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1.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(3): 394-398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is an acute inflammatory process that affects individuals with diverticular disease. Given the sharp increase in the diagnostic rate of such a pathological process, there was also an increased interest in elucidating the possible causes related to the development of this clinical condition. Among the main factors investigated, diet excels, the object of study of this integrative literature review. METHODS: After searching the virtual health library and PubMed databases, five prospective cohort studies were selected that best answered the guiding question: "Is there a relationship between diet and the incidence of diverticulitis?". RESULTS: It was observed that the high intake of red meat and the low intake of dietary fiber were the most strongly associated dietary factors with the incidence of this inflammatory process. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is evident that choosing healthy eating habits can considerably reduce the incidence of diverticulitis and, consequently, potentially more serious complications directly related to it.


Assuntos
Diverticulite , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta , Diverticulite/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684443

RESUMO

Although there is a general assumption that a phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet promotes overweight in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), it is unclear if this presumption is supported by scientific evidence. This systematic review aimed to determine if patients with PKU are at a higher risk of overweight compared to healthy individuals. A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Risk of bias of individual studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome was assessed using the NutriGrade scoring system. From 829 articles identified, 15 were included in the systematic review and 12 in the meta-analysis. Body mass index (BMI) was similar between patients with PKU and healthy controls, providing no evidence to support the idea that a Phe-restricted diet is a risk factor for the development of overweight. However, a subgroup of patients with classical PKU had a significantly higher BMI than healthy controls. Given the increasing prevalence of overweight in the general population, patients with PKU require lifelong follow-up, receiving personalised nutritional counselling, with methodical nutritional status monitoring from a multidisciplinary team in inherited metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fenilalanina/efeitos adversos , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores , Dietoterapia/efeitos adversos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684455

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases with no approved treatment. Zonarol, an extract from brown algae, has been proven to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the role of zonarol in the progression of methionine- and choline-deficiency (MCD) diet-induced NAFLD in mice. After oral treatment with zonarol, a lighter body weight was observed in zonarol group (ZG) mice in comparison to control group (CG) mice. The NAFLD scores of ZG mice were lower than those of CG mice. Hepatic and serum lipid levels were also lower in ZG mice with the reduced expression of lipid metabolism-related factors. Furthermore, ZG mice showed less lipid deposition, less inflammatory cell infiltration and lower inflammatory cytokine levels in comparison to CG mice. Moreover, the numbers of 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive hepatocytes and levels of hepatic and serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly lower in comparison to CG mice. The expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), as well as its upstream and downstream molecules, changed in ZG mice. Zonarol could prevent the progression of NAFLD by decreasing inflammatory responses, oxidative stress and improving lipid metabolism. Meanwhile the Nrf2 pathway may play an important role in these effects.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Colina/complicações , Dieta , Metionina/deficiência , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684462

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown a rise in precocious puberty, especially in girls. At the same time, childhood obesity due to overnutrition and energy imbalance is rising too. Nutrition and fertility are currently facing major challenges in our societies, and are interconnected. Studies have shown that high-fat and/or high-glycaemic-index diet can cause hypothalamic inflammation and microglial activation. Molecular and animal studies reveal that microglial activation seems to produce and activate prostaglandins, neurotrophic factors activating GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons), thus initiating precocious puberty. GnRH neurons' mechanisms of excitability are not well understood. In this review, we study the phenomenon of the rise of precocious puberty, we examine the physiology of GnRH neurons, and we review the recent literature regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms that connect diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation and diet-induced phoenixin regulation with precocious puberty.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Encefalite/complicações , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , Puberdade Precoce/etiologia , Puberdade Precoce/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/patologia , Humanos , Hipotálamo/patologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684489

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the secular trend of energy intake distribution. This study aims to describe trajectories of energy intake distribution and determine their association with dyslipidemia risk. Data of 2843 adult participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were analyzed. Trajectory groups of energy intake distribution were identified by multi-trajectory model over 27 years. Multilevel mixed-effects modified Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to calculate risk ratio for incident dyslipidemia in a 9-year follow-up. Four trajectory groups were identified: "Energy evenly distributed group" (Group 1), "Lunch and dinner energy dominant group" (Group 2), "Dinner energy dominant group" (Group 3), "breakfast and dinner energy dominant group" (Group 4). Compared with Group 1, Group 3 was associated with higher risk of dyslipidemia (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.75), hypercholesterolemia (RR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.37, 2.81) and high low-density lipoproteins cholesterols (LDL-C) (RR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.82, 3.20). A U-shape was observed between cumulative average proportion of dinner energy and dyslipidemia risk (p for non-linear = 0.01), with stronger relationship at 40% and above. Energy intake distribution characterized by higher proportion of dinner energy, especially over 40% was associated with higher dyslipidemia risk in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Refeições , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Refeições/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Distribuição de Poisson
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684495

