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1.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 54, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IcarisideII (ICAII) could promote the differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to Schwann cells (SCs), leading to improvement of erectile function (EF) and providing a realistic therapeutic option for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of ADSCs and ICAII in this process remain largely unclear. METHODS: ADSCs were treated with different concentrations of ICAII. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. qRT-PCR and western blot were performed to detect expressions of SCs markers, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and microRNA-let-7i (let-7i). Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the regulatory relationship between let-7i and STAT3. The detection of intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and the ratio of ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP) were used to evaluate the EF in bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) rat models. RESULTS: ICAII promoted cell proliferation of ADSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein levels of SCs markers were increased by ICAII treatment in a dose-dependent manner in ADSCs. Moreover, let-7i was significantly decreased in ICAII-treated ADSCs and upregulation of let-7i attenuated ICAII-induced promotion of SCs markers. In addition, STAT3 was a direct target of let-7i and upregulated in ICAII-treated ADSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of STAT3 abated the let-7i-mediated inhibition effect on differentiation of ADSCs to SCs and rescued the ICAII-mediated promotion effect on it. Besides, combination treatment of ADSCs and ICAII preserved the EF of BCNI rat models, which was undermined by let-7i overexpression. CONCLUSION: ICAII was effective for preserving EF by promoting the differentiation of ADSCs to SCs via modulating let-7i/STAT3 pathway.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transfecção
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1167: 175-190, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520355

RESUMO

Accumulative studies suggest that a fraction of cells within a tumor, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that initiate tumors, show resistance to most of the therapies, and causes tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs could be either transformed normal stem cells or reprogrammed differentiated cells. The eventual goal of CSC research is to identify pathways that selectively regulate CSCs and then target these pathways to eradicate CSCs. CSCs and normal stem cells share some common features, such as self-renewal, the production of differentiated progeny, and the expression of stem-cell markers, however, CSCs vary from normal stem cells in forming tumors. Specifically, CSCs are normally resistant to standard therapies. In addition, CSCs and non-CSCs can be mutually convertible in response to different signals or microenvironments. Even though CSCs are involved in human cancers, the biology of CSCs, is still not well understood, there are urgent needs to study CSCs in model organisms. In the last several years, discoveries in Drosophila have greatly contributed to our understanding of human cancer. Stem-cell tumors in Drosophila share various properties with human CSCs and maybe used to understand the biology of CSCs. In this chapter, we first briefly review CSCs in mammalian systems, then discuss stem-cell tumors in the Drosophila posterior midgut and Malpighian tubules (kidney) and their unique properties as revealed by studying oncogenic Ras protein (RasV12)-transformed stem-cell tumors in the Drosophila kidney and dominant-negative Notch (NDN)-transformed stem-cell tumors in the Drosophila intestine. At the end, we will discuss potential approaches to eliminate CSCs and achieve tumor regression. In future, by screening adult Drosophila neoplastic stem-cell tumor models, we hope to identify novel and efficacious compounds for the treatment of human cancers.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(3): 97-102, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527367

RESUMO

Among voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, T-type Ca2+ channels, which are activated by low voltages, regulate neuronal excitability, spontaneous neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, etc. and also participate in proliferation of distinct cancer cells. Among three isoforms of T-type Ca2+ channels, Cav3.2 is detectable in 100% of biopsy samples from prostate cancer patients. In general, prostate cancer cells are highly sensitive to androgen deprivation therapy, but often acquire hormone-therapy resistance. The androgen deprivation may trigger neuroendocrine (NE)-like differentiation of some prostate cancer cells. We have analyzed the expression and function of Cav3.2 in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells during NE-like differentiation. NE-like LNCaP cells overexpress Cav3.2 through the CREB/Egr-1 pathway and also cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), which generates H2S that enhances the channel activity of Cav3.2. H2S generated by upregulated CSE appears to enhance the activity of upregulated Cav3.2 after the differentiation. The enhanced Cav3.2 activity in NE-like cells may contribute to increased secretion of mitogenic factors essential for androgen-independent proliferation of surrounding prostate cancer cells. It is known that increased extracellular glucose levels enhance Cav3.2 activity through asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation of Cav3.2, which might contribute to diabetic neuropathy. We then found that high glucose accelerates the enhanced channel function and overexpression of Cav3.2 in NE-like LNCaP cells, which might be associated with clinical evidence for diabetes-related poor prognosis of prostate cancer and development of hormone therapy resistance. Thus, Cav3.2 is considered to play a role in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer, and may serve as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/fisiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/citologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cistationina gama-Liase/fisiologia , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Masculino
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8551, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482977

