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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 394-400, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity, as well as a gonadal function, are pivotal factors influencing bone tissue metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary induced obesity (DIO) on bone tissue metabolism in sham-operated (SHO) or ovariectomized (OVX) adult female Wistar rats. Additionally, the influence of DIO in SHO or OVX on the concentration of sclerostin in the blood serum was analyzed. After SHO or OVX, the rats were placed in groups (n=8) and either received a standard diet (11.5 MJ/kg) (SHO-CON; OVX-CON) or a high-energy diet (17.6 MJ/kg) (SHO-FAT; OVX-FAT). The experiment lasted for 90 days and allowed for the establishment of osteopenia in OVX females and obesity in the rats that had received the high-energy diet. RESULTS: The results of the study demonstrate that obesity or/and ovariectomy increases the resorption of femora and tibiae, hence decreasing the densitometric and mechanical parameters affecting the bone structure in adult females rats. The strongest osteodegenerative effect was seen in the OVX-FAT females. Interestingly, the degree of bone tissue degradation caused exclusively by ovariectomy was similar to that found in the obese sham-operated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Bone losses invoked by DIO seem to be independent from the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway inhibition induced by sclerostin. While further study is necessary, the obtained results suggest that the usage of sclerostin anti-body in the treatment of osteoporosis can be ineffective, and in obese patients the undertaking of such therapy should be reassessed.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/sangue , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The participants' experience of low-energy total diet replacement (TDR) programmes delivered by lay counsellors in the community for the routine treatment of obesity is currently unclear. We interviewed a sample of twelve participants who took part in the Doctor Referral of Overweight People to Low-Energy total diet replacement Treatment (DROPLET) trial and were randomised to the TDR programme. METHODS: We purposively sampled twelve patients who took part in the DROPLET trial, and conducted in-depth telephone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interview questions focused on participants' experiences and perceptions of the TDR programme. We conducted a thematic analysis, actively developing themes from the data, and used the one sheet of paper (OSOP) technique to develop higher-level concepts. RESULTS: Nine key themes were identified; Reasons for taking part, Expectations, Support and guidance from the counsellor, Time to build a personal relationship, Following the TDR Programme, Adverse events, Outcomes from the TDR, Weight Loss Maintenance, Recommending TDR to others. The relationship between participants and the counsellor was central to many of the themes. Close relationships with counsellors facilitated TDR adherence through providing one-to-one support (including during difficult times), sharing expert knowledge, and building a close relationship. Adherence was also supported by the rapid weight loss that patients reported experiencing. Overall participants reported positive experiences of the TDR, and emphasised the positive impact on their wellbeing. DISCUSSION: Patients reported that a TDR programme delivered by lay counsellors in the community was a positive experience and effective in helping them to lose weight. Future trials should consider the central role of the person providing support and advice as a key component in the programme.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Aconselhamento , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda de Peso
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956361

RESUMO

Utilization of murine models remains a valuable tool in biomedical research, yet, disease phenotype of mice across studies can vary considerably. With advances in next generation sequencing, it is increasingly recognized that inconsistencies in host phenotype can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in gut bacterial composition. Research with inbred murine strains demonstrates that housing conditions play a significant role in variations of gut bacterial composition, however, few studies have assessed whether observed variation influences host phenotype in response to an intervention. Our study initially sought to examine the effects of a long-term (9-months) dietary intervention (i.e., diets with distinct fatty acid compositions) on the metabolic health, in particular glucose homeostasis, of genetically-outbred male and female CD-1 mice. Yet, mice were shipped from two different husbandry facilities of the same commercial vendor (Cohort A and B, respectively), and we observed throughout the study that diet, sex, and aging differentially influenced the metabolic phenotype of mice depending on their husbandry facility of origin. Examination of the colonic bacteria of mice revealed distinct bacterial compositions, including 23 differentially abundant genera and an enhanced alpha diversity in mice of Cohort B compared to Cohort A. We also observed that a distinct metabolic phenotype was linked with these differentially abundant bacteria and indices of alpha diversity. Our findings support that metabolic phenotypic variation of mice of the same strain but shipped from different husbandry facilities may be influenced by their colonic bacterial community structure. Our work is an important precautionary note for future research of metabolic diseases via mouse models, particularly those that seek to examine factors such diet, sex, and aging.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 725-734, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821049

RESUMO

The prognosis for phenylketonuria (PKU) has been improved by neonatal screening and dietary management via a low-phenylalanine diet. This treatment must be followed throughout life, which induces severe compliance problems. Drug treatment with sapropterin (or BH4) has come to help a reduced percentage of patients who respond to this drug. A subcutaneous enzyme therapy is available in the USA and has obtained European marketing authorization, but generates significant side effects, which limits its effectiveness. New therapeutic options for PKU are currently being developed, in particular gene therapy. The purpose of this article is to take stock of the pathophysiology and the various new therapeutic modalities currently in development.


