Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.425
Filtrar
1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(5): 2014-2023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The APOA5-1131C allele is related to a worse lipid profile and metabolic response to diet interventions. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of SNP rs662799 on the lipid profile of patients with obesity after a hypocaloric diet with a Mediterranean pattern enriched in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population of 362 Caucasian patients with obesity was evaluated. Anthropometric evaluation and serum parameters (lipid profile, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), glucose, C reactive protein, and adipokines) were measured at basal time and after 12 weeks. All subjects were genotyped rs662799. RESULTS: The APOA5 variant distribution among the 362 patients with obesity was the following: 87.2% (n=316) (TT) were homozygous for the T allele, 12.2% (n=44) (TC) were heterozygous, and 0.6% (n=2) (CC) were homozygous for the C allele. There were only significant differences in triglyceride levels between genotype groups. After 12 weeks of intervention, the following parameters improved in both genotype groups: adiposity parameters, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin, and ratio leptin/adiponectin. Insulin levels (delta: -3.5±0.2 UI/L vs. -1.2±0.6 UI/L; p=0.03), HOMA-IR (delta: -1.6±0.1 units vs. -0.3±0.2 units; p=0.01) and triglyceride levels (delta: -18.8±4.1 mg/dl vs. -3.7 ±3.0 mg/dl; p=0.02) decreased in non-C allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the minor C allele of the APOA5 gene (rs662799) produces a worse response in triglyceride levels, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR after a ω-6 PUFA enriched hypocaloric diet with Mediterranean pattern.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Leptina , Humanos , Leptina/genética , Adiponectina , Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6 , Triglicerídeos
2.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 40(3): 643-654, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308113

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess whether dietary-induced weight loss improves myocardial deformation in people with overweight to obesity without established cardiovascular disease applying cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with feature tracking (FT) based strain analysis. Ninety people with overweight to obesity without established cardiovascular disease (age 44.6 ± 9.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 32.6 ± 4 kg/m2) underwent CMR. We retrospectively quantified FT based strain and LA size and function at baseline and after a 6-month hypocaloric diet, with either low-carbohydrate or low-fat intake. The study cohort was compared to thirty-four healthy normal-weight controls (age 40.8 ± 16.0 years, BMI 22.5 ± 1.4 kg/m2). At baseline, the study cohort with overweight to obesity without established cardiovascular disease displayed significantly increased global circumferential strain (GCS), global radial strain (GRS) and LA size (all p < 0.0001 versus controls) but normal global longitudinal strain (GLS) and normal LA ejection fraction (all p > 0.05 versus controls). Dietary-induced weight loss led to a significant reduction in GCS, GRS and LA size irrespective of macronutrient composition (all p < 0.01). In a population with overweight to obesity without established cardiovascular disease subclinical myocardial changes can be detected applying CMR. After dietary-induced weight loss improvement of myocardial deformation could be shown. A potential clinical impact needs further studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adiposidade , Dieta Redutora , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Redução de Peso
3.
Clin Nutr ; 43(3): 892-899, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNA-19 (miR-19) plays a critical role in cardiac development and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether change in circulating miR-19 was associated with change in CVD risk during weight loss. METHODS: This study included 509 participants with overweight or obesity from the 24-month weight-loss diet intervention study (the POUNDS Lost trial) and with available data on circulating miR-19a-3p and miR-19b-3p at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome for this analysis was the change in atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk at 6 and 24 months, which estimates the 10-year probability of hard ASCVD events. Secondary outcomes were the changes in ASCVD risk score components. RESULTS: Circulating miR-19a-3p and miR-19b-3p levels significantly decreased during the initial 6-month dietary intervention period (P = 0.008, 0.0004, respectively). We found that a greater decrease in miR-19a-3p or miR-19b-3p was related to a greater reduction in ASCVD risk (ß[SE] = 0.33 [0.13], P = 0.01 for miR-19a-3p; ß[SE] = 0.3 [0.12], P = 0.017 for miR-19b-3p) over 6 months, independent of concurrent weight loss. Moreover, we found significant interactions between change in miR-19 and sleep disturbance on change in ASCVD risk over 24 months of intervention (P interaction = 0.01 and 0.008 for miR-19a-3p and miR-19b-3p, respectively). Participants with a greater decrease in miR-19 without sleep disturbance had a greater reduction of ASCVD risk than those with slight/moderate/great amounts of sleep disturbance. In addition, change in physical activity significantly modified the associations between change in miR-19 and change in ASCVD risk over 24 months (P interaction = 0.006 and 0.004 for miR-19a-3p and miR-19b-3p, respectively). A greater decrease in miR-19 was significantly associated with a greater reduction in ASCVD risk among participants with an increase in physical activity, while non-significant inverse associations were observed among those without an increase in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, decreased circulating miR-19 levels during dietary weight-loss interventions were related to a significant reduction in ASCVD risk, and these associations were more evident in people with no sleep disturbance or increase in physical activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00072995.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , MicroRNA Circulante , MicroRNAs , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Dieta Redutora , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Redução de Peso
4.
Curr Obes Rep ; 13(1): 71-76, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172477