RESUMO

Fibroblasts are a highly heterogeneous population of cells, being found in a large number of different tissues. These cells produce the extracellular matrix, which is essential to preserve structural integrity of connective tissues. Fibroblasts are frequently engaged in migration and remodeling, exerting traction forces in the extracellular matrix, which is crucial for matrix deposition and wound healing. In addition, previous studies performed on primary myoblasts suggest that the E3 ligase MuRF2 might function as a cytoskeleton adaptor. Here, we hypothesized that MuRF2 also plays a functional role in skeletal muscle fibroblasts. We found that skeletal muscle fibroblasts express MuRF2 and its siRNA knock-down promoted decreased fibroblast migration, cell border accumulation of polymerized actin, and down-regulation of the phospho-Akt expression. Our results indicated that MuRF2 was necessary to maintain the actin cytoskeleton functionality in skeletal muscle fibroblasts via Akt activity and exerted an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling in the skeletal muscle tissue.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
5.
Tumour Biol ; 41(9): 1010428319873749, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496424

RESUMO

Differentiation therapy is directed to the self-renewing cancer stem cells, as well as their progeny transit amplifying cells, to force them to mature to terminal differentiation. Differentiation therapy is effective in treatment of neuroblastomas and myeloid leukemias. Checkpoint inhibition therapy removes blocks to cancer reactive T-killer cells and allows them to react to malignant cells and limit the growth of cancer. The percentage of patients with a given cancer that responds to either therapy is less than hoped for, and the duration of response is variable. Multiplying the response rate (percentage of patients responding to therapy) by the duration of response may be used to derive a survival score for patients treated with differentiation therapy or checkpoint inhibition. By this criterion, differentiation therapy gives better survival scores than checkpoint inhibition. Yet, checkpoint inhibition is considered a great success, mostly because it may be applied to many different types of cancer, and differentiation therapy is considered relatively ineffective because it is limited to a few specific cancers. On the other hand, the cost of checkpoint inhibition treatment is 10-20 times more per patient than that of differentiation therapy. Hopefully, future combined treatments and advances in both approaches will increase the effectiveness of these cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(36): 2848-2854, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550815

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the role and its molecular mechanism of miR-328 during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in vitro. Method: Mouse embryonic stem cell line-mESCs-Nanog-GFP was induced in conditioned medium and divided into negative control group, miR-328 agomir transfected group, miR-328 antagomir transfected group and transforming growth factor ß2 (TGF-ß2) siRNA transfected group. The function of IPCs was identified by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) detecting system and immunofluorescence in above-mentioned groups. Methods of qPCR, immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect effects of overexpression and inhibition of miR-328 on differentiation of multilineage precursor cells. We predicted the binding sites of miR-328 and TGF-ß2 by performing the bioinformatics analysis. Dual luciferase reporter gene and Western blotting were employed to identify the regulatory relationship between miR-328 and TGF-ß2. Results: mESCs could be transfected with miR-328 agomir, with an efficacy of 70%-80%. Up-regulated miR-328 in MPCs reduced the RNA expression of several key transcription factors which were crucial for early pancreatic development. Additionally, the insulin released by IPCs decreased in response to glucose stimulation (all P<0.05). However, overexpression of miR-328 led to the decrease of protein level of insulin and Nkx6.1 (all P<0.05). Transfection of miR-328 antagomir had the opposite effects (P<0.05). The dual luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that miR-328 functioned via binding to the 3' non-coding region (3'-UTR) of the TGF-ß2. Western blotting indicated that miR-328 regulated protein expression. After knockdown of miR-328, the relative expression of TGF-ß2 was 1.00±0.01. After co-transfection of miR-328 antagomir and TGF-ß2 siRNA, the relative expression of TGF-ß2 was 0.80±0.03. After downregulating TGF-ß2, the relative expression of TGF-ß2 was 0.20±0.01. Knockdown of TGF-ß2 down-regulated the expression of early pancreatic transcription factors (P<0.05) and inhibited Pdx1(+)cell differentiation. Conclusion: miR-328 can inhibit the differentiation of ESCs into IPCs via binding to 3' UTR of TGF-ß2, and provide a new regulatory pathway for the treatment of diabetes with stem cells.