RESUMO

Milk is widely considered as a beneficial product for growing children. This study was designed to describe the milk consumption status of Korean children aged 30-36 months and to investigate its association with the risk of obesity and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This nationwide administrative study used data from the Korean national health insurance system and child health screening examinations for children born in 2008 and 2009. In total, 425,583 children were included, and they were divided into three groups based on daily milk consumption: low milk group (do not drink or drink <200 mL milk per day, n = 139,659), reference group (drink 200-499 mL milk per day, n = 255,670), and high milk group (drink ≥500 mL milk per day, n = 30,254). After adjusting variable confounding factors, the consumption of a large amount of milk of ≥500 mL per day at the age of 30-36 months was associated with an increased risk of obesity at the age of 42-72 months and IDA after the age of 30 months. These results may provide partial evidence for dietary guidelines for milk consumption in children that are conducive to health.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684502

RESUMO

Hepcidin is a regulator of iron metabolism. Diet affects the body's iron status, but how it influences hepcidin concentrations and the risk of gestational iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) remains unclear. We investigated relationships of food and nutrient intake with serum hepcidin levels in relation to the iron status at a population scale. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted based on data obtained from the Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in pregnant women, Taiwan (2017~2020). In total, 1430 pregnant women aged 20~45 years with a singleton pregnancy were included. Data from blood biochemistry, 24-h dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire were collected during a prenatal checkup. Adjusted multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were employed to measure the beta coefficient (ß) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of serum hepcidin and the odds ratio (OR) of IDA. In IDA women, serum hepcidin levels were positively correlated with the intake frequency of Chinese dim sum and related foods (ß = 0.037 (95% CI = 0.015~0.058), p = 0.001) and dark leafy vegetables (ß = 0.013 (0.001~0.025), p = 0.040), but they were negatively correlated with noodles and related products (ß = -0.022 (-0.043~-0.001), p = 0.038). An adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dietary protein [OR: 0.990 (0.981~1.000), p = 0.041], total fiber [OR: 0.975 (0.953~0.998), p = 0.031], and rice/rice porridge [OR: 1.007 (1.00~1.014), p = 0.041] predicted gestational IDA. Total carbohydrates [OR: 1.003 (1.000~1.006), p = 0.036], proteins [OR: 0.992 (0.985~0.999), p = 0.028], gourds/shoots/root vegetables [OR: 1.007 (0.092~1.010), p = 0.005], and to a lesser extent, savory and sweet glutinous rice products [OR: 0.069 (0.937~1.002), p = 0.067] and dark leafy vegetables [OR: 1.005 (0.999~1.011), p = 0.088] predicted IDA. The risk of IDA due to vegetable consumption decreased with an increasing vitamin C intake (p for trend = 0.024). Carbohydrates and vegetables may affect the gestational iron status through influencing hepcidin levels. Vitamin C may lower the risk of gestational IDA due to high vegetable consumption.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepcidinas/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684531

