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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 131(2): 27001, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence linking residential exposure to transportation noise with several nonauditory health outcomes. However, auditory outcomes, such as tinnitus, are virtually unexplored. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between residential transportation noise and risk of incident tinnitus. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study including all residents in Denmark age ≥30y, of whom 40,692 were diagnosed with tinnitus. We modeled road traffic and railway noise at the most (Ldenmax) and least (Ldenmin) exposed façades of all Danish addresses from 1990 until 2017. For all participants, we calculated 1-, 5-, and 10-y time-weighted mean noise exposure and retrieved detailed information on individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. We conducted analyses using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We found positive associations between exposure to road traffic noise and risk of tinnitus, with hazard ratios of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.08] and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03) per 10-dB increase in 10-y Ldenmin and Ldenmax, respectively. Highest risk estimates were found for women, people without a hearing loss, people with high education and income, and people who had never been in a blue-collar job. The association with road Ldenmin followed a positive, monotonic exposure-response relationship. We found no association between railway noise and tinnitus. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that residential exposure to road traffic noise may increase risk of tinnitus, suggesting noise may negatively affect the auditory system. If confirmed, this finding adds to the growing evidence of road traffic noise as a harmful pollutant with a substantial health burden. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11248.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Zumbido , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Zumbido/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
2.
Acta Orthop ; 94: 32-37, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36727711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The choice between invasive and non-invasive treatment of diaphyseal forearm fractures in children can be difficult. We investigated the trends in choice of treatment of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures over a 20-year period.  Patients and methods: This is a population-based register study with data from 1997 to 2016 retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry. The primary outcome was choice of primary treatment within 1 week divided into non-invasive treatment (casting only or closed reduction including casting) and invasive (Kirshner wires, intramedullary nailing [IMN], and open reduction internal fixation [ORIF]). The secondary outcomes were further sub-analyses on invasive treatment and age groups. RESULTS: 36,244 diaphyseal forearm fractures were investigated, yielding a mean incidence of 172 per 105/year. The proportion of fractures treated invasively increased from 1997 to 2016, from 4% to 23%. The use of Kirschner wires increased from 1% to 9%, IMN increased from 1% to 14%, and ORIF decreased from 2% to 1%. The changes were evident in all age groups but smaller in the 0-3-year age group. CONCLUSION: We found an increase in invasive treatment of pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures over the investigated period. A change in invasive methods was also found, as the rate of IMN increased over the investigated period and became the predominant surgical treatment choice.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Antebraço , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Fraturas do Rádio , Fraturas da Ulna , Humanos , Criança , Antebraço , Fraturas da Ulna/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Ulna/cirurgia , Fraturas do Rádio/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Pinos Ortopédicos , Traumatismos do Antebraço/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Antebraço/cirurgia , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(2): e99-e108, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A socioeconomically disadvantaged childhood has been associated with elevated self-harm and violent criminality risks during adolescence and young adulthood. However, whether these risks are modified by a neighbourhood's socioeconomic profile is unclear. The aim of our study was to compare risks among disadvantaged young people residing in deprived areas versus risks among similarly disadvantaged individuals residing in affluent areas. METHODS: We did a national cohort study, using Danish interlinked national registers, from which we delineated a longitudinal cohort of people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1981, and Dec 31, 2001, with two Danish-born parents, who were alive and residing in the country when they were aged 15 years, who were followed up for a hospital-treated self-harm episode or violent crime conviction. A neighbourhood affluence indicator was derived based on nationwide income quartiles, with parental income and educational attainment indicating the socioeconomic position of each cohort member's family. Bayesian multilevel survival analyses were done to examine the moderating influences of neighbourhood affluence on associations between family socioeconomic position and sex-specific risks for the two adverse outcomes. FINDINGS: 1 084 047 cohort members were followed up for 12·8 million person-years in aggregate. Individuals of a low socioeconomic position residing in deprived neighbourhoods had a higher incidence of both self-harm and violent criminality compared with equivalently disadvantaged peers residing in affluent areas. Women from a low-income background residing in affluent areas had, on average, 95 (highest density interval 76-118) fewer self-harm episodes and 25 (15-41) fewer violent crime convictions per 10 000 person-years compared with women of an equally low income residing in deprived areas, whereas men of a low income residing in affluent areas had 61 (39-81) fewer self-harm episodes and 88 (56-191) fewer violent crime convictions per 10 000 person-years than men of a low income residing in deprived areas. INTERPRETATION: Even in a high-income European country with comprehensive social welfare and low levels of poverty and inequality, individuals residing in affluent neighbourhoods have lower risks of self-harm and violent criminality compared with individuals residing in deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed to explore the potential of neighbourhood policies and interventions to reduce the harmful effects of growing up in socioeconomically deprived circumstances on later risk of self-harm and violent crime convictions. FUNDING: European Research Council, Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, and BERTHA, the Danish Big Data Centre for Environment and Health funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation Challenge Programme.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Pobreza , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
4.
