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1.
Issues Law Med ; 39(1): 66-75, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771715

RESUMO

Background: A previous Danish study of monthly and tri-monthly rates of first-time psychiatric contact following first induced abortions reported higher rates compared to first live births but similar rates compared to nine months pre-abortion. Therefore, the researchers concluded abortion has no independent effect on mental health; any differences between psychiatric contacts after abortion and delivery are entirely attributable to pre-existing mental health differences. However, these conclusions are inconsistent with similar studies that used longer time frames. Reanalysis of the published Danish data over slightly longer time frames may reconcile this discordance. Method: Monthly and tri-monthly data was extracted for reanalysis of cumulative effects over nine- and twelvemonths post-abortion. Results: Across all psychiatric diagnoses, cumulative average monthly rate of first-time psychiatric contact increased from an odds ratio of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.22) at 9-months to 1.49 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.63) at 12 months post-abortion as compared to the 9 months pre-abortion rate. At 12 months post-abortion, first-time psychiatric contact was higher across all four diagnostic groupings and highest for personality or behavioral disorders (OR=1.87; 95% CI:1.48 to 2.36) and neurotic, stress related, or somatoform disorders (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.41 to 1.81). Conclusions: Our reanalysis revealed that the Danish data is consistent with the larger body of both record-based and survey- based studies when viewed over periods of observation of at least nine months. Longer periods of observation are necessary to capture both anniversary reactions and the exhaustion of coping mechanisms which may delay observation of post-abortion effects.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Transtornos Mentais , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Adulto
2.
Neurology ; 102(12): e209442, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few population-based studies have assessed associations between the use of antithrombotic (platelet antiaggregant or anticoagulant) drugs and location-specific risks of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (s-ICH). In this study, we estimated associations between antithrombotic drug use and the risk of lobar vs nonlobar incident s-ICH. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified cases in the Southern Denmark Region of first-ever s-ICH in patients aged 50 years or older between 2009 and 2018. Each verified case was classified as lobar or nonlobar s-ICH and matched to controls in the general population by age, sex, and calendar year. Prior antithrombotic use was ascertained from a nationwide prescription registry. We calculated odds ratios (aORs) for associations between the use of clopidogrel, aspirin, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and lobar and nonlobar ICH in conditional logistic regression analyses that were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 1,040 cases of lobar (47.9% men, mean age [SD] 75.2 [10.7] years) and 1,263 cases of nonlobar s-ICH (54.2% men, mean age 73.6 [11.4] years) were matched to 41,651 and 50,574 controls, respectively. A stronger association with lobar s-ICH was found for clopidogrel (cases: 7.6%, controls: 3.5%; aOR 3.46 [95% CI 2.45-4.89]) vs aspirin (cases: 22.9%, controls: 20.4%; aOR 2.14 [1.74-2.63; p = 0.019). Corresponding estimates for nonlobar s-ICH were not different between clopidogrel (cases: 5.4%, controls: 3.4%; aOR 2.44 [1.71-3.49]) and aspirin (cases: 20.7%, controls: 19.2%; aOR 1.77 [1.47-2.15]; p = 0.12). VKA use was associated with higher odds of both lobar (cases: 14.3%, controls: 6.1%; aOR 3.66 [2.78-4.80]) and nonlobar (cases: 15.4%, controls: 5.5%; aOR 4.62 [3.67-5.82]) s-ICH. The association of DOAC use with lobar s-ICH (cases: 3.5%, controls: 2.7%; aOR 1.66 [1.02-2.70]) was weaker than that of VKA use (p = 0.006). Corresponding estimates for nonlobar s-ICH were not different between DOACs (cases: 5.1%, controls: 2.4%; aOR 3.44 [2.33-5.08]) and VKAs (p = 0.20). DISCUSSION: Antithrombotics were associated with higher risks of s-ICH, but the strength of the associations varied by s-ICH location and drug, which may reflect differences in the cerebral microangiopathies associated with lobar vs nonlobar hemorrhages and the mechanisms of drug action.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral , Fibrinolíticos , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Incidência
3.