Assuntos
Dieta , Terapia Genética , Fenilcetonúrias/terapia , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Biopterina/uso terapêutico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Terapia Genética/tendências , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Prognóstico , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735599

RESUMO

Ultra-processed food consumption has been associated with several health outcomes such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The deleterious nutrient profile of these products, and the presence of food additives, neoformed contaminants and contact materials such as phthalates and bisphenol may be some of the potential pathways through which ultra-processed food influences disease outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary biomarker concentrations of parent compounds or their metabolites including Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP), Di-isononyl phthalate (ΣDiNP), Monocarboxynonyl phthalate (mCNP), Mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (mCPP), Monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP), Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol F (BPF) and Bisphenol S (BPS), in the US. Participants from the cross-sectional 2009-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, aged 6+ years, with urinary measures and with one 24-hour dietary recall were included in the study. Ultra-processed foods were identified based on the NOVA classification system, a four-group food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. Linear regression was used to compare average urinary creatinine-standardized concentrations across quintiles of energy contribution of ultra-processed foods. Models incorporated survey sample weights and were adjusted for different sociodemographic and life-style variables. Adjusted geometric means of ΣDiNP, mCNP, mCPP, mBzP and BPF increased monotonically from the lowest to the highest quintile of ultra-processed food consumption. As both phthalates/bisphenol and ultra-processed foods have been previously associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, general/abdominal obesity and hypertension, our results suggest the possibility of contact materials in ultra-processed foods as one link between ultra-processed food and these health outcomes. Future studies could confirm findings and further explore these mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fast Foods , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estrogênios não Esteroides/urina , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Sulfonas/urina , Adulto Jovem
6.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(5): 409-415, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hyperuricemia is related to health issues among children and adolescents, once the uric acid concentration is associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. However, few studies are addressing uric acid levels and food uptake in this age group. AIM: To verify the association between food consumption and uric acid in children and adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study developed with 2335 children and adolescents of both genders aged 6-17 years old. Blood collection was performed after 12 h of fasting. Uric acid values were classified according to tertiles, in which the highest tertile was considered as hyperuricemia. Food consumption was evaluated by weekly consumption frequency questionnaire. Pearson correlation and logistic binary regressions were used for statistical analysis. Models were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and skin color/ethnicity. RESULTS: It was found an association between red meat consumption and hyperuricemia only in boys in the crude model (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.12; 2.18). Also, there was an association between pasta (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.11; 2.10) with hyperuricemia in boys, when adjusted age, systolic blood pressure, BMI, and skin color/ethnicity. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of food patterns which are predisposing factors for the increase in serum uric acid levels is important for the implementation of strategies and public health policies for health promotion among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Regulação para Cima
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003234, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In common with many other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), rural to urban migrants in India are at increased risk of obesity, but it is unclear whether this is due to increased energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. Knowing this and the relative contribution of specific dietary and physical activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants could inform policies for control of the obesity epidemic in India and other urbanising LMICs. In the Indian Migration Study, we previously found that urban migrants had greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with their nonmigrant rural-dwelling siblings. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of energy intake and expenditure and specific diet and activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Indian Migration Study was conducted between 2005 and 2007. Factory workers and their spouses from four cities in north, central, and south of India, together with their rural-dwelling siblings, were surveyed. Self-reported data on diet and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires, and adiposity was estimated from thickness of skinfolds. The association of differences in dietary intake, physical activity, and adiposity between siblings was examined using multivariable linear regression. Data on 2,464 participants (median age 43 years) comprised of 1,232 sibling pairs (urban migrant and their rural-dwelling sibling) of the same sex (31% female) were analysed. Compared with the rural siblings, urban migrants had 18% greater adiposity, 12% (360 calories/day) more energy intake, and 18% (11 kilojoules/kg/day) less energy expenditure (P < 0.001 for all). Energy intake and expenditure were independently associated with increased adiposity of urban siblings, accounting for 4% and 6.5% of adiposity difference between siblings, respectively. Difference in dietary fat/oil (10 g/day), time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous activity (69 minutes/day), and watching television (30 minutes/day) were associated with difference in adiposity between siblings, but no clear association was observed for intake of fruits and vegetables, sugary foods and sweets, cereals, animal and dairy products, and sedentary time. The limitations of this study include a cross-sectional design, systematic differences in premigration characteristics of migrants and nonmigrants, low response rate, and measurement error in estimating diet and activity from questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: We found that increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure contributed equally to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. Policies aimed at controlling the rising prevalence of obesity in India and potentially other urbanising LMICs need to be multicomponent, target both energy intake and expenditure, and focus particularly on behaviours such as dietary fat/oil intake, time spent on watching television, and time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Dieta/tendências , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , População Rural/tendências , Migrantes , População Urbana/tendências , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20186, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702808