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review popular dietary trends and provide recommendations regarding validated dietary approaches for weight loss in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Like adults, children and adolescents trying to lose weight will succumb to diets promoted by the media. Many of these so-called "fad" diets tout unsupported claims for health but prove very difficult for long-term adherence. Since childhood is a pivotal time for establishing lifestyle habits, we need to provide practical dietary advice supported by scientific research. Studies suggest that emphasizing macronutrient balance while limiting both ultraprocessed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages can help our pediatric patients achieve and maintain a healthy weight. We review literature discouraging the use of restrictive dieting in the pediatric population and instead encourage a whole-foods-based, balanced dietary approach, along with regular physical activity. The goal is to support reasonable and sustainable lifestyle habits that ultimately allow children to establish lifelong health-promoting behaviors.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Obesidade , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Redução de Peso , Estilo de Vida , Nutrientes
5.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 37(2): 564-573, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38234175

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the factors influencing the hedonic hunger status of overweight adults and to examine the relationship between hedonic hunger, self-stigmatisation and self-esteem in terms of weight. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 353 people living with obesity who applied to the Endocrine and Internal Medicine Clinic in Samsun, Turkey, between June and October 2022. The data were collected using the Personal Information Form, Power of Food Scale (PFS), Weight Self-Stigmatisation Questionnaire (WSSQ) and Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale (SLSC) through face-to-face survey method. RESULTS: About 53.3% of the participants were ≥45 years old, 80.5% were married and 69.1% had previously followed weight loss diet. It was found that those who were aged <45 years, single, those who perceived themselves as overweight, those who had used weight loss diets before and those whose waist-hip ratio were normal had higher hedonic hunger scores (p < 0.05). A negative and significant correlation was found between PSF-Tr general dimension scores and SLSC general dimension, whereas a significant and positive correlation was observed between PSF-Tr general dimension scores and WSSQ general dimension (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: As hedonic hunger increased in adults with overweight, self-esteem decreased, and self-stigmatisation in terms of weight increased. Effective interventions are needed to cope with the hedonic hunger that contributes to obesity and to prevent the stigma and low self-esteem experienced by people living with obesity because of their excess weight.