Euro Surveill ; 28(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695451

RESUMO

In the autumn of 2022, Denmark witnessed the second out-of-season epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) following widespread societal preventive measures implemented against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic during 2020 and 2021. Admissions peaked at twice the level of pre-pandemic seasons. Especially infants below 6 months of age were affected, but also adults over 45 years of age. The current epidemic is dominated by RSV subtype B, unlike the major RSV summer epidemic in 2021 dominated by RSV subtype A.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Lactente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Pandemias , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 169, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global estimates suggest strained mental health during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, but the lack of nationally representative and longitudinal data with clinically validated measures limits knowledge longer into the pandemic. METHODS: Data from 10 rounds of nationally representative surveys from Denmark tracked trends in risk of stress/depression from just before the first lockdown and through to April 2022. We focused on age groups and men and women in different living arrangements and controlled for seasonality in mental health that could otherwise be spuriously related to pandemic intensity. RESULTS: Prior to first lockdown, we observed a "parent gap", which closed with the first lockdown. Instead, a gender gap materialized, with women experiencing higher risks than men-and higher than levels predating first lockdown. Older respondents (+ 70 years) experienced increasing risks of stress/depression early in the pandemic, while all other groups experienced decreases. But longer into the pandemic, risks increased for all age groups and reached (and sometimes exceeded) levels from before first lockdown. CONCLUSION: Denmark had low infection rates throughout most of the pandemic, low mortality rates across the entire pandemic, and offered financial aid packages to curb financial strains. Despite this circumstance, initial improvements to mental health during the first lockdown in Denmark were short-lived. Two years of pandemic societal restrictions correspond with deteriorating mental health, as well as a change from a parenthood gap in mental health before first lockdown to a gender gap two years into the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Ansiedade
6.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 17, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 1 January 2018 a four-year test scheme concerning use of medicinal cannabis (MC) was enacted. It has recently been extended for four more years by the Danish Parliament permitting all Danish physicians to prescribe MC to their patients. Previous studies have shown that general practitioners (GPs) have varying prescription experience, little knowledge, and mixed attitudes about MC. However, the present evidence is still limited, and no studies exist about Danish GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC. Therefore, our aim was to examine Danish GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC. METHODS: A national online survey-based study addressing Danish GPs was performed from September 2018 to July 2019. We performed separate multivariable logistic regression analyses including GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC as outcome variables. RESULTS: A total of 427 (38.4%) of 1112 GPs completed the questionnaire. Of these, 37 (8.7%) had experience in prescribing MC. The majority had little or no knowledge about MC (80.6%) as well as a negative view on prescription of MC (71.4%) to patients. Factors associated with prescribing MC to patients were: Single-handed practices (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1;1.8) and perception of having quite some knowledge about MC (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 2.2;10.4). Factors associated with having quite some knowledge about MC were: having a positive attitude towards prescribing MC (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 1.9;14.0), being male (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4;1.8), and being at least 60 years of age (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3;6.0). Factors associated with having a positive attitude towards prescribing MC were: having quite some knowledge about MC (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 2.2;12.5) and GPs being male (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1;1.9). CONCLUSION: In this first study on prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes about MC among Danish GPs, conducted one year after the Danish test scheme was enacted, we find a very low proportion of prescribers, little knowledge, and an overall negative attitude towards MC. Among the prescribing GPs, four in ten have little to no knowledge and a negative attitude towards MC. We stress that prescribing patterns, knowledge, and attitudes may change throughout the remaining time of the test scheme.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prescrições , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
