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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 143-162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006359

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a rapidly growing global pandemic that affects an estimated 1 in 59-68 children. It is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental etiologies. Due to the rapid increase in the incidence of ASD, environmental causes for ASD are gaining attention. Efforts to probe several environmental exposures that could contribute to causing ASD are underway. In this regard, this chapter is directed towards understanding prenatal exposure to key environmental factors i.e., drugs and dietary nutrients that may act via the same molecular pathway - epigenetics as a potential etiological factor for ASD. Epigenetic regulation is a molecular mechanism known to be a significant contributor to neurodevelopmental disorders. It also offers a means to explain how environmental exposures can impact genetics. We discuss the impact of maternal exposures to certain drugs, and dietary intake, on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Maternal Exposure to some drugs during gestation are associated with a higher risk of ASD, while exposure to other dietary compounds may offer promise to rescue epigenetic regulatory insults related to ASD. However, more work in this important area is still required, nevertheless preliminary research already has important implications in the understanding, prevention and treatment of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/prevenção & controle , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
2.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 481-504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006369

RESUMO

Autism has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018 has identified 1 in 59 children (1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls) has autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complex conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles. It is important to understand how food can have an impact on their current and future health. Appealing food colors stimulate the consumption of different food products. Since 2011, it is evident that dyes are linked to harmful effects in children. Artificial dyes have neurotoxic chemicals that aggravate mental health problems. Many families with autistic children avoid food dyes in their diet in order to avoid behavioral issues. A study reported that there is a correlation between yellow dye and sleep disturbance. Food colors Blue 1 and 2, Green 3, Red 3, Yellow 5 and 6, Citrus Red 2, and Red 40 can trigger many behaviors in most kids. Artificial food color usually contains petroleum and is manufactured in a chemical process that includes formaldehyde, aniline, hydroxides, and sulfuric acids. Most impurities in the food color are in the form of salts or acids. Sometimes lead, arsenic, and mercury may be present as impurities. The U.S. FDA is yet to study the effects of synthetic dyes on behavior in children. A study conducted at Southampton University in England found a link between food dyes and hyperactive behavior in children. The research does not prove that food coloring actually causes autism spectrum disorder, but there seems to be a link. This chapter attempts to provide a broad review of the available literature on food color and the epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of autistic spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Corantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18575, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895803

RESUMO

This was a meta-analysis of epidemiological articles that aimed to estimate the association of garlic intake with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).Electronic databases, including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and EMBASE, were systemically searched from inception to May 2019 to identify related articles. In addition, a random model was used to pool the included evidence based on heterogeneity. Additionally, subgroup analyses were carried out to examine the differences between different groups. The stability of our findings was tested through sensitivity analyses. Publication bias was also assessed by Egger and Begg tests. Moreover, all enrolled studies were ordered according to the publication year for a cumulative meta-analysis.A total of 11 studies (involving 12,558 cases) were included in the current meta-analysis. Our integrated relative risk (RR) of CRC was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.91) for the highest versus the lowest garlic consumption categories (RR: 0.71 [95% CI, 0.60-0.84] for controls and RR: 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.23] for cohorts). There was significant heterogeneity across all enrolled studies (I = 68.3%, P < .01). The sensitivity analysis revealed no notable alterations of the integrated results. According to the funnel plot regarding garlic intake and the risk of CRC, together with the Egger test (P = .1) and Begg test (P = .064) results, there was no notable evidence of publication bias. The cumulative meta-analysis suggested that the 95% CIs became narrower with the increase in sample size.Based on the existing evidence, garlic intake could reduce the risk of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Alho , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 351-357, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826612