Assuntos
Fome , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade , Dieta Redutora , Comportamento Alimentar
6.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 2, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Having type 2 diabetes (T2D) in combination with being overweight results in an additional increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In addition, T2D and obesity are associated with increased levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), possibly contributing to the CVD risk. Weight loss dieting has positive effects on several CVD risk factors, but whether it affects tHcy remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a calorie restricted diet on tHcy in overweight people with T2D. METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis of the POWER study, adults with T2D and a BMI greater than 27 kg/m² were included from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam. The patients were subjected to a very low-calorie diet with fortified meal replacements for 20 weeks. Before and after this intervention, blood samples were collected to measure tHcy and other CVD risk factors like glycaemic and lipid parameters. RESULTS: 161 overweight participants with T2D were included, with a mean age of 54 years (range 26-74), mean weight of 104.6 ± 19.9 kg and mean HbA1c of 62.7 ± 14.3 mmol/mol. At baseline, men displayed higher tHcy than women, and tHcy level was positively correlated with body weight and triglyceride levels, while it was negatively correlated with renal function and HDL cholesterol. During the intervention, bodyweight was reduced by a mean of 9.7% (from 104.6 ± 19.9 to 94.5 ± 18.1 kg p < 0.001), and all measured glycaemic and lipid blood parameters improved significantly. However, tHcy remained unchanged (from 12.1 ± 4.1 to 12.1 ± 4.2 umol/L, p = 0.880). The change in tHcy during the intervention was negatively associated with the change in weight and BMI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.008, respectively). People who lost < 10 kg (n = 92) had a mean tHcy change of -0.47 umol/L, while people who lost more than ≥ 10 kg (n = 69) had a mean tHcy change of 0.60 umol/L (p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data show that a calorie restricted diet does not affect tHcy in people with T2D and obesity, despite the use of meal replacements fortified with folic acid and vitamin B12. Our data showed a negative correlation between change in tHcy levels and weight loss, suggesting that people who lost more weight (> 10 kg) showed an increase in tHcy. Future studies should explore the potential increase in tHcy induced by weight loss dieting and target the question if tHcy reduction strategies during weight loss could be clinically beneficial.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Sobrepeso , Obesidade , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Ácido Fólico , Vitamina B 12 , Lipídeos , Redução de Peso , Homocisteína
7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 48(1): 55-64, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37980382

RESUMO

This network meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of three forms of intermittent energy restriction (IER), including alternate-day fasting (ADF), the 5:2 diet, and time-restricted feeding (TRF), in overweight or obese adults. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) to find relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) until August 10, 2022. The modified Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of eligible studies. Random network meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 14.0. Sixteen RCTs were included, with 1228 patients. Overall, the methodological quality ranged from low to moderate. ADF was superior to CER and 5:2 diet in reducing waist circumference, whereas 5:2 diet was superior to CER in reducing BMI. Regarding fat mass and drop-out, all forms of IER were comparable. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the type of individuals had no influence on the pooled results; nevertheless, ADF significantly reduced weight compared to CER and achieved significant waist circumference reduction compared to CER, 5:2 diet, and TRF. ADF may be preferentially prescribed for overweight or obese adults. More large-scale and high-quality studies are required, however, to investigate the effect of TRF on overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Obesidade , Restrição Calórica
8.
Diabetes ; 73(1): 38-50, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874653

