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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 205-220, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191354

RESUMO

La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha demostrado la fragilidad del mundo globalizado y se está combatiendo mediante una combinación de técnicas y herramientas de ámbitos muy diferentes, desde clínico hasta tecnológico. La aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías ha suscitado el actual gran debate europeo sobre la privacidad. Una de sus manifestaciones es la Orden SND/29/2020, de 27 de marzo, del Ministerio de Sanidad, en la que se prevé el desarrollo de la app DataCOVID de seguimiento digital. Este trabajo tiene por objeto examinar la legalidad y alcance de estas medidas desde la perspectiva del respeto al derecho a la privacidad en el marco de las garantías para los derechos humanos y la protección de datos


The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the fragility of the globalized world and is being fought through a combination of techniques and tools, among which new contact tracing technologies play a fundamental role. These new tracking technologies have sparked the current great European debate on privacy. One of its manifestations is Order SND/29/2020, of March 27, approved by the Ministry of Health of the Government of Spain, which provides for the development of a website and a contact tracing app DataCOVID. This work aims at examining the legality and scope of the measures adopted in the Ministerial Order considering its implications for the respect of the right to privacy and data protection from the perspective of human rights guarantees


La pandèmia de la COVID-19 ha demostrat la fragilitat del món globalitzat I s'està combatent mitjançant una combinació de tècniques I eines d'àmbits molt diferents, des del clínic fins al tecnològic. L'aplicació de les noves tecnologies ha suscitat l'actual gran debat europeu sobre la privacitat. Una de les seves manifestacions és l'Ordre SND/29/2020, del 27 de març, del Ministeri de Sanitat, en la qual es preveu el desenvolupament de l'app DataCOVID de seguiment digital. Aquest treball té per objecte examinar la legalitat I abast d'aquestes mesures des de la perspectiva del respecte al dret a la privacitat en el marc de les garanties pels drets humans I la protecció de dades


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Direitos Humanos , Regulação e Fiscalização em Saúde , Sistema de Vigilância Sanitária , Aplicativos Móveis
2.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 369-383, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191363

RESUMO

Durante el periodo de estado de alarma del estado español producido por la emergencia sanitaria derivada de la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019-2020 se han puesto de manifiesto amenazas a los derechos de las personas con discapacidad y oportunidades de desarrollo en relación con su autonomía personal. El respeto a los tratados internacionales en materia de derechos humanos obliga a los estados a abordar desde el modelo de la autonomía personal la situación de vulnerabilidad de las personas con discapacidad y a luchar contra las actitudes basadas en modelos anteriores de tratamiento de la discapacidad


Threats to the rights of persons with disabilities and opportunities to develop in relation to their personal autonomy have been revealed during the period of state of alarm of the Spanish state produced by the health emergency derived from the 2019-2020 coronavirus disease pandemic. Respect for international human rights treaties obliges states to approach the vulnerable situation of people with disabilities from personal autonomy model and to fight against attitudes based on previous models of treatment of disability


Durant el període d'estat d'alarma de l'estat espanyol produït per l'emergència sanitària derivada de la pandèmia de la malaltia per coronavirus 2019-2020 s'han posat de manifest amenaces als drets de les persones amb discapacitat I oportunitats de desenvolupament en relació amb la seva autonomia personal. El respecte als tractats internacionals en matèria de drets humans obliga els estats a abordar des del model de l'autonomia personal la situació de vulnerabilitat de les persones amb discapacitat I a lluitar contra les actituds basades en models anteriors de tractament de la discapacitat


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise de Vulnerabilidade , Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Direitos Humanos , Triagem , Legislação como Assunto
3.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 2020-2025, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The aim of this work is to identify the compliance level of modern practice of placement of a person in a medical institution in order to conduct the FPE to international standards and legal positions of the ECHR in terms of ensuring the right to liberty and security of person; formulation of scientifically substantiated proposals on the synchronization directions of national practices with the specified international standards. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: During the preparation of the article the following was processed: scientific research on ensuring the rights of persons suffering from mental disorders in criminal proceedings; provisions of international agreements on the provision of psychiatric care; legal positions of the ECHR on the observance of persons' rights suffering from mental disorders (15 judgments on this topic); criminal procedural legislation of individual states; results of generalization of national law enforcement practice; the results of a survey conducted by the authors of 18 psychiatrists who practice in the field of forensic psychiatric examinations (psychiatrists working in state psychiatric clinics in Odesa, Poltava, Kharkiv were interviewed). In the process of research a set of general scientific and special methods of cognition was used (comparative-legal method, system-structural method, generalization method, method of analysis and synthesis, method of sociological research, method of expert assessments, etc.). RESULTS: Results: According to the research results: a) legal positions of the ECHR on the observance of the rights of persons suffering from mental disorders are identified and generalized; b) the compliance level of modern practice of placing a person in a medical institution in order to conduct the FPE with international standards and legal positions of the ECHR in terms of ensuring the right to liberty and security of person (§ 1 of Article 5 of the Convention); c) the degree of extrapolation of these positions to the activities of psychiatrists is analyzed; d) the optimal ways of solving the existing problems in the aspect of ensuring the rights of a person when placing them in a medical institution for an inpatient FPE are proposed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The current national practice of placing a person in a medical institution for an inpatient FPE does not fully comply with the legal positions of the ECHR in terms of ensuring the right to liberty and security of person (in particular, there are deviations from the positions of the ECHR on: determining the documentary basis for the appointment of an inpatient FPE; interaction of police and medical workers in the field of psychiatry during the detention of a person with a mental disorder).