RESUMO

Cereal foods are commonly contaminated with multiple mycotoxins resulting in frequent human mycotoxin exposure. Children are at risk of high-level exposure because of their high cereal intake relative to body weight. Hence, this study aims to assess multimycotoxin exposure in UK children using urinary biomarkers. Spot urines (n = 21) were analyzed for multimycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON; nivalenol, NIV; ochratoxin A, OTA; zearalenone, ZEN; α-zearalenol, α-ZEL; ß-zearalenol, ß-ZEL; T-2 toxin, T-2; HT-2 toxin, HT-2; and aflatoxin B1 and M1, AFB1, AFM1) using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Urine samples frequently contained DON (13.10 ± 12.69 ng/mL), NIV (0.36 ± 0.16 ng/mL), OTA (0.05 ± 0.02 ng/mL), and ZEN (0.09 ± 0.07 ng/mL). Some samples (1-3) contained T-2, HT-2, α-ZEL, and ß-ZEL but not aflatoxins. Dietary mycotoxin estimation showed that children were frequently exposed to levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake (52 and 95% of cases for DON and OTA). This demonstrates that UK children are exposed to multiple mycotoxins through their habitual diet.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Micotoxinas/urina , Aflatoxinas/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Ocratoxinas/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxina T-2/análogos & derivados , Toxina T-2/urina , Tricotecenos/urina , Reino Unido , Zearalenona/urina , Zeranol/análogos & derivados , Zeranol/urina
5.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 693-702, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seventy four percent of Chileans replaced the traditional dinner for the consumption of "five o'clock tea" (5CT), a mealtime that includes bread and is simliar to western breakfast. The latter favors the intake of unhealthy foods. AIM: To study whether the consumption of "5CT", instead of dinner, could be a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometric parameters, mean blood pressure, lipid profile, thyroid stimulating hormone and fasting glucose were measured in 489 subjects aged 39 ± 12 years (33% women) who attended a primary cardiovascular prevention (CV) program. A 24-hour recall and usual meal times were registered during a dietary interview. To determine the association between the consumption of "5CT" or dinner and the probability of presenting two or more components of MetSyn, we built an odds proportional model adjusted by age and sex. In addition, severity for MetSyn was calculated. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of participants had MetSyn and 39%, two or more MetSyn components. Those who consumed "5CT" instead of dinner, had 54% more probability of having 2 or more MetSyn components (Odds ratio = 1.54, confidence intervals 1.032.32, p = 0.04). Participants who included processed carbohydrates in their last meal had a higher probability of having components of MetSyn. This probability decreased among participants who ate dinner with a low proportion of refined carbohydrates. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects who eat "5CT", instead of dinner as the last meal, have a higher cardiometabolic risk and MetSyn severity.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Chá/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1478, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) has increased rapidly in Vietnam. This study aimed to elucidate the factors influencing OW/OB among secondary schoolchildren. METHOD: A survey was conducted in January 2014 in four randomly selected state schools in two Hanoi urban districts, and 821 students in grade six (11-12 years old) participated. Definitions of OW/OB followed the World Health Organization standard cut-offs. RESULTS: Overall, 4.1% of children were underweight, 59.7% were normal weight, 17.1% were overweight, and 19.1% were obese. The odds of OW/OB were lowest among children whose parents had college/university degrees [father (aOR =0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-1.00); mother (aOR =0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.97)] compared with those whose parents had only a primary education. Children with an OW/OB family history had an increased risk of OW/OB. Other associated factors include parental OW/OB and birth weight (BW). The odds of OW/OB were highest among children with parents with OW/OB [father (aOR =2.022, 95% CI: 1.34-3.04); mother (aOR =2.83, 95% CI: 1.51-5.30)] compared with those with normal-weight parents. Children with both parents having OW/OB [both parents (aOR =6.59, 95% CI: 1.28-33.87) had the highest risk, followed by one parent (aOR =2.22, 95% CI: 1.50-3.27)] and then neither parent having OW/OB. Moreover, high-birth-weight children [BW ≥ 3500 g (aOR =1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15)] had greater odds than did normal-birth-weight children. Children who slept 11 h per day [8-11 h (aOR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.81) or more (aOR =0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.87)] had lower OW/OB odds than those who slept 8 h or less. Children with specific positive lifestyle behaviours had lower risk of OW/OB than those who did not engage in positive lifestyle behaviours. The odds were lower among children who exercised for weight reduction (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.11-0.23), lowered food intake (aOR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.09-0.17), and added vegetables to their diet (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19-0.35). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that parents and children with OW/OB parents or a high BW should be educated to prevent OW/OB at an early stage. Positive lifestyle behaviours should be adopted by the students.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia
7.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 431-439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721969

