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2.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e47, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531625

RESUMO

Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects between 6 and 12 million people in Latin America, with an incidence rate of 12 thousand cases per year. In the Ceara State, the predominance of the caatinga biome, coupled with a large rural area with precarious human habitations, provides several s shelters for these insects. In this study, we determined the spatiotemporal distribution of triatomine dispersion rates in the Cariri region, Southern Ceara and ascertained the possible association between these rates with socioeconomic and environmental factors. Dispersion rates (number of positive localities/number of searched localities × 100) were analyzed regarding 13 municipalities from the Ceara State, from 2009 to 2013. Socioeconomic and environmental variables collected from national research institutes were associated with the dispersion rates and their local empirical Bayesian estimates. All the municipalities recorded dispersion rates over 10% in all years, and 11 municipalities had average rates over 40% for the period of study. Significant differences were observed among the municipality means. The highest rates were observed in Antonina do Norte and Potengi. According to the correlation analysis, the proportion between the occupied population and the total population showed a significant negative correlation, as well as the percentage of the population who lives under adequate sanitary conditions. Both, the percentage of revenues from external sources and the percentage of urban households in reforested blocks had a significant positive correlation. Our results show that socioeconomic and environmental variables can be factors that contribute to both, the maintenance and the reduction of the elevated dispersion rates observed in the study area. Similar researches that encompass more municipalities from that region may reinforce Chagas disease surveillance and control in the Northeast of Brazil.


Assuntos
Habitação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Triatominae/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Science ; 365(6457): 986-987, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488676
4.
Ecol Lett ; 22(11): 1817-1827, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496047

RESUMO

Theory predicts rapid genetic drift during invasions, yet many expanding populations maintain high genetic diversity. We find that genetic drift is dramatically suppressed when dispersal rates increase with the population density because many more migrants from the diverse, high-density regions arrive at the expansion edge. When density dependence is weak or negative, the effective population size of the front scales only logarithmically with the carrying capacity. The dependence, however, switches to a sublinear power law and then to a linear increase as the density dependence becomes strongly positive. We develop a unified framework revealing that the transitions between different regimes of diversity loss are controlled by a single, universal quantity: the ratio of the expansion velocity to the geometric mean of dispersal and growth rates at expansion edge. Our results suggest that positive density dependence could dramatically alter evolution in expanding populations even when its contribution to the expansion velocity is small.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 13-39, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471793

RESUMO

Both survival and reproduction are important fitness components, and thus critical to the viability of wildlife populations. Preventing one death (survival) or contributing one newborn (reproduction), has arguably the same effect on population dynamics-in each instance the population grows or is maintained by one additional member. However, for the conservation of slow-growing animal populations, the importance of reproduction is sometimes overlooked when evaluating wildlife management options. This has to do with the use of demographic sensitivity analyses, which quantify the relative contribution of vital rates to population growth. For slow-growing populations, the results of such analyses typically show that growth rates are more sensitive to changes in survival than to equal proportional changes in reproduction. Consequently, for slow-growing taxa, survival has been labelled a better fitness surrogate than reproduction. However, such a generalization, derived from conventional sensitivity analyses, is based on flawed approaches, such as omitting appropriate scaling of vital rates, and sometimes misinterpretations. In this chapter, I make the case that for the conservation of slow-growing species the role of reproduction is considerably greater than conventional sensitivity analyses would suggest. This is illustrated by case studies on wildlife populations that underscore the importance of reproduction for the conservation of slow-growing birds, ungulates, carnivores, and cetaceans.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reprodução , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3233-3244, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529899