Assuntos
Criminosos , Direitos Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pacientes Internados
4.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 2044-2048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Of the study is to characterize the internal acts of the United Nations on the regulation of the right to health of its staff. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Achieving the purpose of the study is ensured due to the analysis of internal acts of the United Nations, doctrinal sources on the issue selected. The methodological basis is a number of special and general methods. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The right to health guaranteed by the International Bill of Human Rights is comprehensive and closely linked to labour human rights. International civil servants of the UN system are not exempt. Thus, within the United Nations, a number of acts have been developed, the provisions of which set out recommendations aimed at reducing possible cases of infection of workers, maintaining their mental health while on quarantine, informing staff about their actions in case of illness, testing workers, etc. However, these acts need to be improved.


Assuntos
Direito à Saúde , Nações Unidas , Direitos Humanos , Humanos
5.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 2062-2067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to study some aspects of the formation of the ecosystem approach, develop on its basis the latest and promising area of scientific research - EcoHealth and determine the legal framework for the implementation of this approach in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The research is based on international legal documents, statistical reports and information of the WHO, practice of the ECHR, constitutional acts of foreign countries, legislation of Ukraine, works of scientists on ecology, medicine, environmental and medical law. For achievement of reliable and objective results general philosophical (dialectical), general scientific (historical, analysis and synthesis, analogy) and special (comparatively-legal, interpretation of legal norms) methods of scientific knowledge were used. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: A necessary condition for ensuring the constitutional human right to a safe (favorable, benevolent, healthy, etc.) environment for life and health and, consequently, the right to life and health, is the implementation of an ecosystem approach into national strategies and legislation of different countries, including Ukraine. The development of this approach at the international level has led to the emergence of a new area of scientific research - EcoHealth, which studies how changes in the Earth's ecosystems affect human health. In Ukraine, the issue of implementing an ecosystem approach to health is not widespread in the scientific literature yet, but this trend is clearly visible in environmental legislation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Direitos Humanos , Ecologia , Humanos , Ucrânia
6.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 162-166, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130666

RESUMO

The article deals with some problematic aspects of the legal protection of the human embryo and fetus. It is established that according to the legislation of Ukraine a live-born child will be considered a subject of legal relations irrespective of the week of pregnancy and state of health. Various scientific legal and medical approaches to the issue of completing the period of embryonic development have been investigated. The positions of scientists on the legal protection of embryos, which were conceived using reproductive technologies, namely, until their implementation in the body of the future mother, are analyzed. It is proved that all embryos need special protection, regardless of the method of their conception, and it has also been established that various manipulations with embryos are prohibited in order to conduct medical experiments. Foreign experience of legislative regulation of the beginning of life is investigated. It is established that in Ukraine the civil capacity of a natural person arises at the moment of its birth, but in the cases established by law, the interests of a conceived but not born child are protected. The case-law of the European Court of Human Rights on the protection of the «unborn life¼ is analyzed. It is proposed to characterize the legal status of «embryo¼ and «human fetus¼ as «subjective¼, which provides for separate elements of legal protection, and in the case of transition to a subjective state - protection of property rights, the grounds for which occurred during the «pre-subject¼ of the «state¼. The necessity to establish in the legislation of Ukraine a uniform approach to the determination of the period of embryonic development and its completion, as well as the corresponding changes to Part 2 of Art. 2 of the Law of Ukraine «On Prohibition of Human Reproductive Cloning¼.