Acta Oncol ; 63: 277-287, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary metastatic breast cancer (pMBC) accounts for 5-10% of annual breast cancers with a median survival of 3-4 years, varying among subtypes. In Denmark, the incidence of breast cancer increased until 2010, followed by a stabilisation. Several factors influencing pMBC incidence and survival, including screening prevalence, staging methods, and classification standards, remain pivotal but inadequately documented. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective observational study involving pMBC patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2020 encompassed all Danish oncology departments. Data from the Danish Breast Cancer Group database and the National Patient Register included diagnosis specifics, demographics, treatment, and follow-up. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2020, 3,272 patients were diagnosed with pMBC, a rise from 355 patients in 2000-2004 to 1,323 patients in 2015-2020. The increase was particularly observed in patients aged 70 years or older. Changes in tumour subtypes were observed, notably with a rise in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive cases but a steady distribution of estrogen receptor (ER) status. Diagnostic practices changed over the two decades, with 6% evaluated with PET/CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) or CT (computed tomography) with a bone evaluation in 2000-2004 and 65% in 2015-2020. Overall survival (OS) improved from 23 months in 2000-2004 to 33 months in 2015-2020. In patients with ER-positive and HER2-positive disease, the multivariable model showed improved survival by year of diagnosis, and further, patients with ER-negative/HER2-negative disease fared worse the first 2 years after diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Our study delineates changes in the treatment and survival of pMBC over two decades. Stage migration, screening introduction, and changes in registration practice, however, prevent a valid assessment of a possible causal relationship.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incidência , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Metástase Neoplásica , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/análise
4.
Acta Oncol ; 63: 339-342, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been marked progress against lung cancer in Denmark. To gain further insight into the different aspects of the improvement, we examined the stage-specific incidence rates, stage-specific survival and mortality rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used information from the Danish Lung Cancer Registry on date of diagnosis and clinical stage to calculate age-standardised incidence rates and patient survival by sex, period and stage. Information about age-standardised lung cancer-specific mortality rates by sex and period was extracted from The Danish Health Data Authority. RESULTS: Firstly, the decrease in incidence rates was due to a reduction in the rates of advanced stages. Secondly, there was a gradual increase in survival across all stages, and thirdly, the mortality rates gradually decreased over time. INTERPRETATION: The improvements in survival and mortality from lung cancer were due to decreasing incidence rates of advanced cancer and improvement in survival at all stages of the disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Incidência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 165, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contributions of low-grade inflammation measured by C-reactive protein (CRP), hyperglycaemia, and type 2 diabetes to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) death in the general population, and whether hyperglycaemia and high CRP are causally related. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Observational and bidirectional, one-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in 112,815 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and bidirectional, two-sample MR with summary level data from two publicly available consortia, CHARGE and MAGIC. RESULTS: Observationally, higher plasma CRP was associated with stepwise higher risk of IHD and CVD death, with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of 1.50 (1.38, 1.62) and 2.44 (1.93, 3.10) in individuals with the 20% highest CRP concentrations. The corresponding hazard ratios for elevated plasma glucose were 1.10 (1.02, 1.18) and 1.22 (1.01, 1.49), respectively. Cumulative incidences of IHD and CVD death were 365% and 592% higher, respectively, in individuals with both type 2 diabetes and plasma CRP ≥ 2 mg/L compared to individuals without either. Plasma CRP and glucose were observationally associated (ß-coefficient: 0.02 (0.02, 0.03), p = 3 × 10- 20); however, one- and two-sample MR did not support a causal effect of CRP on glucose (-0.04 (-0.12, 0.32) and - 0.03 (-0.13, 0.06)), nor of glucose on CRP (-0.01 (-0.08, 0.07) and - 0.00 (-0.14, 0.13)). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated concentrations of plasma CRP and glucose are predictors of IHD and CVD death in the general population. We found no genetic association between CRP and glucose, or vice versa, suggesting that lowering glucose pharmacologically does not have a direct effect on low-grade inflammation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Proteína C-Reativa , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Hiperglicemia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/mortalidade , Hiperglicemia/genética , Medição de Risco , Glicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incidência , Regulação para Cima , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Idoso , Prognóstico , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Risco
6.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(17)2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704708