RESUMO

The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects approximately 20%-30% of general population and is even more prevalent among obese individuals. The risk factors mainly associated with NAFLD are diseases related to the metabolic syndrome, genetics and environment. In this review, we provide a literature compilation evaluating the evidence behind dietary components, including calories intake, fat, protein, fibers and carbohydrate, especially fructose which could be a trigger to development and progression of the NAFLD. In fact, it has been demonstrated that diet is an important factor for the development of NAFLD and its association is complex and extends beyond total energy intake.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1457, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary pattern for reducing the extent of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been well established yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary patterns and adherence to WHO healthy diet in children and adolescents and their associations with MetS. METHODS: Subjects of this cohort study were selected from among children and adolescents of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants, aged 6-18 years (n = 424). Dietary measurements were collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined as the existence of at least 3 risk factors according to the Cook criteria. Diet was assessed based on dietary components of the WHO healthy diet. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of participants (42% boys and 57% girls) was 13.5 ± 3.7 years. The most consistency with the WHO healthy diet was observed for cholesterol, free sugar and protein consumption in both genders, and the least was for n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid, trans-fatty acid and salt. Intake of SFA up to 12% of energy intake (third quartile) reduced the risk of MetS, compared to the first quartile. Subjects in the third quartile of n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid intake (6.2% of energy) showed the lowest odds ratio of MetS compared to the first quartile (OR: 0.18, CI: 0.04-0.66). In the adjusted model, the risk of MetS reduced across quartiles of MUFA intake by 60% (OR: 1, 0.40, 0.40, 0.42; P trend = 0.05). No significant trends were observed in the risk of MetS components across quartiles of the WHO healthy diet components. Three major dietary patterns were identified, the healthy, unhealthy and cereal/meat. An increased risk of MetS was observed in the highest quartile of unhealthy dietary pattern score compared to the lowest quartile (OR: 1, 0.81, 0.93, 2.49; P trend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the majority of our population did not meet some components of WHO healthy diet recommendations. The quality and quantity of fatty acid intakes were associated with risk of MetS. Adherence to unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with two-fold increase in MetS risk.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Política Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2178-2188, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and all-cause mortality and to examine the effect of theoretical iso-caloric non-processed foods substitution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of 11,898 individuals (mean age 46.9 years, and 50.5% women) were selected from the ENRICA study, a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized Spanish population. Dietary information was collected by a validated computer-based dietary history and categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Total mortality was obtained from the National Death Index. Follow-up lasted from baseline (2008-2010) to mortality date or December 31th, 2016, whichever was first. The association between quartiles of consumption of ultra-processed food and mortality was analyzed by Cox models adjusted for the main confounders. Restricted cubic-splines were used to assess dose-response relationships when using iso-caloric substitutions. RESULTS: Average consumption of ultra-processed food was 385 g/d (24.4% of the total energy intake). After a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (93,599 person-years), 440 deaths occurred. The hazard ratio (and 95% CI) for mortality in the highest versus the lowest quartile of ultra-processed food consumption was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.01-2.07; P trend=.03) in percent of energy and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.05; P trend=.03) in grams per day per kilogram. Isocaloric substitution of ultra-processed food with unprocessed or minimally processed foods was associated with a significant nonlinear decrease in mortality. CONCLUSION: A higher consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with higher mortality in the general population. Furthermore, the theoretical iso-caloric substitution ultra-processed food by unprocessed or minimally processed foods would suppose a reduction of the mortality risk. If confirmed, these findings support the necessity of the development of new nutritional policies and guides at the national and international level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01133093.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3195, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the association between environmental risk factors and awareness of colorectal cancer in people at familial risk. METHOD: cross-sectional correlational study, with a sample consisted of people who met at least one of the Revised Bethesda criteria, and 80 participants were included in this study. A sociodemographic data record, the AUDIT Test for alcohol use, the Fagerström Test for tobacco smoking, the Estimation and Frequency of Food Intake scale, and the Cancer Awareness Measure questionnaire to assess the colorectal cancer awareness were used. Body mass index was calculated, and descriptive statistics and the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient were used to estimate the association. RESULTS: female sex predominated, with an average age of 37.8 years, almost half of the participants were overweight, 45% showed symptoms of alcohol dependence, half of the sample showed an association between hereditary factors and the development of colorectal cancer, and less than half of them were aware of cancer prevention programs. CONCLUSION: there is little information on the main environmental risk factors, signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer, and no significant association was found between these and colorectal cancer awareness.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Induzidos por Álcool/complicações , Conscientização , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17271, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red and (particularly) processed meats are high in cholesterol and saturated and solid fatty acids. Their consumption is considered one of the risk factors for metabolic disorders. Numerous studies demonstrated a possible association between red meat consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this protocol, we propose a systematic review of the literature to examine the associations of red meat consumption with CVD incidence and mortality, and explore the potential dose-response relationship. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane (CENTRAL), WHOLIS, PAHO, and Embase. We will include prospective epidemiological studies (longitudinal cohort). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Four independent researchers will conduct all evaluations. Disagreements will be referred to a fifth reviewer. We will summarize our findings using a narrative approach and tables to describe the characteristics of the included studies. The heterogeneity between trial results will be evaluated using a standard chi-squared test with P < .05. We will conduct the study in accordance with the guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P). RESULTS: This review will evaluate the association between red meat consumption and incidence of CVD and mortality (primary outcome measures). The secondary outcome measure will include the dose-response effect. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence of the association between red meat consumption and incidence of CVD and mortality and the dose-response effect through a systematic review and meta-analysis. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019100914.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413181