RESUMO

As the link among species, ecological environment, and ecosystem function, functional diversity can help us to better understand the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function. We analyzed functional diversity with thirteen functional traits reflecting the characteristics of food acquisition, locomotion, ecological adaptation, reproduction and population dynamics of fish species. The seasonal, interannual and spatial variations of functional diversity of fish communities were examined using functional richness index (FRic), functional evenness index (FEve), functional divergence index (FDiv) and community weighted mean index (CWM) based on the data from the bottom trawl surveys in spring and autumn from 2011 to 2017 (except 2012) in Haizhou Bay. The results showed that functional diversity indices were significantly different in spring and autumn, with FRic was significantly higher in autumn than that in spring and FDiv was significantly higher in spring than that in autumn. Migration might be the main reason for the seasonal change of functional diversity indices. CWM analysis showed that dominant fish species were cold-temperate or warm-temperate species, with higher trophic level, strong motion ability, and relatively high growth coefficient, resilience and vulnerability in spring. In autumn, the dominant species showed the opposite traits. In both spring and autumn, fish species with pelagic eggs dominated the fish communities. Inter-annual variations in functional diversity indices were observed in spring and autumn. The functional diversity indices showed an annual fluctuation during the study period in both spring and autumn, indicating the low stability of fish community in Haizhou Bay. Significant spatial changes in functional diversity of fish assemblages were observed, with FDiv being higher in the offshore coastal waters (>20 m) than that in the shallow waters (<20 m). The functional diversity showed obvious spatio-temporal variation. The ecological niches and resource utilization of fish species varied with season, year and space in Haizhou Bay.


Assuntos
Baías , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
Science ; 365(6454)2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416936

RESUMO

Szuwalski argues that varying age structure can affect surplus production and that recruitment is a better metric of productivity. We explain how our null model controlled for age structure and other processes as explanations for the temperature-production relationship. Surplus production includes growth, recruitment, and other processes and provides a more complete description of food production impacts than does recruitment alone.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 150, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366367

RESUMO

Characterization of the temporal dynamics of the human gut microbiome is crucial for understanding its role in modulating host health. Two recent studies explored the genetic diversity of gut microbes and unraveled extensive longitudinal dynamics within the host that is driven by natural selection.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2654-2666, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418190

RESUMO

To understand the intra- and inter-annual population dynamics of Artemisia scoparia in the desert steppe, we set up three treatments, i.e., increasing the precipitation by 30%, reducing the precipitation by 30%, and the control (CK) in each soil habitat of aeolian sandy soil, sierozem soil, and bedrock weathered sedimentary soil. We drew up the dynamic life table to produce population survival and death curves and analyzed the population dynamics of A. scoparia in different habitats. Results showed that the survival curve of A. scoparia was approached to Deevey-1type. The survival rate was high in the early growth stage and tended to be relatively stable. The mortality rate maintained at a low level, but rose fast at the end of the growth stage. The individual survival number of A. scoparia in all habitats fluctuated at the early stage and declined at the later stage. The mortality rates of A. scoparia in habitats of both aeolian sandy soil and sierozem soil fluctuated greatly. There was no significant difference in the effects of increased and decreased precipitation treatments on the mortality rate of A. scoparia. Soil types had significant effects on all parameters, including the plant height, crown width, density, cover, and biomass of A. scoparia. Precipitation treatments had significant impacts on plant height, crown width and coverage of A. scoparia, and had no significant effect on plant density and biomass. The interactions between soil type and precipitation treatments had only a significant impact on plant height and crown width. The plasticity index of biomass in the habitat of bedrock weathered sedimentary soil was significantly higher than that in habitats of aeolian sandy soil and sierozem soil, while the plasticity index of plant coverage in the habitats of both sierozem soil and bedrock weathered sedimentary soil were significantly higher than that in the habitat of aeolian sandy soil. The density plasticity index of increased precipitation treatment was significantly higher than those of CK and the decreased precipitation treatments. The plasticity index of plant height and crown width were higher than other parameters, indicating that A. scoparia could respond to habitat changes by giving priority to these two parameters under different habitat pressures.