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is transmitted by sandflies and involves cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral disease. Sporadic, imported cases in Denmark emphasize the need for greater awareness. The incidence is stable with at least ten verified cases per year. Diagnostic methods include PCR- and antibody tests with a high positivity rate for PCR (17%) and a low positivity rate for antibody (1.4%). The latter should be used only when visceral disease is suspected. Immunosuppressed patients are at particular risk. Treatment strategies are chosen according to the severity of the condition, as argued in this review.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Humanos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico
7.
Acta Oncol ; 63: 294-302, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival of children with cancer has markedly improved over recent decades, largely due to intensified treatment regimes. The intensive treatment may, however, result in fatal complications. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed temporal variation in the incidence of treatment-related death and associated risk factors among children diagnosed with cancer in Denmark during 2001-2021. METHOD: Among all children diagnosed with first incident cancer before age 15 years recorded in the Danish Childhood Cancer Register (n = 3,255), we estimated cumulative incidence of treatment-related death (death in the absence of progressive cancer) within 5 years from diagnosis using Aalen-Johansen estimators and assessed associated risk factors using Cox regression. RESULTS: Among all 3,255 children with cancer, 93 (20% of all 459 deaths) died from treatment. Of these treatment-related deaths, 39 (42%) occurred within 3 months of diagnosis. The 5-year cumulative incidences of treatment-related death were 3.3% during 2001-2010 and 2.5% during 2011-2021 (p = 0.20). During 2011-2021, treatment-related deaths accounted for more than half of all deaths among children with haematological cancers. Risk factors varied according to cancer group and included female sex, age below 1 year at diagnosis, disease relapse, stem cell transplantation, central nervous system involvement, and metastasis at diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Despite increasing treatment intensities, the incidence of treatment-related death has remained stable during the past 20 years in Denmark. Still, clinical attention is warranted to prevent treatment-related deaths, particularly among children with haematological cancers. Patient characteristics associated with increased treatment-related death risk support patient-specific treatment approaches to avoid these fatalities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Incidência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38070, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728490