7.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(1): e36-e46, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is harmful and can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. A systematic review and meta-analysis identified 428 comorbidities in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and reported pooled prevalence estimates. We aimed to investigate overall risk of morbidities in heavy prenatal alcohol-exposed children by estimating risk of the identified comorbidities, and previously unidentified diseases and health-related problems. METHODS: Our Danish nationwide register-based cohort study included all singleton births. Individuals were followed up to age 18 years, between 1996 and 2018. Stillbirths and children of immigrants were not included in the study, and births of women who migrated within 1 year before or during pregnancy were also excluded due to loss to follow-up. Data on health and education were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register, the Danish National Patient Registry, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, and the Population Education Register. We estimated crude and standardised risk differences of hospital diagnoses. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure was defined by hospital contacts with alcohol-attributable diagnoses given to the mother or her child, or by maternal redeemed prescriptions for drugs to treat alcohol dependence 1 year before or during pregnancy. FINDINGS: Of 1 407 689 identified singleton births, 219 186 were excluded for reasons including they were born to immigrants, lost to follow-up, or were stillbirths. Of the remaining 1 188 503 children, 4799 (0·4%) had heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 1 183 704 (99·6%) were classified as non-alcohol-exposed births. 578 179 (48·6%) babies were female and 610 324 (51·4%) were male. We found 234 of 428 previously identified comorbidities in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, of which 29 conditions had a standardised risk difference of at least 0·5%, predominantly related to brain function, behavioural disorders, infections, and neonatal conditions. The four highest standardised risk differences were found for low birthweight (4·70% [95% CI 3·70-5·71]), small for gestational age (4·63% [3·72-5·55]), delayed milestone (3·81% [2·99-4·64]), and other preterm infants (2·69% [1·71-3·68]). Of previously unidentified diseases and health-related problems, 32 of 719 had a standardised risk difference of at least 1·0%, mainly related to brain function, some injuries, substance-related conditions, and childhood adversities. INTERPRETATION: Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with an overall increased risk of child morbidities and previously unrecognised alcohol-related health problems. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a key public health issue with a potential negative impact on child and adolescent health. This study urges for renewed efforts and substantiates the profound degree to which pre-conceptional care is mandatory. FUNDING: The Obel Family Foundation, The Health Foundation, TrygFonden, Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Foundation, The North Denmark Region Health Science and Research Foundation, Holms Memorial Foundation, Dagmar Marshalls Foundation, the A.P. Møller Foundation, King Christian X Foundation, Torben and Alice Frimodts Foundation, the Axel and Eva Kastrup-Nielsens Foundation, and the A.V. Lykfeldts Foundation.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Estudos de Coortes , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Morbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
8.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(1): e28-e35, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol use during pregnancy can harm the fetus, but the relation to most obstetric outcomes remains unclear. We therefore aimed to describe maternal characteristics and estimate the association between heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 22 adverse obstetric and birth outcomes. METHODS: We carried out a Danish nationwide register-based historical cohort study, including all singleton births from Jan 1, 1996, to Dec 31, 2018. Births of women who had emigrated to Denmark were excluded from the study due to missing data and women who migrated within 1 year before or during pregnancy were also excluded due to loss to follow-up. Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register, the Danish National Patient Registry, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, and the Population Education Register. Logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of obstetric and birth outcomes. Heavy alcohol use was defined by hospital contacts for alcohol-attributable diagnoses given to the mother, her infant, or both, or maternal redeemed prescriptions for drugs to treat alcohol dependence within 1 year before or during pregnancy. FINDINGS: Of 1 191 295 included births, 4823 (0·40%) were defined as heavily alcohol-exposed and 1 186 472 were categorised as a reference group with no identified heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Heavy-alcohol-exposed births more often had mothers with psychiatric diagnoses (49·8% vs 9·6%), substance use (22·0% vs 0·4%), tobacco use (64·3% vs 