Assuntos
Artemisia/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Clima Desértico , Dinâmica Populacional , Solo
10.
Ecol Lett ; 22(11): 1787-1796, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379127

RESUMO

The synchrony of population dynamics in space has important implications for ecological processes, for example affecting the spread of diseases, spatial distributions and risk of extinction. Here, we studied the relationship between spatial scaling in population dynamics and species position along the slow-fast continuum of life history variation. Specifically, we explored how generation time, growth rate and mortality rate predicted the spatial scaling of abundance and yearly changes in abundance of eight marine fish species. Our results show that population dynamics of species' with 'slow' life histories are synchronised over greater distances than those of species with 'fast' life histories. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the position of the species along the life history continuum and population dynamics in space, showing that the spatial distribution of abundance may be related to life history characteristics.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
11.
Ecol Lett ; 22(11): 1746-1756, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389134

RESUMO

Spatial environmental heterogeneity coupled with dispersal can promote ecological persistence of diverse metacommunities. Does this premise hold when metacommunities evolve? Using a two-resource competition model, we studied the evolution of resource-uptake specialisation as a function of resource type (substitutable to essential) and shape of the trade-off between resource uptake affinities (generalist- to specialist-favouring). In spatially homogeneous environments, evolutionarily stable coexistence of consumers is only possible for sufficiently substitutable resources and specialist-favouring trade-offs. Remarkably, these same conditions yield comparatively low diversity in heterogeneous environments, because they promote sympatric evolution of two opposite resource specialists that, together, monopolise the two resources everywhere. Consumer diversity is instead maximised for intermediate trade-offs and clearly substitutable or clearly essential resources, where evolved metacommunities are characterised by contrasting selection regimes. Taken together, our results present new insights into resource-competition-mediated evolutionarily stable diversity in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments, which should be applicable to a wide range of systems.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Ecologia , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Especialização
12.
Ecol Lett ; 22(11): 1879-1888, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468661

RESUMO

Species simultaneously compete with and facilitate one another. Size can mediate transitions along this competition-facilitation continuum, but the consequences for demography are unclear. We orthogonally manipulated the size of a focal species, and the size and density of a heterospecific neighbour, in the field using a model marine system. We then parameterised a size-structured population model with our experimental data. We found that heterospecific size and density interactively altered the population dynamics of the focal species. Size determined whether heterospecifics facilitated (when small) or competed with (when large) the focal species, while density strengthened these interactions. Such size-mediated interactions also altered the pace of the focal's life history. We provide the first demonstration that size and density mediate competition and facilitation from a population dynamical perspective. We suspect such effects are ubiquitous, but currently underappreciated. We reiterate classic cautions against inferences about competitive hierarchies made in the absence of size-specific data.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 158(3-4): 126-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416319

RESUMO

The shift in fertility to higher ages over the last few decades represents one of the most distinctive features of reproductive behaviour in Czechia. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the process of fertility postponement in the European context and assessment of the Czech situation. While the fertility postponement is a universal trend in developed countries, significant differences are evident between European countries in terms of both the commencement and speed of postponement concerning the mean age of mothers at first birth. The article also discusses the main factors that influence the fertility postponement. While at the beginning of the 1990s Czech first-time mothers were among the youngest in the worlds developed countries, during the 1990s Czech women experienced one of the most rapid increases in the mean age of first birth. Nevertheless, in the European context Czechia continues to have slightly younger first-time mothers (28.2 years in 2016, 0.8 years younger than the EU average). It also appears that currently no direct correlation is evident with concern to the mean age of mothers at first birth and the total fertility rate.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Fertilidade , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20170793, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411252

RESUMO

Genypterus brasiliensis, a demersal fish of large size (1.3 m of total length), occurs in the southwest Atlantic (23 to 38oS) and well appreciated due to the quality of its flesh. It was analyzed through longline and trawl fisheries, and the average length and weight of 724 specimens were significantly different between them, with the biggest and heaviest specimens caught by the former. The weight-length relationships were significantly different based upon sex: females Wt=4x10-7Lt3.3799; r2=0.97; n=262; p<0.001, and males: Wt=4x10-7Lt3.3886; r2=0.95; n=190; p<0.001. Using the otoliths readings for 153 specimens (APE of 2% and CV of 4.2%), the growth parameters estimates reveal statistical differences between sexes (p=0.05; r2=0.889). The fisheries were composed of individuals aged 1 to 13 (females) and 1 to 14 years old (males), with ring formation in late spring. The back calculated parameters (VBGF) were: Loo=1,452.38 mm, K=0.0996, t0=-0.2757 yr-1 (females) and Loo=983.07 mm, K=0.155, t0=-0.236 yr-1 (males), and longevity as 29.8 and 19.1 years old, respectively. The low biological production allied to the slow growth and a late complete maturation and its endemism, allow classify G. brasiliensis as a vulnerable resource, jeopardizing a sustainable fishery. Until reliable quantitative biological data are available, precautionary management must be considered.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Brasil , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Membrana dos Otólitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 1271-1281, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466207

