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2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 106, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although long maternal working hours are reported to have a negative effect on children's dietary habits, few studies have investigated this issue in Japan. Healthy dietary habits in childhood are important because they may reduce the risk of future disease. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal employment status and children's dietary intake in 1693 pairs of Japanese primary school 5th and 6th graders and their mothers. METHODS: The survey was conducted using two questionnaires, a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire and a lifestyle questionnaire. The analysis also considered mothers' and children's nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward diet, and some aspects of family environment. RESULTS: Longer maternal working hours were associated with children's higher intake of white rice (g/1000kcal) (ß 11.4, 95%CI [1.0, 21.9]; working ≥8h vs. not working), lower intake of confectioneries (g/1000kcal) (ß -4.0 [-7.6, -0.4]), and higher body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) (ß 0.62 [0.2, 1.0]). Although maternal employment status was not significantly associated with lower intake of healthy food (e.g., vegetables) or higher intake of unhealthy food (e.g., sweetened beverages) in the children, in contrast with previous studies, it may have affected children's energy intake through their higher intake of white rice. Further, children's nutrition knowledge and attitudes toward diet, mothers' food intake, and some family environment factors were significantly associated with intakes of vegetables and sweetened beverages in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Longer maternal working hours were significantly associated with higher intake of white rice and lower intake of confectioneries, as well as higher BMI among children. Even when a mother works, however, it may be possible to improve her child's dietary intake by other means such as nutrition education for children or enhancement of food environment.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/normas , Dieta/normas , Emprego , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Criança , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684575

RESUMO

Nutrition assistance programs such as school meals and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) are designed to provide a safety net for the dietary intake of children from low-income families. However, compared with eligible non-participants, the relationship of diet quality with school meals only and school meals + SNAP is not well understood. The objectives of the study include: (1) To explore whether and to what extent nutrition assistance program participation (school meals only and school meals + SNAP) is related to diet quality; and (2) to examine the differences of diet quality between participating in school meals only, school meals + SNAP, or non-participation among American children. Children aged 5 to 18 years old from income eligible households who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 1425). Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and its 13 subcomponents. A Rao-Scott Chi-square test, propensity scores approach, and Analysis of Covariance were performed. Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and family monthly poverty index. SAS survey procedures were used to incorporate the appropriate sample design weights. Participation in school meals + SNAP was not associated with higher diet quality compared to eligible non-participants or school meals-only participants. Participation in school meals + SNAP improved the intake of total dairy, but not added sugars or total vegetables compared to school meals only. Overall, school meal + SNAP participation did not significantly improve the overall diet quality of children in low-income households relative to comparable non-participants.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Características da Família , Assistência Alimentar , Renda , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Estados Unidos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684503

RESUMO

Tactical personnel (including military, law enforcement, and fire and rescue) are responsible for ensuring national and public safety. Dietary intake is an important consideration to support optimal health and performance. The aims of this systematic review were to: (1) describe the reported free-living dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) of tactical personnel, and (2) describe the practical implications of reported dietary intakes to support the physical and dietary requirements of tactical personnel. A systematic search of databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science) was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. English and full text research articles were identified and screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic and dietary intake data were extracted, tabulated, and synthesized narratively. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. Twenty-two studies (15 military, 4 law enforcement, and 2 fire and rescue) were eligible to inform this review. The volume of evidence suggested that tactical personnel met dietary protein and exceeded dietary fat recommendations but failed to meet energy and carbohydrate recommendations. Therefore, practical approaches to support optimized energy, fat and carbohydrate intake in tactical personnel is important.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dieta/normas , Dietética/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais , Desempenho Profissional
5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579035

