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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199070

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has left millions infected and dead around the world, with Latin America being one of the most affected areas. In this work, we have sought to determine, by means of a multiple regression analysis and a study of correlations, the influence of population density, life expectancy, and proportion of the population in vulnerable employment, together with GDP per capita, on the mortality rate due to COVID-19 in Latin American countries. The results indicated that countries with higher population density had lower numbers of deaths. Population in vulnerable employment and GDP showed a positive influence, while life expectancy did not appear to significantly affect the number of COVID-19 deaths. In addition, the influence of these variables on the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 was analyzed. It can be concluded that the lack of resources can be a major burden for the vulnerable population in combating COVID-19 and that population density can ensure better designed institutions and quality infrastructure to achieve social distancing and, together with effective measures, lower death rates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Dinâmica Populacional , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288867

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has left millions infected and dead around the world, with Latin America being one of the most affected areas. In this work, we have sought to determine, by means of a multiple regression analysis and a study of correlations, the influence of population density, life expectancy, and proportion of the population in vulnerable employment, together with GDP per capita, on the mortality rate due to COVID-19 in Latin American countries. The results indicated that countries with higher population density had lower numbers of deaths. Population in vulnerable employment and GDP showed a positive influence, while life expectancy did not appear to significantly affect the number of COVID-19 deaths. In addition, the influence of these variables on the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 was analyzed. It can be concluded that the lack of resources can be a major burden for the vulnerable population in combating COVID-19 and that population density can ensure better designed institutions and quality infrastructure to achieve social distancing and, together with effective measures, lower death rates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Dinâmica Populacional , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(3): 529-541, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156563

RESUMO

Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite, PRM) is a main ectoparasite of poultry that represents a serious economic threat to all farming systems, including cages and backyard flocks. In recent years, economic losses associated with this ectoparasite have progressively increased, mainly because of the lack of information regarding its population dynamics and appropriate control methods. In this study, we used a modified monitoring method to examine the in-house factors affecting the population density of D. gallinae. PRMs have been found in all poultry houses examined in Turkey. The largest population was detected in the front and back parts of the middle rows in cage systems as well as in perches in backyard systems. Relative humidity, light, and temperature might be the most affecting factors on the mite distribution inside the poultry houses. Besides, the mite populations are influenced mainly by the last (chemical) treatment date and the construction materials of the building. Dermanyssus gallinae were found to be the most dominant mite species (98.9%), followed by Cheyletus sp. (Cheyletidae); also some Acaridae (Tyrophagus spp.) and Oribatida were identified. Hence, further research on Cheyletus sp. is required to elucidate their predatory potential and develop future control strategies. This study contributes to understanding the PRM population behavior in poultry houses as well as their monitoring and control methods, which are key components in the appropriate application of integrated pest management programs.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Dinâmica Populacional , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Turquia
4.
Oecologia ; 196(2): 399-412, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061249

RESUMO

The persistence of wildlife populations is under threat as a consequence of human activities, which are degrading natural ecosystems. Commercial forestry is the greatest threat to biodiversity in boreal forests. Forestry practices have degraded most available habitat, threatening the persistence of natural populations. Understanding population responses is, therefore, critical for their conservation. Population viability analyses are effective tools to predict population persistence under forestry management. However, quantifying the mechanisms driving population responses is complex as population dynamics vary temporally and spatially. Metapopulation dynamics are governed by local dynamics and spatial factors, potentially mediating the impacts of forestry e.g., through dispersal. Here, we performed a seasonal, spatially explicit population viability analysis, using long-term data from a group-living territorial bird (Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus). We quantified the effects of forest management on metapopulation dynamics, via forest type-specific demography and spatially explicit dispersal, and how forestry impacted the stability of metapopulation dynamics. Forestry reduced metapopulation growth and stability, through negative effects on reproduction and survival. Territories in higher quality natural forest contributed more to metapopulation dynamics than managed forests, largely through demographic processes rather than dispersal. Metapopulation dynamics in managed forest were also less resilient to disturbances and consequently, may be more vulnerable to environmental change. Seasonal differences in source-sink dynamics observed in managed forest, but not natural forests, were caused by associated seasonal differences in dispersal. As shown here, capturing seasonal source-sink dynamics allows us to predict population persistence under human disturbance and to provide targeted conservation recommendations.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Passeriformes , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
5.
Ecol Lett ; 24(8): 1533-1538, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110069