RESUMO

Although it is widely known that dams can have large impacts on the environmental and biological characteristics of downstream rivers, there is a substantial lack of studies focusing on which ecological processes cause longitudinal changes in biological communities downstream of reservoirs. We investigated longitudinal patterns in the total beta diversity and its replacement and richness difference components for actively (fish) and passively (phytoplankton) dispersing biological groups. Our results, obtained from a 230 km sampling stretch, demonstrated the key role played by tributaries in the downstream direction from main river impoundment, which influenced local environmental conditions and beta diversity patterns of each biological group. Both replacement and richness difference contributed to high values of total beta diversity for fish (average = 0.77) and phytoplankton (average = 0.79), but their relative importance was more associated with the replacement component for both biological groups (average = 0.45 and 0.52, respectively). Moreover, we observed clear differences between fish and phytoplankton in beta diversity patterns operating at small and broad scales, as well as in the mechanisms driving each beta diversity component. Directional dispersal-related processes and environmental filtering played a major role in shaping total beta diversity and its components for fish, while temporal factors explained considerable parts of phytoplankton beta diversity. Our findings contributed to understanding of tributary-induced heterogeneity and highlight the importance of dam-free stretches of rivers for preserving the integrity of dammed river basins.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Rios/química , Animais , Biota , Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Fitoplâncton , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 64-74, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395207

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the mite fauna and their ecological interactions in commercial laying hen farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It was conducted from August 2013 through August 2014 with two sampling strategies (feathers and traps) in three different production systems: automated (A1,2,3), semi-automated (S1,2) and free-range (FR). A total of 38,383 mites were collected belonging to 23 families and 33 species, most of which were collected in feathers (74%) followed by traps (26%). There was higher abundance at S1 (10,774-28.1%) and S2 (11,023-28.7%) followed by FR (6972-18.2%), A1 (1896-4.9%), A2 (4775-12.4%), and A3 (2943-7.7%). Higher richness was observed at S1 (23 species), S2 (18 species), and FR (19 species). Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin) (Analgidae) was the species with the highest health importance, eudominant on feathers, and its populations seems to be related with increased temperature. Tuccioglyphus setosus Horn et al. (Pyroglyphidae) seems to be influenced by relative air humidity and temperature. Predators with the highest populations were Cheyletus malaccensis (Oudemans) (Cheyletidae), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt) (Phytoseiidae), Blattisocius keegani (Fox), and Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese) (Blattisocidae).


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Galinhas , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/classificação , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores de Risco
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190325, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460594

RESUMO

The West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees have a sympatric occurrence at the mouth of the Amazon River. A result of this interspecific encounter is the occurrence of hybrids, which are frequently found along the coasts of Amapá state in Brazil, French Guiana and Guyana. Here we present new genetic evidence indicating the occurrence of a hybrid swarm along the Guianas Shield coastline, which is an interspecific hybrid zone that also separates T. manatus populations located east (Brazil) and west (Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Antilles). In addition, we suggest that this hybrid population occupies a peculiar mangrove-rich environment under strong influence of the Amazon River plume, which requires an independent management and should be considered a special conservation area.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Hibridização Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trichechus inunguis/genética , Trichechus manatus/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Guiana , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Trichechus inunguis/fisiologia , Trichechus manatus/fisiologia
18.
Oecologia ; 190(3): 703-714, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292715