Assuntos
Células Secretoras de Insulina , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Camundongos , MicroRNAs , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(9): 1633-1642, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559745

RESUMO

Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway to produce melanin pigment in melanocyte, involving a series of intricate enzymatic and chemical catalyzed reactions. Melanogenesis involves five signaling pathways that converge on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. In addition, many cytokines, involved in the regulation of melanogenesis, play an important role in the development, proliferation, differentiation and migration of melanocytes. Polyoxometalate can be used as a potential inhibitor of melanin production. Hence, this paper reviews the signaling pathways of melanogenesis and their regulatory mechanism, to apply polyoxometalates in the melanin production pathway, and briefly introduces the regulatory factors of related pathways.


Assuntos
Melanócitos , Transdução de Sinais , Diferenciação Celular , Melaninas , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 31-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487017

RESUMO

The discovery of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian hippocampus has attracted attention and controversy, which both continue to this day. Hippocampal neural stem cells and their immediate progeny, amplifying neuroprogenitor cells, give rise to neurons and astrocytes in the region. Envisioned as possible key for tissue regeneration, whether mobilized endogenously or transplanted exogenously, neural stem cells have been in the eye of both public and science over the course of the past 20 years. These cells are a heterogeneous population, and here, we review different aspects of their heterogeneity from morphology to metabolism and response to different stimuli.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios/citologia
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 63-80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487019

RESUMO

1. There is growing evidence to suggest that the cells in the maculae flavae are tissue stem cells of the human vocal fold and maculae flavae are a candidate for a stem cell niche. 2. The latest research shows that the cells in the human maculae flavae are involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices that are essential for viscoelasticity in the human vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue and are considered to be important cells in the growth, development, and aging of the human vocal fold mucosa. 3. Recent evidence has indicated that the cells including vocal fold stellate cells in the maculae flavae of the human vocal fold mucosa are a functionally heterogenous population. 4. The cells in the human maculae flavae possess proteins of all three germ layers, indicating that they are undifferentiated and have the ability of multipotency. 5. The cell division in the human adult maculae flavae is reflective of asymmetric self-renewal, and cultured cells form a colony-forming unit. Therefore, the phenomenon gives rise to the strong possibility that the cells in the human maculae flavae are putative stem cells. 6. Recent research has suggested that the cells in the human maculae flavae arise from the differentiation of bone marrow cells via peripheral circulation. 7. Cultured cell populations in the human maculae flavae are roughly divided into three groups by morphological features: cobblestone-like polygonal cells, vocal fold stellate cell-like cells, and fibroblast-like spindle cells. However, at the present state of our investigation, it is difficult to clarify the stem cell system and hierarchy of stem cells in the human maculae flavae. 8. Subpopulations of cells in the maculae flavae proliferate extremely slowly and retain stem cell properties. 9. Tension caused by phonation seems to regulate the behavior and heterogeneity of the cells (mechanical regulation) in the maculae flavae of the human vocal fold. 10. The putative stem cells in the maculae flavae appear to differentiate into other kind of cells in the surrounding tissue.


Assuntos
Mucosa Laríngea , Prega Vocal , Células da Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Mucosa Laríngea/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco , Prega Vocal/citologia , Prega Vocal/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 81-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487020

RESUMO

Identification of thyroid stem cells in the past few years has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce tissue regeneration and repair. Embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells have been used to establish reliable protocols to obtain mature thyrocytes and functional follicles for the treatment of thyroid diseases in mice. In addition, the discovery of resident thyroid progenitor cells, along with other sources of stem cells, has defined in detail the mechanisms responsible for tissue repair upon moderate or severe organ injury.In this chapter, we highlight in detail the current state of research on thyroid stem cells by focusing on (1) the description of the first experiments performed to obtain thyroid follicles from embryonic stem cells, (2) the identification of resident stem cells in the thyroid gland, and (3) the definition of the current translational in vivo and in vitro models used for thyroid tissue repair and regeneration.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Glândula Tireoide , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Pesquisa/tendências , Glândula Tireoide/citologia
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 95-117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487021

RESUMO

Epithelial stem cells reside within multiple regions of the lung where they renew various region-specific cells. In addition, there are multiple routes of regeneration after injury through built-in heterogeneity within stem cell populations and through a capacity for cellular plasticity among differentiated cells. These processes are important facets of respiratory tissue resiliency and organism survival. However, this regenerative capacity is not limitless, and repetitive or chronic injuries, environmental stresses, or underlying factors of disease may ultimately lead to or contribute to tissue remodeling and end-stage lung disease. This chapter will review stem cell heterogeneity among pulmonary epithelia in the lower respiratory system, discuss recent findings that may challenge long-held scientific paradigms, and identify several clinically relevant research opportunities for regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Células-Tronco , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 119-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487022