Assuntos
Feto , Direitos Humanos , Aborto Legal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Parto , Gravidez , Ucrânia
7.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 171-178, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130668

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to determine and analyze the features of the legal responsibility of medical workers for non-fulfillment or improper fulfillment of their professional duties. General scientific and special methods were used. The logical method of convergence from simple to complex made it possible to determine the main features of the legal responsibility of medical workers in the context of the analysis of the essence of medical activity and legal responsibility. The systemic-structural method made it possible to determine the place of civil responsibility of medical workers in Germany, France, the United States among other types of legal responsibility. Logical-legal and formal-legal methods made it possible to formulate the concepts "legal responsibility of medical workers as an institution of objective law" and "legal responsibility as an element of legal relations." The comparative legal method was used in the analysis of the legislation of foreign countries and Ukraine. We have established that a medical workers are special subjects and are held legally responsibility for failure to perform or improper performance of their professional duties, which are directly related to the nature of their work. A medical professional can potentially be brought to legal responsibility from the moment he begins to engage in his medical activity. The reality of the fact of bringing a medical professional to legal responsibility depends on the availability of the necessary grounds for its occurrence. The grounds for bringing a medical worker to legal responsibility are: the fact of committing a deliberate crime or an unjustified medical error; negative consequences for the life and health of the patient; a causal relationship between the fact of a deliberate crime or unjustified medical error and negative consequences for the patient. The main types of legal liability of medical workers include: criminal law, administrative law, civil law, disciplinary. The relationship between a patient and medical professionals in the USA, France, Germany is private, and is referred to as private law. These relations are mainly governed by the norms of civil law. In this regard, responsibility for "culpable defects" in the provision of medical services by medical workers is reduced to compensation for material and moral harm to the patient. Ukraine needs to develop and carry out a set of actions aimed at ensuring the protection of human rights, life and health in the medical field.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Ucrânia , Estados Unidos
8.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 166-171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130667

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to determine the subject of "medical secrecy", to characterize the subjects who are obliged to keep secret information that is the subject of medical secrecy and, based on the results of this study, to make author's proposals to clarify the name for confidential medical information in legislation in the field of medicine in the field of medicine, criminal and criminal procedural legislation. The article explores issues related to the right of every person to the confidentiality of medical information, which is legally defined as "medical privacy". Based on the analysis of international legal acts, decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, the legislation of Ukraine and Georgia on the researched subject, using the foundations of the philosophy of law, carried out a comprehensive study of the concept of "medical confidentiality", defined entities following their professional and career responsibilities, must keep it. In the given article were used such scientific methods as logical, system-structural, comparative-legal, analysis, synthesis. Based on the research, the authors make several proposals for improving certain norms governing medical activities, namely, changes to the wording of Article 40 of the Law of Ukraine "Fundamentals of Ukrainian Legislation on Health Protection", Article 145 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine and Article 65 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine.


Assuntos
Revelação , Privacidade , República da Geórgia , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Ucrânia
10.
New Bioeth ; 26(4): 328-350, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196403

RESUMO

United States law recognizes adult reproductive liberty and many states view surrogacy services through that lens. During the COVID-19 pandemic in March, 2020, New York State enacted the Child-Parent Surrogacy Act (CPSA) into law, after feminists and their allies had caused its defeat in 2019. Just before approval of the CPSA, a group of legislators introduced the Alternative Surrogacy Bill (ASB). This article is a case study that examines how the CPSA and not the ASB became law, examining surrogate rights, the best interests of the child, and the ethical issues related to adult donor-conceived and surrogacy born children's rights to information about their ancestry.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Legislação Médica/ética , Técnicas Reprodutivas/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Social Formal , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso à Informação , Adulto , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Comércio/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias/ética , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Técnicas Reprodutivas/economia , Técnicas Reprodutivas/ética , Direitos da Mulher
11.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-11-04. (PAHO/NMH/RF/20-0027).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52977

RESUMO

The regulation of marketing is one of the most cost-effective measures for reducing the demand for unhealthy products, including ultra-processed products. Nevertheless, in the majority of countries in the world and the Region of the Americas, such policies are absent or lack rigorous implementation, monitoring, and compliance. During the 56th Pan American Health Organization Directing Council, the midterm review of the Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents was presented. The review emphasized that advances in the plan’s execution have been achieved. However, the application of regulatory measures to restrict the promotion and advertising of sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food, and other unhealthy food products has been adopted by only four of the Region’s countries–– much lower than the goal established by the Organization’s Member States. Although most countries still lack specific laws and regulations to restrict the promotion and advertising of food products, many have regulatory frameworks to protect children and adolescents, ensure consumers' rights, and prevent unfair marketing practices. These frameworks can contribute to many countries’ restrictions on promotion and advertising of unhealthy products, including food products, and establish and strengthen the specific laws and regulations needed to effectively eliminate the advertising and promotion of unhealthy food products. This report presents the experiences of countries in the Region when taking action in this field and the paths that could be outlined to strengthen existing regulatory frameworks and develop additional needed frameworks.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Indústria de Óleos e Graxas , Ácidos Graxos Trans , Fatores de Risco
12.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2020-11-04. (OPAS/NMH/RF/20-0027).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52976