RESUMO

As an important part of antenatal care for pregnant women in China, dietary assessment plays a positive role in maternal and fetal health. Shortcomings in the associated methodologies require improvement. Our purpose was to develop a novel WeChat Applet for image-based dietary assessment (WAIDA) and evaluate its relative validity among pregnant women in China. Data on 251 lunch meals of pregnant women in their second trimester were analyzed. The differences in food weight, energy, and nutrient estimates by the dietary recall or WAIDA method with the weighing method were compared using paired t-tests. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between food weight, energy, and nutrient intake obtained from the recall or WAIDA method and those obtained from the weighing method. The Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between the recall or WAIDA method and the weighing method for energy and nutrients. Compared with the weighing method, the variation range of food weight, energy and nutrients estimated by the WAIDA method was smaller and more stable than that estimated by the recall method. Compared with the recall method, the correlations suggested a better relationship between the energy and nutrient intakes from the weighing method and those estimated by the WAIDA method (0.752-0.970 vs. 0.480-0.887), which were similar to those of food weight (0.332-0.973 vs. -0.019-0.794). The Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean differences of the energy and nutrients estimated from the recall method were further away from zero relative to the weighing method compared to the WAIDA method and with numerically wider 95% confidence intervals. The spans between the upper and lower 95% limit of agreement (LOAs) of the energy and nutrients obtained by the WAIDA method were narrower than those obtained by the recall method, and the majority of the data points obtained by the WAIDA method lay between the LOAs, closer to the middle horizontal line. Compared with the recall method, the WAIDA method is consistent with the weighing method, close to the real value of dietary data, and expected to be suitable for dietary assessment in antenatal care.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Aplicativos Móveis , Avaliação Nutricional , Smartphone , Adulto , China , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 612, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A woman with a history of GDM has at least seven-fold increased lifetime risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), compared to women who have normoglycemic pregnancies. Postpartum lifestyle modification has been shown to reduce postpartum weight retention and prevent the progression to T2DM. The aim of this study was to explore the postpartum dietary and physical activity-related beliefs and behaviors among women in Singapore who had GDM in their most recent pregnancies. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 women, who were up to four months postpartum and had GDM in their most recent pregnancies. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified in the analysis: (1) risk perception and knowledge regarding future diabetes, (2) suboptimal diet and physical activity after delivery and (3) factors influencing the postpartum lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings provided useful information on the postpartum lifestyle beliefs and behaviors among women with a history of GDM. Most participants had low risk perception of future diabetes and their diet and physical activity after delivery were suboptimal due to various influences. These insights can be used to design tailored materials and programs to support women who have had GDM reduce their risk of developing future T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Gestacional/psicologia , Dieta/normas , Exercício Físico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Singapura/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1814-1829, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequities in diet quality are stable or widening in the United States; however, these trends have not been well characterized in other nations. Moreover, purpose-developed indices of inequities that can provide a more comprehensive and precise perspective of trends in absolute and relative dietary gaps and gradients using multiple indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) have not yet been used, and can inform strategies to narrow dietary inequities. OBJECTIVES: We quantified nationally representative trends in absolute and relative gaps and gradients in diet quality between 2004 and 2015 according to 3 indicators of SEP among adults in Canada. METHODS: Adults (≥18 y old) who participated in the nationally representative, cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition in 2004 (n = 20,880) or 2015 (n = 13,970) were included. SEP was classified using household income (quintiles), education (5 categories), and neighborhood deprivation (quintiles). Dietary intake data from 24-h recalls were used to derive Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores. Dietary inequities were quantified using absolute and relative gaps (between the most and least disadvantaged) and absolute [Slope Index of Inequality (SII)] and relative gradients (Relative Index of Inequality). Overall and sex-stratified multivariable linear regression and generalized linear models examined trends in HEI-2015 scores between 2004 and 2015. RESULTS: Mean HEI-2015 scores improved from 55.3 to 59.0 (maximum: 100); however, these trends were not consistently equitable. Whereas inequities in HEI-2015 scores were stable in the total population and in females, the absolute gap [from 1.60 (95% CI: 0.09, 3.10) to 4.27 (95% CI: 2.20, 6.34)] and gradient [from SII = 2.09 (95% CI: 0.45, 3.73) to SII = 4.84 (95% CI: 2.49, 7.20)] in HEI-2015 scores for household income, and the absolute gradient for education [from SII = 8.06 (95% CI: 6.41, 9.71) to SII = 10.52 (95% CI: 8.73, 12.31)], increased in males. CONCLUSIONS: Absolute and relative gaps and gradients in overall diet quality remained stable or widened between 2004 and 2015 among adults in Canada.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Dieta/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578884