15·8%), and low educational level (64·1% vs 17·6%) than did the reference group. For heavy-alcohol-exposed births, significantly increased adjusted ORs were found for small for gestational age (OR 2·20 [95% CI 1·97-2·45]), preterm birth (OR 1·32 [1·19-1·46]), haemorrhage in late pregnancy (OR 1·25 [1·05-1·49]), and preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (OR 1·18 [1·00-1·39]). Decreased adjusted ORs were found for postpartum haemorrhage (500-999 mL; OR 0·80 [95% CI 0·69-0·93]), gestational diabetes (OR 0·81 [0·67-0·99]), planned caesarean section (OR 0·82 [0·72-0·94]), pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (OR 0·83 [0·71-0·96]), and abnormalities of forces of labour (OR 0·92 [0·86-0·99]). INTERPRETATION: Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with adverse obstetric and birth outcomes and high proportions of maternal low educational level, psychiatric disease, and lifestyle risk behaviours. These findings highlight a need for holistic public health programmes and policy attention on improving pre-conceptional care and antenatal care. FUNDING: The Obel Family Foundation, The Health Foundation, TrygFonden, Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Foundation, The North Denmark Region Health Science and Research Foundation, Holms Memorial Foundation, Dagmar Marshalls Foundation, the A.P. Møller Foundation, King Christian X Foundation, Torben and Alice Frimodts Foundation, the Axel and Eva Kastrup-Nielsens Foundation, the A.V. Lykfeldts Foundation.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Lactente , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Cesárea , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
9.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 80: 54-61, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients at risk of distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and ICD concerns) and associated risk factors. METHOD: First-time ICD patients (n = 1503) from the Danish national DEFIB-WOMEN study completed questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. RESULTS: Of patients with low scores on distress, only 4%-7.2% experienced an increase in distress during 24 months of follow-up (FU), while 30.5%-52.5% with increased levels were likely to maintain increased levels at FU. Higher education, higher age, female sex, and good physical functioning at baseline were associated with less depression, anxiety and ICD concerns at FU. Previous psychological problems, smoking, Type D personality, NYHA class III-IV - all assessed at baseline - and shocks during FU were associated with depression, anxiety and ICD concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, patients' psychological health improved, but patients with increased baseline scores were more likely to have increased scores at FU. We need to be vigilant if patients report elevated distress, particularly if they have depression at baseline, as depression seems more persistent. Given the impact of depression on health-related quality of life and prognosis, they should be screened and monitored closely.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Humanos , Feminino , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Depressão/etiologia , Seguimentos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 38(1): 59-69, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Expected beneficial health effects is a major reason why people purchase organically produced foods, although the existing evidence is limited. We investigated if organic food consumption, overall and by specific food groups, is associated with the incidence of cancer. METHODS: We used data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Organic food consumption was reported for vegetables, fruits, dairy products, eggs, meat, and bread and cereal products. Consumption was summarized into an overall organic food score, evaluated as a continuous variable and in categories specified as never, low, medium, and high consumption. We followed 41,928 participants for a median of 15 years, during which 9,675 first cancer cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. We used cox proportional hazard models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables to estimate associations between organic food consumption and cancer incidence. RESULTS: No association was observed between intakes of organic foods and incidence of overall cancer. When compared to never eating organic foods, overall organic food consumption was associated with a lower incidence of stomach cancer (low: HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32-0.78, medium: HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32-0.80, high: HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.27-1.07, p-trend = 0.09), and higher incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (low: HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.10, medium: HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93-1.96, high: HR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.28-3.04, p-trend = 0.05). Similar patterns were observed for the specific food groups. CONCLUSION: Our study does not support an association between organic food consumption and incidence of overall cancer. The scarce existing literature shows conflicting results with risk of specific cancers.