RESUMO

In the western United States, the population of migratory monarch butterflies is on the brink of collapse, having dropped from several million butterflies in the 1980s to ~2000 butterflies in the winter of 2020-2021. At the same time, a resident (non-migratory) monarch butterfly population in urban gardens has been growing in abundance. The new resident population is not sufficient to make up for the loss of the migratory population; there are still orders of magnitude fewer butterflies now than in the recent past. The resident population also probably lacks the demographic capacity to expand its range inland during summer months. Nonetheless, the resident population may have the capacity to persist. This sudden change emphasises the extent to which environmental change can have unexpected consequences, and how quickly these changes can happen. We hope it will provoke discussion about how we define resilience and viability in changing environments.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Migração Animal , Animais , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3625, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131115

RESUMO

Understanding the relationship between complexity and stability in large dynamical systems-such as ecosystems-remains a key open question in complexity theory which has inspired a rich body of work developed over more than fifty years. The vast majority of this theory addresses asymptotic linear stability around equilibrium points, but the idea of 'stability' in fact has other uses in the empirical ecological literature. The important notion of 'temporal stability' describes the character of fluctuations in population dynamics, driven by intrinsic or extrinsic noise. Here we apply tools from random matrix theory to the problem of temporal stability, deriving analytical predictions for the fluctuation spectra of complex ecological networks. We show that different network structures leave distinct signatures in the spectrum of fluctuations, and demonstrate the application of our theory to the analysis of ecological time-series data of plankton abundances.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Ecologia , Modelos Biológicos
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3627, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131131

RESUMO

Turnover of species composition through time is frequently observed in ecosystems. It is often interpreted as indicating the impact of changes in the environment. Continuous turnover due solely to ecological dynamics-species interactions and dispersal-is also known to be theoretically possible; however the prevalence of such autonomous turnover in natural communities remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that observed patterns of compositional turnover and other important macroecological phenomena can be reproduced in large spatially explicit model ecosystems, without external forcing such as environmental change or the invasion of new species into the model. We find that autonomous turnover is triggered by the onset of ecological structural instability-the mechanism that also limits local biodiversity. These results imply that the potential role of autonomous turnover as a widespread and important natural process is underappreciated, challenging assumptions implicit in many observation and management tools. Quantifying the baseline level of compositional change would greatly improve ecological status assessments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Biomassa , Modelos Biológicos , Características de Residência
8.
J Insect Sci ; 21(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137894

RESUMO

Worldwide, two of the most harmful invasive ants typical of disturbed sites are Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) and Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger). Both are natives of the Neotropics and are widely distributed all over the tropics. Within its original geographic range, there are few data on its abundance and potential damage to natural ecosystems. In this study, we recorded their abundance and relationships to diversity and richness of soil ant communities in two localities with different amount of forested area (López Mateos, LM 77% and Venustiano Carranza, VC 27%), at Los Tuxtlas reserve. In each locality, four land use systems (LUS) were sampled: tropical rain forests, agroforestry plantations, annual crops, and pastures. Data were gathered from 360 ant samples obtained from litter squares, pitfall traps, and soil monoliths in 40 sampling points (20 per locality, and five per LUS). Solenopsis geminata was more abundant in LM than in VC; the opposite trend was observed for W. auropunctata. In LM, S. geminata was more abundant in crops than in the other LUS, whereas W. auropunctata tended to have higher abundances in less managed sites of both localities. Abundance and species richness of ant communities were higher in LM than in VC. At regional and local levels, we found negative relationships between the abundance of S. geminata and species richness; the inverse pattern was found for W. auropunctata. We conclude that at Los Tuxtlas, W. auropunctata can be considered as a typical dominant native species, whereas S. geminata is the common exotic invasive ant.