RESUMO

Adult female mammals are endowed with the unique ability to produce milk for nourishing their newborn offspring. Milk is secreted on demand by the mammary gland, an organ which develops during puberty, further matures during pregnancy and lactation, but reverts to a resting state after weaning. The glandular tissue (re)generated through this series of structural and functional changes is finely sourced by resident stem cells under the control of systemic hormones and local stimuli.Over the past decades a plethora of studies have been carried out in order to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, primarily in mice and humans. Intriguingly, it is now emerging that multiple mammary stem cell pools (co)exist and are characterized by distinctive molecular markers and context-dependent functions.This chapter reviews the heterogeneity of the mammary stem cell compartment with emphasis on the key properties and molecular regulators of distinct stem cell populations in both the mouse and human glands.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas , Células-Tronco , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/citologia , Gravidez , Células-Tronco/citologia
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 141-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487023

RESUMO

Cardiac biology and heart regeneration have been intensively investigated and debated in the last 15 years. Nowadays, the well-established and old dogma that the adult heart lacks of any myocyte-regenerative capacity has been firmly overturned by the evidence of cardiomyocyte renewal throughout the mammalian life as part of normal organ cell homeostasis, which is increased in response to injury. Concurrently, reproducible evidences from independent laboratories have convincingly shown that the adult heart possesses a pool of multipotent cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CSCs or CPCs) capable of sustaining cardiomyocyte and vascular tissue refreshment after injury. CSC transplantation in animal models displays an effective regenerative potential and may be helpful to treat chronic heart failure (CHF), obviating at the poor/modest results using non-cardiac cells in clinical trials. Nevertheless, the degree/significance of cardiomyocyte turnover in the adult heart, which is insufficient to regenerate extensive damage from ischemic and non-ischemic origin, remains strongly disputed. Concurrently, different methodologies used to detect CSCs in situ have created the paradox of the adult heart harboring more than seven different cardiac progenitor populations. The latter was likely secondary to the intrinsic heterogeneity of any regenerative cell agent in an adult tissue but also to the confusion created by the heterogeneity of the cell population identified by a single cell marker used to detect the CSCs in situ. On the other hand, some recent studies using genetic fate mapping strategies claimed that CSCs are an irrelevant endogenous source of new cardiomyocytes in the adult. On the basis of these contradictory findings, here we critically reviewed the available data on adult CSC biology and their role in myocardial cell homeostasis and repair.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas , Miocárdio , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Miocárdio/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 179-193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487024

RESUMO

Tissue-specific stem cells contribute to adult tissue maintenance, repair, and regeneration. In skeletal muscle, many different mononuclear cell types are capable of giving rise to differentiated muscle. Of these tissue stem-like cells, satellite cells (SCs) are the most studied muscle stem cell population and are widely considered the main cellular source driving muscle repair and regeneration in adult tissue. Within the satellite cell pool, many distinct subpopulations exist, each exhibiting differential abilities to exit quiescence, expand, differentiate, and self-renew. In this chapter, we discuss the different stem cell types that can give rise to skeletal muscle tissue and then focus on satellite cell heterogeneity during the process of myogenesis/muscle regeneration. Finally, we highlight emerging opportunities to better characterize muscle stem cell heterogeneity, which will ultimately deepen our appreciation of stem cells in muscle development, repair/regeneration, aging, and disease.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Células-Tronco , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 195-211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487025

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain lifelong production of mature blood cells and regenerate the hematopoietic system after cytotoxic injury. Use of expanding cell surface marker panels and advanced functional analyses have revealed the presence of several immunophenotypically different HSC subsets with distinct self-renewal and repopulating capacity and bias toward selective lineage differentiation. This chapter summarizes current understanding of the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the HSC pool, with emphasis on the immunophenotypes and functional features of several known HSC subsets, and their roles in steady-state and emergency hematopoiesis, and in aging. The chapter also highlights some of the future research directions to elucidate further the biology and function of different HSC subsets in health and disease states.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Animais , Humanos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 243-256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487028