RESUMO

Metabolic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are confounded by weight loss and not fully recapitulated by increasing endogenous GLP-1. We tested the hypothesis that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exert weight loss-independent, GLP-1R-dependent effects that differ from effects of increasing endogenous GLP-1. Individuals with obesity and prediabetes were randomized to receive for 14 weeks the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide, a hypocaloric diet, or the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin. The GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39) and placebo were administered in a two-by-two crossover study during mixed-meal tests. Liraglutide and diet, but not sitagliptin, caused weight loss. Liraglutide improved insulin sensitivity measured by HOMA for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), the updated HOMA model (HOMA2), and the Matsuda index after 2 weeks, prior to weight loss. Liraglutide decreased fasting and postprandial glucose levels, and decreased insulin, C-peptide, and fasting glucagon levels. In contrast, diet-induced weight loss improved insulin sensitivity by HOMA-IR and HOMA2, but not the Matsuda index, and did not decrease glucose levels. Sitagliptin increased endogenous GLP-1 and GIP values without altering insulin sensitivity or fasting glucose levels, but decreased postprandial glucose and glucagon levels. Notably, sitagliptin increased GIP without altering weight. Acute GLP-1R antagonism increased glucose levels in all groups, increased the Matsuda index and fasting glucagon level during liraglutide treatment, and increased endogenous GLP-1 values during liraglutide and sitagliptin treatments. Thus, liraglutide exerts rapid, weight loss-independent, GLP-1R-dependent effects on insulin sensitivity that are not achieved by increasing endogenous GLP-1. ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS: Metabolic benefits of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are confounded by weight loss and are not fully achieved by increasing endogenous GLP-1 through dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition. We investigated weight loss-independent, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-dependent metabolic effects of liraglutide versus a hypocaloric diet or the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. GLP-1R antagonism with exendin(9-39) was used to assess GLP-1R-dependent effects during mixed meals. Liraglutide improved insulin sensitivity and decreased fasting and postprandial glucose prior to weight loss, and these benefits were reversed by exendin(9-39). GLP-1R agonists exert rapid, weight loss-independent, GLP-1R-dependent effects on insulin sensitivity not achieved by increasing endogenous GLP-1.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Redutora , Estudos Cross-Over , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Redução de Peso
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(1): 174-184, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating a high-quality diet or adhering to a given dietary strategy may influence weight loss. However, these 2 factors have not been examined concurrently for those following macronutrient-limiting diets. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether improvement in dietary quality, change in dietary macronutrient composition, or the combination of these factors is associated with differential weight loss when following a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) or healthy low-fat (HLF) diet. DESIGN: Generally healthy adults were randomly assigned to HLC or HLF diets for 12 mo (n = 609) as part of a randomized controlled weight loss study. Participants with complete 24-h dietary recall data at baseline and 12-mo were included in this secondary analysis (total N = 448; N = 224 HLC, N = 224 HLF). Participants were divided into 4 subgroups according to 12-mo change in HEI-2010 score [above median = high quality (HQ) and below median = low quality (LQ)] and 12-mo change in macronutrient intake [below median = high adherence (HA) and above median = low adherence (LA) for net carbohydrate (g) or fat (g) for HLC and HLF, respectively]. Baseline to 12-mo changes in mean BMI were compared for those in HQ/HA, HQ/LA, LQ/HA subgroups with the LQ/LA subgroup within HLC and HLF. RESULTS: For HLC, changes (95 % confidence level [CI]) in mean BMI were -1.15 kg/m2 (-2.04, -0.26) for HQ/HA, -0.30 (-1.22, 0.61) for HQ/LA, and -0.80 (-1.74, 0.14) for LQ/HA compared with the LQ/LA subgroup. For HLF, changes (95% CI) in mean BMI were -1.11kg/m2 (-2.10, -0.11) for HQ/HA, -0.26 (-1.26, 0.75) for HQ/LA, and -0.66 (-1.74, 0.41) for LQ/HA compared with the LQ/LA subgroup. CONCLUSION: Within both HLC and HLF diet arms, 12-mo decrease in BMI was significantly greater in HQ/HA subgroups relative to LQ/LA subgroups. Neither HQ nor HA alone were significantly different than LQ/LA subgroups. Results of this analysis support the combination of dietary adherence and high-quality diets for weight loss. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01826591).


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Redutora , Adulto , Humanos , Redução de Peso , Carboidratos
10.
Adv Nutr ; 15(1): 100130, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37827491

RESUMO

The interest in intermittent energy restriction (IER) diets as a weight-loss approach is increasing. Different IER protocols exist, including time-restricted eating (TRE), alternate-day fasting (ADF), and the 5:2 diet. This meta-analysis compared the effects of these IER diets with continuous energy restriction (CER) on anthropometrics and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy adults. Twenty-eight trials were identified that studied TRE (k = 7), ADF (k = 10), or the 5:2 diet (k = 11) for 2-52 wk. Energy intakes between intervention groups within a study were comparable (17 trials), lower in IER (5 trials), or not reported (6 trials). Weighted mean differences (WMDs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Changes in body weight [WMD: -0.42 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.96 to 0.13; P = 0.132] and fat mass (FM) (WMD: -0.31 kg; 95% CI: -0.98 to 0.36; P = 0.362) were comparable when results of the 3 IER diets were combined and compared with those of CER. All IER diets combined reduced fat-free mass (WMD: -0.20 kg; 95% CI: -0.39 to -0.01; P = 0.044) and waist circumference (WMD: -0.91 cm; 95% CI: -1.76 to -0.06; P = 0.036) more than CER. Effects on body mass index [BMI (kg/m2)], glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and blood pressure did not differ. Further, TRE reduced body weight, FM, and fat-free mass more than CER, whereas ADF improved HOMA-IR more. BMI was reduced less in the 5:2 diet compared with CER. In conclusion, the 3 IER diets combined did not lead to superior improvements in anthropometrics and cardiometabolic risk markers compared with CER diets. Slightly greater reductions were, however, observed in fat-free mass and waist circumference. To what extent differences in energy intakes between groups within studies may have influenced these outcomes should be addressed in future studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Humanos , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Obesidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 53(1): 54-61, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231793