RESUMO

This study investigated the association of hours of paid work with dietary intake and diet quality among Japanese married women. This cross-sectional study was a secondary analysis of a nationwide population survey in 2013. The analytic sample included 644 married women aged 20-59 years. The participants were categorized into five groups according to hours of paid work per week: 0 (housewives), 1-14, 15-34, 35-42, and ≥43 h. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3) was used to measure the dietary quality. The association of hours of paid work with dietary intake and NRF9.3 score was assessed using a multivariable general linear regression analysis with adjustments for confounders. Hours of paid work were associated with a higher intake of rice and lower intake of vegetables, potatoes, soy products, and seaweeds and nutrients including protein, dietary fiber, and most vitamins and minerals. Hours of paid work were negatively associated with the NRF9.3 score. This study showed that Japanese married women engaging in paid work, especially those who work long hours, have less healthy diets. Efforts to improve the dietary intake of married women with paid work might be needed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Emprego , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Civil , Valor Nutritivo , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444984

RESUMO

Diet diversity has an important role in the prevention and treatment of anemia. Based on formative research in the community and the theory of normative social behavior, we designed an intervention to improve diet diversity among women of reproductive age. Our study, the Reduction in Anemia through Normative Innovations (RANI) Project, investigated the effect of a social norms-based intervention on diet diversity among women of reproductive age. We randomized villages in Odisha, India, into treatment or control arms, with a minimum of one village buffer between them. We assessed exposure to the intervention by frequency of self-reported images seen from the participatory learning modules, videos watched, and number of hemoglobin tests administered. We assessed diet diversity with the Food and Agriculture Organization's Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) questionnaire. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the associations between intervention and diet diversity, adjusting for covariates. Compared with baseline, diet diversity score increased in both treatment and control groups. The odds of having a diverse diet was 47% higher in the treatment group. Higher level of exposure to the RANI intervention was associated with a better diet diversity score, indicating that the intervention was effective in improving diet quality.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Educação em Saúde/métodos , População Rural , Marketing Social , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Anemia Ferropriva/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Logísticos , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444951

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions sent college students online and off campus, potentially reducing access to healthy food. The objective of this cross-sectional, internet-based study was to use qualitative and quantitative survey methods to evaluate whether COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Texas, USA affected college students' ability to buy food, how/what they shopped for, how they prepared food, what they ate, how they felt about eating, and overall dietary quality (assessed using Healthy Eating Index [HEI] scores). Survey responses from 502 students (87.5% female; 59.6% nonwhite, mean age 27.5 ± 0.4 years, >50% graduate students) were analyzed. The qualitative analysis of open-ended questions revealed 110 codes, 17 subthemes, and six themes. Almost all students experienced changes in at least one area, the most common being changes in shopping habits. Participants with low or very low food security had lower HEI scores compared to food secure students (p = 0.047). Black students were more likely to report changes in their ability to buy food (p = 0.035). The COVID-19 restrictions varied in their impact on students' ability to access sufficient healthy food, with some students severely affected. Thus, universities should establish procedures for responding to emergencies, including identifying at-risk students and mobilizing emergency funds and/or food assistance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/normas , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudantes , Texas/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 89, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to align human diets with goals for environmental sustainability and population health. The OPTIMAT™-intervention study was developed to implement and evaluate a nutritionally adequate and climate-friendly 4-week lunch menu in Swedish primary schools. This study aimed to explore pupils' and kitchen staff's experiences of the intervention and to identify barriers and facilitators to successful implementation of sustainable school meals. METHODS: An inductive manifest qualitative method was used. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted, six with pupils in grades 5 (ages 10-11) and 8 (ages 14-15) (n = 29) and three with kitchen staff (n = 13). Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Five main categories and 11 subcategories at a manifest level emerged. The five main categories were: 1) Experiences with the new menu, unfolding variations in how the new menu was received and kitchen staff's experiences of working with it; 2) The meaning of diet sustainability, comprising pupils' and kitchen staff's perceptions about diet sustainability as a concept and part of their everyday lives; 3) Factors influencing plant-based food acceptance, covering aspects such as the influence of sensory factors, habits and peer pressure; 4) Opportunities to increase plant-based eating, including factors related to pupils' and kitchen staff's ideas for how to increase plant-based food acceptance; and 5) Need for a supportive environment to achieve dietary change, comprising pupils' and kitchen staff's thoughts on the importance of more knowledge, resources and involvement of stakeholders to eat more plant-based meals in schools. CONCLUSIONS: Successful implementation of sustainable school meals would require more knowledge among pupils and kitchen staff. Staff also need more training in cooking of sustainable meals. Barriers among pupils could be tackled by introducing new plant-based meals more gradually and by more carefully considering the seasoning, naming and aesthetics of dishes. An increased leadership support for change and involvement of stakeholders from multiple levels within society will be key in the transition to sustainable school meals at scale. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial registration for the OPTIMAT™-intervention may be found at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04168632 Fostering Healthy and Sustainable Diets Through School Meals (OPTIMAT)).


