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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00235120, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468563

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the forms of professional work and proposed actions to achieve the human right to adequate food (HRAF) in the context of primary healthcare (PHC). Using a qualitative approach, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews (from May 2013 to July 2014) with healthcare workers that conducted educational groups on food and nutrition in PHC in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was performed to identify the proposed actions on food, with HRAF as the theoretical basis. We identified three categories of professional work based on the proposed actions for food and nutrition. The first approaches food as a biomedical dimension. The second focuses on access and availability of foods in the territory. The third approaches users' local food reality, centered on the team's work. The proposed actions feature those conducted by individuals with obligations towards HRAF (healthcare workers in PHC) and those performed by rights-holder (users of PHC in the Brazilian Unified National Health System). Food in contexts of poverty is treated as a problem with no solution. This study allowed approximations between "what to do" and "how to act" based on ways of grasping food through the definitions, professional work, and proposed actions to achieve HRAF in PHC. It also allowed elucidating the need to understand food as a human right and strengthening the responsibility of healthcare workers in PHC as duty-bearers towards HRAF in the context of social policies.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Programas Governamentais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485525

RESUMO

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Diplomacia/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3753-3764, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468669

RESUMO

This work, extracted from the doctoral research of the author, aims to discuss, from the reports of socio-educational system professionals, the access to State politics and programs performed by youth in conflict with the law attending to socio-educational system. In this research, 14 professionals who work in periphery regions, at the South Zone of São Paulo were interviewed, using the methodological proposal of "narrative policies". From the reports, we can see ambiguities of proposals and state interventions, configuring the "double discipline" of State, evidencing the insufficiency and the disinvestment in social security and social assistance policies, meanwhile occurs the production of an apparatus of repressive measures. We discuss the theme related to the field of public health and the importance of the bonds between professionals and youth attending to socio-educational system.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Humanos , Política , Política Pública
5.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1894-1899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyse human right issues in health care during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic from the perspective of patients' and medical practitioner's rights. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Multidisciplinary research will be conducted as part of national as well as international health care policy documents, international human right instruments, including case law decisions, and also major scientific articles on human rights from the healthcare perspective will be analysed. The comparative, Research synthesis method and systemic analyses will be made during the research. RESULTS: Results: The study confirmed that human right issues in the context of health care in case of Patient triage become relevant and transformed. The situation of COVID-19 has created new precedents for human rights, with a particular impact on the rights of doctors and patients. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Human rights from the healthcare perspective become the topical issue during the COVID 19 pandemic. The legal practice in human rights had several transformations and it provides new challenges from patients as well as medical practitioners' rights. Important problem, from the ethical -legal perspective is the Patient's triage. The situation on patients triage or ranking shows importance and possibility of each member state to act fast, taking into consideration fast changing situation in medical health system. Sorting patients whose lives are at risk according to certain criteria for assessing their lives is not acceptable. In order to reduce events of violations of human rights during COVID 19 in healthcare, the emphasis should be placed for explanation of decisions made in state level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Triagem
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, agosto 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281045

RESUMO

La Subcomisión de Derechos del Niño y el Comité de Pediatría Social, de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, realizaron un trabajo de campo que permitiera dar voz a nuestros niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) durante la cuarentena y el aislamiento social obligatorio impuestos en nuestro país por la pandemia mundial por la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Los objetivos fueron relevar el impacto sobre sus sentimientos, emociones y deseos; evaluar y comparar las repercusiones personales, familiares y sociales antes, durante y después de la cuarentena; e identificar las necesidades de apoyo y contención.Los resultados de la investigación permiten afirmar que los niños han sido los más afectados y los menos escuchados. La cuarentena ha tenido un enorme impacto individual, social y familiar en los NNA, y reclama un abordaje holístico, comprometido y mancomunado de la sociedad civil, las familias, los profesionales de la salud, los docentes y las autoridades políticas.