Assuntos
Formigas , Ecossistema , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos , Florestas , Espécies Introduzidas , México , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3838, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158480

RESUMO

Chronic dietary protein-restriction can create essential amino acid deficiencies and induce metabolic adaptation through the hepatic FGF21 pathway which serves to maintain host fitness during prolonged states of nutritional imbalance. Similarly, the gut microbiome undergoes metabolic adaptations when dietary nutrients are added or withdrawn. Here we confirm previous reports that dietary protein-restriction triggers the hepatic FGF21 adaptive metabolic pathway and further demonstrate that this response is mediated by the gut microbiome and can be tuned through dietary supplementation of fibers that alter the gut microbiome. In the absence of a gut microbiome, we discover that FGF21 is de-sensitized to the effect of protein-restriction. These data suggest that host-intrinsic adaptive pathways to chronic dietary protein-restriction, such as the hepatic FGF21 pathway, may in-fact be responding first to adaptive metabolic changes in the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dinâmica Populacional , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(6): 135-148, 2021 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162042

RESUMO

The human body is colonized from the birth by a large number of microorganisms. This will constitute a real "functional microbial organ" that is fundamental for homeostasis and therefore for health in humans. Those microorganisms. The microbial populations that colonize humans creating a specific ecosystem they have been collectively referred to as "human microbiota" or "human normal microflora". The microbiota play an important pathophysiological role in the various locations of the human body. This article focuses on one of the most important, that is the enteric microbiota. The composition (quantitative and qualitative) of microbes is analyzed in relation to age and environment during the course of human life. It also highlights eubiosis and dysbiosis as key terms for its role in health and disease. Finally, it analyzes its bi-directional relationship with the microbiota of the lungs, skin and that of the brain, and consequently for the whole central and peripheral nervous system for the maintenance of health in the human body.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Homeostase/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e025620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076053

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a freshwater snail-borne zoonotic disease. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is a very high altitude endemic area where the highest human prevalences and intensities have been reported. Preventive chemotherapy by treatment campaigns is yearly applied. However, liver fluke infection of cattle, sheep, pigs and donkeys assures endemicity and consequent human infection and re-infection risks. A One Health action has therefore been implemented. Activity concerns lymnaeid vectors and environment diversity. Studies included growth, egg-laying and life span in laboratory-reared lymnaeids. Different habitat types and influencing factors were assessed. All populations proved to belong to Galba truncatula by rDNA sequencing. Analyses comprised physico-chemical characteristics and monthly follow-up of water temperature, pH and quantity, and lymnaeid abundance and density. Population dynamics in the transmission foci differed. Mean environmental temperature was lower than fluke development minimum temperature threshold, but water temperature was higher, except during winter. A two generations/year pattern appeared in permanent water habitats, and one generation/year pattern in habitats drying out for months. The multidisciplinary control measures can be extended from one part of the endemic area to another. These studies, made for the first time at very high altitude, constitute a baseline useful for fascioliasis control in other countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Biologia , Bolívia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Dinâmica Populacional , Ovinos , Suínos
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3281, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078888

RESUMO

Engineered reproductive species barriers are useful for impeding gene flow and driving desirable genes into wild populations in a reversible threshold-dependent manner. However, methods to generate synthetic barriers are lacking in advanced eukaryotes. Here, to overcome this challenge, we engineer SPECIES (Synthetic Postzygotic barriers Exploiting CRISPR-based Incompatibilities for Engineering Species), an engineered genetic incompatibility approach, to generate postzygotic reproductive barriers. Using this approach, we create multiple reproductively isolated SPECIES and demonstrate their reproductive isolation and threshold-dependent gene drive capabilities in D. melanogaster. Given the near-universal functionality of CRISPR tools, this approach should be portable to many species, including insect disease vectors in which confinable gene drives could be of great practical utility.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético/métodos , Genes Letais , Especiação Genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/deficiência , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Isolamento Reprodutivo
13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190471