Assuntos
Refeições , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Dieta/normas , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(9): 1679-1694, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A steep rise in food insecurity is among the most pressing US public health problems that has resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) describe how food-insecure emerging adults are adapting their eating and child-feeding behaviors during COVID-19 and (2) identify barriers and opportunities to improve local food access and access to food assistance. DESIGN: The COVID-19 Eating and Activity Over Time study collected survey data from emerging adults during April to October 2020 and completed interviews with a diverse subset of food-insecure respondents. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: A total of 720 emerging adults (mean age: 24.7 ± 2.0 years; 62% female; 90% living in Minnesota) completed an online survey, and a predominately female subsample (n = 33) completed an interview by telephone or videoconference. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survey measures included the short-form of the US Household Food Security Survey Module and 2 items to assess food insufficiency. Interviews assessed eating and feeding behaviors along with barriers to healthy food access. ANALYSES PERFORMED: Descriptive statistics and a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Nearly one-third of survey respondents had experienced food insecurity in the past year. Interviews with food-insecure participants identified 6 themes with regard to changes in eating and feeding behavior (eg, more processed food, sporadic eating), 5 themes regarding local food access barriers (eg, limited enforcement of COVID-19 safety practices, experiencing discrimination), and 4 themes regarding barriers to accessing food assistance (eg, lack of eligibility, difficulty in locating pantries). Identified recommendations include (1) expanding the distribution of information about food pantries and meal distribution sites, and (2) increasing fresh fruit and vegetable offerings at these sites. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions of specific relevance to COVID-19 (eg, stronger implementation of safety practices) and expanded food assistance services are needed to improve the accessibility of healthy food for emerging adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dieta/normas , Assistência Alimentar/normas , Insegurança Alimentar , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Racismo/etnologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068308

RESUMO

Good maternal nutrition is key to optimal maternal and foetal health. A poor-quality diet is often associated with obesity, and the prevalence and severity of maternal obesity has increased significantly in recent years. This study observed dietary intakes in pregnant women living with obesity and assessed the quality of their diet. In total, 140 women with a singleton pregnancy, aged > 18 years and BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2, were recruited from antenatal clinics, weighed and completed food diaries at 16-, 28- and 36-weeks' gestation. Clinical data were recorded directly from the women's medical records. Nutrient intake was determined using 'MicrodietTM', then compared to Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). Energy intakes were comparable with DRVs, but intakes of sugar and saturated fatty acids were significantly higher. Intake of fibre and several key micronutrients (Iron, Iodine, Folate and Vitamin D) were significantly low. Several adverse obstetric outcomes were higher than the general obstetric population. Women with obesity, often considered 'over nourished', may have diets deficient in essential micronutrients, often associated with poor obstetric outcomes. To address the intergenerational transmission of poor health via poor diets warrants a multi-disciplinary approach focusing away from 'dieting' onto positive messages, emphasising key nutrients required for good maternal and foetal health.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Materna/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/normas , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 713-720, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Administrative Procedure Act of 1946 guarantees the public an opportunity to view and comment on the 2020 Dietary Guidelines as part of the policymaking process. In the past, public comments were submitted by postal mail or public hearings. The convenience of public comment through the Internet has generated increased comment volume, making manual analysis challenging. OBJECTIVES: To apply natural language processing (NLP NLP is natural language processing.) to identify sentiment, emotion, and themes in the 2020 Dietary Guidelines public comments. METHODS: Written comments to the Scientific Report of the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee that were uploaded and visible at https://beta.regulations.gov/docket/FNS-2020-0015 were extracted using a computer program and retained for analysis. All comments were filtered, and duplicates were removed. A 2-round latent Dirichlet analysis (LDA) was used to identify 3 overarching topics as well as subtopics addressed in the comments. Sentiment analysis was applied to categorize emotion and overall positive and negative sentiment within each topic. RESULTS: Three different topics were identified by LDA. The first topic involved negative sentiment surrounding removing dairy from the guidelines because the commenters felt dairy is unnecessary. The second topic focused on positive sentiment involved in restricting added sugars. The third topic was too diverse to characterize under 1 theme. A second LDA within the third topic had 3 subtopics containing positive sentiment. The first subtopic valued the inclusion of dairy in the recommendations, the second involved the health benefits of consuming beef, and the third indicated that the recommendations lead to overall good health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Public comments were diverse, held conflicting viewpoints, and often did not base comments on personal anecdotes or opinions without citing scientific evidence. Because the volume of public comments has grown dramatically, NLP has promise to assist in objective analysis of public comment input.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Política Nutricional , Alimentos , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
16.
Can J Public Health ; 112(Suppl 1): 41-51, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the diet quality of First Nations adults in Canada using percentage energy from traditional foods (TF) and ultra-processed products (UPP), food portions from the 2007 Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide - First Nations, Inuit and Métis (EWCFG-FNIM) and a Healthy Eating Index (HEI). METHODS: Data collection for this participatory research occurred in 92 First Nations reserves across Canada from 2008 to 2016. Percent daily energy intakes were estimated from 24-hour recalls for TF and NOVA food categories. Portions of food groups from the 2007 EWCFG-FNIM were compared to recommendations. A Canadian-adapted HEI was calculated for each participant. RESULTS: The percent energy from TF was 3% for all participants and 18% for consumers. Meat and alternatives were above the EWCFG-FNIM recommendations and all other food groups were below these. HEI was "low" with only older individuals attaining "average" scores. HEI was above "average" in 4 regions. UPP represented 55% of energy, the largest proportion from a NOVA category. CONCLUSION: The diet quality of First Nations adults in Canada is nutritionally poor. The nutrition, food security and health of First Nations would be improved by better access to TF and healthy store-bought food. However, poor diet is only one aspect of the difficulties facing First Nations in Canada. Researchers and policy makers must strive to better understand the multiple challenges facing First Nations Peoples in order to foster empowerment and self-determination to develop First Nations living conditions and lifestyles that are more culturally sound and more conducive to health.