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over half of patients with acute ischemic stroke are overweight or obese as defined by a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2. Professional and government agencies recommend weight management for these persons to improve risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, vascular inflammation, and diabetes. However, approaches to weight loss have not been adequately tested specifically in patients with stroke. In anticipation of a larger trial with vascular or functional outcomes, we tested the feasibility and safety of a 12-week partial meal replacement (PMR) intervention for weight loss in overweight or obese patients with a recent ischemic stroke. METHODS: This randomized open-label trial enrolled participants from December 2019 to February 2021 (with hiatus from March to August 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on research). Eligible patients had a recent ischemic stroke and BMI 27-49.9 kg/m2. Patients were randomized to a PMR diet (OPTAVIA® Optimal Weight 4 & 2 & 1 Plan®) plus standard care (SC) or SC alone. The PMR diet consisted of four meal replacements supplied to participants, two meals with lean protein and vegetables (self-prepared or supplied), and a healthy snack (also self-prepared or supplied). The PMR diet provided 1,100-1,300 calories per day. SC consisted of one instructional session on a healthy diet. Co-primary outcomes were ≥5% weight loss at 12 weeks and to identify barriers to successful weight loss among participants assigned to PMR. Safety outcomes included hospitalization, falls, pneumonia, or hypoglycemia requiring treatment by self or others. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, study visits after August 2020 were by remote communication. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 patients from two institutions. Two patients in each arm were lost and could not be included in outcome analyses. At 12 weeks, 9/17 patients in the PMR group and 2/17 patients in the SC group achieved ≥5% weight loss (52.9% vs. 11.9%; Fisher's exact p = 0.03). Mean percent weight change in the PMR group was -3.0% (SD 13.7) and -2.6% (SD 3.4) in the SC group (Wilcoxon rank-sum p = 0.17). No adverse events were attributed to study participation. Some participants had difficulty completing home monitoring of weight. In the PMR group, participants reported that food cravings and dislike for some food products were barriers to weight loss. CONCLUSION: A PMR diet after ischemic stroke is feasible, safe, and effective for weight loss. In future trials, in-person or improved remote outcome monitoring may reduce anthropometric data variation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , AVC Isquêmico , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Dieta Redutora/efeitos adversos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Pandemias , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/terapia , Redução de Peso , Refeições
12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 137: 107412, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost 75% of US adults are overweight or obese. Though intentional weight loss of as little as 3% improves physical functioning and reduces cardiometabolic risk, most adults are unsuccessful at long-term weight maintenance. Our hypothesis is that intermittent fasting (IF: short periods of intense energy restriction) will reduce weight regain. IF may combat obesity due to its effects on nutrient-sensing signaling pathways and circadian rhythm. The objective of this randomized clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intensive body weight management program with and without IF. METHODS: In the Promotion of Successful Weight Management in Overweight and Obese Veterans (POWER-VET) trial (NCT04131647), 154 middle-aged and older adults (50-75 years) who are overweight and obese (BMI: 25-40 kg/m2) and seen at either a Baltimore, MD or San Antonio, TX Veterans Affairs Medical Center will be enrolled. Participants will undergo 12 weeks of weight loss (including a low-calorie heart healthy (HH) diet and exercise). Following weight loss, participants will be randomly assigned to one of two 24-week weight maintenance (WM) interventions: WM alone (continuation of HH diet and exercise) or WM + IF. The primary aim is to determine the effect of WM + IF compared to WM alone on body weight maintenance after intentional weight loss. DISCUSSION: Determining effective, translatable strategies that minimize weight regain following successful weight loss holds public health relevance. This POWER-VET trial introduces an innovative practice of IF to prevent weight regain after clinically significant weight reduction and could provide evidence-based recommendations to promote this type of intervention in middle aged and older adults.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Veteranos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Sobrepeso/terapia , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Redução de Peso , Aumento de Peso