The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs.The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Percepção , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Proteção da Criança/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Emoções , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Saúde do Adolescente , Distanciamento Físico , Direitos Humanos
7.
Br J Nurs ; 30(15): 934-935, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379469

RESUMO

Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, continues his series on the articles of the European Convention on Human Rights and considers Article 8 in the context of assisted dying.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Suicídio Assistido , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido
8.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(1): 11-14, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378881
9.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 135-140, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365440

RESUMO

The article focuses on the fact that 2020 has become a new point in the history of mankind, irrevocably changing the ways of life accepted in society and forcing the entire population of the earth to live in a new way. If a person's health is threatened and / or worried about the thought of a terminal illness, it is difficult to focus on something else. Over the past year, many have experienced this reality for the first time. Effective January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization has declared the coronavirus outbreak a health emergency, causing international concern. The fact that some countries (New Zealand, Australia and South Korea) quickly contained the spread of the virus, but faced new, imported cases, leads to the conclusion that the victory over COVID-19 is possible only worldwide. And if in 2020 masks and social distancing were the methods of fighting the virus, then the main method of 2021 will be the vaccination of the inhabitants of the earth. However, here, too, the key factor is the scale of vaccination, which is one of the main factors in the effectiveness of the fight against any large-scale disease. Here, every person faces a moral and legal question: participation in vaccination is the right of every person as a bearer of human dignity, which implies the impossibility of taking any action on a person without his consent, or the duty of a member of society, which implies the need for vaccination as the question of the survival of the human race as a whole. The article draws attention to the refusal to vaccinate against measles in Ukraine and the consequences of such a choice. The reason for the lack of measles vaccination at the required epidemiological level in Ukraine is not the lack of the necessary vaccines, but the conscious choice of a negative model of behavior by the citizens of the country. The refusal to vaccinate children may be due to a psychological factor caused by the death of a student who was vaccinated against measles on the eve of death. At the same time, the media thirteen years after the event, conducting numerous medical examinations, provides fundamentally contradictory information about the causal relationship between the vaccination of a student against measles and his death. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection and severe outcomes caused by viruses. Despite this vaccination coverage against viral infections, seasonal influenza in many countries around the world remains low. Even if a vaccine is available to the citizens of a particular country, but educational programs are not carried out on the need and importance of vaccination, the potential for increasing vaccination rates against viruses will continually diminish. The most common explanation for the current upsurge in vaccine uncertainty is that the Internet enables vaccine deniers to reach out to a wide audience by publicizing their beliefs. Some activists only criticize some vaccines. Such a selective stance may indicate a communication strategy used to promote a particular vaccine. Attention should also be paid to the refusal to vaccinate due to the lack of acceptance by the human mind of traditional medicine, not belief in its effectiveness, the use of alternative, alternative medicine in the treatment of diseases. The reasons for not trusting the vaccination process are highlighted. These include: lack of trust in vaccine manufacturers who are economically motivated to make a profit; not trusting medical institutions that provide vaccinations and the conditions in which vaccines are stored; lack of confidence in government agencies involved in the procurement of vaccines, the possibility of corruption in case of abuse of their powers; fear of disease and side effects due to vaccination; distortion by the media of objective data on vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Criança , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
11.
Lancet ; 398(10299): 477, 2021 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364508
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(7): 910-12, 2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343114

RESUMO

Confirmed new cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have accelerated in Sub-Saharan Africa against a backdrop of fragile health systems, a high burden of comorbidities and socioeconomic instability. The context makes the region particularly vulnerable to the virus and its impact. As cases escalate, the need to tailor-make COVID-19-related response strategies to the African context is imperative. This paper aims to discuss key considerations on the public health response to the pandemic and its intersection with ethics and human rights. With this perspective, we bring attention to the conflict between healthcare workers' obligations and patient rights under the unclear policy and regulatory frameworks and the application of restrictive measures in the context of poverty. The indirect effects of the pandemic on already existing health problems are also highlighted. We appeal to the African States to establish appropriate systems which integrate human rights-based approaches to COVID-19 response. These systems should be ethically sound systems and ensure no-one is left behind in terms of testing, access to therapeutics and vaccination, and social protection; based on lessons learned over the past 12 months of the pandemic's presence in SSA, and patterns emerging across the globe.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Direitos Humanos/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pobreza
13.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(1): 113-134, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378882

RESUMO

As gestational surrogacy was forbidden in France in July 2015, the French supreme court decided to depart from previous case-law on the matter after the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled against France in four separate cases. Now, (as in the April 2017 communication1), the French Cour de Cassation has ruled that in the case of gestational surrogacy carried out abroad, the birth certificate of a child born by way of such method may be added to the French civil register along with the father’s name and without the mother’s name as she did not deliver birth.The article provides an analysis of this change in case-law. First part will examine the evolution of gestational surrogacy-related case-law and the measures taken by the French legislator on the matter. Second part will focus on the Cour de cassation’s turnaround in case-law that followed the ECHR ruling against France on the issue of the approval by domestic law of the legal relationship established between a French biological father and a child born abroad as a result of surrogacy treatment.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Mães Substitutas , Criança , Feminino , França , Humanos , Gravidez
14.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(1): 15-60, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378884

RESUMO

The article aims to show the trends that have occurred in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. We establish three lines of interest (human dignity; right to health and adequate medical practices; clinical bioethics and right to life), as well as a fourth line of jurisprudence with the Poblete Vílches vs.Chile Case. We are facing jurisprudence that develops a new concern of the Court for these issues.