RESUMO

In this scoping review, we examined the association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and neurodevelopment in offspring. We searched the Pubmed and ScienceDirect databases for articles published from 2000 to 2020 on inadequate intake of vitamins (B12, folate, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K), micronutrients (cooper, iron, creatine, choline, zinc, iodine), macronutrients (fatty acids, proteins), high fat diets, ketogenic diets, hypercaloric diets, and maternal undernutrition. Some older relevant articles were included. The search produced a total of 3590 articles, and 84 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Data were extracted and analyzed using charts and the frequency of terms used. We concluded that inadequate nutrient intake during pregnancy was associated with brain defects (diminished cerebral volume, spina bifida, alteration of hypothalamic and hippocampal pathways), an increased risk of abnormal behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders (ASD, ADHD, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression), altered cognition, visual impairment, and motor deficits. Future studies should establish and quantify the benefits of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on neurodevelopment and recommend adequate supplementation.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adulto , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Micronutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Vitaminas/análise
9.
J Nutr ; 151(12 Suppl 2): 75S-92S, 2021 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor diet quality is a major driver of both classical malnutrition and noncommunicable disease (NCD) and was responsible for 22% of adult deaths in 2017. Most countries face dual burdens of undernutrition and NCDs, yet no simple global standard metric exists for monitoring diet quality in populations and population subgroups. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop an easy-to-use metric for nutrient adequacy and diet related NCD risk in diverse settings. METHODS: Using cross-sectional and cohort data from nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age in 10 African countries as well as China, India, Mexico, and the United States, we undertook secondary analyses to develop novel metrics of diet quality and to evaluate associations between metrics and nutrient intakes and adequacy, anthropometry, biomarkers, type 2 diabetes, and iteratively modified metric design to improve performance and to compare novel metric performance to that of existing metrics. RESULTS: We developed the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS), a food-based metric incorporating a more comprehensive list of food groups than most existing diet metrics, and a simple means of scoring consumed amounts. In secondary analyses, the GDQS performed comparably with the Minimum Dietary Diversity - Women indicator in predicting an energy-adjusted aggregate measure of dietary protein, fiber, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, and vitamin B12 adequacy and with anthropometric and biochemical indicators of undernutrition (including underweight, anemia, and serum folate deficiency), and the GDQS also performed comparably or better than the Alternative Healthy Eating Index - 2010 in capturing NCD-related outcomes (including metabolic syndrome, change in weight and waist circumference, and incident type 2 diabetes). CONCLUSIONS: The simplicity of the GDQS and its ability to capture both nutrient adequacy and diet-related NCD risk render it a promising candidate for global monitoring platforms. Research is warranted to validate methods to operationalize GDQS assessment in population surveys, including a novel application-based 24-h recall system developed as part of this project.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Antropometria , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Síndrome Metabólica , Micronutrientes , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 394-398, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is an acute inflammatory process that affects individuals with diverticular disease. Given the sharp increase in the diagnostic rate of such a pathological process, there was also an increased interest in elucidating the possible causes related to the development of this clinical condition. Among the main factors investigated, diet excels, the object of study of this integrative literature review. METHODS: After searching the virtual health library and PubMed databases, five prospective cohort studies were selected that best answered the guiding question: "Is there a relationship between diet and the incidence of diverticulitis?". RESULTS: It was observed that the high intake of red meat and the low intake of dietary fiber were the most strongly associated dietary factors with the incidence of this inflammatory process. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is evident that choosing healthy eating habits can considerably reduce the incidence of diverticulitis and, consequently, potentially more serious complications directly related to it.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A diverticulite é um processo inflamatório agudo que afeta indivíduos com doença diverticular. Diante do acentuado aumento da taxa diagnóstica desse processo patológico, também houve o aumento do interesse em elucidar as possíveis causas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento dessa condição clínica. Entre os principais fatores investigados, destaca-se a dieta; objeto de estudo desta revisão integrativa da literatura. MÉTODOS: Após pesquisa nas bases de dados da biblioteca virtual em saúde e PubMed, foram selecionados cinco estudos de coorte prospectivos que melhor responderam à questão norteadora "Há relação entre dieta e incidência de diverticulite?". RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que o alto consumo de carnes vermelhas e o baixo consumo de fibra alimentar são os fatores dietéticos mais fortemente associados à incidência desse processo inflamatório. Fica evidente, portanto, que a escolha de hábitos alimentares saudáveis pode reduzir consideravelmente a incidência de diverticulite e, consequentemente, de possíveis complicações mais graves diretamente relacionadas a ela.


Assuntos
Humanos , Diverticulite/etiologia , Fibras na Dieta , Estudos Prospectivos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502149