Assuntos
Alimentos Orgânicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Verduras , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Euro Surveill ; 28(3)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695485

RESUMO

BackgroundIt sparked considerable attention from international media when Denmark lifted restrictions against COVID-19 in February 2022 amidst widespread transmission of the new SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and a steep rise in reported COVID-19 mortality based on the 30-day COVID-19 death count.AimOur aim was to investigate how coincidental infections affected COVID-19 mortality estimates following the introduction of the Omicron variant in late 2021.MethodsWe compared the 30-day COVID-19 death count with the observed mortality using three alternative mortality estimation methods; (i) a mathematical model to correct the 30-day COVID-19 death count for coincidental deaths, (ii) the Causes of Death Registry (CDR) and (iii) all-cause excess mortality.ResultsThere was a substantial peak in the 30-day COVID-19 death count following the emergence of the Omicron variant in late 2021. However, there was also a substantial change in the proportion of coincidental deaths, increasing from 10-20% to around 40% of the recorded COVID-19 deaths. The high number of 30-day COVID-19 deaths was not reflected in the number of COVID-19 deaths in the CDR and the all-cause excess mortality surveillance.ConclusionOur analysis showed a distinct change in the mortality pattern following the introduction of Omicron in late 2021 with a markedly higher proportion of people estimated to have died with, rather than of, COVID-19 compared with mortality patterns observed earlier in the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating alternative mortality surveillance methods to more correctly estimate the burden of COVID-19 as the pandemic continues to evolve.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(2): 108-118, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor abnormalities have clinical relevance as a component of psychotic illness; they are not only a proxy of altered neurodevelopment, but also intimately related to psychotic risk. We aimed to assess motor development and its association with psychotic experiences in children with familial high risk (FHR) of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder compared with controls. METHODS: The Danish High Risk and Resilience Study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, for which participants were extracted from Danish registers. Children born in Denmark between Sept 1, 2004, and Aug 31, 2009, with no, one, or two parents born in Denmark with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, could be included in the study. No ethnicity data were collected. Children with no biological parent diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder were matched to children with FHR of schizophrenia (one or two parents with schizophrenia spectrum disorder) on the basis of sex, age, and municipality. Children with FHR of bipolar disorder (one or two parents with bipolar disorder) were included as a non-matched group. We assessed motor function in children with FHR of schizophrenia, children with FHR of bipolar disorder, and children in the control group at approximately age 8 years (baseline; 2013-16) and age 12 years (follow-up; 2017-20) using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Psychotic experiences were assessed using the psychosis section of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Raters were masked regarding familial risk status. Motor development from baseline to follow-up in the different groups was assessed using a linear mixed model. Logistic regression examined the relationship between definite motor problems (≤5th percentile on Movement ABC-2) and psychotic experiences. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2017, and June 30, 2020, we studied 437 children (234 [54%] boys, 203 [46%] girls; mean age 11·99 years [SD 0·26, range 11·08-12·86]). Children with FHR of schizophrenia showed stable motor developmental deficits in manual dexterity (difference in intercept -1·62 [95% CI -2·39 to -0·85], p<0·0001; difference in slope 0·17 [-0·48 to 0·81], p=0·61) and balance (difference in intercept -1·58 [-2·34 to -0·82], p<0·0001; difference in slope 0·32 [-0·34 to 0·99], p=0·34), and a developmental lag in aiming and catching (difference in slope -1·07 [-1·72 to -0·41], p=0·0015; difference in intercept -0·59 [-1·35 to 0·17], p=0·13) compared with controls. Children with FHR of bipolar disorder showed no motor developmental differences on a group basis. Compared with controls, children with FHR of schizophrenia were more