RESUMO

It has been well established that dietary patterns play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of hypertension. Our aim was to investigate the association between pregnancy dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among nulliparous pregnant Chinese women.A cross-sectional, case-control study.Three hospitals in Haikou, the capital of Hainan Province, South China.A total of 2580 participants who reported dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).Four primary dietary patterns were identified by principal component factor analysis and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, Western food, and salty snacks patterns. Women with high scores on pattern characterized by salty snacks were at increased risk.This study suggests that dietary pattern characterized by salty snack increases the risk of hypertension during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/tendências , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Incidência , Paridade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720946951, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715893

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent public health interventions have disrupted food systems all over the world. In the Philippines, where stringent lockdown rules have been implemented, households living in poverty have had to rely largely on food aid in the form of food packs distributed by local governments and private donors. An evaluation of the commonly distributed food items reveals a diet that addresses acute hunger but does not contain sufficient nutrients to promote and maintain health. Such a diet puts low-income households at a greater risk of acute and chronic disease. The negative health impact of commonly distributed food packs on food aid-dependent households shine a light on how the COVID-19 pandemic and public health policies exacerbate health inequities. A primary care perspective is essential in creating food security policies that can effectively address acute hunger and malnutrition without contributing to the long-term deleterious effects of inadequate nutrition on the health of indigent communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Características da Família , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Política Pública
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1037, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia, like other nations, has experienced a shift in dietary patterns away from home cooking of nutritious foods, towards a reliance on pre-prepared convenience meals. These are typically energy-dense, nutrient-poor and contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity and chronic disease burden. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a community-based cooking program instigated a change to participants' skills, attitudes, knowledge, enjoyment and satisfaction of cooking and cooking confidence (self-efficacy). METHODS: The pseudo-random, pre-post study design consisted of an intervention and a control group. Participant recruitment and group allocation was based on their program start dates. Intervention participants were surveyed three times (baseline, 7 weeks and 6 months) and the control group were surveyed at baseline and 5 weeks. All participants were registered via an online website and were 18 years or over. Upon consent, participants were offered four levels of commitment, defined by different assessments. The minimum participation level included an online survey and levels 2, 3 and 4 involved attendance at a clinic with increasing functional, anthropometric and biomarker measurements. Primary endpoints were participants' cooking confidence as a proxy for self-efficacy. Secondary endpoints were dietary intake, physical activity levels, body composition, anthropometry, blood, urine and faecal biomarkers of systemic, physical and mental health. DISCUSSION: The community cooking program provided participants with information and advice on food sourcing, preparation and nutrition to improve home cooking skills. The study was designed to explore whether food literacy programs are efficacious in improving participant physical health and well-being in order to combat the rise in obesity and diet-related disease. It will support future use of public health cooking program initiatives aimed at improving food literacy, self-efficacy and physical and mental health. The extensive data collected will inform future research into the relationship between diet, the gut-microbiota and human health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on 16.08.2019 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN12619001144101 . Protocol version 4.