RESUMO

The article considers the factors determining the orientation of Russians in relation to the birth of second child in single-child families. The analysis is based on the sociological survey data of the first wave of the All-Russian survey "The Demographic Well-being of Russia", carried out at the turn of 2019 - in the beginning of 2020 by the research team headed by Professor Rostovskaya T. K. The emphasis on the determination of namely second births is determined by the fact that it is just this determination that has social psychological and social economic character, while the dynamics of indices of first births is primarily associated with changes in nuptiality. Moreover, the two children continues to be the modal value of the ideal, the desired and the expected number of children in Russia and in the most other economically developed countries. The conclusions of the study are based on the distribution of respondents according a number of characteristics that stand as factors of second births. The analysis demonstrated that a more expressed orientation to the birth of second child occurs with relatively greater value of two children, perception of it as a factor contributing to marriage consolidation, significantly greater first of all in women. The importance of such motives for the birth of second child as strong desire in male spouse and desire to have an infant in the family again is emphasized. Besides, the results of the study demonstrated that high valuation of the standard of living promotes the formation of intention to have second child, without any delaying of its birth, but only among those ones who want to have one. It is established that the second births rate is effected by both the demographic factors (age and marital status), social factors (education level, the number of children in families of parents and friends, the nearest environment) and social psychological factors, motives of second child birth and the system of values of Russians. In the context of implementation of the strategy of family demographic policy, it is important that probability of second births is effected primarily by the improvement of quality of medical institutions functioning, development of personal services and provision of preferential credits depending on the number of children in family.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Características da Família , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064998

RESUMO

Building concentrated resettlement community in small towns is mostly used to deal with resettlement construction for rural migrants in economically developed regions in China, which leads to migrants' living environment changing from rural settlements where production and living are intertwined to an urban community that only supports living functions. However, the urbanized environment is contrary to elderly migrants' behavior, resulting in contradictions or conflicts between migrants and resettlement communities, reflecting a lack of urbanization synchronization between migrants and resettlement community environments. Further, elderly migrants are also equipped with different degrees and types of urbanization characteristics, thus reflecting different abilities to adapt to the urban community environment. Based on the corresponding relationship between people's different production and living needs and urbanization, this research starts by investigating the production and living needs of elderly migrants, and further clarifies the environmental adaptability of elderly migrants by sorting the types and characteristics of urbanization of elderly migrants to provide a reference basis for the planning and construction of future resettlement areas. The research uses questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate the population attributes and characteristics of elderly migrants, as well as their different needs for production and living. The research uses hierarchical cluster analysis, the one-way ANOVA test and Chi-square test to constructed a four-quadrant model on human urbanization features: an Urban Group with both living and production urbanized (Group H-H); a Half-urban-half-rural Group with only living needs urbanized (Group H-L); a Half-urban-Half-rural Group with only production needs urbanized (Group L-H); and a Rural group with both living and production needs not urbanized (Group L-L). Finally, based on the results, this research proposed three elderly environment construction orientations of "Promote the Supply Level of Urban Public Services", "Create a Place That Embodies the Spirit of Immigrants' Homeland", and "Moderate Consideration of Agricultural Production Needs" for residential planning.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Urbanização , Idoso , China , Cidades , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , População Urbana
15.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 111, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the explosive increase of a population following biological invasion, natural dispersal, i.e., when a population disperses from its original range into a new range, is a passive process that is affected by resources, the environment, and other factors. Natural dispersal is also negatively impacted by genetic drift and the founder effect. Although the fates of naturally dispersed populations are unknown, they can adapt evolutionarily over time to the new environment. Can naturally dispersed populations evolve beneficial adaptive strategies to offset these negative effects to maintain their population in a stable state? RESULTS: The current study addressed this question by focusing on the toad Bombina orientalis, the population of which underwent natural dispersal following the Last Glacial Maximum in Northeast Asia. Population genetic approaches were used to determine the genetic structure, dispersal pattern, and mating system of the population of B. orientalis in northeast China (Northern population). The results showed that this northern population of B. orientalis is a typical naturally dispersed population, in which the stable genetic structure and high level of genetic diversity of the population have been maintained through the long-distance biased dispersal behavior of males and the pattern of promiscuity within the population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that naturally dispersed populations can evolve effective adaptive strategies to maintain a stable population. Different species may have different strategies. The relevance of these maintenance mechanisms for naturally dispersed populations provide a new perspective for further understanding the processes of speciation and evolution.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Reprodução , Animais , Anuros/genética , China , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1930655, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134611