RESUMO

Heterogeneity among different subpopulations of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSCs) lines is an ubiquitous phenomenon, with such variability being related to several factors including the identity of the individual donor, tissue source (Wharton's jelly vs. umbilical cord blood), culture conditions, as well as random variations in the cloning expansion process. In this chapter, we provide a general overview on the sources as well as available experimental techniques for proper identification of heterogeneity in hUCMSCs. Finally, we provide a brief discussion on the current scientific evidence regarding the potential superiority of subpopulations of hUCMSCs for specific clinical applications. Taking into account the exponential growth on the available experimental data on hUCMSCs in the past few years, this chapter is not intended to be comprehensive in nature, but rather is intended to provide a general overview about the central role which the topic of heterogeneity has in both basic science and clinical research in umbilical cord stem cells.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Cordão Umbilical , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Geleia de Wharton
17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 471-474, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular damage, clinically expressed by Raynaud's phenomenon, is generally the first symptom of the disease and the injured vascular cells, both endothelial and perivascular, may transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts, thus leading to collagen deposition in the tissue and consequent fibrosis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) is complex disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis. It has been shown that microvascular damage may be the first symptom of SSc. Injured endothelial cells and pericytes may transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts, the cells responsible for fibrosis and collagen deposition in the tissue. Based on these factors, the process of myofibroblast generation may link two pivotal events of SSc: microvascular damage and fibrosis. Understanding the development, differentiation, and function of myofibroblasts is therefore crucial to individuate early pathogenetic events and develop new therapeutic target for SSc, a condition in which no disease-modifying agents are available. The aim of this review was to discuss the possible origins of myofibroblasts in SSc, highlighting the process of endothelial mesenchymal transition and pericytes to myofibroblast transition and to show how these events may contribute to pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Miofibroblastos/citologia , Doença de Raynaud/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Pericitos/citologia
18.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(8): 964-971, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Naoluo Xintong on the expression of ß-tubulin Ⅲ and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the proliferation and differentiation of murine neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. METHODS: An immortalized murine NSC line was divided into model control (MC) group, 10% Naoluo Xintong drug-containing serum group (NLXT group), and 10% Naoluoxintong drug-containing serum with inhibitor Y27632 group (Y-27632 group) with corresponding treatments. The activity of the NSCs was detected after the treatments using MTT assay, and the migration of the cells was observed with Transwell assay. The expressions of ß-tubulin Ⅲ, GFAP and MAP-2 proteins in the cells were detected with immunoblotting, and the expressions of DCX, NEUN, and ß-tubulin Ⅲ were also detected with immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Compared with that in MC group, the number of migrated cells in NLXT group and Y-27632 group increased significantly at 1 day and 3 days after induction (P < 0.05). The survival rate and the number of migrated cells in NLXT group and Y-27632 group increased significantly on day 7 (P < 0.01). Compared with those in MC group, the expressions of ß-tubulin Ⅲ, MAP2 and GFAP protein in NLXT group and Y-27632 group were significantly increased on days 3 (P < 0.01) and 7 (P < 0.05). The numbers of ß-tubulinⅢ/ GFAP, BrdU/DCX, and BrdU/NEUN labeled cells in the NLXT group and Y-27632 group were significantly greater than those in the MC group. CONCLUSIONS: Naoluo Xintong promotes the proliferation and differentiation of murine NSCs in vitro by regulating the expressions of ß-tubulinⅢ/GFAP.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Tubulina (Proteína) , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Camundongos
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4687-4698, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Propagermanium (PG) inhibits the CCL2/CCR2 axis, and has been shown to function as an immune modulator. This study investigated its anti-tumor mechanism in patients with refractory cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers and 23 patients with refractory oral (n=8) or gastric (n=15) cancer received PG (30 mg/day). We performed flow cytometry (FCM) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in vitro killing assays. RESULTS: FCM revealed that CD16+/CD56Dim NK cells (i.e., mature, cytolytic subset) increased, and the apoptosis induction rate of cancer cells increased after PG administration. Among gastric cancer patients, median OS was 172.0 days. Two patients showed complete remission of lung or liver metastasis. Survival of patients with oral cancer also tended to be prolonged. CONCLUSION: PG induces NK cell maturation, and may potentiate anti-tumor activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4757-4766, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Azacitidine (AZA) is a hypomethylating agent used in myeloid neoplasms, however, approximately half of patients show treatment failure or relapse. This in vitro study investigated the effect of the combination of AZA with the natural compound curcumin (CUR) in increasing its efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the effects of AZA plus CUR on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines (U-937, HL-60, K-562, and OCI-AML3) and bone marrow samples of patients. RESULTS: The results showed a synergy between AZA and CUR in all leukemic lines and in most leukemic samples, with a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis compared to the activity of each drug separately. In addition, AZA plus CUR showed low cytotoxicity in healthy samples. CONCLUSION: A remarkable antioncogenic effect of the combination of AZA plus CUR was shown, providing a basis for future studies analyzing the clinical efficacy of these drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
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