Assuntos
Culinária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Austrália , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Satisfação Pessoal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1027, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wasting is a consequence of food insecurity, inappropriate dietary practices, and inadequate caring and feeding practices. The present study assessed association between wasting and household food insecurity among under 5 years old children, along with other socio-demographic characteristics. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. The survey is cross-sectional in design with use of standardized tools. The sampling frame used is an updated version of the frame from the 2011 National Population and Housing Census. The participants were children under 5 years of age (n = 2414). Logistic regression was carried out to identify the odds of being wasted for children belonging to different levels of food insecure households using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The prevalence of wasting increased with the level of food insecurity, from mild (9.4%) to moderate (10.8%) and to severe (11.3%). The highest proportions of wasted children were in Province 2 (14.3%), from rural areas (10.1%), born to mothers with no education (12.4%) and from a richer quintile (11.3%). Children belonging to severe food insecure households had 1.36 (95%CI 0.72-2.57) adjusted odds of being wasted and those belonging to mild food insecure and moderately food insecure households had 0.98 (95%CI 0.64-1.49) and 1.13 (95%CI 0.65-1.97) odds of being wasted respectively. Province 1 (AOR 2.06, 95%CI 1.01-4.19) and Province 2 (AOR 2.45, 95%CI 1.22-4.95) were significantly associated with wasting. CONCLUSION: Considering the increment in childhood wasting as per level of food insecurity, an integrated intervention should be developed in Nepal that, 1. addresses improving knowledge and behavior of community people with respect to diet and nutrition; 2. reduce the problem of food insecurity through agricultural interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Síndrome de Emaciação/etiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235974, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between food patterns and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese elderly to provide evidence for risk prevention and control of MCI among elderly population. METHODS: Between February 2017 to October 2018, a stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used to select participants from 760 communities of six districts in Xi'an, China, for 49-item food frequency questionnaire survey. A total of 2311 participants aged 60 to 88 years were included in the study with 444 (19.2%) participants of MCI among Chinese community-dwelling elderly adults. Food patterns associated with risk of dementia were assessed by using a reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis, and the multivariate linear regression was used to test trends of risk factors across scores for the food pattern. RESULTS: Four dietary patterns were extracted which explained 88.65% of the total variation in food intakes. Furthermore, the food pattern 1 (FP1) accounted for 60.25% of the total variation of all responsible variables and as a target dietary pattern in the study, which was related with high intake of legumes, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy products, nuts and a low intake of noodles and cereals (p<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that participants with a high score for FP1 had higher direction, memory and language function and FP1 can improve the ability of cognitive function (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The FP1 of Chinese dietary patterns was significantly correlated with higher cognitive function which can reduce the risk of MCI among Chinese elderly.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 373-380, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests low-grade inflammation as the cause of metabolic syndrome and suggests diet as a promoter of chronic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between inflammatory diets and the development of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults. METHODS: A total of 399 participants of the Health Workers Cohort Study were included in this study. The follow-up period was 13 y. Metabolic syndrome definition was the presence of ≥3 of the following components: waist circumference ≥102 cm for males or ≥88 cm for females, blood pressure ≥130 mmHg for systolic or ≥85 mmHg for diastolic, HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL for males and <50 mg/dL for females; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, and glucose ≥100 mg/dL. To evaluate the inflammatory potential of the diet we used the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), which was divided into quartiles. To assess the risk of metabolic syndrome we estimated HRs and 95% CIs using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, we found a positive association between participants in the highest quartile (Q) of DII and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (HRQ4vsQ1 = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.85; P-trend = 0.04) over a period of 13 y. When we divided the metabolic syndrome by its components, we found that participants in the highest quartile of DII were associated with hypertriglyceridemia (HRQ4vsQ1 = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.13, 4.57; P-trend = 0.01), hypertension (HRQ4vsQ1 = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.77; P-trend = 0.032), and abdominal obesity (HRQ4vsQ1 = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.79; P-trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: A highly inflammatory diet is associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia. Further studies are needed to corroborate the role of inflammation and diet in the development of metabolic syndrome; yet, a reduction in dietary components that have been linked to inflammation is desirable.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Americanos Mexicanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 512-518, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yogurt consumption and low-fat dairy consumption have been associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in some studies. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relation of yogurt and other dairy consumption to incidence of T2D in black women, a population group with a disproportionately high incidence of T2D. METHODS: The Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 US black women since 1995 through biennial questionnaires which update health information. Each questionnaire inquired about doctor-diagnosed diabetes in the previous 2 y. FFQs completed by participants in 1995 and 2001 provided information on yogurt and other dietary intake. HRs with 95% CIs for yogurt (nonfrozen or frozen) and other dairy consumption in relation to incident T2D (n = 8061 cases) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for risk factors for T2D. RESULTS: The HR for consumption of ≥1 serving of yogurt/d relative to <1 serving/mo was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.13, P trend = 0.65) after control for dietary and nondietary risk factors for T2D. The multivariable HR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.27; P trend = 0.74) for 2 or more servings/d of low-fat dairy other than yogurt relative to <1 serving/mo and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.25, P trend = 0.36) for 2 or more servings/d of regular dairy relative to <1 serving/mo. CONCLUSION: Results from this study do not support an inverse association of yogurt consumption or other dairy consumption with T2D risk in black women.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Glicemia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542359