RESUMO

Scurvy is a rare disease in developed nations. In the field of pediatrics, it primarily is seen in children with developmental and behavioral issues, malabsorptive processes, or diseases involving dysphagia. We present the case of an otherwise developmentally appropriate 4-year-old boy who developed scurvy after gradual self-restriction of his diet. He initially presented with a limp and a rash and was subsequently found to have anemia and hematuria. A serum vitamin C level was undetectable, and after review of the MRI of his lower extremities, the clinical findings supported a diagnosis of scurvy. Although scurvy is rare in developed nations, this diagnosis should be considered in a patient with the clinical constellation of lower-extremity pain or arthralgias, a nonblanching rash, easy bleeding or bruising, fatigue, and anemia. This case highlights the importance of carefully assessing a child's dietary and developmental status at well-child visits, which can help avoid a more invasive workup.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Escorbuto/etiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Exantema/etiologia , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Escorbuto/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1076, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation contributes to the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), a novel method appraising the inflammatory potential of diet, has been utilized to examine the association between diet and bone health among postmenopausal women or the elderly. However, its relationship with bone density (BD) in lactating women has not been studied. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted to assess the possible association between DII and maternal BD during lactation. We enrolled 150 lactating women in the cohort. Participants were measured ultrasonic BD as baseline values at 1 month postpartum. After five-month follow up, the participants' BD were measured again. DII scores were calculated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and divided into tertiles. We compared the differences in the changes of BD at 6 months postpartum without or with adjustment for potential covariates across the tertiles. RESULTS: The women in Q1 of DII scores had less bone mass loss than those in Q2 and Q3 without adjustment for any covariates (p < 0.01); after adjusting demographic characteristics such as BMI (kg/m2) at 6 months postpartum, educational level, metabolic equivalent (MET), daily energy intake (kcal/d), we found that participants in the highest tertile of DII scores had much more bone loss than those in the lowest tertile (p = 0.038). However, in the test for trend, no significant association between DII and the changes of maternal BD at 6 months postpartum was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese lactating women with higher DII scores have more bone mass loss; however significant differences and trends are attenuated and/or disappear depending on covariates and confounders that are taken into account in statistical analysis. The further study should be conducted in larger population to explore whether the significant association between DII and BD exists in Chinese lactating women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Período Pós-Parto , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2519-2524, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405671