RESUMO

A regulação do marketing é uma das medidas mais custo-efetivas para diminuir a demanda por produtos alimentícios não saudáveis, inclusive ultraprocessados. Mesmo assim, na maioria dos países do mundo e da Região das Américas, tais políticas não existem ou, se existem, carecem de implementação, monitoramento e fiscalização rigorosos. Durante o 56º Conselho Diretor da OPAS, foi apresentada a revisão intermediária do Plano de Ação para Prevenção da Obesidade em Crianças e Adolescentes, destacando os progressos obtidos durante a implementação do plano. Mesmo assim, a aplicação de medidas regulatórias para restringir a promoção e a publicidade de bebidas açucaradas, fast food e outros produtos alimentícios não saudáveis foi adotada por apenas quatro países na Região, muito abaixo da meta estabelecida pelos Estados Membros da Organização. Embora a maioria dos países ainda não possua leis e regulamentos específicos para restringir a promoção e a publicidade de gêneros alimentícios, muitos possuem um marco regulatório para proteger as crianças e adolescentes, assegurar os direitos do consumidor e impedir práticas desleais de mercado. Esses marcos podem ajudar muitos países a restringir a promoção e a publicidade de produtos não saudáveis, inclusive gêneros alimentícios, e a estabelecer e fortalecer leis e regulamentos específicos necessários para eliminar efetivamente a publicidade e promoção de produtos alimentícios não saudáveis. Este relatório reúne as experiências dos países da Região no tocante à ação nesse campo e os caminhos que podem ser traçados para fortalecer os marcos regulatórios existentes e elaborar os necessários.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Ácidos Graxos Trans , Fatores de Risco , Indústria de Óleos e Graxas
15.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(3): 1831717, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073725

RESUMO

In recent decades, bold steps taken by the government of Nepal to liberalise its abortion law and increase the affordability and accessibility of safe abortion and family planning have contributed to significant improvements in maternal mortality and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. The Trump administration's Global Gag Rule (GGR) - which prohibits foreign non-governmental organisations (NGOs) from receiving US global health assistance unless they certify that they will not use funding from any source to engage in service delivery, counselling, referral, or advocacy related to abortion - threatens this progress. This paper examines the impact of the GGR on civil society, NGOs, and SRH service delivery in Nepal. We conducted 205 semi-structured in-depth interviews in 2 phases (August-September 2018, and June-September 2019), and across 22 districts. Interview participants included NGO programme managers, government employees, facility managers and service providers in the NGO and private sectors, and service providers in public sector facilities. This large, two-phased study complements existing anecdotal research by capturing impacts of the GGR as they evolved over the course of a year, and by surfacing pathways through which this policy affects SRH outcomes. We found that low policy awareness and a considerable chilling effect cut across levels of the Nepali health system and exacerbated impacts caused by routine implementation of the GGR, undermining the ecology of SRH service delivery in Nepal as well as national sovereignty.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/economia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Política , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Nepal , Estados Unidos
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 968-970, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031082

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has created new challenges on multiple fronts including a few ethical concerns. Timely and appropriate access to health services and the need to protect vulnerable people are some of them. An important aspect to consider, at the global level, is the frailty of health systems in many developing countries and the constant threat of these collapsing due to shortage of resources and medical supply. Special attention should be placed towards protecting the health of care workers who are highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Research and clinical trials involving COVID-19 patients and healthy human volunteers must be done in strict adherence to the fundamental principles of bioethics, even if finding a solution is an urgent need. Shared responsibility must be assumed as we collectively face a common problem and ethical conflicts must be resolved using, as reference, the guidelines developed by the World Health Organization and other relevant international and national organizations. This would allow responsible action in the face of the pandemic without harming human rights, the individual and collective well-being.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Saúde Global/ética , Pandemias/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos/ética , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Triagem/ética
19.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020103, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110502

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has put health systems, economies and societies under unprecedented strain, calling for innovative approaches. Scotland's government, like those elsewhere, is facing difficult decisions about how to deploy digital technologies and data to help contain, control and manage the disease, while also respecting citizens' rights. This paper explores the ethical challenges presented by these methods, with particular emphasis on mobile apps associated with contact tracing. Drawing on UK and international experiences, it examines issues such as public trust, data privacy and technology design; how changing disease threats and contextual factors can affect the balance between public benefits and risks; and the importance of transparency, accountability and stakeholder participation for the trustworthiness and good-governance of digital systems and strategies. Analysis of recent technology debates, controversial programmes and emerging outcomes in comparable countries implementing contact tracing apps, reveals sociotechnical complexities and unexpected paradoxes that warrant further study and underlines the need for holistic, inclusive and adaptive strategies. The paper also considers the potential role of these apps as Scotland transitions to the 'new normal', outlines challenges and opportunities for public engagement, and poses a set of ethical questions to inform decision-making at multiple levels, from software design to institutional governance.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/ética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/ética , Direitos Humanos/ética , Aplicativos Móveis/ética , Pandemias/ética , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Escócia/epidemiologia , Participação dos Interessados , Tecnologia/ética
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