RESUMO

Background: Despite the greater attention given to international migration, internal migration accounts for the majority of movements globally. However, research on the effects of internal migration on health is limited, with this relationship examined predominantly in urban settings among working-age adults, neglecting rural populations and younger and older ages.Objectives: Using longitudinal data from 29 mostly rural sub-Saharan African Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), this study aims to explore life-course differences in mortality according to migration status and duration of residence.MethodsCox proportional hazards models are employed to analyse the relationship between migration and mortality in the 29 HDSS areas. The analytical sample includes 3 836,173 people and the analysis spans 25 years, from 1990 to 2015. We examine the risk of death by sex across five broad age groups (from ages 1 to 80), and consider recent and past in- and return migrants.Results: In-migrants have a higher risk of mortality compared to permanent rural residents, with return migrants at greater risk than in-migrants across all age-groups. Female migrants have lower survival chances than males, with greater variability by age. Risk of dying is highest among recent return migrant females aged 30-59: 1.86 (95% CI 1.69-2.06) times that of permanent residents. Only among males aged 15-29 who move to urban areas is there evidence of a 'healthy migrant' effect (HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.77). There is clear evidence of an adaptation effect across all ages, with the risk of mortality reducing with duration following migration.Conclusions: Findings suggest that adult internal migrants, particularly females, suffer greater health disadvantages associated with migration. Policy makers should focus on improving migrant's interface with health services, and support the development of health education and promotion interventions to create awareness of localised health risks for migrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112324, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015630

RESUMO

Insecticides are extensively used worldwide to kill insect pests, yet organisms are most often exposed to insecticides at sublethal concentrations. Our understanding of sublethal effects on life histories is needed to predict the impact of insecticides on population dynamics and improve insecticide use and pest control. Sublethal concentrations can impact life histories directly and indirectly through changes in the intraspecific competition. Yet, few studies have evaluated the sublethal effects on intraspecific competition and these do not disentangle the insecticide effects on interference competition versus exploitative competition. As such, sublethal effects on the relative contribution of each pathways in shaping life histories are largely unknown, despite the fact that this can impact population dynamics. In this study, we focused on the neurotoxic insecticide spinosad and investigated its sublethal effects on interference among the aggressive larvae of the tortrix moth Adoxophyes honmai and the consequences for life histories. We conducted a set of paired experiments to disentangle the insecticide effects on interference from the ones on exploitation. Spinosad was found to amplify interference with most effects on mortality which lets us suggest that the insecticide likely increases the level of aggressive interactions resulting in more conspecific killings (e.g. cannibalism). Spinosad exposure was found to impair movement ability. Less movements may increase susceptibility to conspecific attacks and or increase aggresivity for better defence, two plausible mechanisms that could explain the increase in interference with insecticide. This study shows that insecticide at sublethal concentration can impact life histories by altering the strength of interference competition. Many organisms (pest and non-target species) compete through interference and theory predicts that a change in interference can substantially change dynamics. Our finding therefore reveals the importance of assessing the effect of insecticides on the mechanisms of competition when predicting their impact on populations.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/fisiologia , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Populacional
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