RESUMO

This study used demographic data in a novel prediction model to identify areas with high risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in order to target prehospital preparedness. We combined data from the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry with geographical- and demographic data on a hectare level. Hectares were classified in a hierarchy according to characteristics and pooled to square kilometers (km2). Historical OHCA incidence of each hectare group was supplemented with a predicted annual risk of at least 1 OHCA to ensure future applicability. We recorded 19,090 valid OHCAs during 2016 to 2019. The mean annual OHCA rate was highest in residential areas with no point of public interest and 100 to 1000 residents per hectare (9.7/year/km2) followed by pedestrian streets with multiple shops (5.8/year/km2), areas with no point of public interest and 50 to 100 residents (5.5/year/km2), and malls with a mean annual incidence per km2 of 4.6. Other high incidence areas were public transport stations, schools and areas without a point of public interest and 10 to 50 residents. These areas combined constitute 1496 km2 annually corresponding to 3.4% of the total area of Denmark and account for 65% of the OHCA incidence. Our prediction model confirms these areas to be of high risk and outperforms simple previous incidence in identifying future risk-sites. Two thirds of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were identified in only 3.4% of the area of Denmark. This area was easily identified as having multiple residents or having airports, malls, pedestrian shopping streets or schools. This result has important implications for targeted intervention such as automatic defibrillators available to the public. Further, demographic information should be considered when implementing such interventions.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incidência , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Previsões , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249291, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691357

RESUMO

Importance: Becoming a first-time parent is a major life-changing event and can be challenging regardless of the pregnancy outcome. However, little is known how different adverse pregnancy outcomes affect the father's risk of psychiatric treatment post partum. Objective: To examine the associations of adverse pregnancy outcomes with first-time psychiatric treatment in first-time fathers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study covered January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2017, with a 1-year follow-up completed December 31, 2018. Data were gathered from Danish, nationwide registers. Participants included first-time fathers with no history of psychiatric treatment. Data were analyzed from August 1, 2022, to February 20, 2024. Exposures: Adverse pregnancy outcomes including induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, small for gestational age (SGA) and not preterm, preterm with or without SGA, minor congenital malformation, major congenital malformation, and congenital malformation combined with SGA or preterm compared with a full-term healthy offspring. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prescription of psychotropic drugs, nonpharmacological psychiatric treatment, or having a psychiatric hospital contact up to 1 year after the end of the pregnancy. Results: Of the 192 455 fathers included (median age, 30.0 [IQR, 27.0-34.0] years), 31.1% experienced an adverse pregnancy outcome. Most of the fathers in the study had a vocational educational level (37.1%). Fathers experiencing a stillbirth had a significantly increased risk of initiating nonpharmacological psychiatric treatment (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 23.10 [95% CI, 18.30-29.20]) and treatment with hypnotics (AHR, 9.08 [95% CI, 5.52-14.90]). Moreover, fathers experiencing an early induced abortion (≤12 wk) had an increased risk of initiating treatment with hypnotics (AHR, 1.74 [95% CI, 1.33-2.29]) and anxiolytics (AHR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.18-2.73]). Additionally, late induced abortion (>12 wk) (AHR, 4.46 [95% CI, 3.13-6.38]) and major congenital malformation (AHR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.05-1.74]) were associated with increased risk of nonpharmacological treatment. In contrast, fathers having an offspring being born preterm, SGA, or with a minor congenital malformation did not have a significantly increased risk of any of the outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this Danish cohort study suggest that first-time fathers who experience stillbirths or induced abortions or having an offspring with major congenital malformation had an increased risk of initiating pharmacological or nonpharmacological psychiatric treatment. These findings further suggest a need for increased awareness around the psychological state of fathers following the experience of adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Pai , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Pai/psicologia , Adulto , Masculino , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Natimorto/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Sistema de Registros , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/psicologia
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249186, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691358