13.
Nutrition ; 117: 112252, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The management of the phenomenon of adaptive thermogenesis poses a challenge to the successful treatment of overweight/obesity with a nutritional intervention that minimizes the loss of muscle mass, with little cognitive restraint use and disorganization of eating behavior. On the other hand, it creates a significant calorie deficit for the reduction of body fat. The aim of this case report was to discuss the effects of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet in a woman with obesity and low resting metabolic rate. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 36-y-old white woman with a history of obesity and bulimia nervosa who has had difficulty losing and maintaining weight despite numerous dietary and pharmacologic treatments. RESULTS: There was a loss of 12 kg in 115 d, reaching 13.4 kg, with 11.4 kg of fat mass (FM). The resting metabolic rate showed an increase of 79% in relation to the initial rate, reaching normal levels for the predictive equations and maintaining this level in the first-year follow-up. Additionally, improvement of metabolic laboratory parameters and eating behavior traits were described. CONCLUSIONS: In this specific case of bulimia nervosa resulting in hypometabolism (low resting metabolic rate/fat-free mass) and obesity, the very low-calorie ketogenic diet intervention has demonstrated a possibility of weight loss with little cognitive restraint use, thereby increasing resting metabolic rate in the short and medium terms, ultimately promoting a negative energy balance. In relation to the numeric results, it seems positive; however, more research is necessary to evaluate the effects on the overall relationship with food and its long-term repercussions.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Termogênese
14.
Nutrients ; 15(24)2023 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a public health problem. The usual treatment is a reduction in calorie intake and an increase in energy expenditure, but not all individuals respond equally to these treatments. Epigenetics could be a factor that contributes to this heterogeneity. The aim of this research was to determine the association between DNA methylation at baseline and the percentage of BMI loss (%BMIL) after two dietary interventions, in order to design a prediction model to evaluate %BMIL based on methylation data. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spanish participants with overweight or obesity (n = 306) were randomly assigned to two lifestyle interventions with hypocaloric diets: one moderately high in protein (MHP) and the other low in fat (LF) for 4 months (Obekit study; ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02737267). Basal DNA methylation was analyzed in white blood cells using the Infinium MethylationEPIC array. After identifying those methylation sites associated with %BMIL (p < 0.05 and SD > 0.1), two weighted methylation sub-scores were constructed for each diet: 15 CpGs were used for the MHP diet and 11 CpGs for the LF diet. Afterwards, a total methylation score was made by subtracting the previous sub-scores. These data were used to design a prediction model for %BMIL through a linear mixed effect model with the interaction between diet and total score. CONCLUSION: Overall, DNA methylation predicts the %BMIL of two 4-month hypocaloric diets and was able to determine which type of diet is the most appropriate for each individual. The results of this pioneer study confirm that epigenetic biomarkers may be further used for precision nutrition and the design of personalized dietary strategies against obesity.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Obesidade , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Redução de Peso/genética , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Redutora
15.
Nutrients ; 15(24)2023 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140292