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue affecting 14% of the general population. However, research focusing on CKD mechanisms/treatment is limited because of a lack of animal models recapitulating the disease physiopathology, including its complications. We analyzed the effects of a three-week diet rich in sodium oxalate (OXA diet) on rats and showed that, compared to controls, rats developed a stable CKD with a 60% reduction in glomerular filtration rate, elevated blood urea levels and proteinuria. Histological analyses revealed massive cortical disorganization, tubular atrophy and fibrosis. Males and females were sensitive to the OXA diet, but decreasing the diet period to one week led to GFR significance but not stable diminution. Rats treated with the OXA diet also displayed classical CKD complications such as elevated blood pressure and reduced hematocrit. Functional cardiac analyses revealed that the OXA diet triggered significant cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, our results showed the feasibility of using a convenient and non-invasive strategy to induce CKD and its classical systemic complications in rats. This model, which avoids kidney mass loss or acute toxicity, has strong potential for research into CKD mechanisms and novel therapies, which could protect and postpone the use of dialysis or transplantation.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Hiperoxalúria/etiologia , Ácido Oxálico/toxicidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Frequência Cardíaca , Hematócrito , Masculino , Ácido Oxálico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Oxálico/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Gut ; 70(11): 2096-2104, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poor metabolic health and unhealthy lifestyle factors have been associated with risk and severity of COVID-19, but data for diet are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association of diet quality with risk and severity of COVID-19 and its interaction with socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: We used data from 592 571 participants of the smartphone-based COVID-19 Symptom Study. Diet information was collected for the prepandemic period using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a healthful Plant-Based Diet Score, which emphasises healthy plant foods such as fruits or vegetables. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for COVID-19 risk and severity defined using a validated symptom-based algorithm or hospitalisation with oxygen support, respectively. RESULTS: Over 3 886 274 person-months of follow-up, 31 815 COVID-19 cases were documented. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of the diet score, high diet quality was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and severe COVID-19 (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). The joint association of low diet quality and increased deprivation on COVID-19 risk was higher than the sum of the risk associated with each factor alone (Pinteraction=0.005). The corresponding absolute excess rate per 10 000 person/months for lowest vs highest quartile of diet score was 22.5 (95% CI 18.8 to 26.3) among persons living in areas with low deprivation and 40.8 (95% CI 31.7 to 49.8) among persons living in areas with high deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: A diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19. This association may be particularly evident among individuals living in areas with higher socioeconomic deprivation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1034, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite research efforts, the causative factors that contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in high-risk areas have not yet been understood. In this study, we, therefore, aimed to describe the risk factors associated with ESCC and its precursor lesions. METHODS: We performed an endoscopic examination of 44,857 individuals aged 40-69 years from five high incidence regions of China in 2017-2018. Participants were classified as 4 groups of normal control, esophagitis, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN) and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia/esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HGIN/ESCC) using an unconditional logistic regression determine risk factors. RESULTS: We identified 4890 esophagitis, 1874 LGIN and 437 HGIN/ESCC cases. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Drinking well and surface water, salty diet, and positive family history of cancer were the common risk factors for esophagitis, LGIN and HGIN/ESCC. History of chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis was the greatest risk factor of esophagitis (adjusted OR 2.96, 95%CI 2.52-3.47) and HGIN/ESCC (adjusted OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.03-3.22). Pesticide exposure (adjusted OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.37) was essential risk factor of LGIN. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals aged 40-69 years in high incidence regions of upper gastrointestinal cancer, the results provided important epidemiological evidence for the prevention of different precancerous lesions of ESCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/etiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiologia , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Esofagite/diagnóstico , Esofagite/epidemiologia , Esofagoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578967

RESUMO

Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (CLGI) is a non-overt inflammatory state characterized by a continuous activation of inflammation mediators associated with metabolic diseases. It has been linked to the overconsumption of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs), and/or macronutrients which lead to an increase in local and systemic pro-inflammatory biomarkers in humans and animal models. This review provides a summary of research into biomarkers of diet-induced CLGI in murine models, with a focus on AGEs and obesogenic diets, and presents the physiological effects described in the literature. Diet-induced CLGI is associated with metabolic endotoxemia, and/or gut microbiota remodeling in rodents. The mechanisms identified so far are centered on pro-inflammatory axes such as the interaction between AGEs and their main receptor AGEs (RAGE) or increased levels of lipopolysaccharide. The use of murine models has helped to elucidate the local and systemic expression of CLGI mediators. These models have enabled significant advances in identification of diet-induced CLGI biomarkers and resultant physiological effects. Some limitations on the translational (murine → humans) use of biomarkers may arise, but murine models have greatly facilitated the testing of specific dietary components. However, there remains a lack of information at the whole-organism level of organization, as well as a lack of consensus on the best biomarker for use in CLGI studies and recommendations as to future research conclude this review.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Adipocinas/análise , Animais , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Camundongos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578940