Assuntos
Dieta , Canadenses Indígenas , Adulto , Canadá , Dieta/normas , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Canadenses Indígenas/psicologia , Canadenses Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946351

RESUMO

The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is experiencing a nutrition transition, characterized by the emergence of overnutrition and micro-nutrient deficiencies. No previous study has comparatively examined nutrient intake in adults across countries in the EMR. This review examined the adequacy of nutrients in adults living in the EMR. Moreover, it analyzed the food balance sheets (FBS) for 1961-2018 to identify the trajectory of energy supply from macro-nutrients in the EMR. A systematic search was conducted from January 2012 to September 2020. Only observational studies were retained with a random sampling design. An assessment of the methodological quality was conducted. Levels of nutrient daily intake and their adequacy compared to the daily reference intake of the Institute of Medicine were reported across the region. No studies were identified for half of the region's countries. Although nutrient energy intake was satisfactory overall, fat and carbohydrate intake were high. Intake of vitamin D, calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium were below that recommended. The analysis of the FBS data allowed for the identification of four linear patterns of trajectories, with countries in the EMR best fitting the 'high-energy-supply from carbohydrate' group. This systematic review warrants multi-sectorial commitment to optimize nutrient intake.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Análise de Alimentos , Nutrientes/química , Valor Nutritivo , Região do Mediterrâneo , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem
18.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 58, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had a massive impact on public health, resulting in sudden dietary and behavioral habit changes. Frontline epidemic prevention workers play a pivotal role against COVID-19. They must face high-risk infection conditions, insufficient anti-epidemic material supplies, mental pressure, and so on. COVID-19 seriously affects their dietary and behavioral habits, and poor habits make them more susceptible to COVID-19. However, their baseline dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19 and their willingness to change these habits after the outbreak of COVID-19 remain unclear for these workers in China. This study aimed to explore the baseline dietary and behavioral habits of frontline workers and their willingness to change these habits after the outbreak of the epidemic; in addition, susceptible subgroups were identified by stratified analyses as targets of protective measures to keep them from being infected with COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a sample of 22,459 valid individuals living in China, including 9402 frontline epidemic prevention workers. RESULTS: Before COVID-19, 23.9% of the frontline epidemic prevention workers reported a high-salt diet, 46.9% of them reported a high frequency of fried foods intake, and 50.9% of them smoked cigarettes. After the outbreak of COVID-19, 34.6% of them expressed a willingness to reduce salt intake, and 43.7% of them wanted to reduce the frequency of pickled vegetables intake. A total of 37.9% of them expressed a willingness to decrease or quit smoking, and 44.5% of them wanted to increase sleep duration. Significant differences in the baseline dietary and behavioral habits and the willingness to change their habits were observed between frontline epidemic prevention workers and other participants. Among the frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19, frontline epidemic prevention experience was a promoting factor for adopting worse dietary and behavioral habits, including those in the high-salt intake subgroup (OR, 2.824; 95% CI, 2.341-3.405) and the 11-20 cigarettes/day subgroup (OR, 2.067; 95% CI, 1.359-3.143). CONCLUSIONS: The dietary and behavioral habits of frontline epidemic prevention workers were worse than that those of other participants before COVID-19. They had a greater willingness to adopt healthy dietary and behavioral habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19. However, frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19 continued in engage in these poor habits. Dietary and behavioral intervention policies should be drafted to protect their health, especially frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor habits at baseline.