RESUMO

Importance: The past several decades have witnessed substantial changes in treatments that are particularly relevant for older patients. Objectives: To assess changes in national-level incidence rates of fracture- and musculoskeletal-related (ie, arthritis-related) hip replacement procedures for individuals aged 40 to 104 years over a 23-year period in Denmark. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used national Danish health registers to include the Danish population aged 40 to 104 years from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2018. Data were analyzed from May 31, 2022, to February 14, 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age- and period-specific incidence rates of hip fracture and hip replacement stratified on fracture-related vs arthritis-related indication. Results: From 1996 to 2018, a total of 3 664 979 individuals were followed up for a mean (SD) of 14.6 (7.7) years, resulting in a follow-up time of 53 517 861 person-years and 158 982 (first) hip fractures, of which 42 825 involved fracture-related hip replacement procedures. A further 104 422 individuals underwent arthritis-related hip replacement. During the first 2 decades of the 21st century, hip fracture rates declined by 35% to 40% for individuals aged 70 to 104 years, and the proportion of the population undergoing fracture-related hip replacement increased by 50% to 70%, with modest variation across those aged 75 to 99 years. Rates of arthritis-related hip replacements peaked for individuals aged 75 to 79 years, but with the largest relative rate increase (75%-100%) occurring for those aged 80 to 94 years, primarily from 2001 to 2015, whereafter it remained nearly unchanged. The decline in rates of arthritis-related hip replacement after 75 to 79 years of age was gradual and did not suggest an upper age limit for access to arthritis-related hip replacement. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that during the past several decades in Denmark, the incidence of hip fractures declined by 35% to 40% among patients aged 80 to 104 years, while the proportion receiving fracture-related hip replacement remained relatively constant after 75 years of age. During the first decades of the 21st century, arthritis-related hip replacement incidence increased by 50% to 100% among older patients and stabilized hereafter, with no apparent cutoff age for this type of procedure. These patterns indicate a positive overall trend with declining hip fracture incidence over the last decades in Denmark, and the observed hip replacement incidence suggests that age is currently not a major determining factor guiding this type of surgery.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Fraturas do Quadril , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia de Quadril/tendências , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Idoso , Incidência , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1164-1172, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781925

RESUMO

As a follow-up to a previous study, we investigated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among 1,254,498 persons >65 years of age as part of a vaccination program in Denmark during April 2020-January 2023. We assessed VE by using a Cox regression model and adjusted for age, sex, and underlying conditions. Using nationwide data, we estimated a VE of PPSV23 against all-type IPD of 32% and against PPSV23-serotype IPD of 41%. Because this follow-up study had more statistical power than the original study, we also estimated VE against IPD caused by PPSV23-serotypes excluding serotype 3; serotype 3; serotype 8; serotype 22F; PPSV23 non-PCV15 serotypes; PPSV23 non-PCV20 serotypes; and IPD over time. Our findings suggest PPSV23 vaccination can protect persons >65 years of age against IPD caused by all serotypes or serotype groupings, except serotype 3.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humanos , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Seguimentos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eficácia de Vacinas , Vacinação
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078558, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719280