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases present worldwide. Currently, dietary changes and physical activity are considered the most effective treatment to reduce obesity and its associated comorbidities. To promote weight loss, hypocaloric diets can be supported by nutraceuticals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a hypocaloric diet associated with Cinchona succirubra supplementation on satiety, body weight and body composition in obese subjects. Fifty-nine overweight/obese adults, were recruited, randomized into two groups and treated for 2 months. The first group (32 adults) was treated with a hypocaloric diet plus cinchona supplementation (the T-group); the second one (27 adults) was treated with a hypocaloric diet plus a placebo supplementation (the P-group). Anthropometric-measurements as well as bioimpedance analysis, a Zung test and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 60 days. T-group adults showed significant improvement in nutritional status and body composition compared to those at the baseline and in the P-group. Moreover, T-group adults did not show a reduction in Cholecystokinin serum levels compared to those of P-group adults. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that a hypocaloric diet associated with cinchona supplementation is effective in inducing more significant weight loss and the re-establishment of metabolic parameters than those obtained with a hypocaloric diet.


Assuntos
Cinchona , Obesidade , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso , Dieta Redutora , Redução de Peso , Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais
16.
Chin J Physiol ; 66(6): 485-493, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149561

RESUMO

Acute body mass loss before competitions in combat sports usually leads to loss in fat-free mass. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to increase skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in various muscle wasting conditions. This study investigated the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition and sport-specific performance in well-trained boxers consuming a hypocaloric diet. Twelve male college boxers were divided into the HMB and placebo (PLA) groups using a body weight-matched single-blind parallel design. The study comprised a 6-day weight loss period (days 1-6), followed by a 3-day competition period (days 7-9). The participants in both the groups consumed 16 kcal/kg/day, including 1.6-1.7 g/kg of carbohydrates, 1.2-1.3 g/kg of protein, and 0.45-0.5 g/kg of fat during the 9-day period. The HMB group consumed 3 g/day HMB. Body composition measurement, isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and a simulated boxing match were performed at baseline and on days 7, 8, and 9. Fasting blood samples were collected on the day before day 1 and on days 7, 8, and 9. Body mass was significantly decreased after the 6-day weight loss period (HMB group: baseline: 69.4 ± 11.2 kg, day 7: 67.1 ± 11.2 kg; PLA group: baseline: 68.6 ± 12.1 kg, day 7: 65.7 ± 11.5 kg, P < 0.05) while it was unchanged on the 3-day competition period in both the groups. Fat-free mass in the HMB group was maintained throughout the 9-day period (baseline: 56.7 ± 9.3 kg, day 7: 56.3 ± 8.7 kg, day 9: 55.8 ± 9.5 kg) whereas it significantly decreased on days 7 and 9 compared to the baseline in the PLA group (baseline: 55.2 ± 6.4 kg, day 7: 54.1 ± 6.6 kg, day 9: 54.0 ± 6.6 kg, P < 0.05). In the PLA group, the average and maximal heart rates in round 1 and the average heart rate in round 2 on days 8 and 9 were significantly lower than those at baseline, while these parameters were unchanged in the HMB group. The maximal force and the rate of force development in the IMTP remained unchanged among the different timepoints in both the groups. The blood biochemical parameters were similar at any timepoint between the PLA and HMB groups. HMB supplementation during acute weight loss may preserve fat-free mass and maintain heart rate response in subsequent simulated matches in well-trained boxers. In addition, HMB supplementation had a nonsignificant effect on glucose, fat, and protein metabolism during energy restriction.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Composição Corporal , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Obesidade , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Método Simples-Cego , Redução de Peso
17.
Nutrients ; 15(21)2023 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37960202