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Dieta/normas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2483-2490, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The evidence of benefiting from a high-quality diet for knee osteoarthritis (OA) joint structures, symptoms, and systemic abnormalities is limited. Clarifying the relationship between diet quality and knee OA could provide useful information for knee OA management. To investigate the associations between diet quality and knee joint structures, symptoms, lower limb muscle strength, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in people with knee OA. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc, exploratory analysis using data from a randomized controlled trial in symptomatic knee OA participants with a follow-up time of 24 months. In brief, eligible participants of the original study were aged 50-79 years, had symptomatic knee OA, and had a pain of 20-80 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale. After excluding the patients without information on diet quality, 392 participants were included in this post-hoc analysis. Diet quality was assessed at baseline using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) which includes subscores of vegetable, fruit, grain, dairy products, fat, and alcohol. Knee joint structures (including cartilage volume, cartilage defect, bone marrow lesions, and effusion-synovitis volume assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), OA symptoms, lower limb muscle strength, depressive symptoms, and quality of life were assessed at baseline and follow up. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations of diet quality with those outcomes. RESULTS: Diet quality mainly reflect diet variety within the core food was not associated with knee structures and OA symptoms, but was associated with greater lower limb muscle strength (ß = 0.66, P = 0.001), lower depressive symptom (ß = -0.08, P = 0.001), and better quality of life (ß = -0.06, P = 0.002). In further analyses of food group-based sub-scores, only the vegetable sub-score had the similar associations with lower limb muscle strength (ß = 1.03, P = 0.004), depressive symptom (ß = -0.17, P < 0.001), and quality of life (ß = -0.14, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher diet quality, mainly vegetable diet quality, is associated with greater lower limb muscle strength, less depressive symptoms, and higher quality of life in knee OA patients, suggesting higher diet quality may have protective effects on knee OA.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2800-2808, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diet quality has been inversely associated with depression, but less is known about its association with anxiety and about the mechanisms involved in the association between diet and mental health. This study aimed to assess the associations of diet quality with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in young adults, and to explore whether inflammation, indexed by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and body mass index (BMI) mediate this association. METHODS: We used data of 3331 participants from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil). Data on dietary intake and inflammatory markers were assessed at 18 years, and information on mental disorders was obtained at both 18 and 22 years. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake, and diet quality was estimated using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R). The occurrence of MDD and GAD was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), conducted by psychologists. The associations of diet quality, BMI and inflammatory markers with mental disorders were explored using logistic regression. The mediation analysis was performed using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: A one standard deviation increase in the diet quality score at age 18 years was associated with both lower levels of CRP (-0.06 mg/L; 95% CI: -0.10; -0.008) at 18 years and 23% lower odds of MDD at 22 years (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61; 0.97). No association was found between diet quality score and both BMI and GAD. Obesity was associated with higher odds of MDD, but CRP and IL-6 were not associated with MDD or GAD. Our results provide no evidence that inflammatory markers and BMI mediate the association between diet quality and MDD in young adults. CONCLUSIONS: A better diet quality is associated with lower occurrence of MDD among young adults, but we did not find evidence that inflammatory markers and BMI mediate this association.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Ansiedade , Depressão , Dieta/normas , Inflamação/metabolismo , Adolescente , Proteína C-Reativa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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