RESUMO

Increasing temperatures can drive changes in the distribution and abundance of insects. The time of year when warming occurs (e.g., spring vs. autumn) may disparately influence the phenology of herbivorous insects and their host plants. We investigated the role of changing phenology in recent outbreaks of larch casebearer, an invasive defoliator of eastern larch in North America. We quantified degree-days required for eastern larch to break bud and larch casebearer to develop through each life stage from the onset of development in spring to autumnal dormancy. We developed degree-day models to reconstruct (1) spring phenological synchrony and (2) cumulative proportion of larvae reaching the overwintering stage based on historical climate data. The consequences of warmer autumns and winters (i.e., pre-spring warming) for the incidence and timing of spring activation of larvae were also investigated. Our results suggested that no significant changes have occurred in spring phenological synchrony, but the estimated proportions of larvae reaching the overwintering stage have significantly increased through time. Autumnal warming resulted in delayed spring activation, suggesting that warmer temperatures may act antagonistically on casebearer development, depending on time of year and intensity of warming. Our results provide evidence that increases in annual degree-day accumulation may have helped facilitate recent outbreaks of this invasive defoliator in North America.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Animais , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Oecologia ; 191(1): 83-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332519

RESUMO

Predators and parasites have been important extrinsic factors influencing the fluctuation of small mammal populations. They can have non-additive effects on a shared group of preys or hosts, which can have important consequences for population dynamics. However, experimental studies incorporating the interactions between predation and parasites are scarce in small mammal populations. Here we systematically examined the synergistic effects of predators and coccidian parasites interaction on overwinter survival and likely mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects in the root vole (Microtus oeconomus). Our aim was to test the general hypothesis that predators and coccidia interact synergistically to decrease overwinter survival of root voles through mediating vole's physiological traits and body conditions. We carried out a factorial experimental design, by which we manipulated the predator exclusion in combination with the parasitic removal in enclosures, and then measured fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) levels, immunocompetence, and body conditions in captured animals via repeated live trapping. We found a strong negative synergistic effect of predators and coccidia on survival. Importantly, we found that predators increased both the prevalence and intensity of coccidian infection in voles through immune suppression induced by predation stress, while increased coccidian infection reduced plasma protein and hematocrit level of voles, which may impair anti-predator ability of voles and lead to an increase in predation. Our finding showed when voles are exposed to both predation risk and infection, their synergistic effects greatly reduce overwinter survival and population density. This may be an important mechanism influencing population dynamics in small mammals.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Parasitos , Animais , Corticosterona , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 151, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allopatric speciation has played a particularly important role in archipelagic settings where populations evolve in isolation after colonizing different islands. The Indo-Australasian island realm is an unparalleled natural laboratory of biotic diversification. Here we explore how the level of earth-historic isolation has influenced genetic differentiation across the region by investigating phylogeographic patterns in the Pitta sordida species complex. RESULTS: We generated a de novo genome and compared population genomics of 29 individuals of Pitta sordida from the entire distributional range and we reconstructed phylogenetic relationship using mitogenomes, a multi-nuclear gene dataset and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found deep divergence between an eastern and a western group of taxa across Indo-Australasia. Within both groups we have identified major lineages that are geographically separated into Philippines, Borneo, western Sundaland, and New Guinea, respectively. Although these lineages are genetically well-differentiated, suggesting a long-term isolation, there are signatures of extensive gene flow within each lineage throughout the Pleistocene, despite the wide geographic range occupied by some of them. We found little evidence of hybridization or introgression among the studied taxa, but forsteni from Sulawesi makes an exception. This individual, belonging to the eastern clade, is genetically admixed between the western and eastern clades. Geographically this makes sense as Sulawesi is not far from Borneo that houses a population of hooded pittas that belongs to the western clade. CONCLUSIONS: We found that geological vicariance events cannot explain the current genetic differentiation in the Pitta sordida species complex. Instead, the glacial-interglacial cycles may have played a major role therein. During glacials the sea level could be up to 120 m lower than today and land bridges formed within both the Sunda Shelf and the Sahul Shelf permitting dispersal of floral and faunal elements. The geographic distribution of hooded pittas shows the importance of overwater, "stepping-stone" dispersals not only to deep-sea islands, but also from one shelf to the other. The most parsimonious hypothesis is an Asian ancestral home of the Pitta sordida species complex and a colonization from west to east, probably via Wallacea.


Assuntos
Terra (Planeta) , Genoma , Ilhas , Passeriformes/genética , Animais , Austrália , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Índia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
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