likely to have definite motor problems (odds ratio [OR] 2·86 [95% CI 1·60 to 5·11], p=0·0004), as were children with FHR of bipolar disorder (OR 2·45 [1·28 to 4·70], p=0·0068). Children with definite motor problems across all groups were more likely (OR 1·90 [1·12 to 3·21, p=0·017] to have had psychotic experiences than children with no definite motor problems. INTERPRETATION: Clinicians should be aware that motor impairment in childhood can reflect neurodevelopmental vulnerability to psychosis. Our findings contribute to the identification of early risk markers for severe mental illness, both for use by clinicians and for establishing a basis for future primary preventive intervention studies in the premorbid phase. FUNDING: The Independent Research Fund Denmark, the Mental Health Services of the Capital Region of Denmark, the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Aarhus University, the Beatrice Surovell Haskell Fund, the Tryg Foundation, and the Innovation Fund Denmark. TRANSLATION: For the Danish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(2): 129-138, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of mental illness has been reported in clinical studies of sex chromosome aneuploidies, but accurate population-based estimates of the prevalence and clinical detection rate of sex chromosome aneuploidies and the associated risks of psychiatric disorders are needed. In this study, we provide such estimates, valid for children and young adults of the contemporary Danish population. METHODS: We used the iPSYCH2015 case-cohort dataset, which is based on a source population of single-born individuals born in Denmark between May 1, 1981, and Dec 31, 2008. The case sample comprises all individuals from the source population with a diagnosis of any index psychiatric disorder (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, or ADHD) by the end of follow-up (Dec 31, 2015), registered in the hospital-based Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The cohort consists of individuals randomly selected from the source population, and overlaps with the case sample. Biobanked blood samples for individuals in the case and cohort samples underwent genotyping and quality-control filtering, after which we analysed microarray data to detect sex chromosome aneuploidy karyotypes (45,X, 47,XXX, 47,XXY, and 47,XYY). We estimated the population-valid prevalence of these karyotypes from the cohort sample. Weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risks of each index psychiatric disorder associated with each sex chromosome aneuploidy karyotype, by use of date of first hospitalisation with the index disorder in the respective case group and the cohort as outcome. The clinical detection rate was determined by comparing records of clinical diagnoses of genetic conditions from the Danish National Patient Register with sex chromosome aneuploidy karyotype determined by our study. FINDINGS: The assessed sample comprised 119 481 individuals (78 726 in the case sample and 43 326 in the cohort) who had genotyped and quality-control-filtered blood samples, including 64 533 (54%) people of gonadal male sex and 54 948 (46%) of gonadal female sex. Age during follow-up ranged from 0 to 34·7 years (mean 10·9 years [SD 3·5 years]). Information on ethnicity was not available. We identified 387 (0·3%) individuals as carriers of sex chromosome aneuploidies. The overall prevalence of sex chromosome aneuploidies was 1·5 per 1000 individuals. Each sex chromosome aneuploidy karyotype was associated with an increased risk of at least one index psychiatric disorder, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2·20 (95% CI 1·42-3·39) for 47,XXY; 2·73 (1·25-6·00) for 47,XXX; 3·56 (1·01-12·53) for 45,X; and 4·30 (2·48-7·55) for 47,XYY. All karyotypes were associated with an increased risk of ADHD (HRs ranging from 1·99 [1·24-3·19] to 6·15 [1·63-23·19]), autism spectrum disorder (2·72 [1·72-4·32] to 8·45 [2·49-28·61]), and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (1·80 [1·15-2·80] to 4·60 [1·57-13·51]). Increased risk of major depressive disorder was found for individuals with 47,XXY (1·88 [1·07-3·33]) and 47,XYY (2·65 [1·12-5·90]), and of bipolar disorder for those with 47,XXX (4·32 [1·12-16·62]). The proportion of sex chromosome aneuploidy carriers who had been clinically diagnosed was 93% for 45,X, but lower for 47,XXY (22%), 47,XXX (15%), and 47,XYY (15%). Among carriers, the risk of diagnosis of at least one index psychiatric disorder did not significantly differ between those who had and had not been clinically diagnosed with sex chromosome aneuploidies (p=0·65). INTERPRETATION: Increased risks of psychiatric disorders associated with sex chromosome aneuploidies, combined with low rates of clinical diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies, compromise the adequate provision of necessary health care and counselling to affected individuals and their families, which might be helped by increased application of genetic testing in clinical settings. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation and National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneuploidia , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(2): 132, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population of immigrants in Europe is ageing. Accordingly, the number of immigrants with life-threatening diseases and need for specialised palliative care will increase. In Europe, immigrants' admittance to specialised palliative care is not well explored. AIM: To investigate whether country of origin was associated with admittance to (I) palliative care team/unit, (II) hospice, and/or (III) specialised palliative care, overall (i.e. palliative care team/unit and/or hospice). DESIGN: Data sources for the population cohort study were the Danish Palliative Care Database and several nationwide registers. We investigated the associations between country of origin and admittance to specialised palliative care, overall, and to type of palliative care using logistic regression analyses. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: In 2010-2016, 104,775 cancer patients died in Denmark: 96% were born in Denmark, 2% in other Western countries, and 2% in non-Western countries. RESULTS: Overall admittance to specialised palliative care was higher for immigrants from other Western (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.03-1.24) and non-Western countries (OR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.08-1.37) than for the majority population. Similar results were found for admittance to palliative care teams. No difference in admittance to hospice was found for immigrants from other Western countries (OR = 1.04; 95%CI: 0.93-1.16) compared to the majority population, while lower admittance was found for non-Western immigrants (OR = 0.70; 95%CI: 0.60-0.81). CONCLUSION: Admittance to specialised palliative care was higher for immigrants than for the majority population as higher admittance to palliative care teams for non-Western immigrants more than compensated for the lower hospice admittance. This may reflect a combination of larger needs and that hospital-based and home-based services are perceived as preferable by immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2252724, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696110

RESUMO

Importance: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains a leading cause of death during the first year of life. The etiology of SIDS is complex and remains largely unknown. Objective: To evaluate whether siblings of children who died of SIDS have a higher risk of SIDS compared with the general pediatric population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This register-based cohort study used Danish nationwide registers. Participants were all infants (<1 year) in Denmark between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 2016, including siblings of children who died of SIDS. Siblings were followed up from the index cases' date of SIDS, date of birth, or immigration, whichever came first, and until age 1 year, emigration, developing SIDS, death, or study end. The median (IQR) follow-up was 1 (1-1) year. Data analysis was conducted from January 2017 to October 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SIDS were calculated with Poisson regression models relative to the general population. Results: In a population of 2 666 834 consecutive births (1 395 199 [52%] male), 1540 infants died of SIDS (median [IQR] age at SIDS, 3 [2-4] months) during a 39-year study period. A total of 2384 younger siblings (cases) to index cases (first sibling with SIDS) were identified. A higher rate of SIDS was observed among siblings compared with the general population, with SIRs of 4.27 (95% CI, 2.13-8.53) after adjustment for sex, age, and calendar year and of 3.50 (95% CI, 1.75-7.01) after further adjustment for mother's age (<29 years vs ≥29 years) and education (high school vs after high school). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationwide study, having a sibling who died of SIDS was associated with a 4-fold higher risk of SIDS compared with the general population. Shared genetic and/or environmental factors may contribute to the observed clustering of SIDS. The family history of SIDS should be considered when assessing SIDS risk in clinical settings. A multidisciplinary genetic evaluation of families with SIDS could provide additional evidence.