RESUMO

AIM: No studies have evaluated the contribution of major dietary patterns to Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) in obese and overweight people based on quintile of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and fat mass (FM). This study was conducted to examine the association between major dietary patterns and SO. METHOD AND MATERIAL: A total of 301 overweight and obese women were included in the cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured by body composition analyzer. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry. The usual food intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum HDL-c, LDL-c, TG, FBS, total cholesterol and hs-CRP were measured. RESULT: The prevalence of sarcopenia (is referred to as two lower quintiles of SMM) and obesity (is referred to as two highest quintiles of FM) and SO was 19.6%, 20.4% and 9.9% respectively. We used the principal component analysis and three major dietary patterns were determined: the DASH, western and unhealthy dietary pattern, they covering 30.63% of total dietary pattern of our population. Participants in the in the upper category of DASH dietary pattern had lower odds of SO (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.96, P = 0.04). After adjustment for age, physical activity and total energy intake, the association between the DASH and SO, was still significantly negative (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.77, P = 0.01) and the risk of sarcopenia reduced by 80%. CONCLUSION: The present evidence indicates, adherence of the DASH Diet, has a significant effect on reducing the risk of SO.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/patologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sarcopenia/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2727-2732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405700

RESUMO

AIMS: Findings from few studies that investigated the relation between dietary habits and obesity are inconsistent so we aimed to assess the association between dietary habits with general and abdominal obesity in central Iran. METHODS: This study has been conducted on 8652 adults aged 20-70 years participated in Yazd Health Study (YAHS). Data regarding dietary habits, socio-demographic characteristics and history of chronic illnesses were collected via questionnaire. Anthropometric parameters were measured using a scale and body analyzer. Odds ratio of obesity were assessed using a Binary Logistic Regression test. RESULTS: Study participants consisted of 49.6% men and 50.4% women. The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in this population was 25.9 and 45.3%, respectively. Our analysis revealed that subjects who drank carbonated drinks ≥3 times/week had significantly higher odds of general and abdominal obesity compared to participants never did so (OR 1.89; 95%CI: 1.37-2.61, OR 1.11; 95%CI: 1.50-2.04) and those ate fast food more than 4 times a month had higher odds of abdominal obesity (OR 1.51; 95%CI: 1.12-2.03). The results also pointed that intake of low fat dairy products was inversely associated with general obesity (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.63-0.98) and abdominal obesity (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.54-0.82) when compared with full fat dairy products. CONCLUSION: Carbonated drinks and fast food intake were positively associated with general/abdominal obesity, whereas low fat dairy products intake was inversely associated. Future cohort studies in this under-studied area are recommended.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 2996-3007, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418509

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the contribution of mango fiber (MF) and mango phenolic compounds (MP) to the hepatoprotective effect of freeze-dried mango pulp (FDM) cultivar (cv.) "Ataulfo" diets in high cholesterol/sodium cholate (HCC)-fed rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with a HCC diet for 12 weeks, either untreated, or supplemented with MF, MP, FDM, or a control diet (no HCC; n = 6/group). All mango treatments significantly decreased hepatic cholesterol deposition and altered its fatty acid profile, whereas MF and MP mitigated adipose tissue hypertrophy. MF caused a lower level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α/ß, IFN-γ, TNF-α) whereas FDM increased the anti-inflammatory ones (IL-4, 6, 10). Mango treatments increased catalase (CAT) activity and its mRNA expression; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was normalized by MF and FDM, but its activity was unrelated to its hepatic mRNA expression. Changes in CAT and SOD mRNA expression were unrelated to altered Nrf2 mRNA expression. Higher hepatic PPARα and LXRα mRNA levels were found in MP and MF. We concluded that MF and MP are highly bioactive, according to the documented hepatoprotection in HCC-fed rats; their mechanism of action appears to be related to modulating cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism as well as to stimulating the endogenous antioxidant system.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mangifera/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipercolesterolemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Colato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Colato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
17.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430979

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and the risk of developing breast cancer is associated with inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and breast cancer in Korean women and investigate whether the tumor's hormone receptor status affects this association. In this case-control study, we enrolled 364 breast cancer patients and 364 age-matched controls. DII scores were calculated from dietary intake evaluated by a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. The DII score was significantly higher in cases than in controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was higher in the highest DII tertile (OR = 3.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.34-5.80, p for trend < 0.0001) than in the lowest tertile. We found that higher DII scores were related to an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ tumors regardless of menopausal status (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.37-4.88 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.01 for premenopausal women; OR = 11.00, 95% CI: 2.93-41.30 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.0004 for postmenopausal women), but not for ER-/PR- status. Our results suggested that the DII scores are positively associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women and that this relationship is more robust in ER+/PR+ tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/complicações , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437116