RESUMO

Many reports detail taste dysfunction in humans and animals with obesity. For example, mice consuming an obesogenic diet for a short period have fewer taste buds than their lean littermates. Further, rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO) show blunted electrophysiological responses to taste in the brainstem. Here, we studied the effects of high energy diet (HED)-induced peripheral taste damage in rats, and whether this deficiency could be reversed by returning to a regular chow diet. Separate groups of rats consumed a standard chow diet (Chow), a HED for 10 weeks followed by a return to chow (HED/chow), or a HED for 10 weeks followed by a restricted HED that was isocaloric with consumption by the HED/chow group (HED/isocal). Fungiform taste papilla (FP) and circumvallate taste bud abundance were quantified several months after HED groups switched diets. Results showed that both HED/chow and HED/isocal rats had significantly fewer FP and lower CV taste bud abundance than control rats fed only chow. Neutrophil infiltration into taste tissues was also quantified, but did not vary with treatment on this timeline. Finally, the number of cells undergoing programmed cell death, measured with caspase-3 staining, inversely correlated with taste bud counts, suggesting taste buds may be lost to apoptosis as a potential mechanism for the taste dysfunction observed in obesity. Collectively, these data show that DIO has lasting deleterious effects on the peripheral taste system, despite a change from a HED to a healthy diet, underscoring the idea that obesity rather than diet predicts damage to the taste system.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Paladar , Papilas Gustativas/patologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0251895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520472

RESUMO

Obesity and diabetes have strong heritable components, yet the genetic contributions to these diseases remain largely unexplained. In humans, a missense variant in Creb3 regulatory factor (CREBRF) [rs373863828 (p.Arg457Gln); CREBRFR457Q] is strongly associated with increased odds of obesity but decreased odds of diabetes. Although virtually nothing is known about CREBRF's mechanism of action, emerging evidence implicates it in the adaptive transcriptional response to nutritional stress downstream of TORC1. The objectives of this study were to generate a murine model with knockin of the orthologous variant in mice (CREBRFR458Q) and to test the hypothesis that this CREBRF variant promotes obesity and protects against diabetes by regulating energy and glucose homeostasis downstream of TORC1. To test this hypothesis, we performed extensive phenotypic analysis of CREBRFR458Q knockin mice at baseline and in response to acute (fasting/refeeding), chronic (low- and high-fat diet feeding), and extreme (prolonged fasting) nutritional stress as well as with pharmacological TORC1 inhibition, and aging to 52 weeks. The results demonstrate that the murine CREBRFR458Q model of the human CREBRFR457Q variant does not influence energy/glucose homeostasis in response to these interventions, with the exception of possible greater loss of fat relative to lean mass with age. Alternative preclinical models and/or studies in humans will be required to decipher the mechanisms linking this variant to human health and disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Glucose/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/classificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Obesidade/metabolismo
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3031-3043, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Food processing has been indicated as a factor capable of negatively affecting the global food system, including the profile of consumers' diets. The objectives of the present study were to provide a description of the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) in the large population of children, adolescents and adults from eight European countries participating to the I.Family study, and to investigate the association between UPFs intake and nutritional quality of the diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The quality of the diet was evaluated by the Healthy Dietary Adherence Score (HDAS) using an FFQ. UPFs were classified according to the NOVA classification. Almost half of the daily energy intake of the 7073 participants came from UPFs, and this trend decreased progressively with age. UPFs contributed more than 50 % of the daily intake of total and saturated fat, carbohydrates and about 70 % of sugars intake in children and adolescents. No differences in UPFs consumption were found according to the educational and socio-economic status of the population. Energy intake increased across the quintiles of UPFs intake, while HDAS decreased. The frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetable, fish, and fibre rich foods was low in the fifth quintile of UPFs intake, both in adolescents and in adults. The consumption of foods rich in calories and low in nutritional content, operationally defined as "junk food", was significantly higher in the fifth quintile. CONCLUSIONS: In the population of the European I.Family study, UPFs contributed a large proportion of the daily energy intake, especially in children and adolescents. Higher consumption of UPFs was associated with a lower quality of the diet. REGISTRATION NUMBER FOR CLINICAL TRIALS: ISRCTN62310987.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta , Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente) , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3054-3063, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To examine the mediating role of adiposity on the associations of diet quality with longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the PROMISE cohort had 4 assessments over 9 years (n = 442). Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were used to assess diet quality. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) evaluated the associations between the AHEI and longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S and ISI) and beta-cell function (IGI/HOMA-IR and ISSI-2). The proportion of the mediating effect of waist circumference changes was estimated using the difference method. In the primary longitudinal analysis, AHEI was positively associated with insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function over time (% difference per standard deviation increase of AHEI for HOMA2-%S (ß = 11.0, 95%CI 5.43-17.0), ISI (ß = 10.4, 95%CI 4.35-16.8), IGI/HOMA-IR (ß = 7.12, 95%CI 0.98-13.6) and ISSI-2 (ß = 4.38, 95%CI 1.05-7.80), all p < 0.05). There was no significant association between AHEI and dysglycemia incidence (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.77-1.17). Adjustments for longitudinal changes in waist circumference substantially attenuated all associations of AHEI with insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. Mediation analysis indicated that waist circumference mediated 73%, 70%, 83% and 81% of the association between AHEI and HOMA2-%S, ISI, IGI/HOMA-IR, and ISSI-2, respectively (all p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In a Canadian population at-risk for T2D, AHEI score was positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. These associations were substantially mediated by waist circumference, suggesting that changes in adiposity may represent an important pathway linking diet quality with risk phenotypes for T2D.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura
19.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578812