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AASs) among recreational athletes is steadily increasing. However, knowledge regarding the potentially harmful effects of AAS primarily originates from case reports and small observational studies. This large-scale study aims to investigate the impact of AAS use on vascular plaque formation, preclinical coronary disease, cardiac function, circulating cardiovascular risk markers, quality of life (QoL) and mental health in a broad population of illicit AAS users. METHODS AND ANALYSES: A nationwide cross-sectional cohort study including a diverse population of men and women aged ≥18 years, with current or previous illicit AAS use for at least 3 months. Conducted at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, the study comprises two parts. In part A (the pilot study), 120 recreational athletes with an AAS history will be compared with a sex-matched and age-matched control population of 60 recreational athletes with no previous AAS use. Cardiovascular outcomes include examination of non-calcified coronary plaque volume and calcium score using coronary CT angiography, myocardial structure and function via echocardiography, and assessing carotid and femoral artery plaques using ultrasonography. Retinal microvascular status is evaluated through fundus photography. Cardiovascular risk markers are measured in blood. Mental health outcomes include health-related QoL, interpersonal difficulties, body image concerns, aggression dimensions, anxiety symptoms, depressive severity and cognitive function assessed through validated questionnaires. The findings of our comprehensive study will be used to compose a less intensive investigatory cohort study of cardiovascular and mental health (part B) involving a larger group of recreational athletes with a history of illicit AAS use. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received approval from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark (S-20210078) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (21/28259). All participants will provide signed informed consent. Research outcomes will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05178537.


Assuntos
Atletas , Dopagem Esportivo , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Atletas/psicologia , Adulto , Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Esteróides Androgênicos Anabolizantes
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e087799, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To follow SARS-CoV-2-infected persons up to 18 months after a positive test in order to assess the burden and nature of post acute symptoms and health problems. PARTICIPANTS: Persons in Denmark above 15 years of age, who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during 1 September 2020 to 21 February 2023 using a RT-PCR test. As a reference group, three test-negative individuals were selected for every two test-positive individuals by matching on test date. FINDINGS TO DATE: In total, 2 427 913 invitations to baseline questionnaires have been sent out and 839 528 baseline questionnaires (34.5%) have been completed. Females, the age group 50-69 years, Danish-born and persons, who had received at least one SARS-CoV-2 vaccination booster dose were more likely to participate. Follow-up questionnaires were sent at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after the test, with response rates at 42%-54%. FUTURE PLANS: New participants have been recruited on a daily basis from 1 August 2021 to 23 March 2023. Data collection will continue until the last follow-up questionnaires (at 18 months after test) have been distributed in August 2024.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Idoso , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Estudos de Coortes , Pandemias , Adolescente , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem
14.
J Diabetes Complications ; 38(6): 108761, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based prevalence estimates of distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DPN) and diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) are scares. Here we present neuropathy estimates and describe their overlap in a large cohort of people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a large population of outpatient participants, DPN was assessed using vibration perception threshold, sural nerve function, touch, pain and thermal sensation. Definite DPN was defined by the Toronto Consensus Criteria. Painful DPN was defined by Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions. DAN measures were: cardiovascular reflex tests, electrochemical skin conductance, and gastroparesis cardinal symptom index. RESULTS: We included 822 individuals with type 1 (mean age (±SD) 54 ± 16 years, median [IQR] diabetes duration 26 [15-40] years) and 899 with type 2 diabetes (mean age 67 ± 11 years, median diabetes duration 16 [11-22] years). Definite DPN was prevalent in 54 % and 68 %, and painful DPN was in 5 % and 15 % of type 1 and type 2 participants, respectively. The prevalence of DAN varied between 6 and 39 % for type 1 and 9-49 % for type 2 diabetes. DPN without other neuropathy was present in 45 % with T1D and 50 % with T2D. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DPN and DAN was high. DPN and DAN co-existed in only 50 % of cases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Acta Oncol ; 63: 303-312, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stage at cancer diagnosis is an important predictor of cancer survival. TNM stage is constructed for anatomic solid cancer diagnoses from tumor size (T), nodal spread (N) and distant metastasis (M) and categorized in groups 0-I, II, II and IV. TNM stage is imperative in cancer diagnosis, management and control, and of high value in cancer surveillance, for example, monitoring of stage distributions. This study yields an overview of TNM availability and trends in stage distribution in the Nordic countries for future use in monitoring and epidemiologic studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: TNM information was acquired from the cancer registries in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland during 2004-2016 for 26 cancer sites in the three former countries and four in Iceland. We studied availability, comparability, and distribution of TNM stage in three periods: 2004-2008, 2009-2013, and 2014-2016, applying a previously validated algorithm of 'N0M0 for NXMX'. For cancers of colon, rectum, lung, breast, and kidney, we examined TNM stage-specific 1-year relative survival to evaluate the quality in registration of TNM between countries. RESULTS: Denmark, Sweden, and Iceland exhibited available TNM stage proportions of 75-95% while proportions were lower in Norway. Proportions increased in Sweden over time but decreased in Denmark. One-year relative survival differed substantially more between TNM stages than between countries emphasizing that TNM stage is an important predictor for survival and that stage recording is performed similarly in the Nordic countries. INTERPRETATION: Assessment and registration of TNM stage is an imperative tool in evaluations of trends in cancer survival between the Nordic countries.