Assuntos
Bioética , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Respeito , Estados Unidos , Valor da Vida
16.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 29(10): 1027-1032, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389221

RESUMO

This article explores the nature and extent of barriers to access to justice that older persons experience, including those with mental health conditions. It finds that access to justice-the right to fair, prompt and responsive decisions by administrative decision-makers and equal access to courts and tribunals to obtain timely and effective remedies-is not only an important right in itself but also enables the enjoyment of many other human rights. Yet older persons, particularly those with mental health conditions, face a significant "justice gap." Ageist attitudes, laws and practices interact with other forms of bias such as mentalism, sexism, ableism, racism, homophobia, and heterosexism exacerbating older persons' disadvantage and marginalization, particularly those with mental health conditions, and older indigenous persons. These discriminatory practices, together with the phenomena of elder abuse, all severely limit older persons' access to timely and responsive justice. International and national standards, both general and specific to older persons, have been shown to be inadequate to respond to this justice gap. An international standard in the form of a binding legal obligation that specifically addresses older persons' rights of access to justice is needed urgently as part of a new international treaty on the human rights of older persons.


Assuntos
Ageismo , Transtornos Mentais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Justiça Social
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321236

RESUMO

Migration health is affected by decision making at levels ranging from global to local, both within and beyond the health sector. These decisions impact seeking, entitlements, service delivery, policy making and knowledge production on migration health. It is key that ethical challenges faced by decision makers are recognised and addressed in research and data, clinical practice and policy making on migration health. An ethical approach can provide methods to identify ethical issues, frameworks for systematising information and suggesting ethically acceptable solutions, and guidance on procedural concerns and legitimate decision making processes. By unpacking dilemmas, conflicts of interests and values at stake, an ethical approach is relevant for all who make decisions about migration health policy and practice. Adopting an ethical approach to migration health benefits governments, organisations, policy makers, health workers, data managers, researchers and migrants themselves. First, it highlights the inherent normative questions and trade-offs at stake in migration health. Second, it assists decision makers in deciding what is the ethically justifiable thing to do through an 'all things considered' approach. Third, ethical frameworks and technical guidance set normative and practical standards for decision makers facing ethical questions - from 'bedside rationing' to collection of big data or in policy making - that can ensure that migrants' interests are considered. Fourth, there is a need for greater transparency and accountability in decision making, as well as meaningful participation of migrant groups. An ethical approach connects to public health, economic and human rights arguments and highlights the urgent need to mainstream concerns for migrants in global and national health responses.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Política Pública
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2565-2573, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231670

RESUMO

This article approaches, from a youth perspective, an overview of the situation of youth in Latin America and the Caribbean based on global and regional socio-economic and demographic indicators. It provides an intersectional analysis of the oppressions and challenges that young people face to achieve their full potential within a complex structure of power relations, inequality, exclusion, discrimination and violence. Based on the evidence, it highlights effective and promising interventions for guiding investment in youth through public policies, budgets and programmes at scale, as measures for redistributing power and resources that contribute to the fulfilment of their human rights, autonomy, emancipation and agency to participate in public affairs that affect them.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Violência , Adolescente , Região do Caribe , Humanos , América Latina , Política Pública
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253631

RESUMO

The recent rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines offers hope in addressing the worst pandemic in a hundred years. However, many countries in the Global South face great difficulties in accessing vaccines, partly because of restrictive intellectual property law. These laws exacerbate both global and domestic inequalities and prevent countries from fully realising the right to health for all their people. Commodification of essential medicines, such as vaccines, pushes poorer countries into extreme debt and reproduces national inequalities that discriminate against marginalised groups. This article explains how a decolonial framing of human rights and public health could contribute to addressing this systemic injustice. We envisage a human rights and global health law framework based on solidarity and international cooperation that focuses funding on long-term goals and frees access to medicines from the restrictions of intellectual property law. This would increase domestic vaccine production, acquisition and distribution capabilities in the Global South.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255781

RESUMO

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Cultura , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Quarentena/psicologia , Espanha
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