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has been in the literature and news because of the recent opinion-based journal articles and public releases by regulatory agencies. DCM is commonly associated with a genetic predisposition in certain dog breeds and can also occur secondary to other diseases and nutritional deficiencies. Recent communications in veterinary journals have discussed a potential relationship between grain-free and/or novel protein diets to DCM, citing a subjective increase in DCM in dog breeds that are not known to have a genetic predisposition for the disease. This literature review describes clinical presentations of DCM, common sequelae, treatment and preventative measures, histopathologic features, and a discussion of the varied etiological origins of the disease. In addition, current literature limitations are addressed, in order to ascertain multiple variables leading to the development of DCM. Future studies are needed to evaluate one variable at a time and to minimize confounding variables and speculation. Furthermore, to prevent sampling bias with the current FDA reports, the veterinary community should be asked to provide information for all cases of DCM in dogs. This should include cases during the same time period, regardless of the practitioner's proposed etiology, due to no definitive association between diets with specific characteristics, such as, but not limited to, grain-free diets and those containing legumes, novel protein diets, and those produced by small manufacturers to DCM in dogs. In summary, in order to determine if certain ingredients, categories of diets, or manufacturing processes are related to an increased risk of DCM, further studies investigating these variables are necessary.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cães , Grão Comestível/efeitos adversos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0229806, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555600

RESUMO

The A2 adenosine receptors play an important role, among others, in the regulation of inflammatory process and glucose homeostasis in diabetes and obesity. Thus, the presented project evaluated of influence of the selective antagonist of A2A adenosine receptor-KD-64 as compared to the known non-selective antagonist-caffeine on these two particular processes. Two different inflammation models were induced namely local and systemic inflammation. Obesity was induced in mice by high-fat diet and the tested compounds (KD-64 and caffeine) were administrated for 21 days. KD-64 showed anti-inflammatory effect in both tested inflammation models and administered at the same dose as ketoprofen exerted stronger effect than this reference compound. Elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α observed in obese control mice were significantly lowered by the administration of KD-64 and were similar to the values observed in control non-obese mice. Interestingly, caffeine increased the levels of these parameters. In contrast to caffeine which had no influence on AlaT activity, KD-64 administration significantly lowered AlaT activity in the obese mice. Although, contrary to caffeine, KD-64 did not reduce diet-induced obesity in mice, it improved glucose tolerance. Thus, the activity of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist was quite different from that of the non-selective.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-6/sangue , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525953

RESUMO

Some evidence suggests that edible insects could be used to treat malnutrition following protein deficiency. However, additional studies are needed to better assess the potential of edible insects as a therapeutic food supplement and their long-term impact on recovery from malnutrition. The goals of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a cricket-based diet in recovery from protein-malnutrition in early life, and to compare cricket protein to more traditional sources used for food fortification and supplementation. Protein-malnutrition was induced by administration of an isocaloric hypoprotein diet (5% protein calories) in young male mice for two weeks during puberty, followed by a six-week recovery period using a cricket-, peanut- or milk-based diet. We examined the impact of protein-malnutrition and subsequent recovery on body weight, growth and select biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism. Protein-malnutrition resulted in growth retardation, downregulation of inflammatory markers in spleen tissue, decreased levels of serum triglycerides, and elevated serum levels of leptin and adiponectin. The cricket-based diet performed equally well as the peanut- and milk-based diets in body weight recovery, but there were differences in immune and metabolic markers among the different recovery diets. Results suggest edible crickets may provide an alternative nutrient-dense protein source with relatively low environmental demands for combating the effects of early-life malnutrition compared to more traditional supplementation and fortification sources. Additional investigations are needed to examine the short and long term impacts of different recovery diets on metabolism and immune function.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Insetos Comestíveis/química , Gryllidae/química , Deficiência de Proteína/dietoterapia , Animais , Arachis/química , Peso Corporal , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Leite/química
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