Assuntos
Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Islândia/epidemiologia
16.
J Diabetes Complications ; 38(6): 108765, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This post-hoc study investigated whether biomarkers reflecting extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality, and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria. METHODS: Serum levels of specific ECM turnover biomarkers were assessed in 192 participants with T2D and microalbuminuria from an observational study conducted at Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen from 2007 to 2008. Endpoints included CVD events, mortality, and DKD progression, defined as decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of >30 %. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 59 years, with 75 % males. Over a median follow-up of 4.9 to 6.3 years, the study recorded 38 CVD events, 24 deaths, and 40 DKD events. Elevated levels of a degradation fragment of collagen type I (C1M) were associated with an increased risk of >30 % eGFR decline, although this association was not independent of other risk factors. No significant associations were found between other ECM turnover biomarkers and DKD progression, mortality, or CVD risk. CONCLUSION: Elevated C1M levels were linked to DKD progression in individuals with T2D and microalbuminuria, but not independently of other risk factors. None of the ECM turnover biomarkers were associated with CVD or mortality.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Albuminúria/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Idoso , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Seguimentos
17.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e076640, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a risk assessment model (DAnish REgister Ischaemic Stroke Classifier, DARE-ISC) for predicting 1-year primary ischaemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) in the general population. Secondly, to validate the accuracy DARE-ISC in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients where well-established models and risk scores exist. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DARE-ISC was developed using gradient boosting decision trees with information from 375 covariates including baseline information on relevant diagnoses, demographic characteristics, registered health-services, lifestyle-related covariates, hereditary stroke components, drug prescriptions and stress proxies. SETTING: Danish nationwide registries. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish individuals aged ≥18 from 2010 to 2017 (n=35 519 348 person-years). The model was trained on the 2010-2016 cohorts with validation in the 2017 cohort. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Model optimisation and validation were performed through comparison of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and average precision scores. Additionally, the relative importance of the model covariates was derived using SHAP values. RESULTS: DARE-ISC had an AUC (95% CI) of 0.874 (0.871 to 0.876) in the general population. In AF patients, DARE-ISC was superior to the GARFIELD-AF risk model and CHA2DS2-VASc score with AUC of 0.779 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.806), 0.704 (95% CI 0.674 to 0.732) and 0.681 (95% CI 0.652 to 0.709), respectively. Furthermore, in AF patients, DARE-ISC had an average threefold and fourfold higher ratio of correctly identified strokes compared with the GARFIELD-AF risk model and CHA2DS2-VASc score, as indicated by average precision scores of 0.119, 0.041 and 0.034, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DARE-ISC had a very high stroke prediction accuracy in the general population and was superior to the GARFIELD-AF risk model and CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting ischaemic stroke/SE in AF patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , AVC Isquêmico , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Medição de Risco/métodos , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Curva ROC , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 71(7): e31024, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Childhood spinal tumors often present with musculoskeletal symptoms, potentially causing a misdiagnosis and delays in diagnosis and treatment. This study aims to identify, characterize, and compare children with spinal tumors who had prior musculoskeletal misdiagnoses to those without, analyzing clinical presentation, diagnostic interval, and outcome. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study evaluated all children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with a spinal tumor in Denmark from 1996 to 2018. The cohort was identified through the Danish Childhood Cancer Registry, and the registry data were supplemented with data from medical records. The survival was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Among 58 patients, 57% (33/58) received musculoskeletal misdiagnoses before the spinal tumor diagnosis. Misdiagnoses were mostly nonspecific (64%, 21/33), involving pain and accidental lesions, while 36% (12/33) were rheumatologic diagnoses. The patients with prior misdiagnosis had less aggressive tumors, fewer neurological/general symptoms, and 5.5 months median diagnostic interval versus 3 months for those without a misdiagnosis. Those with prior misdiagnoses tended to have a higher 5-year survival of 83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 63%-92%) compared to 66% (95% CI: 44%-82%) for those without (p = .15). CONCLUSION: Less aggressive spinal tumors may manifest as gradual skeletal abnormalities and musculoskeletal symptoms without neurological/general symptoms, leading to misdiagnoses and delays.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lactente , Adolescente , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/mortalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Sistema de Registros , Prognóstico , Seguimentos
19.
Dan Med J ; 71(5)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of long-term isolation on the mental state of Danish youth. This study aimed to investigate trends in paracetamol overdoses among people under 18 years of age in Denmark during Covid-19 restrictions as an indicator of mental health. METHODS: All patients under the age of 18 years presenting with paracetamol overdose at one of the 18 paediatric departments in Denmark from 2016 to 2021 were included. They were identified in all Danish hospital databases using specific diagnostic codes. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2021, a total of 3,217 people under 18 years of age were admitted for paracetamol overdose. Among these, 86% (n = 2,755) were girls and 14% (n = 462) were boys. During 2020, a slight (7%) decrease in admissions was observed among both boys and girls compared with the preceding four-year mean value. In 2021, the number of overdoses among girls exceeded by 35% the former all-time high from 2016. Furthermore, the number of overdoses among girls exceeded the pre-four-year period mean value by 43%. Among boys, an 8% increase was seen from the highest ever previous value recorded in 2019 and a 23% increase compared with the previous four-year mean value. CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of restrictions, a slight decrease in paracetamol overdoses was observed, possibly associated with limited accessibility. The second year showed a considerable increase in paracetamol overdoses, which may imply an affected mental state among youth during the prolonged lockdown restrictions as seen in previous epidemics. Therefore, further studies are warranted to develop a pandemic preparedness plan to protect general mental health. FUNDING: None. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Analgésicos não Narcóticos , COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acetaminofen/intoxicação , Adolescente , Feminino , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Masculino , Criança , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/intoxicação , Pré-Escolar , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactente
20.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 5(5): e326-e335, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in heart failure care reducing mortality in clinical trials, it remains unclear whether real-life cohorts have had similar improvements in life expectancy across the age spectrum. We aimed to investigate how mortality trends changed in patients with heart failure over the past 25 years, stratified by age groups. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified patients with new-onset heart failure aged 18-95 years. The 5-year all-cause mortality risk and the absolute risk difference of mortality between patients with heart failure and age-matched and sex-matched heart failure-free controls were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariable Cox regression models. Mortality trends were analysed across five calendar periods (1996-2000, 2001-05, 2006-10, 2011-15, and 2016-20) and three age groups (<65 years, 65-79 years, and ≥80 years). FINDINGS: 194 997 patients with heart failure were included. Mortality significantly decreased from 1996-2000 (66% [95% CI 65·5-66·4]) to 2016-20 (43% [42·1-43·4]), with similar results shown in all age groups (<65 years: 35% [33·9-36·1] to 15% [14·6-16·3]; 65-79 years: 64% [63·1-64·5] to 39% [37·6-39·6]; and ≥80 years: 84% [83·1-84·3] to 73% [71·7-73·9]). Adjusted mortality rates supported these associations. The absolute risk difference declined notably in younger age groups (<65 years: 29·9% [28·8-31·0] to 12·7% [12·0-13·4] and 65-79 years: 41·1% [40·3-41·9] to 25·1% [24·4-25·8]), remaining relatively stable in those aged 80 years or older (30·6% [29·9-31·3] to 28% [27·2-28·8]). INTERPRETATION: Over 25 years, there has been a consistent decrease in mortality among patients with heart failure across age groups, albeit less prominently in patients aged 80 years or older. Further insight is needed to identify effective strategies for improving disease burden in older patients with heart failure. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Danish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Idoso , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Fatores Etários , Sistema de Registros
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