Assuntos
Irmãos , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Adulto , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
16.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 16(2): 179-188, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of autonomy associated with nursing home admission (NHA) is a concern for patients. Yet the incidence of NHA after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and factors associated with NHA following TAVR compared with the general population. METHODS: Through Danish registries, patients alive at discharge after TAVR were identified from January 2014 to October 2021. Patients were matched 1:5 on sex, age, and calendar year to the general population. The 3-year cumulative incidence and 95% CI of NHA were estimated using the Aalen-Johansen estimator, accounting for the competing risk for death. Through multivariate cause-specific Cox regression models, factors associated with NHA were examined. RESULTS: In total, 5,312 TAVR patients were matched to 26,560 control subjects with a median age of 81 years and 56.1% males. Comorbidity burden was higher for TAVR patients. The 3-year cumulative incidence of NHA was 6.3% (95% CI: 5.5%-7.1%) for TAVR patients compared with 5.8% (95% CI: 5.4%-6.1%) for the general population. For TAVR patients >85 years of age, the cumulative incidence of NHA was 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5%-13.8%), and the risk for death was 23.3% (95% CI: 20.4%-26.2%). Factors associated with NHA were increasing age, frailty, living alone, and atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: TAVR was not associated with an increased incidence of NHA compared with the general population. Despite the increased incidence of NHA for TAVR patients >85 years of age, approximately 2 in 3 patients were still alive and not admitted to nursing homes 3 years after TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Casas de Saúde , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e062768, 2023 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657765

RESUMO

AIMS: Cancer is a well-known risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Some cancers are believed to be more thrombogenic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with incident gastrointestinal cancers (GI) and their associated 1-year risk and timing of venous thromboembolic events and the 1-year mortality. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Through Danish nationwide registries, all patients with first-time GI cancer diagnosis from 2008 to 2018 were identified. Incident VTE events were identified within a 1-year follow-up after GI cancer diagnosis using the Aalen-Johansen estimator. Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to investigate risk factors for VTE events and the impact of VTE on mortality. RESULTS: A total of 87 069 patients were included and stratified by cancer types: liver (5.8%), pancreatic (12.0%), gastric (6.9%), small intestinal (1.9%), colorectal (61.8%), oesophageal (7.3%) and gallbladder (3%). Most VTE events happened close to onset of the cancer diagnosis with declining events by time. The 1-year cumulative incidence of VTE differed according to cancer type with pancreatic cancer being most thrombogenic (7.8%), and colorectal and liver cancer being the least (3.6%). Prior VTE, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes increased the VTE risk. Overall, the patients with GI cancer had high 1-year mortality of 33.3% with patients with pancreatic cancer having the highest mortality (70.3%). CONCLUSION: We found that most VTE events happen close to onset of the GI cancer diagnosis and thrombogenicity differed by type of GI cancer, ranging from 7.8% in patients with pancreatic cancer to 3.6% in colorectal and patients with liver cancer. Prior VTE, heart failure, COPD, liver disease, CKD and DM were associated with increased risk of VTE.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Incidência
20.
Arch Osteoporos ; 18(1): 19, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629929

RESUMO

Persistence with initial treatment was highest after 1 year, decreasing afterwards. Persistence was highest for denosumab followed by alendronate. We identified several factors associated with treatment persistence, some of which were the same irrespective of OTx agent, which could help target subgroups of patients in terms of social and healthcare support. PURPOSE: To describe patient characteristics, persistence, and factors associated with the persistence of new users of the bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate) and the RANKL inhibitor denosumab in Denmark. METHODS: A population-based cohort study using health registries (2010-2018). We included alendronate (n = 128,590), risedronate (n = 892), ibandronate (n = 5,855), and denosumab (n = 16,469) users, aged ≥ 50 years. RESULTS: The 1-year persistence was 68.2% in the alendronate cohort; 39.3% in the risedronate cohort; 56.3% in the ibandronate cohort; and 84.0% in the denosumab cohort. The 2-year persistence was 58.7% in the alendronate cohort; 28.0% in the risedronate cohort; 42.9% in the ibandronate cohort; and 71.9% in the denosumab cohort. The 4-year persistence was 46.3%, 15.4%, 29.6%, and 56.9%, respectively. Later years of treatment initiation were associated with lower persistence for alendronate (adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was 0.86 (0.81-0.91) in 2016 compared to 2010), but not for risedronate (OR was 1.56 (0.60-4.06), ibandronate (OR was 0.92 (0.71-1.19) or denosumab (OR was 1.11 (0.87-1.43). Older age was associated with higher persistence for all medications and the same goes for the female sex except for ibandronate. Dementia was associated with higher persistence for alendronate but not denosumab, whereas prior osteoporosis treatment (OT) was the opposite. Several comorbidities were associated with lower persistence for alendronate, but not denosumab. CONCLUSION: Persistence was highest for denosumab followed by alendronate. We identified several factors associated with treatment persistence, some of which were the same irrespective of OTx agent, which could help target subgroups of patients in terms of social and healthcare support.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Humanos , Feminino , Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Ácido Risedrônico/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ibandrônico/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico
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