RESUMO

Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally dosed with fumonisin B1 (FB1; 0, 20, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 dietary dose equivalent) for 5 & 10 days to assess dose- and time-dependent effects on renal and hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) fatty acid (FA) profiles. Renal PC showed increasing FA saturation (SAT) after 5 days; after 10 days polyunsaturation (PUFA) decreased markedly (Σ n3 (total n3), Σ n6, PUFA, unsaturation index (UI) and average FA chain length (ACL)), mostly with linear dose response. In the PI FAs similar changes were observed, decreasing monounsaturated FA, PUFA, UI and ACL (5 & 10 days), while the PE fraction was responsive in Σ n6 (↓) and SAT (↑), but only after 5 days (without dose response for both PI & PE). Liver PC exhibited increasing saturation (C16:0), decreasing polyunsaturation (C20:3 n6 [dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, DGLA]; C20:3 n3); the PI FA profile showed similar alterations after 5 days. PC & PI FA failed to respond in a dose-dependent manner to FB1. In PE FA profile DGLA decreased, with a decrease of the total n6 FA proportion and dose-dependent increase of n3 FAs. Results revealed expressed renal sensitivity, supporting our earlier published results in terms of oxidative stress and histopathological modifications.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fumonisinas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Lipídeos de Membrana , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382699

RESUMO

Little is known about the association between dietary patterns and hyperglycemia incidence among Korean adults. Hence, we aimed to prospectively investigate the major dietary patterns associated with hyperglycemia among middle-aged and older Korean adults. In total, 55,457 adults (18,292 men and 37,165 women) aged 40 to 79 years, who were previously enrolled in the Health Examinee Study of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and had no history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or cancer at baseline, were included. Dietary patterns were identified by a factor analysis based on dietary data, which were assessed at baseline using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as having hyperglycemia if fasting blood glucose levels were ≥126 mg/dL or physician diagnosed T2DM during follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the associations between each dietary pattern and future hyperglycemia risk after adjusting for potential confounders. After a mean follow-up of 4.9 years, 2574 new cases of hyperglycemia were identified. Using a factor analysis, four distinct dietary patterns were identified: "prudent;" "fatty fish, meat, and flour-based food;" "coffee and sweets;" and "whole grain (men)" or "white rice (women)." The "prudent" pattern was inversely associated with hyperglycemia risk only in women (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.89; p for trend = 0.0003). Conversely, women in the highest quintile of the "fatty fish, meat, and flour-based food" pattern showed an increased risk of hyperglycemia (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.44; p for trend = 0.0210) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The "coffee and sweets" and "white rice" patterns were not associated with hyperglycemia risk in women. The dietary patterns observed in men had no associations with hyperglycemia incidence. Our findings suggest that a diet rich in vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fruits, and soy products and low in fatty fish and high-fat meat may potentially play a protective role in T2DM development with sex differences in middle-aged and older Korean adults.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375014

RESUMO

Previous literature has shown that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is steadily increasing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little data is currently available regarding its use, safety, and efficacy in children with ASD. Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe the use of supplement-based CAM therapies in children between the ages of 4 to 17 years with ASD. This population-based, cross-sectional study evaluated children with ASD regarding supplement use. A total of 210 participants were recruited from a variety of sources including educational and physical activity programs, and social media to complete a questionnaire. Primary caregivers provided information on current supplement based CAM use. Data evaluated the proportion of children that used supplement therapies, the types of supplements used, reasons for use, perceived safety, and demographic factors associated with use (e.g. income, parental education, severity of disorder). Seventy-five percent of children with ASD consumed supplements with multivitamins (77.8%), vitamin D (44.9%), omega 3 (42.5%), probiotics (36.5%), and magnesium (28.1%) as the most prevalent. Several supplements, such as adrenal cortex extract, where product safety has not yet been demonstrated, were also reported. A gluten free diet was the most common specialty diet followed amongst those with restrictions (14.8%). Health care professionals were the most frequent information source regarding supplements; however, 33% of parents reported not disclosing all their child's supplements to their physician. In conclusion, the use of supplement therapies in children with ASD is endemic and highlights the need for further research concerning public health education surrounding safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
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