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of obesity has been linked to alterations in gut microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus kefiri, together with PENS T6 and a hypocaloric diet, on weight loss, hypertension and laboratory glycemic and lipid profile. A prospective non-randomized study was conducted involving adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into two groups: those undergoing PENS-T6 and hypocaloric diet (PENS-Diet Group) and those undergoing the same PENS-T6 scheme and hypocaloric diet, but additionally receiving probiotics including Lactobacillus kefiri (PENS-Diet + L. kefiri Group). Weight loss was assessed at the end of the treatment, and analytical glycemic and lipid profile, and microbiological analysis of feces were performed before and after treatment. The addition of Lactobacillus kefiri to PENS T6 and a low-calorie diet, increases weight loss and further improves the glycemic and lipid profile. L. kefiri also causes a further improvement in obesity-associated dysbiosis, mainly by increasing the muconutritive (Akkermansia muciniphila) and regulatory (Bifidobacterium spp.) microbiome, and the Phylum Bacteroidetes (Prevotella spp.) and decreasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Obesidade , Adulto , Humanos , Dieta Redutora , Estudos Prospectivos , Redução de Peso , Lipídeos
18.
J Ovarian Res ; 16(1): 216, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher intestinal mucosal permeability, leading to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leakage and endotoxemia. This, in turn, leads to oxidative stress (OS) and neuro-inflammation caused by the gut-brain axis, affecting the neurotrophic factors levels such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100 B) levels. In this study, it was hypothesized that the thylakoid membranes of spinach supplementation along with a hypocaloric diet may have improved the LPS levels, neurotrophic factors, and OS in PCOS patients. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and clinical trial, 48 women with obesity and diagnosed with PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were randomly assigned to thylakoid (N = 21) and placebo groups (N = 23). A personalized hypocaloric diet with 500 calories less than the total energy expenditure was prescribed to all patients. The participants were daily supplemented with either a 5 g/day thylakoid-rich spinach extract or a placebo (5 g cornstarch) for 12 weeks along with a prescribed low-calorie diet. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the LPS levels (P < 0.001) and an increase in the BDNF levels (P < 0.001) were recorded for the participants receiving the oral thylakoid supplements and a low-calorie diet. Furthermore, significant decreases were observed in fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance, free testosterone index, and follicle-stimulating hormone / luteinizing hormone ratio in both groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected between the two groups regarding the changes in malondialdehyde, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and S100B levels (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In sum, the thylakoid membranes of spinach supplemented with a hypocaloric diet reduced the LPS levels, increased the BDNF levels, and improved the glycemic profile and sex-hormone levels; however, they had no effects on the OS markers levels after 12 weeks of intervention.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Tilacoides , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Spinacia oleracea , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Redutora , Lipopolissacarídeos , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Biomarcadores , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 185(47)2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38018738

RESUMO

The impact of diet on psoriasis is not well studied but it is of interest to many patients. A hypocaloric diet with corresponding weight loss can reduce psoriasis severity in overweight or obese patients and should be considered an important supplement to conventional therapy, as argued in this review. Gluten-free diet might improve severity of psoriasis in patients with coeliac disease or merely presence of coeliac-specific antibodies. Mediterranean diet might also be beneficial. Overall, studies do not support a beneficial effect of micronutrient supplements (i.e., vitamin D, selenium, vitamin B12) in patients with normal serum levels.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Psoríase , Humanos , Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Dieta , Vitaminas , Psoríase/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/terapia
20.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 27(10): 842-852, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37960907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of sarcopenic obesity, making it a critical focus for preventing and treating this condition. However, the specific dietary components that effectively combat sarcopenic obesity remain poorly understood. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the potential nutritional and dietary factors that may play a role in the development of sarcopenic obesity in the elderly population. METHODS: To identify relevant studies investigating the association/effects of dietary pattern/single foods/nutrients or supplements with sarcopenic obesity-related outcomes, a comprehensive literature search was conducted until April 2023. The search encompassed multiple databases including PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Two researchers performed rigorous assessments that included screening titles and abstracts, reviewing full-text studies, extracting data, and evaluating the quality of the studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for observational studies, while the Jadad-Oxford Scale was employed for clinical trials. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (14 observational studies and 9 trials) with 37078 participants, published between 2012 and 2022, were eligible for the systematic review. Of the 14 observational articles, two focused on dietary patterns and 12 on food/calorie/macro- and micronutrient intake. The nutritional interventions included the intake of supplements (i.e., protein, amino acids, tea catechin, and vitamin D) and dietary management (calorie restriction, very low-calorie ketogenic diet, and high-protein diet). Appropriate dietary factors, such as appropriate intake of calories, macronutrients, micronutrients, antioxidant nutrients, vegetables, fruits, and overall dietary quality, have been shown to be effective in preventing and treating sarcopenic obesity-related parameters. A combined approach of hypocaloric diet and high protein intake may be necessary for managing both obesity and sarcopenia in older individuals. CONCLUSION: Studies suggest that dietary factors, such as overall dietary quality, appropriate intake of calories and protein, consumption of antioxidant nutrients, vegetables, fruits, and protein, may be linked to sarcopenic obesity.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Humanos , Idoso , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Dieta Redutora , Antioxidantes , Frutas , Verduras
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...