopic fat deposition. Sixty-one premenopausal women with overweight or obesity participated in this controlled trial and were each randomised into either a usual care group (hypocaloric diet) or intervention group (hypocaloric diet + unsupervised exercise training). Ectopic fat deposition, metabolic parameters, incremental costs from a societal perspective and incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were assessed before, during and after the six-month intervention period. In the total sample, there was a significant decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT: -18.88 cm2, 95% CI -11.82 to -25.95), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT: -46.74 cm2, 95% CI -29.76 to -63.18), epicardial fat (ECF: -14.50 cm3, 95% CI -10.9 to -18.98) and intrahepatic lipid content (IHL: -3.53%, 95% CI -1.72 to -5.32). Consequently, an "adapted" economic analysis revealed a non-significant decrease in costs and an increase in QALYs after the intervention. No significant differences were found between groups. A multidisciplinary lifestyle approach seems successful in reducing ectopic fat deposition and improving the metabolic risk profile in women with overweight and obesity. The addition of unsupervised exercise training did not further improve the metabolic health or phenotype over the six months.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Obesidade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso , Fenótipo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371981

RESUMO

With energy intake restriction and exercise remaining the key diet and lifestyle approaches to weight loss, this is not without potential negative implications for body composition, metabolic health, and quality and quantity of life. Ideally, weight loss should be derived almost exclusively from the fat mass compartment as this is the main driver of metabolic disease, however, several studies have shown that there is an accompanying loss of tissue from the fat-free compartment, especially skeletal muscle. Population groups including post-menopausal women, the elderly, those with metabolic disease and athletes may be particularly at risk of skeletal muscle loss when following a weight management programme. Research studies that have addressed this issue across a range of population groups are reviewed with a focus upon the contribution of resistance and endurance forms of exercise and a higher intake dietary protein above the current guideline of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. While findings can be contradictory, overall, the consensus appears that fat-free and skeletal muscle masses can be preserved, albeit to varying degrees by including both forms of exercise (but especially resistance forms) in the weight management intervention. Equally, higher intakes of protein can protect loss of these body compartments, acting either separately or synergistically with exercise. Elderly individuals in particular may benefit most from this approach. Thus, the evidence supports the recommendations for intakes of protein above the current guidelines of 0.8 g/kg body weight/d for the healthy elderly population to also be incorporated into the dietary prescription for weight management in this age group.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Programas de Redução de Peso
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371984

RESUMO

Dieting and disinhibited eating patterns are presented in both clinical and nonclinical samples. Repetitive negative thinking (i.e., rumination) may lead to maladaptive eating behaviors. While numerous studies have focused on dieting and disinhibited eating behaviors in clinical samples, less is known about these behaviors in nonclinical samples with normal body weight. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore how dieting, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating are related to rumination in adult women with normal body weight. One hundred eighty-eight women (Mage = 29.46 ± 8.94; MBMI = 23.16 ± 4.04) were involved in the current study. The Eating Attitudes Test, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 and the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire were administered to the participants. The results showed that repetitive negative thinking was a partial mediator in the relationship between dieting and uncontrolled eating, as well as in the relationship between dieting and emotional eating. Targeting repetitive negative thinking may be important for reducing disinhibited eating patterns in women with normal body weight.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Peso Corporal Ideal , Ruminação Cognitiva , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negativismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1655-1665, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves protective functions in metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary diseases and is linked to COVID-19 pathology. The correlates of temporal changes in soluble ACE2 (sACE2) remain understudied. OBJECTIVES: We explored the associations of sACE2 with metabolic health and proteome dynamics during a weight loss diet intervention. METHODS: We analyzed 457 healthy individuals (mean ± SD age: 39.8 ± 6.6 y) with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 in the DIETFITS (Diet Intervention Examining the Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) study. Biochemical markers of metabolic health and 236 proteins were measured by Olink CVDII, CVDIII, and Inflammation I arrays at baseline and at 6 mo during the dietary intervention. We determined clinical and routine biochemical correlates of the diet-induced change in sACE2 (ΔsACE2) using stepwise linear regression. We combined feature selection models and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to identify protein dynamics associated with ΔsACE2. RESULTS: sACE2 decreased on average at 6 mo during the diet intervention. Stronger decline in sACE2 during the diet intervention was independently associated with female sex, lower HOMA-IR and LDL cholesterol at baseline, and a stronger decline in HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fat mass. Participants with decreasing HOMA-IR (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.03) and triglycerides (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.72, 4.26) had significantly higher odds for a decrease in sACE2 during the diet intervention than those without (P ≤ 0.0073). Feature selection models linked ΔsACE2 to changes in α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor, E-selectin, hydroxyacid oxidase 1, kidney injury molecule 1, tyrosine-protein kinase Mer, placental growth factor, thrombomodulin, and TNF receptor superfamily member 10B. ΔsACE2 remained associated with these protein changes in multivariable-adjusted linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in sACE2 during a weight loss diet intervention was associated with improvements in metabolic health, fat mass, and markers of angiotensin peptide metabolism, hepatic and vascular injury, renal function, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our findings may improve the risk stratification, prevention, and management of cardiometabolic complications.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , COVID-19/metabolismo , Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Programas de Redução de Peso
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