RESUMO

Vegans and vegetarians often consume foods containing photosensitizers capable of triggering phytophotodermatitis. The potential effect of vegan and vegetarian diets on the response of psoriatic patients undergoing phototherapy is not well characterized. We assessed clinical outcomes of vegan, vegetarian and omnivore adult psoriatic patients undergoing band ultraviolet B phototherapy (NB-UVB). In this multicenter prospective observational study, we enrolled 119 adult, psoriatic patients, of whom 40 were omnivores, 41 were vegetarians and 38 were vegans, with phototherapy indication. After determining the minimum erythemal dose (MED), we performed NB-UVB sessions for 8 weeks. The first irradiation dosage was 70.00% of the MED, then increased by 20.00% (no erythema) or by 10.00% (presence of erythema) until a maximum single dose of 3 J/cm2 was reached and constantly maintained. All the enrolled patients completed the 8 weeks of therapy. Severe erythema was present in 16 (42.11%) vegans, 7 (17.07%) vegetarians and 4 (10.00%) omnivores (p < 0.01). MED was lowest among vegans (21.18 ± 4.85 J/m2), followed by vegetarians (28.90 ± 6.66 J/m2) and omnivores (33.63 ± 4.53 J/m2, p < 0.01). Patients with severe erythema were more likely to have a high furocumarin intake (OR 5.67, 95% CI 3.74-8.61, p < 0.01). Vegans consumed the highest amount of furocumarin-rich foods. A model examining erythema, adjusted for gender, age, skin type, MED, phototherapy type, number of phototherapies and furocumarin intake, confirmed that vegans had a lower number of treatments. Vegans had more frequent severe erythema from NB-UVB, even after adjustment of the phototherapy protocol for their lower MED. Assessing diet information and adapting the protocol for vegan patients may be prudent.


Assuntos
Dermatite Fototóxica/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos adversos , Fototerapia/métodos , Psoríase/terapia , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Vegana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegana/métodos , Dieta Vegetariana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003695, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diets with high proportions of foods high in fat, sugar, and/or salt (HFSS) contribute to malnutrition and rising rates of childhood obesity, with effects throughout the life course. Given compelling evidence on the detrimental impact HFSS advertising has on children's diets, the World Health Organization unequivocally supports the adoption of restrictions on HFSS marketing and advertising. In February 2019, the Greater London Authority introduced novel restrictions on HFSS advertising across Transport for London (TfL), one of the most valuable out-of-home advertising estates. In this study, we examined whether and how commercial actors attempted to influence the development of these advertising restrictions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using requests under the Freedom of Information Act, we obtained industry responses to the London Food Strategy consultation, correspondence between officials and key industry actors, and information on meetings. We used an existing model of corporate political activity, the Policy Dystopia Model, to systematically analyse arguments and activities used to counter the policy. The majority of food and advertising industry consultation respondents opposed the proposed advertising restrictions, many promoting voluntary approaches instead. Industry actors who supported the policy were predominantly smaller businesses. To oppose the policy, industry respondents deployed a range of strategies. They exaggerated potential costs and underplayed potential benefits of the policy, for instance, warning of negative economic consequences and questioning the evidence underlying the proposal. Despite challenging the evidence for the policy, they offered little evidence in support of their own claims. Commercial actors had significant access to the policy process and officials through the consultation and numerous meetings, yet attempted to increase access, for example, in applying to join the London Child Obesity Taskforce and inviting its members to events. They also employed coalition management, engaging directly and through business associations to amplify their arguments. Some advertising industry actors also raised the potential of legal challenges. The key limitation of this study is that our data focused on industry-policymaker interactions; thus, our findings are unable to present a comprehensive picture of political activity. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified substantial opposition from food and advertising industry actors to the TfL advertising restrictions. We mapped arguments and activities used to oppose the policy, which might help other public authorities anticipate industry efforts to prevent similar restrictions in HFSS advertising. Given the potential consequences of commercial influence in these kinds of policy spaces, public bodies should consider how they engage with industry actors.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Política , Transportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Londres , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Participação dos Interessados
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